Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)
Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Diseases affecting the eye.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
A technique that induces the processing of disturbing memories and experiences, by stimulating neural mechanisms that are similar to those activated during REM sleep. The technique consists of eye movements following side-to-side movements of the index and middle fingers, or the alternate tapping of the hands on the knees. This procedure triggers the processing of information, thus facilitating the connection of neural networks.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.
A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Recording of nystagmus based on changes in the electrical field surrounding the eye produced by the difference in potential between the cornea and the retina.
Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
Images seen by one eye.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
Perception of three-dimensionality.
Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
An abnormal twisting or rotation of a bodily part or member on its axis.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)
An increase in the rate of speed.
Nystagmus present at birth or caused by lesions sustained in utero or at the time of birth. It is usually pendular, and is associated with ALBINISM and conditions characterized by early loss of central vision. Inheritance patterns may be X-linked, autosomal dominant, or recessive. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p275)
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.
The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
Differential response to different stimuli.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
The absence of light.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.
Voluntary activity without external compulsion.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The position or attitude of the body.
An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.
Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.
Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
Dense collection of cells in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum known to play a role in the functional organization of the BASAL GANGLIA and in the modulation of the thalamocortical neuronal system.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.
Color of the iris.
Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
The ability to respond to segments of the perceptual experience rather than to the whole.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The act of knowing or the recognition of a distance by recollective thought, or by means of a sensory process which is under the influence of set and of prior experience.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.
A number of tests used to determine if the brain or balance portion of the inner ear are causing dizziness.
A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.
Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.
The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that is used in folk medicine as CHAMOMILE. Other plants with similar common names include MATRICARIA; TRIPLEUROSPERMUM and ANTHEMIS.
Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The period from about 5 to 7 years to adolescence when there is an apparent cessation of psychosexual development.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
Performance of complex motor acts.
A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.
Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.
Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
The process of converting analog data such as continually measured voltage to discrete, digital form.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.
Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.
Sleep disorders characterized by impaired arousal from the deeper stages of sleep (generally stage III or IV sleep).
Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE, subfamily CEBINAE, consisting of four species which are divided into two groups, the tufted and untufted. C. apella has tufts of hair over the eyes and sides of the head. The remaining species are without tufts - C. capucinus, C. nigrivultatus, and C. albifrons. Cebus inhabits the forests of Central and South America.
Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.
A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.
The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The study and treatment of defects in binocular vision resulting from defects in the optic musculature or of faulty visual habits. It involves a technique of eye exercises designed to correct the visual axes of eyes not properly coordinated for binocular vision.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Function of the human eye that is used in dim illumination (scotopic intensities) or at nighttime. Scotopic vision is performed by RETINAL ROD PHOTORECEPTORS with high sensitivity to light and peak absorption wavelength at 507 nm near the blue end of the spectrum.

Cerebellar Purkinje cell simple spike discharge encodes movement velocity in primates during visuomotor arm tracking. (1/3218)

Pathophysiological, lesion, and electrophysiological studies suggest that the cerebellar cortex is important for controlling the direction and speed of movement. The relationship of cerebellar Purkinje cell discharge to the control of arm movement parameters, however, remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine how movement direction and speed and their interaction-velocity-modulate Purkinje cell simple spike discharge in an arm movement task in which direction and speed were independently controlled. The simple spike discharge of 154 Purkinje cells was recorded in two monkeys during the performance of two visuomotor tasks that required the animals to track targets that moved in one of eight directions and at one of four speeds. Single-parameter regression analyses revealed that a large proportion of cells had discharge modulation related to movement direction and speed. Most cells with significant directional tuning, however, were modulated at one speed, and most cells with speed-related discharge were modulated along one direction; this suggested that the patterns of simple spike discharge were not adequately described by single-parameter models. Therefore, a regression surface was fitted to the data, which showed that the discharge could be tuned to specific direction-speed combinations (preferred velocities). The overall variability in simple spike discharge was well described by the surface model, and the velocities corresponding to maximal and minimal discharge rates were distributed uniformly throughout the workspace. Simple spike discharge therefore appears to integrate information about both the direction and speed of arm movements, thereby encoding movement velocity.  (+info)

Eye movement deficits following ibotenic acid lesions of the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi in monkeys II. Pursuit, vestibular, and optokinetic responses. (2/3218)

The eyes are moved by a combination of neural commands that code eye velocity and eye position. The eye position signal is supposed to be derived from velocity-coded command signals by mathematical integration via a single oculomotor neural integrator. For horizontal eye movements, the neural integrator is thought to reside in the rostral nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (nph) and project directly to the abducens nuclei. In a previous study, permanent, serial ibotenic acid lesions of the nph in three rhesus macaques compromised the neural integrator for fixation but saccades were not affected. In the present study, to determine further whether the nph is the neural substrate for a single oculomotor neural integrator, the effects of those lesions on smooth pursuit, the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), vestibular nystagmus (VN), and optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) are documented. The lesions were correlated with long-lasting deficits in eye movements, indicated most clearly by the animals' inability to maintain steady gaze in the dark. However, smooth pursuit and sinusoidal VOR in the dark, like the saccades in the previous study, were affected minimally. The gain of horizontal smooth pursuit (eye movement/target movement) decreased slightly (<25%) and phase lead increased slightly for all frequencies (0.3-1.0 Hz, +/-10 degrees target tracking), most noticeably for higher frequencies (0.8-0.7 and approximately 20 degrees for 1.0-Hz tracking). Vertical smooth pursuit was not affected significantly. Surprisingly, horizontal sinusoidal VOR gain and phase also were not affected significantly. Lesions had complex effects on both VN and OKN. The plateau of per- and postrotatory VN was shortened substantially ( approximately 50%), whereas the initial response and the time constant of decay decreased slightly. The initial OKN response also decreased slightly, and the charging phase was prolonged transiently then recovered to below normal levels like the VN time constant. Maximum steady-state, slow eye velocity of OKN decreased progressively by approximately 30% over the course of the lesions. These results support the previous conclusion that the oculomotor neural integrator is not a single neural entity and that the mathematical integrative function for different oculomotor subsystems is most likely distributed among a number of nuclei. They also show that the nph apparently is not involved in integrating smooth pursuit signals and that lesions of the nph can fractionate the VOR and nystagmic responses to adequate stimuli.  (+info)

Optimality of position commands to horizontal eye muscles: A test of the minimum-norm rule. (3/3218)

Six muscles control the position of the eye, which has three degrees of freedom. Daunicht proposed an optimization rule for solving this redundancy problem, whereby small changes in eye position are maintained by the minimum possible change in motor commands to the eye (the minimum-norm rule). The present study sought to test this proposal for the simplified one-dimensional case of small changes in conjugate eye position in the horizontal plane. Assuming such changes involve only the horizontal recti, Daunicht's hypothesis predicts reciprocal innervation with the size of the change in command matched to the strength of the recipient muscle at every starting position of the eye. If the motor command to a muscle is interpreted as the summed firing rate of its oculomotor neuron (OMN) pool, the minimum-norm prediction can be tested by comparing OMN firing rates with forces in the horizontal recti. The comparison showed 1) for the OMN firing rates given by Van Gisbergen and Van Opstal and the muscle forces given by Robinson, there was good agreement between the minimum-norm prediction and experimental observation over about a +/-30 degrees range of eye positions. This fit was robust with respect to variations in muscle stiffness and in methods of calculating muscle innervation. 2) Other data sets gave different estimates for the range of eye-positions within which the minimum-norm prediction held. The main sources of variation appeared to be disagreement about the proportion of OMNs with very low firing-rate thresholds (i.e., less than approximately 35 degrees in the OFF direction) and uncertainty about eye-muscle behavior for extreme (>30 degrees ) positions of the eye. 3) For all data sets, the range of eye positions over which the minimum-norm rule applied was determined by the pattern of motor-unit recruitment inferred for those data. It corresponded to the range of eye positions over which the size principle of recruitment was obeyed by both agonist and antagonist muscles. It is argued that the current best estimate of the oculomotor range over which minimum-norm control could be used for conjugate horizontal eye position is approximately +/-30 degrees. The uncertainty associated with this estimate would be reduced by obtaining unbiased samples of OMN firing rates. Minimum-norm control may result from reduction of the image movement produced by noise in OMN firing rates.  (+info)

Visuomotor processing as reflected in the directional discharge of premotor and primary motor cortex neurons. (4/3218)

Premotor and primary motor cortical neuronal firing was studied in two monkeys during an instructed delay, pursuit tracking task. The task included a premovement "cue period," during which the target was presented at the periphery of the workspace and moved to the center of the workspace along one of eight directions at one of four constant speeds. The "track period" consisted of a visually guided, error-constrained arm movement during which the animal tracked the target as it moved from the central start box along a line to the opposite periphery of the workspace. Behaviorally, the animals tracked the required directions and speeds with highly constrained trajectories. The eye movements consisted of saccades to the target at the onset of the cue period, followed by smooth pursuit intermingled with saccades throughout the cue and track periods. Initially, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for direction and period effects in the firing. Subsequently, a linear regression analysis was used to fit the average firing from the cue and track periods to a cosine model. Directional tuning as determined by a significant fit to the cosine model was a prominent feature of the discharge during both the cue and track periods. However, the directional tuning of the firing of a single cell was not always constant across the cue and track periods. Approximately one-half of the neurons had differences in their preferred directions (PDs) of >45 degrees between cue and track periods. The PD in the cue or track period was not dependent on the target speed. A second linear regression analysis based on calculation of the preferred direction in 20-ms bins (i.e., the PD trajectory) was used to examine on a finer time scale the temporal evolution of this change in directional tuning. The PD trajectories in the cue period were not straight but instead rotated over the workspace to align with the track period PD. Both clockwise and counterclockwise rotations occurred. The PD trajectories were relatively straight during most of the track period. The rotation and eventual convergence of the PD trajectories in the cue period to the preferred direction of the track period may reflect the transformation of visual information into motor commands. The widely dispersed PD trajectories in the cue period would allow targets to be detected over a wide spatial aperture. The convergence of the PD trajectories occurring at the cue-track transition may serve as a "Go" signal to move that was not explicitly supplied by the paradigm. Furthermore, the rotation and convergence of the PD trajectories may provide a mechanism for nonstandard mapping. Standard mapping refers to a sensorimotor transformation in which the stimulus is the object of the reach. Nonstandard mapping is the mapping of an arbitrary stimulus into an arbitrary movement. The shifts in the PD may allow relevant visual information from any direction to be transformed into an appropriate movement direction, providing a neural substrate for nonstandard stimulus-response mappings.  (+info)

Short-latency vergence eye movements induced by radial optic flow in humans: dependence on ambient vergence level. (5/3218)

Radial patterns of optic flow, such as those experienced by moving observers who look in the direction of heading, evoke vergence eye movements at short latency. We have investigated the dependence of these responses on the ambient vergence level. Human subjects faced a large tangent screen onto which two identical random-dot patterns were back-projected. A system of crossed polarizers ensured that each eye saw only one of the patterns, with mirror galvanometers to control the horizontal positions of the images and hence the vergence angle between the two eyes. After converging the subject's eyes at one of several distances ranging from 16.7 cm to infinity, both patterns were replaced with new ones (using a system of shutters and two additional projectors) so as to simulate the radial flow associated with a sudden 4% change in viewing distance with the focus of expansion/contraction imaged in or very near both foveas. Radial-flow steps induced transient vergence at latencies of 80-100 ms, expansions causing increases in convergence and contractions the converse. Based on the change in vergence 90-140 ms after the onset of the steps, responses were proportional to the preexisting vergence angle (and hence would be expected to be inversely proportional to viewing distance under normal conditions). We suggest that this property assists the observer who wants to fixate ahead while passing through a visually cluttered area (e.g., a forest) and so wants to avoid making vergence responses to the optic flow created by the nearby objects in the periphery.  (+info)

Common 3 and 10 Hz oscillations modulate human eye and finger movements while they simultaneously track a visual target. (6/3218)

1. A 10 Hz range centrally originating oscillation has been found to modulate slow finger movements and anticipatory smooth eye movements. To determine if an interaction or linkage occurs between these two central oscillations during combined visuo-manual tracking, frequency and coherence analysis were performed on finger and eye movements while they simultaneously tracked a visual target moving in intermittently visible sinusoidal patterns. 2. Two different frequencies of common or linked oscillation were found. The first, at 2-3 Hz, was dependent on visual feedback of target and finger tracking positions. The second, at around 10 Hz, still occurred when both target and finger positions were largely obscured, indicating that this common oscillation was generated internally by the motor system independent of visual feedback. Both 3 and 10 Hz oscillation frequencies were also shared by the right and left fingers if subjects used these together to track a visual target. 3. The linking of the 10 Hz range oscillations between the eyes and finger was task specific; it never occurred when eye and finger movements were made simultaneously and independently, but only when they moved simultaneously and followed the target together. However, although specific for tracking by the eyes and fingers together, the linking behaviour did not appear to be a prerequisite for such tracking, since significant coherence in the 10 Hz range was only present in a proportion of trials where these combined movements were made. 4. The experiments show that common oscillations may modulate anatomically very distinct structures, indicating that single central oscillations may have a widespread distribution in the central nervous system. The task-specific manifestation of the common oscillation in the eye and finger suggests that such mechanisms may have a functional role in hand-eye co-ordination.  (+info)

Projections and firing properties of down eye-movement neurons in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal in the cat. (7/3218)

To clarify the role of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) in the control of vertical eye movements, projections of burst-tonic and tonic neurons in and around the INC were studied. This paper describes neurons with downward ON directions. We examined, by antidromic activation, whether these down INC (d-INC) neurons contribute to two pathways: a commissural pathway to the contralateral (c-) INC and a descending pathway to the ipsilateral vestibular nucleus (i-VN). Stimulation of the two pathways showed that as many as 74% of neurons were activated antidromically from one of the pathways. Of 113 d-INC neurons tested, 44 were activated from the commissural pathway and 40 from the descending pathway. No neurons were activated from both pathways. We concluded that commissural and descending pathways from the INC originate from two separate groups of neurons. Tracking of antidromic microstimulation in the two nuclei revealed multiple low-threshold sites and varied latencies; this was interpreted as a sign of existence of axonal arborization. Neurons with commissural projections tended to be located more dorsally than those with descending projections. Neurons with descending projections had significantly greater eye-position sensitivity and smaller saccadic sensitivity than neurons with commissural projections. The two groups of INC neurons increased their firing rate in nose-up head rotations and responded best to the rotation in the plane of contralateral posterior/ipsilateral anterior canal pair. Neurons with commissural projections showed a larger phase lag of response to sinusoidal rotation (54.6 +/- 7.6 degrees ) than neurons with descending projections (45.0 +/- 5.5 degrees ). Most neurons with descending projections received disynaptic excitation from the contralateral vestibular nerve. Neurons with commissural projections rarely received such disynaptic input. We suggest that downward-position-vestibular (DPV) neurons in the VN and VN-projecting d-INC neurons form a loop, together with possible commissural loops linking the bilateral VNs and the bilateral INCs. By comparing the quantitative measures of d-INC neurons with those of DPV neurons, we further suggest that integration of head velocity signals proceeds from DPV neurons to d-INC neurons with descending projections and then to d-INC neurons with commissural projections, whereas saccadic velocity signals are processed in the reverse order.  (+info)

Optic flow selectivity in the anterior superior temporal polysensory area, STPa, of the behaving monkey. (8/3218)

Earlier studies of neurons in the anterior region of the superior temporal polysensory area (STPa) have demonstrated selectivity for visual motion using stimuli contaminated by nonmotion cues, including texture, luminance, and form. The present experiments investigated the motion selectivity of neurons in STPa in the absence of form cues using random dot optic flow displays. The responses of neurons were tested with translation, rotation, radial, and spiral optic flow displays designed to mimic the types of motion that occur during locomotion. Over half of the neurons tested responded significantly to at least one of these displays. On a cell by cell basis, 60% of the neurons tested responded selectively to rotation, radial, and spiral motion, whereas 20% responded selectively to translation motion. The majority of neurons responded maximally to single-component optic flow displays but was also significantly activated by the spiral displays that contained their preferred component. Moreover, there was a bias in the selectivity of the neurons for radial expansion motion. These results suggest that neurons within STPa are contributing to the analysis of optic flow. Furthermore, the preponderance of cells selective for radial expansion provides evidence that this area may be specifically involved in the processing of forward locomotion and/or looming stimuli. Finally, these results provide carefully controlled physiological evidence for an extension and specialization of the motion-processing pathway into the anterior temporal lobe.  (+info)

Fixational eye movements comprise of fast microsaccades alternating with slow inter-saccadic drifts. These physiologic eye movements play an important role in visual perception. Amblyopic patients are known to have fixation instability, particularly of the amblyopic eye. We examined eye movement abnormalities that contribute to this instability. We found that fixation stability is affected by the presence of fusion maldevelopment nystagmus (FMN). However, some amblyopes can have nystagmus without nasally directed slow phases and reversal in direction of the quick phase on ocular occlusion, features seen in FMN. In patients without nystagmus, we found increased amplitude of fixational saccades and inter-saccadic drifts. We categorized amblyopia patients by type (anisometropic, strabismic, or mixed) and eye movement waveform (no nystagmus, nystagmus without FMN, and FMN). We found specific fast and slow eye movement abnormalities of the fellow and amblyopic eye during fellow, amblyopic and both ...
One hallmark study by Baba et al. in 2004 found that in patients with known vestibular dysfunction, 100 out of 100 demonstrated abnormal eye movements as measured by ENG, and the same 100 out of 100 demonstrated abnormal eye movements with infrared video goggles. However, only 33 out of 100 had identifiable abnormal eye movements with use of Frenzel lens goggles, indicative of their decreased ability to reduce room light. Presumably, although not included in the study, visualizing these patients eyes in room light (no goggles of any kind) would yield even fewer than 33 out of 100 with observable abnormal eye movements.. This makes sense because your brain tries to reduce imbalance and nausea (symptoms of vestibular dysfunction) by using visual information when in room light. Unfortunately, this also reduces or eliminates the very eye movements that a clinician can use to assist in accurate diagnosis and subsequent best treatment of vestibular conditions. ...
Purpose: When tested under monocular viewing conditions, humans and monkeys with infantile strabismus often show strong eye movement responses to nasally directed visual motion stimuli and weak responses to temporally directed stimuli. The goal of this study was to compare and contrast these naso-temporal asymmetries during three visually mediated eye movement responses - optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), smooth-pursuit (SP) and ocular following (OFR).. Methods: Two strabismic monkeys (1 esotrope (ET) and 1 exotrope (XT)) were tested under monocular viewing conditions during nasal or temporal OKN, SP or OFR stimulation. OKN stimulus was unidirectional motion of a 70°X50° random dot pattern at 20, 40 or 80 °/s for 1 minute. SP stimulus was foveal step-ramp target motion at 10, 20 or 40 °/s. OFR stimulus was brief (200ms) unidirectional motion of a 38°X29° random dot pattern at 20, 40 or 80 °/s. Data from both left and right eye viewing conditions were combined for statistical analysis of eye ...
Individual differences in childrens online language processing were explored by monitoring their eye movements to objects in a visual scene as they listened to spoken sentences. Eleven skilled and 11 less-skilled comprehenders were presented with sentences containing verbs that were either neutral with respect to the visual context (e.g., Jane watched her mother choose the cake, where all of the objects in the scene were choosable) or supportive (e.g., Jane watched her mother eat the cake, where the cake was the only edible object). On hearing the supportive verb, the children made fast anticipatory eye movements to the target object (e.g., the cake), suggesting that children extract information from the language they hear and use this to direct ongoing processing. Less-skilled comprehenders did not differ from controls in the speed of their anticipatory eye movements, suggesting normal sensitivity to linguistic constraints. However, less-skilled comprehenders made a greater number of fixations to
In this project, we use a switching hidden Markov model (EMSHMM) approach to analyze eye movement data in cognitive tasks involving cognitive state changes. We used a switching hidden Markov model (SHMM) to capture a participants cognitive state transitions during the task, with eye movement patterns during each cognitive state being summarized using a regular HMM.. We applied EMSHMM to a face preference decision-making task with two pre-assumed cognitive states-exploration and preference-biased periods-and we discovered two common eye movement patterns through clustering the cognitive state transitions. One pattern showed both a later transition from the exploration to the preference-biased cognitive state and a stronger tendency to look at the preferred stimulus at the end, and was associated with higher decision inference accuracy at the end; the other pattern entered the preference-biased cognitive state earlier, leading to earlier above-chance inference accuracy in a trial but lower ...
Purpose: To determine whether the patterns of fixational eye movements are altered when images are defocused (low pass-filtered).. Methods: Six subjects (3 male, 3 female, 22 - 32 years of age, Caucasian origin) were asked to inspect an image on the computer screen which was either in focus or low-pass filtered by convolution with a point spread function that was equivalent to 5D of myopic defocus. The screen was at 79 cm distance and one pixel on the screen subtended a visual angle of 1.45 arcmin. The movements of the right eye were tracked at 166 Hz sampling rate in a highly magnified video image (39.9 pixels/mm) by custom-developed software (Visual C++ 8.0). A commercial IR camera (DMK 22AUC03, www.theimagingsource.com) was used and a single IR LED that generated a bright first Purkinje image. The angular resolution in natural eyes was determined to be 1-2 arcmin. Differences in eye movements variables were determined in the pooled data of all subjects using t-tests, analyzing the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Eye movement patterns in solving scientific graph problems. AU - Yen, Miao Hsuan. AU - Lee, Chieh Ning. AU - Yang, Yu Chun. PY - 2012/7/13. Y1 - 2012/7/13. N2 - Eye movement patterns of science- and non-science students in solving scientific graph problems were compared. Experts (science-students) tended to spend more time, compared to novices, to comprehend the questions during the first run / inspection. Concerning the main graph region, both the True and False subregions (corresponding to correct and wrong answer choices, respectively) were inspected carefully during the first run. Significant differences were observed in the second run, in which the False region was fixated longer when participants made wrong responses.. AB - Eye movement patterns of science- and non-science students in solving scientific graph problems were compared. Experts (science-students) tended to spend more time, compared to novices, to comprehend the questions during the first run / inspection. ...
Eye movement includes the voluntary or involuntary movement of the eyes, helping in acquiring, fixating and tracking visual stimuli. Specific systems are used in maintaining fixation, when reading and in music reading. A special type of eye movement, rapid eye movement, occurs during REM sleep. The eyes are the visual organs of the human body, and move using a system of six muscles. The retina, a specialised type of tissue containing photoreceptors, senses light. These specialised cells convert light into electrochemical signals. These signals travel along the optic nerve fibers to the brain, where they are interpreted as vision in the visual cortex. Primates and many other vertebrates use three types of voluntary eye movement to track objects of interest: smooth pursuit, vergence shifts and saccades. These movements appear to be initiated by a small cortical region in the brains frontal lobe. This is corroborated by removal of the frontal lobe. In this case, the reflexes (such as reflex ...
The present disclosure is intended to describe embodiments for improving image data acquisition and processing in accelerated dynamic magnetic resonance imaging sequences. One embodiment is described where a method includes an acquisition sequence configured to acquire an undersampled set of magnetic resonance data. The undersampled set of magnetic resonance data has a pseudo-random sampling pattern within a data space acquired at a first time, the pseudo-random sampling pattern being influenced by other pseudo-random sampling patterns within the data space arising from the acquisition of additional undersampled sets of magnetic resonance data at respective times. In some embodiments, the pseudo-random sampling patterns of the undersampled sets of magnetic resonance data interleave to yield a desired sampling pattern.
The present disclosure is intended to describe embodiments for improving image data acquisition and processing in accelerated dynamic magnetic resonance imaging sequences. One embodiment is described where a method includes an acquisition sequence configured to acquire an undersampled set of magnetic resonance data. The undersampled set of magnetic resonance data has a pseudo-random sampling pattern within a data space acquired at a first time, the pseudo-random sampling pattern being influenced by other pseudo-random sampling patterns within the data space arising from the acquisition of additional undersampled sets of magnetic resonance data at respective times. In some embodiments, the pseudo-random sampling patterns of the undersampled sets of magnetic resonance data interleave to yield a desired sampling pattern.
There was a lot of past effort to figure out what fixational eye movements contribute to our vision, adds lead author Ziad Hafed, Ph.D., Sloan-Swartz Fellow in the Systems Neurobiology Laboratory, but nobody had looked at the neural mechanism that generates these movements. Without such knowledge, one could only go so far in evaluating microsaccades significance and why they actually exist. Wondering whether the command center responsible for generating fixational eye movements resides within the same brain structure that is in charge of initiating and directing large voluntary eye movements, Hafed decided to measure neural activity in the superior colliculus before and during microsaccades. He not only discovered that the superior colliculus is an integral part of the neural mechanism that controls microsaccades, but he also found that individual neurons in the superior colliculus are highly specific about which particular microsaccade directions and amplitudes they command-whether they be, ...
Neural data and models have proposed that the brain achieves invariant object recognition by learning and combining several views of a three-dimensional object. How such invariant codes are learned when active eye movements scan a scene, given that the cortical magnification introduces a large source of variability in the visual representation even for the same view of the object? How does the brain avoid the problem of erroneously classifying together parts of different objects when an eye movement changes the cortical representation from one to the other? How does the brain differentiate between saccades on the same object and saccades between different objects? A biologically inspired ARTSCAN model of visual object learning and recognition with active eye movements proposes answers to these questions. The model explains how surface attention interacts with eye movement generating modules and object recognition modules so that the views that correspond to the same object are selectively ...
Internal monitoring of oculomotor commands may help to anticipate and keep track of changes in perceptual input imposed by our eye movements. Neurophysiological studies in non-human primates identified corollary discharge signals of oculomotor commands that are conveyed via thalamus to frontal cortices. We tested whether disruption of these monitoring pathways on the thalamic level impairs the perceptual matching of visual input before and after an eye movement in human subjects. Fourteen patients with focal thalamic stroke and twenty healthy control subjects performed a task requiring a perceptual judgment across eye movements. Subjects reported the apparent displacement of a target cue that jumped unpredictably in sync with a saccadic eye movement. In a critical condition of this task, six patients exhibited clearly asymmetric perceptual performance for rightward versus leftward saccade direction. Furthermore, perceptual judgments in seven patients systematically depended on oculomotor targeting
The spatial alignment of gaze location between the measuring eye tracker and the responding display system is obviously crucial in gaze-contingent studies. However, a misalignment is almost inevitable during eye movements due to time delays between the eye tracker and the display equipment. This system latency includes the time for data transmission from the eye tracker to the display, the processing time for image manipulation, and the time for refreshing the display. The total delay varies based on the equipment and software, and reported values have ranged between 9 and 50 ms (Dorr & Bex, 2011; Saunders & Woods, in press; Schumacher, Allison, & Herpers, 2004; Triesch, Sullivan, Hayhoe, & Ballard, 2002; Yang, Wang, Tong, & Rayner, 2012). For fast saccadic eye movements, that time delay may cause a large misalignment. Take a 20° saccade as an example: the peak velocity can be 350°/s-450°/s (Enderle, Blanchard, & Bronzino, 2005), which may lead to 8° displacement on average within 20 ms. ...
Rapid eye movement in babies - My four month old baby son seems to have rapid eye movement at different times during the day. Is that normal. Its not very fast movement either. REM. Rapid eye movements may be entirely normal in infants HOWEVER THIS is the kind of observation your Pediatrician will NOT be annoyed about if you question him/her......suggest you check this out.... Hope this is helpful Dr Z
Following a study that demonstrated that user comments have a strong impact on public opinion, Popular Science magazine decided to disable its user comments option. Prompted by this dramatic decision, this study used an eye-tracking experiment (N ¼ 197) to study the popularity of user comments, and the effects of pre-existing opinions, readership patterns and the tone of user comments on the evaluation of news articles. Despite vast research utilizing eye tracking to study online behavior, very few previous studies engaged with online news consumption. This is the first eye tracking study to test for a correlation between reading user comments and evaluating a news story article. Although more than 40% read the user comments, the most significant and persistent predictor of readers evaluations of the articles were their pre-existing opinions about the articles theme, while readership had no effect on the articles evaluation. Follow-up interviews demonstrate that readers commonly view user ...
Child Development Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of child development research.
Purpose: To investigate whether glaucoma produces measurable changes in eye movements.. Methods: Fifteen glaucoma patients with asymmetric vision loss (difference in mean deviation [MD] , 6 dB between eyes) were asked to monocularly view 120 images of natural scenes, presented sequentially on a computer monitor. Each image was viewed twice-once each with the better and worse eye. Patients eye movements were recorded with an Eyelink 1000 eye-tracker. Eye-movement parameters were computed and compared within participants (better eye versus worse eye). These parameters included a novel measure: saccadic reversal rate (SRR), as well as more traditional metrics such as saccade amplitude, fixation counts, fixation duration, and spread of fixation locations (bivariate contour ellipse area [BCEA]). In addition, the associations of these parameters with clinical measures of vision were investigated.. Results: In the worse eye, saccade ...
Reading requires very accurate saccadics which are fixations from one spot to another. A second type of eye movement which involves tracking is, also, related to attention and reading. Children who have poor eye movements are easily distracted and loose their place. Remember, the eye movement system was designed so that peripheral vision detects motion and danger. Imagine what happens when the system works correctly in the class room. As soon as there is peripheral movement the eyes move towards the source of movement. This results in the complaint of inattention. Thus, reflexive eye movement skills must be socialized so that they do not respond reflexively to peripheral information. In addition, speed and accuracy must be trained so that one does not loose ones place.. The skills are easily improvable with vision therapy (See testimonial for patient comments). Once the information is brought into the eyes it must be sent back to the brain for appropriate processing. The information must be ...
This study examined performance measures and eye movements associated with complex arithmetic strategies in young and older adults. Participants added pairs of three-digit numbers using two different strategies, under choice and no-choice conditions. Older adults made more errors but were not significantly slower than young adults, and response times and errors showed no interaction between age and the number of carries. Older adults chose strategies less adaptively than young adults. Eye movements were consistent with use of required strategies on no-choice trials and reported strategies on choice trials. Eye movement data also suggested that young adults more successfully distinguished between strategies. Implications of these findings for understanding aging effects in complex arithmetic are discussed ...
ORCID: 0000-0002-8579-8546 and Rayner, Keith (2011) Linguistic and cognitive influences on eye movements during reading. In: The Oxford Handbook of Eye Movements. Oxford Library of Psychology . Oxford University Press, pp. 751-766. ISBN 978-0-19-953978-9 (Unpublished) Full text not available from this repository.. Official URL: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/the-oxford... ...
p,Humans can distinguish visual stimuli that differ by features the size of only a few photoreceptors. This is possible despite the incessant image motion due to fixational eye movements, which can be many times larger than the features to be distinguished. To perform well, the brain must identify the retinal firing patterns induced by the stimulus while discounting similar patterns caused by spontaneous retinal activity. This is a challenge since the trajectory of the eye movements, and consequently, the stimulus position, are unknown. We derive a decision rule for using retinal spike trains to discriminate between two stimuli, given that their retinal image moves with an unknown random walk trajectory. This algorithm dynamically estimates the probability of the stimulus at different retinal locations, and uses this to modulate the influence of retinal spikes acquired later. Applied to a simple orientation-discrimination task, the algorithm performance is consistent with human acuity, whereas ...
Kawaii, a positive adjective that denotes such positive connotations as cute, lovable, and charming, becomes more important as one kansei value. It plays an important role in the success of many products. Based on this success, we believe that kawaii will be a key factor for future product design. In one of our previous study, we experimentally evaluated kawaii illustrations using eye tracking device. The result clarified relationship between kawaii feelings and eye movement indexes. In our other study, we experimentally evaluated kawaiiness of spoon designs. However, we have not employed the eye tracking in the study yet. Then, in this study, we evaluated the kawaiiness of spoon designs using eye tracking. The participant compared and selected more kawaii spoon designs from the pairs on the display, and eye movements had been recording meanwhile. Finally, we obtained the suggestion for the relationship between kawaii feelings and eye movement indexes for spoon designs ...
An eye movement measuring apparatus comprises: an image forming part configured to obtain data optically to form a fundus oculi image of an eye based on the obtained data; and an image analysis part configured to analyze the formed fundus oculi image to determine eye movement of the eye.
A pair of Beckman Institute researchers has discovered that by directing the eye movements of test subjects they were able to affect the participants ability to solve a problem, demonstrating that eye movement is not just a function of cognition but can actually affect our cognitive processes.
Task execution time is one of components used to estimate systems usability. Since information search is one of the most important tasks in any computer system, the eye movement should be taken into account while designing systems interface. Fitts law allows to estimate probable eye movement time based on the distance between objects and their size. Users motivation can significantly influence the eye movement speed. In this paper we analyze experimentally how Fitts law parameter (slope) changes when user is motivated and when there is less motivation to execute the task. Our experiments confirm that gamma brainwave activity can be used as a metric to estimate the motivation level. This allows a more objective estimation of the motivation level as compared to situation when motivation level is estimated by an experts observation. It is also demonstrated that the slope in Fitts law is up to five times smaller when children of age two to four years are motivated to reach the object and the ...
This paper introduces an approach to use eye movement data in the context of program comprehension studies. The central aspect is the development of coding schemes, which reflect cognitive processes behind the observable visual behavior of programmers. For this purpose, we discuss to first use a quantitative approach to find those episodes in the eye movements that yield the most potential for analysis. Subsequently, qualitative methods can be used on this subset.. ...
Apparatus for recording eye movement. A light source has its rays directed toward the eye of a subject and a glass dome secured to spectacle frames worn by the subject. The primary and secondary glints reflected off the glass dome and eye cornea, respectively, are transmitted via mirrors, lenses and a fiber optic image guide to a video camera tube. The position of the glints on an XY axis is electronically determined and the information is fed to a computer which compares the data from the two glints and compensates for the head movement which corresponds to movement of the primary glint.
Extraocular eye movement is a function of cranial nerves and can be easily assesed. This article briefly discusses extraocular eye movement at an appropriate level for medical providers like nurses, EMTs, and paramedics.
Adults from Eastern (e.g., China) and Western (e.g., USA) cultural groups display pronounced differences in a range of visual processing tasks. For example, the eye movement strategies used for information extraction during a variety of face processing tasks (e.g., identification and facial expressions of emotion categorization) differs across cultural groups. Currently, many of the differences reported in previous studies have asserted that culture itself is responsible for shaping the way we process visual information, yet this has never been directly investigated. In the current study, we assessed the relative contribution of genetic and cultural factors by testing face processing in a population of British Born Chinese adults using face recognition and expression classification tasks. Contrary to predictions made by the cultural differences framework, the majority of British Born Chinese adults deployed Eastern eye movement strategies, while approximately 25% of participants displayed ...
The arrangement of the contents of real-world scenes follows certain spatial rules that allow for extremely efficient visual exploration. What remains underexplored is the role different types of objects hold in a scene. In the current work, we seek to unveil an important building block of scenes-anchor objects. Anchors hold specific spatial predictions regarding the likely position of other objects in an environment. In a series of three eye tracking experiments we tested what role anchor objects occupy during visual search. In all of the experiments, participants searched through scenes for an object that was cued in the beginning of each trial. Critically, in half of the scenes a target relevant anchor was swapped for an irrelevant, albeit semantically consistent, object. We found that relevant anchor objects can guide visual search leading to faster reaction times, less scene coverage, and less time between fixating the anchor and the target. The choice of anchor objects was confirmed through an
Video created by Duke University for the course Medical Neuroscience. At this juncture in our exploration of motor control, lets focus on one of the best studied paradigms for understanding the neural control of movement: the eye movement system.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Accounting for regressive eye-movements in models of sentence processing. T2 - A reappraisal of the Selective Reanalysis hypothesis. AU - Mitchell, Don C.. AU - Shen, Xingjia. AU - Green, Matthew James. AU - Hodgson, Timothy L.. PY - 2008/10. Y1 - 2008/10. N2 - When people read temporarily ambiguous sentences, there is often an increased prevalence of regressive eye-movements launched from the word that resolves the ambiguity. Traditionally, such regressions have been interpreted at least in part as reflecting readers efforts to re-read and reconfigure earlier material, as exemplified by the Selective Reanalysis hypothesis [Frazier, L., & Rayner, K. (1982). Making and correcting errors during sentence comprehension: Eye movements in the analysis of structurally ambiguous sentences. Cognitive Psychology, 14, 178-210]. Within such frameworks it is assumed that the selection of saccadic landing-sites is linguistically supervised. As an alternative to this proposal, we consider the ...
Are the eyes able to fixate, track, and jump from object to object efficiently? In the classroom, normal eye movements allow rapid and accurate shifting of the eyes along a line of print while reading or from book to desk to chalkboardboard. Individuals with poor eye movement skills tend to be poor readers. In sports, efficient eye movements contribute to eye-hand coordination, visual reaction time, and accurate tracking. Recent research has shown that poor eye movement skills influence scores on the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. Research has also shown that eye movements can be improved!. ...
Research has shown that students responses to conceptual questions correlate with their eye movements. However, to what extent is it possible to predict whether a particular learner might answer a question correctly by monitoring their eye movements in real time? To answer this question, we used spatial-temporal eye-movement data from about 400 participants, as well as their responses to four conceptual physics questions with diagrams. Half of these data were used as a training set for a machine learning algorithm (MLA) that would predict the correctness of students responses to these questions. The other half of the data were used as a test set to determine the performance of the MLA in terms of the accuracy of the prediction. We will discuss the results of our study with specific attention to the prediction accuracy of the MLA under different conditions ...
The fundamental role of the visual system is to guide behavior in natural environments. In order to optimize information transmission many animals have evolved a non-homogeneous retina and serially sample visual scenes by saccadic eye movements. Such eye movements, however, introduce high-speed retinal motion and decouple external and internal reference frames. Until now, these processes have only been studied with unnatural stimuli, eye movement behavior, and tasks. These experiments confound retinotopic and geotopic coordinate systems and may probe a non-representative functional range. Here we develop a real-time gaze-contingent display with precise spatio-temporal control over high-definition natural movies. In an active condition, human observers freely watched nature documentaries and indicated the location of periodic narrow-band contrast increments relative to their gaze position. In a passive condition under central fixation, the same retinal input was replayed to each observer by ...
L. Itti, Keynote lecture: Computational modeling of bottom-up and top-down visual attention in complex dynamic environments, European Conference on Eye Movements (ECEM 2015), Vienna, Austria, Aug 2015.. Abstract: Visual attention and eye movements in primates have been widely shown to be guided by a combination of stimulus-dependent or bottom-up cues, as well as task-dependent or top-down cues. Both the bottom-up and top-down aspects of attention and eye movements have been modeled computationally. Yet, is is not until recent work which I will describe that bottom-up models have been strictly put to the test, predicting significantly above chance the eye movement patterns, functional neuroimaging activation patterns, or most recently neural activity in the superior colliculus of human or monkey participants inspecting complex static or dynamic scenes. In recent developments, models that increasingly attempt to capture top-down aspects have been proposed. In one system which I will describe, ...
In two experiments, we investigated the relationship between experience-dependent eye movements, awareness, and hippocampus-dependent memory. In Experiment 1, young adults and older adults viewed 120 novel scenes and 120 repeated scenes and made an old-new judgment for each scene together with a confidence rating. Both groups sampled fewer regions and made fewer fixations when viewing repeated scenes than when viewing novel scenes. The important finding was that the two groups exhibited these eye movement effects only when they were aware of the familiar or novel status of the scenes. First, they exhibited these effects only when they were confident (and accurate) in their old-new judgment and not when they were guessing (and inaccurate). Second, they exhibited these effects only when their old-new judgments were correct and not when they were incorrect. In contrast, memory-impaired patients failed to view the familiar and the novel scenes differently, and they were also impaired at remembering ...
Humans shift their gaze from detail to detail by using eye movements. Although each eye movement changes the position of the image that is reflected to the retinas of the eyes, we experience a spatially stable stream of vision that is uninterrupted by eye movements. To achieve this stable stream of vision, the brain must take into account the eye movement, and temporarily suppress vision during rapid gaze shifts. How the brain does this, remains to be solved. The present research approaches this question from two perspectives. First, we test a theory according to which visual stability is achieved by suppressing in the ability of visual brain areas to communicate with higher brain areas during eye movements. Second, we study whether the disruption of these mechanisms leads to a breakdown in visual stability in specific clinical populations (e.g. Parkinsons disease). Deficits in visual stability could compromise spatial cognition and lead to symptoms such as vertigo and hallucinations ...
This page is under construction. Here we list upcoming conferences and meetings related to eye movements and vision research, which you can browse on the left menu. Please contact us if you would like your event listed here. Other events to be added to menu left:The SWAET (Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye Tracking) - a regional variety of the ECEM.
Out Of Body Experience mini-print. double-sided print on 300g uncoated cream white paper. size: 14,8 x 21cm / 5,8 x 8,3 inch. open edition. comes with the official Rabbit Eye Movement stamp. Out Of Body Experience is #8 of a series of thirty artworks presented in the book 1111. Illustrated and narrated by NYCHOS, published by Rabbit Eye Movement in 2020.. ...
It had long been thought that rodents primarily use their heads rather than their eyes to orient toward salient stimuli (Schneider, 1969). However, with recent advances in high-speed video technology (Stahl, 2004) saccade-like eye movements have been documented in mice with amplitude and speed similar to that of other species (Sakatani and Isa, 2004, 2007). In this study we show that saccadic eye movements can be evoked by microstimulation in the SC, and the amplitudes of these eye movements depend on the stimulation locations. Our results suggest that eye movements in mice and their topographic representations may share similar circuit mechanisms with other well studied species. Given the abundance of genetic tools available in mice, our findings provide an important foundation for future studies using mice to investigate the organization and developmental of sensorimotor transformations in the SC.. In primates, the purpose of saccades is to target the fovea toward locations of interests in ...
FIGURE 5-1. Clinical evaluation of range of eye movements. Versions and cover test measurements allow the examiner to decide whether the eye movements are normal (no limitation) or limited. Forced duction testing is used to differentiate a restriction (positive resistance to movement of the globe) from a paresis (no resistance to movement of the globe).. FIGURE 5-1. Clinical evaluation of range of eye movements. Versions and cover test measurements allow the examiner to decide whether the eye movements are normal (no limitation) or limited. Forced duction testing is used to differentiate a restriction (positive resistance to movement of the globe) from a paresis (no resistance to movement of the globe).. Was this article helpful?. ...
In the paper by Thurtell and colleagues,1 two patients with epilepsy are described in whom in one stimulation over the frontal eye field (FEF) resulted in dysconjugate contraversive horizontal eye movements and in the other similar eye movements were observed as a result of focal seizures (see page 683). The neural system controlling eye movements, particularly rapid conjugate versive movements, called saccades, is one of the most thoroughly understood neural circuits in the brain. It contains a number of cortical centres, … ...
Human visual perception almost completely relies on the fact that the eyes are able to fixate points within a visual scene. But the term fixation may easily be misunderstood. We never fixate perfectly and we can count ourselfes lucky in this regard, since small eye movements during fixation clearly mediate perception. Fixational eye movements prevent the visual world from fading. My research focusses mainly on microsaccades, small flicks of the eye during intended fixation. For some decades, there was reasonable doubt in the purpose of these small movements. Over the last ten years, however, neurophysiological findings and improved eye-movement-recording techniques pushed the topic over the surface again and doubts diminished in the light of new evidence. If youre interested, take a look at my fairly exhaustive review on that topic in Vision Research.. During my PhD I studied what microsaccades tell us about the workings of the oculomotor system and had a few key insights. In one series of ...
The proposed PhD project will develop and study pattern recognition methods and machine learning techniques for context inference based on eye movement analysis. Potential applications are in activity and health monitoring, location-awareness, assisted living, and cognition-aware user interfaces. The research will be experimental, using portable eye tracking equipment and wearable sensor systems, and will involve user studies and data collection in daily life settings. In addition to experimental skills, the work will require to develop a thorough understanding of pattern recognition, machine learning and statistical signal processing techniques suitable for inferring various aspects of context from eye movements ...
Recent research suggests that when people retrieve information from memory they tend to fixate on the location where the information had appeared during encoding. We used this phenomenon to investigate if different information is activated in memory when people use a rule- versus a similarity-based decision strategy. In two studies, participants first memorized multiple pieces of information about various job candidates (exemplars). In subsequent test trials they judged the suitability of new candidates that varied in their similarity to the previously learned exemplars. Results show that when using similarity, but not when using a rule, participants fixated longer on the previous location of exemplars that resembled the new candidates than on the location of dissimilar exemplars. This suggests that people using similarity retrieve previously learned exemplars, whereas people using a rule do not. The study illustrates that eye movements can provide new insights into the memory processes ...
Looking for online definition of oculomotor response in the Medical Dictionary? oculomotor response explanation free. What is oculomotor response? Meaning of oculomotor response medical term. What does oculomotor response mean?
Background/hypothesis: With the video head impulse test (vHIT), the vertical VOR gain is defined as (vertical eye velocity/vertical head velocity), but compensatory eye movements to vertical canal stimulation usually have a torsional component. To minimize the contribution of torsion to the eye movement measurement, the horizontal gaze direction should be directed 40° from straight ahead so it is in the plane of the stimulated canal plane pair. Hypothesis: as gaze is systematically moved horizontally away from canal plane alignment, the measured vertical VOR gain should decrease.Study design: Ten healthy subjects, with vHIT measuring vertical eye movement to head impulses in the plane of the left anterior-right posterior (LARP) canal plane, with gaze at one of five horizontal gaze positions [40°(aligned with the LARP plane), 20°, 0°, −20°, −40°].Methods: Every head impulse was in the LARP plane. The compensatory eye movement was measured by the vHIT prototype system. The one operator delivered
The purpose of eye movements is to ensure clear, optimal vision. In order to see clearly, images must be held steady on the retina. Best visual acuity is achieved when the image of the object of interest is brought to and held on the fovea of the retina. Two main types of eye movements are responsible for that: those that keep images stable on the retina (gaze holding mechanisms) and those that change the line of sight (gaze shifting mechanisms). Several functional classes of eye movements have been defined; each has distinctive physiological properties that suit best to its particular task. Thus, vestibular and optokinetic eye movements hold images of the seen world steady on the retina during perturbations of the head. Saccades are rapid eye movements that bring the image of an object of interest, detected in the periphery of vision, onto the fovea where it can be seen best. Smooth pursuit eye movements place the images of a moving target close to fovea. Vergence eye movements place the images ...
Eye movement prediction by Kalman filter with integrated linear horizontal oculomotor plant mechanical model - The goal of this paper is to predict future horizontal eye movement trajectories within a specified time interval. To achieve this goal a linear horizontal oculomotor plant mechanical model is developed. The model consists of the eye globe and two extraocular muscles: lateral and medial recti. The model accounts for such anatomical properties of the eye as muscle location, elasticity, viscosity, eyeglobe rotational inertia, muscle active state tension, length tension and force velocity relationships. The mathematical equations describing the oculomotor plant mechanical model are transformed into a Kalman filter form. Such transformation provides continuous eye movement prediction with a high degree of accuracy. The model was tested with 21 subjects and three multimedia files. Practical application of this model lies with direct eye gaze input and interactive displays systems as a method to
Schizophrenic patients are heterogeneous with respect to voluntary eye movement performance, with some showing impairment (e.g., high antisaccade error rates) and others having intact performance. To investigate how this heterogeneity may correlate with different cognitive outcomes after treatment, we used a prosaccade and antisaccade task to investigate the effects of haloperidol in schizophrenic subjects at three time points: baseline (before medication), 3-5days post-medication, and 12-14days post-medication. We also investigated changes on the Stroop Task and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in these same subjects. Results were compared to matched controls. When considered as a single patient group, haloperidol ...
The problem of moving the eyes to fixate a new target in space (or indeed any other movement) entails two separate issues: controlling the amplitude of movement (how far), and controlling the direction of the movement (which way). The amplitude of a saccadic eye movement is encoded by the duration of neuronal activity in the lower motor neurons of the oculomotor nuclei. As shown in Figure 20.6, for instance, neurons in the abducens nucleus fire a burst of action potentials prior to abducting the eye (by causing the lateral rectus muscle to contract) and are silent when the eye is adducted. The amplitude of the movement is correlated with the duration of the burst of action potentials in the abducens neuron. With each saccade, the abducens neurons reach a new baseline level of discharge that is correlated with the position of the eye in the orbit. The steady baseline level of firing holds the eye in its new position. Figure 20.6Motor neuron activity in relation to saccadic eye movements. The experimental
In the past few years, there has been an explosion of eye movement research in cognitive science and neuroscience. This has been due to the availability of off the shelf eye trackers, along with software to allow the easy acquisition and analysis of eye movement data. Accompanying this has been a realisation that eye movement data can be informative about many different aspects of perceptual and cognitive processing.
In the past few years, there has been an explosion of eye movement research in cognitive science and neuroscience. This has been due to the availability of off the shelf eye trackers, along with software to allow the easy acquisition and analysis of eye movement data. Accompanying this has been a realisation that eye movement data can be informative about many different aspects of perceptual and cognitive processing.
Short presentation of a large moving pattern elicits an ocular following response that exhibits many of the properties attributed to low-level motion processing such as spatial and temporal integration, contrast gain control and divisive interaction between competing motions. Similar mechanisms have been demonstrated in V1 cortical activity in response to center-surround gratings patterns measured with real-time optical imaging in awake monkeys (see poster of Reynaud et al., VSS09). Based on a previously developed Bayesian framework, we have developed an optimal statistical decoder of such an observed cortical population activity as recorded by optical imaging. This model aims at characterizing the statistical dependence between early neuronal activity and ocular responses and its performance was analyzed by comparing this neuronal read-out and the actual motor responses on a trial-by-trial basis. First, we show that relative performance of the behavioral contrast response function is similar to the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduced rapid eye movement latency. A predictor of recurrence in depression. AU - Giles, Donna E.. AU - Jarrett, Robin B.. AU - Roffwarg, Howard P.. AU - Rush, A. John. PY - 1987/12. Y1 - 1987/12. N2 - In this longitudinal study of 25 successfully treated depressed patients, rapid eye movement (REM) latency during an episode of depression was evaluated as a predictor of recurrence. Patients with reduced REM latency prior to treatment were more likely to develop another episode of depression during the follow-up period.. AB - In this longitudinal study of 25 successfully treated depressed patients, rapid eye movement (REM) latency during an episode of depression was evaluated as a predictor of recurrence. Patients with reduced REM latency prior to treatment were more likely to develop another episode of depression during the follow-up period.. KW - Depression. KW - Longitudinal studies. KW - Rapid eye movement. KW - Sleep. UR - ...
Reflex eye movements occur during linear head movements to maintain ocular fixation on visual targets. Some theoretical considerations and experimental findings are presented in this chapter to support a compensatory role for the LVOR. The discussion is limited to primates since their visual-vestibular interactions and target fixation are improved by binocular foveate vision and depth perception. It is concluded that three LVORS - the horizontal response to IA motion, the vertical response to DV motion, and both the horizontal and vertical responses to 5 Hz NO motion - show characteristics consistent with the kinematics of ideal compensatory eye movements that help maintain stable
List of causes of Abnormal eye movements and Gait disorder, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, in particular schizophrenia, show a variety of eye movement abnormalities that putatively reflect alterations of perceptual inference, learning and cognitive control. While these abnormalities are consistently found at the group level, a particularly difficult and important challenge is to translate these findings into clinically useful tests for single patients. In this paper, we argue that generative models of eye movement data, which allow for inferring individual computational and physiological mechanisms, could contribute to filling this gap. We present a selective overview of eye movement paradigms with clinical relevance for schizophrenia and review existing computational approaches that rest on (or could be turned into) generative models. We conclude by outlining desirable clinical applications at the individual subject level and discuss the necessary validation studies. ...
We describe an experiment in which the eye movements of participants, carrying out tasks using two contrasting graph designs, were recorded by means of a remote eye tracking device. A variety of eye movement properties were measured and analysed both temporally and spatially. Both graph designs were based on specific psychological theories and established graph design guidelines. One incorporated attributes thought likely to enhance usability, the other included attributes likely to have the opposite effect. The results demonstrate that the design and location of a graphs legend and its spatial relationship to the data area are extremely important in determining a graphs usability. The incorporation of these and other design features may promote or detract from perceptual proximity and therefore influence a displays usability. The paper demonstrates that this influence is reflected in eye movement patterns, which can be readily monitored by means of a remote eye tracking system, and that a ...
The cortical area called frontal eye field (FEF) plays an important role in the control of visual attention and eye movements.[3] Electrical stimulation in the FEF elicits saccadic eye movements. The FEF have a topographic structure and represents saccade targets in retinotopic coordinates.[4]. The frontal eye field is reported to be activated during the initiation of eye movements, such as voluntary saccades[5] and pursuit eye movements.[6] There is also evidence that it plays a role in purely sensory processing and that it belongs to a fast brain system through a superior colliculus - medial dorsal nucleus - FEF ascending pathway.[7]. In humans, its earliest activations in regard to visual stimuli occur at 45 ms with activations related to changes in visual stimuli within 45-60 ms (these are comparable with response times in the primary visual cortex).[7] This fast brain pathway also provides auditory input at even shorter times starting at 24 ms and being affected by auditory ...
The influence of eye movements on hand use and pervasive stereotypies in Rett syndrome was studied, to better understand the developmental abnormality in this disorder. Nine patients in the post-regression phase were offered objects. As expected, the
In internuclear opthalmoplegia, for horizontal movements, the adducting eye is slowed while the abducting eye typically has normal velocity and has a nystagmus. This is covered in much more detail below under the heading of asymmetrical saccadic slowing. For vertical eye movements, the MLF appears to primarily carry posterior canal signals and anterior canal derived eye movements are spared (Cremer et al, 1999). Breaks in binocular fusion may occur in patients with INO (Mills et al, 2008).. Ocular myasthenia may cause weakness of all ocular muscles, or be restricted to individual muscles. Thus, the horizontal-vertical distinction does not help in the diagnosis. Rather, the diagnosis is usually made via observation of fluctuation of ocular alignment from minute to minute, restriction of eye movement to the central range, and post-saccadic drift (see following section on post-saccadic drift for an example). Myasthenics may also develop a progressive slowing of saccades over time, due to fatigue ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of eye movements between Developmental Eye Movement test (DEM) and silent reading of sentence. AU - Ikeda, Yuka. AU - Hayakawa, Tomoe. AU - Momose, Keiko. AU - Matsuoka, Kumiko. PY - 2016/7. Y1 - 2016/7. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84982267277&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84982267277&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:84982267277. VL - 9. SP - 573. EP - 580. JO - Folia Japonica de Ophthalmologica Clinica. JF - Folia Japonica de Ophthalmologica Clinica. SN - 1882-5176. IS - 7. ER - ...
The present study aimed to analyze and compare the eye movements of beginning (2nd grade) and more skilled (4th grade) readers, during reading words and pseudo-words aloud, that differ in frequency (just for words), regularity and length. In this way, one intends to analyze the process of visual information extraction, by both groups, and detect experience and practice-related changes in the ocular behavior. The eye movements of 34 children were monitored, while these were reading words/pseudo-words lists, and this was accomplished using eye-tracking technology. The results show statistically significant differences between the two groups, in mean and total fixations duration for high-frequency words, in mean fixation duration for regular words and in the mean saccade amplitude in irregular pseudo-words. However, no significant differences were found between the groups on the study of the other variables. Nevertheless, the results suggest that skilled readers tend to show more effective eye ...
Visual problems can affect up to two thirds of stroke patients. Visual problems can affect up to two thirds of stroke patients, but can sometimes go undetected if patients do not recognise them as an after-effect of the condition or if they are unable to communicate the problem to their medical team or families. Research has often focused on visual field loss, caused by an interruption in the pathways that deliver an image from the eye to the brain for processing. Study led by scientists at Liverpool, however, has shown that damage to the nerve supply that controls eye movement is also a common problem after a stroke. Impaired eye movement can impact on the ability to follow a moving object or read words on a page. Treatments include exercises to strengthen the eye muscles when looking at objects close to the face, as well as prisms that can be fitted to glasses to join double vision. The research highlights the need for developing stricter assessment methods to ensure vision problems are ...
The effect of face inversion has been heavily studied, whereas fewer studies have investigated inversion in scenes. We investigated the influence of scene inversion on decisions and contextual guidance of eye movements during visual search. A saccade contingent display termination paradigm was used to assess the temporal dynamics of the effect. Observers searched for a computer mouse in office scenes and performed a yes/no detection task. Observers sensitivity (d) was lower for inverted images relative to upright. Observers false positive rate decreased with additional eye movements when they viewed upright images, but remained constant during the first three eye movements when viewing inverted images. The average distance of observers eye movements to the target location was greater for inverted than upright scenes. We interpret that inverting an image disrupts the rapid extraction of scene gist, subsequently disrupting guidance in eye movement behavior and slowing the process of rejecting ...
Fixation changes in glaucoma are generally overlooked, as they are not strikingly evident as in macular diseases. Fundus perimetry might give additional insights into this aspect, along with traditional perimetric measures. In this work we propose a novel method to quantify glaucomatous changes in fixation features as detected by fundus perimetry and relate them to the extent of glaucomatous damage. We retrospectively analysed fixation data from 320 people (200 normal subjects and 120 with glaucoma) from the Preferred Retinal Locus (PRL) detection of a Compass perimeter. Fixation stability was measured as Bivariate Contour Ellipse Area (BCEA), and using two novel metrics: (1) Mean Euclidean Distance (MED) from the Preferred Retinal Locus, and (2) Sequential Euclidean Distance (SED) of sequential fixation locations. These measures were designed to capture the spread of fixation points, and the frequency of position changes during fixation, respectively. In the age corrected analysis, SED was
Rapid Eye Movement wasis a brilliant fanzine. Sadly departed R.E.M. ed. Simon Dwyers inspired delving yielded-up a celebrated corpus sublime. Mining a rare seam, Simon hewed from a fissure where music, politics, culture and the occult converged (Occulture); always deftly swerving the decent into accursed obscurantism. Hed go on to do a stint at Sounds and eventually launch Occulture in earnest with the 1989 publication of Rapid Eye vol. 1 - this lavish artefact earned Simon his many plaudits. Of interest here though are the 3 early issues of Rapid Eye Movement featuring collaborators Alan Anger, Mick Dwyer and Lol Loveitt. These fanzines soar way above most other contenders, primarily on account of their searching interviews; check out the in-depth chats with Scritti Politti, The Piranhas (5 pages apiece), Patrik Fitzgerald (7 pages), Tony Parsons & Julie Burchill, and Mark Perry, and you soon get the picture. Theres a profile on the Bridge House (Canning Town) namechecking gaffers Tony ...
Deep brain stimulation; Parkinson??s Disease; Oculomotor function; Neurophysiology; Eye movement; Neurodegeneration; DEEP BRAIN-STIMULATION; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; OCULAR MOVEMENTS; LEVODOPA; IMPROVEMENT; SACCADES; ...
Crawford, T J and Broerse, A and den Boer, J A (2001) Parsing Cognition in Schizophrenia Using Saccadic Eye Movements. Neuropsychologia, 39. pp. 742-756. ISSN 0028-3932. Full text not available from this repository ...
2004. Beck, J.C., Gilland, E., Tank, D.W., Baker, R. Quantifying the ontogeny of optokinetic and vestibuloocular behaviors in zebrafish, medaka, and goldfish.J. Neurophysiology 92(6), 3546-61 (2004). [Full Text/PDF]. Beck, J.C., Gilland, E., Baker, R., Tank, D.W. Instrumentation for measuring oculomotor performance and plasticity in larval organisms. Methods in Cell Biology (76), 385-413 (2004).. Major, G., Baker, R., Aksay, E., Mensh, B., Seung, H.S. and Tank, D.W., Plasticity and tuning by visual feedback of the stability of a neural integrator. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (20), 7739-7744 (2004). [Fulltext/PDF]. Major, G., Baker, R., Aksay, E., Seung, H.S. and Tank, D.W., Plasticity and tuning of the time course of analog persistent firing in a neural integrator. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(20), 7745 (2004) [Fulltext/PDF]. Mensh, B.D., Aksay, E., Lee, D.D., Seung, H.S. and Tank, D.W. Spontaneous eye movements in goldfish: Oculomotor integrator performance, plasticity, and ...
These muscles are innervated by motor neurons that have electrical activity with a tonic component that controls the position of the eye, and a phasic component that controls the velocity of eye movement. Even though the eye position commands and the eye velocity commands are linear functions of the firing frequency of the motor neuron, they are separate sets of commands. The eye velocity commands are sent along a direct path from specialized brain formations or fields to the motor neurons. However, the eye position commands are the products of the integration of eye velocity commands sent along an indirect path to a network of neurons that functions as a neural integrator. It is the output of the integrator that provides eye position commands to the motor neurons.. The integration of signals from different groups of neurons in the oculomotor system control five types of eye movement, each with a unique function and distinctive properties. These types are: saccades, pursuit, vestibular ocular ...
In 9 fetuses studied, the median number of eye movements at 18 weeks after conception were 25 per hour, increasing to 101 per hour at 34 weeks ...
The ability to conduct a visual search for an object in a naturalistic scene is a crucial component of everyday interactions with the environment. This process requires the recognition of different items, accessing stored semantic knowledge about those items and their relationships with other objects, and guiding vision based on that knowledge. Classical models of attention emphasize low-level visual salience maps for attentional guidance. However, behavioral studies increasingly support a role for object knowledge in guiding attention and eye movements. Despite strong behavioral evidence that conceptual information about objects and scenes is critical for real world guidance of attention, very little is known about the neural basis of the guidance of attention based on meaning.. Previous human imaging studies have identified several brain regions that represent object and scene/context knowledge as it relates to visual recognition. In particular, regions of the temporal lobes (inferior temporal ...
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is seen as a promising treatment option for fear-related psychiatric diseases such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Indeed, experimental studies have shown that performing goal-directed eye movements following recall of autobiographical episodic memories can reduce the vividness and emotionality of these memories. However, the effect of goal-directed eye movements on retention of fear memory has not been tested directly, and critically, the mechanisms by which eye movements may affect mnemonic processes remain poorly understood. Previous research suggests that performing tasks involving endogenous attention suppresses neural activity in the default mode network (DMN), a large-scale brain network which includes the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and medial temporal lobe regions such as the amygdala and hippocampus. These regions are also critically implicated in fear and safety learning. We therefore hypothesized that ...
Mannan, S.K., Hodgson, T.L., Husain, M. and Kennard, C. (2008) Eye movements in visual search indicate impaired saliency processing in Parkinsons disease. Progress in Brain Research, 171, pp. 559-562. ISSN (print) 0079-6123 ...
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A fundamental task performed by many visual systems is to distinguish apparent motion caused by eye movements from real motion occurring within the environment. During saccadic eye movements, this task is achieved by inhibitory signals of central and retinal origin that suppress the output of motion-detecting neurons. To investigate the retinally-generated component of this suppression, we used a computational model of a locust looming-detecting pathway that experiences saccadic suppression. This model received input from the camera of a mobile robot that performed simple saccade-like movements, allowing the models response to simplified real stimuli to be tested. Retinally-generated saccadic suppression resulted from two inhibitory mechanisms within the looming-detectors input architecture. One mechanism fed inhibition forward through the network, inhibiting the looming-detectors initial response to movement. The second spread inhibition laterally within the network, suppressing the ...
Eye movements[edit]. Most of the eye movements in "rapid eye movement" sleep are in fact less rapid than those normally ... "Do the eyes scan dream images during rapid eye movement sleep? Evidence from the rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder ... These eye movements follow the ponto-geniculo-occipital waves originating in the brain stem.[12][13] The eye movements ... a b c d e Birendra N. Mallick, Vibha Madan, & Sushil K. Jha (2008), "Rapid eye movement sleep regulation by modulation of the ...
Eye movements, perception, and legibility in reading. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 33.. 1936. Eye movements in reading. Journal ... Eye movements, influence of[edit]. 1939, Type form.. 1940. Line width.. 1941. Modern type face and Old English.. 1942. Size of ... Eye movements in reading a modern type face and Old English. American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 54. (Donald G. Paterson as co ... Eye movements in reading type sizes in optimal line widths. Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 34. (Tinker as co-author ...
Main article: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a form of ... Jeffries FW, Davis P (May 2013). "What is the role of eye movements in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for ... high quality randomized trial of EMDR with eye movements versus EMDR without eye movements, the controversy over effectiveness ... her eyes were moving rapidly. When she brought her eye movements under control while thinking, the thoughts were less ...
... s are a kind of fixational eye movement. They are small, jerk-like, involuntary eye movements, similar to miniature ... Alexander, R. G.; Martinez-Conde, S (2019). "Fixational eye movements". Eye Movement Research. Springer, Cham. pp. 73-115. ... "Miniature Eye Movements Enhance Fine Spatial Detail." Nature,447(7146), 851-854. "Eye flickers key for fine detail". BBC News. ... Movements of the Eyes (Pion, London, 1988). Guerrasio, Lorenzo (2011). Subcortical Control of Visual Fixation. Dissertation, ...
Alexander, R. G.; Martinez-Conde, S (2019). "Fixational eye movements". Eye Movement Research. Springer, Cham, 104-106, doi: ... The speed of perceived motion depends on the frequency of microsaccadic eye movements (Alexander & Martinez-Conde, 2019). ... Fraser, A., Wilcox, K.J. (1979). Perception of illusory movement. Nature, 281, 565-566. Kitaoka. A., Ashida. H. (2003). ...
"Rapid Eye Movements". Reddit. Retrieved November 25, 2017. "A curious mind is a terrible curse". Reddit. Retrieved November 25 ... "I Can't Look My Brother in the Eyes Anymore". Reddit. Retrieved November 25, 2017. "Mason". Reddit. Retrieved November 25, 2017 ... "The Doll With the Lifelike Eyes • r/nosleep". reddit. Retrieved November 25, 2017. "Nosleep Podcast S2E24 - The NoSleep Podcast ...
This is a striking neuro-psychiatric disorder characterized by paralysis of eye movements, abnormal stance and gait, and ... Symptoms of PEM include a profuse, but transient, diarrhea, listlessness, circling movements, star gazing or opisthotonus (head ...
... when an attempt is made to close the eyes. The upward movement of the eye is present in the majority of the population, and is ... Collewijn, H (July 1985). "Human Eye Movements Associated with Blinks and Prolonged Eyelid Closure". Journal of Neurophysiology ... Riggs, Lorrin (February 1987). "Blink-Related Eye Movements". Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 28: 334-342. ... is a medical sign that allows observers to notice an upward and outward movement of the eye, ...
In R. Groner & P. Fraisse (Eds.), Cognition and eye movements. Amsterdam: North Holland (1982). Levine, Marvin (1971). " ...
... is used to explain the conjugacy of saccadic eye movement in stereoptic animals. The law ... The law also states that apparent monocular eye movements are actually the summation of conjugate version and disjunctive (or ... Yarbus, A. L. (1967). Eye Movements and Vision. New York: Plenum Press. Pickwell LD (September 1972). "Hering's law of equal ... learned aspect of binocularly coordinated eye movements. Helmholtz's arguments were mainly related to Listing's law and can be ...
Prior to an overt eye movement, where the eyes move to a target location, covert attention shifts to this location.[11][12][13] ... a condition wherein it is difficult to exert eye movements voluntarily, particularly vertical movements. Patients were found to ... This larger activation evident with overt attention shifts was attributed to the added involvement of eye movements.[18] ... Previous evidence has shown that the superior colliculus is associated with eye movements, or overt attention shifts.[16] ...
Eye-hand movements better coordinated; can put objects together, take them apart; fit large pegs into pegboard. ... Motor planning includes an individual's choice of movements and trajectory of such movements. Children begin to display motor ... Both eyes work in unison (true binocular coordination).. *Can see distant objects (4 to 6 m or 13 to 20 ft away) and points at ... Eyes begin moving together in unison (binocular vision).. *Responds to and thrives on warm, sensitive physical contact and care ...
... which can be attached by suction to the human eye to study visual perceptions in the absence of eye movements, a laboratory ... Eye Movements, and Vision". I-Perception. 1 (1): 7-27. doi:10.1068/i0382. ISSN 2041-6695. PMC 3563050. PMID 23396904. Eye- ... Yarbus pioneered the study of saccadic exploration of complex images, by recording the eye movements performed by observers ... Eye Movements and Vision. New York: Plenum Press, 1967. (Translated from Russian by Basil Haigh. Original Russian edition ...
This led to an interest in eye movement in animals and later in man. Land's group was mainly concerned with the role of eye ... Eye movements and the control of actions in everyday life. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 25: 296-324 Land M.F. (2006). ... In: Eye movements: a window on mind and brain (eds. RPG van Gompel, M.H. Fischer, W.S. Murray, R.L. Hill) Chapter 4. Oxford: ... B 355: 1147-1150 Land M.F., Mennie N., Rusted J. (1999) The roles of vision and eye movements in the control of activities of ...
Eye movements when viewing advertisements. Frontiers in Psychology, 5. Hervet, G., Guérard, K., Tremblay, S., & Chtourou, M. S ... Lapa, C. (2007). Using eye tracking to understand banner blindness and improve website design. Cho, C. H., & as-, U. O. T. A. A ... Porta, M., Ravarelli, A., & Spaghi, F. (2013). Online newspapers and ad banners: an eye-tracking study on the effects of ... Lee, J., & Ahn, J. H. (2012). Attention to banner ads and their effectiveness: An eye-tracking approach. International Journal ...
PMID 4538848 The influence of eye movements and eye position on perception of the visual vertical. Wade NJ. Psychol Forsch. ... vision and the origins of eye movement research. In R. P. G. van Gompel, M. H, Fischer, W. S., Murray, & R. L. Hill (Eds.). Eye ... PMID 20120257 Eye movements: spatial and temporal aspects. Paramei GV, Bertamini M, Bridgeman B, Wade NJ. Iperception. 2010;1(2 ... Wade, N.J., and Tatler, B. W. (2011) Origins and applications of eye movement research. In S. Liversedge, I. D. Gilchrist, and ...
Along with Norman H. Mackworth he designed a head-mounted camera to record eye movements. He used this to study eye movements ... "Movements of the eye" (1968). Scientific American 219. (Cover story) Llewellyn-Thomas, Edward. "Fight--or Ultimately Die", ... Llewellyn-Thomas published sixty scientific articles on psychology and eye movement over the course of his life. Active in the ... Here he initiated research into human eye movements. He also explored various aspects of aerospace medicine, psycho- ...
Primarily, experimenters recorded eye movements while participants studied a series of photos. Individuals were then involved ... Acta Psychologica, 122(2), 160-173 Sharot, T., Davidson, M.L., Carson, M.M., Phelps, E.A. (2008). Eye movements predict ... in a recognition task in which their eye movements were recorded for the second time. From the previous tasks, it was ... discovered that eye fixations, maintaining a visual gaze on a single location, were more clustered for remembering rather than ...
But when the participant makes an eye movement in the same direction as the pattern movement, the velocity of the eye movement ... which momentarily occurs following a rapid eye-movement. A saccade is a fast eye motion, and because it is a motion that is ... Burr, D (2004). "Eye Movements: Keeping Vision Stable". Current Biology. 14 (5): R195-R197. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2004.02.020. PMID ... The eyes can never be observed in motion, yet an external observer clearly sees the motion of the eyes. The phenomenon is often ...
However, eyes can move independently of attention, and therefore eye movement measures do not completely capture the role of ... eye movement ability, ability of attentional focal movement, and the ability to divide visual attention among multiple objects ... This may be a movement of the head and/or eyes towards the visual stimulus, called a saccade. Through a process called ... Many visual search paradigms have therefore used eye movement as a means to measure the degree of attention given to stimuli. ...
According to this law eye movements are always equal in intensity in the two eyes but not in direction. Eye movements can ... Hering further studied eye movements. He developed the Hering's law of equal innervation to describe the conjugacy of eye ... This prediction was experimentally confirmed by Yarbus in his seminal work on eye movements. However it is now known that ... He argued that, by a mechanism of integration across small eye movements, the location information signalled by the involved ...
Volkmann and many others have provided the broad outline of an answer to the question how the eye rotates during eye movements ... Movements of the eye are kinematically complex and can be described as a combination of rotations about changing rotation ... Leigh, R.J.; Zee, D.S. (2006). The neurology of eye movements. Oxford University Press. Simonsz, H. J. "The Mechanics of Squint ... An ophthalmotrope is an apparatus for demonstrating the movements of the eye and the action of the different muscles which ...
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM), non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM or non-REM), and waking represent the three major modes of ... 2016). "Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease". Aging Clin Exp Res. 28 (5): ... 2011-07-14). Rapid eye movement sleep : regulation and function. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521116800 ... Nelson JP, McCarley RW, Hobson JA (October 1983). "REM sleep burst neurons, PGO waves, and eye movement information". Journal ...
Dysfunction of the vestibulocerebellum (flocculonodular lobe) impairs balance and the control of eye movements. This presents ... Movements become more irregular with increases of speed.[11]. *Inability to judge distances or ranges of movement happens. This ... Intention tremor (coarse trembling, accentuated over the execution of voluntary movements, possibly involving the head and eyes ... difficulty with eye movements, dysarthria, dysphagia, hypotonia, dysmetria, and dysdiadochokinesia.[3] These deficits can vary ...
Holt's early career was spent studying cell movement during eye development in the frog visual system. Her seminal dissertation ... Holt, Christine (30 October 1980). "Cell movements in Xenopus eye development". Nature. 287 (5785): 850-852. Bibcode:1980Natur. ...
Eye position and word identification during reading. In R. Groner et al.'s Eye movements and information processing. Amsterdam ... Rayner, Keith (1986). "Eye movements and the perceptual span in beginning and skilled readers". Journal of Experimental Child ... Rayner, Keith (1983). "Eye movements, perceptual span, and reading disability". Annals of Dyslexia. 33: 163-173. doi:10.1007/ ... There is no evidence from eye movement research that individuals are making predictions of text based upon hypotheses about the ...
Can eye movement parameters predict spatial presence ? Journal of Eye Movement Research, 3(5):2, 1-8. Martarelli, C.S. & Mast, ... Mast, F.W. & Kosslyn, S.M. (2002). Eye movements during visual mental imagery. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6, 271-272. Mast, ... Martarelli, C.S. & Mast, F.W. (2013). Eye movements during long-term pictorial recall. Psychological Research, 77(3), 303-309. ... Preschool children's eye movements during pictorial recall. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29, 425-436. Weibel, D ...
... exemplified by the application of control theory to the neural basis of eye movements, understanding the control of the ... "Control of Eye Movements - Comprehensive Physiology". www.comprehensivephysiology.com. Retrieved 2017-10-29. Suga, Hiroyuki; ...
Evidence from language-mediated eye-movements". Cognition. 108 (3): 896-904. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2008.06.007. PMID 18692181 ...
Researchers in Australia developed an algorithm to understand more about the link between personality and eye movements. ...
Eye movements[edit]. Most of the eye movements in "rapid eye movement" sleep are in fact less rapid than those normally ... "Do the eyes scan dream images during rapid eye movement sleep? Evidence from the rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder ... These eye movements follow the ponto-geniculo-occipital waves originating in the brain stem.[12][13] The eye movements ... a b c d e Birendra N. Mallick, Vibha Madan, & Sushil K. Jha (2008), "Rapid eye movement sleep regulation by modulation of the ...
"Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Dreams, and Hallucinations". 2005;7:196-197. ... "Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Dreams, and Hallucinations". 2005;7:196-197. ... "Dreaming during non-rapid eye movement sleep in the absence of prior rapid eye movement sleep". Sleep. 27 (8): 1486-90. doi: ... "Non-rapid eye movement sleep" - news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (December 2008) (Learn how and when to remove this ...
Human eye - Movements of the eyes: Because only a small portion of the retina, the fovea, is actually employed for distinct ... a golf ball-the eyes must keep adjusting their gaze to compensate for the continuous small movements of the head and to ... The extraocular muscles that carry out these movements are under ... Movements of the eyes*The axes of the eye. *Actions of muscles ... The binocular movements (the movements of the two eyes) fall into two classes, the conjugate movements, when both eyes move in ...
Traces show movements of head, right eye, left eye, and vergence (right eye - left eye). Image velocities were the same as the ... Eye movements while stacking a set of blocks (a, c, e) or observing someone else stack the blocks (b, d, f). a,b, show ... Eye movements: the past 25 years.. Kowler E1.. Author information. 1. Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, Piscataway ... Thin lines show eye traces; thick lines show movements of the visible cursor used to move the blocks. From Task constraints in ...
... and controlling the direction of the movement (which way). The amplitude of a saccadic eye movement is encoded by the duration ... Figure 20.6Motor neuron activity in relation to saccadic eye movements. The experimental setup is shown on the right. In this ... and are silent when the eye is adducted. The amplitude of the movement is correlated with the duration of the burst of action ... or indeed any other movement) entails two separate issues: controlling the amplitude of movement (how far), ...
One research group is performing beginning research on identifying people by the way their eyes move around a picture or a ... Eye Movements Control New Laptop Computer]. From those movements, the system calculates unique properties about peoples eyes, ... Eye movements alone have an "equal error rate" of about 34 percent, he and his colleagues found. The equal error rate is a ... However, he thinks eye movements could be part of the next generation of a more established biometric, iris scans, which are ...
A new study suggests a study of eye movement patterns may provide insight on memory. The research is compelling as memory may ... Eye Movements May Give Clues on Memory. By Rick Nauert PhD Associate News Editor ... "In other words, there may be circumstances in which eye movements provide a more robust account of past events or experiences ... Eye movements were also monitored during the task and provided an indirect measure of memory. ...
Eye-pursuit and reafferent head movement signals carried by pursuit neurons in the caudal part of the frontal eye fields during ... Land MF, McLeod P (2000) From eye movements to actions: how batsmen hit the ball. Nat Neurosci 3:1340-1345PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Hayhoe M, Ballard D (2005) Eye movements in natural behavior. Trends Cogn Sci 9(4):188-193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Saccadic eye movements Prediction Internal models Squash Gaze pursuit Electronic supplementary material. The online version of ...
In a study published in Current Biology researchers at Karolinska Institutet show that our eye movements are partly governed by ... How we explore our world with our eyes can influence everything from social interaction to learning. ... In a study published in Current Biology researchers at Karolinska Institutet show that our eye movements are partly governed by ... The researchers showed the participants 80 images of varying content while studying their eye movements in the three seconds ...
You say you want a revolution? - The Beatles By one measure at least, the movement that began with Occupy Wall Street is ... The Occupy movement commands the attention of the entire world. When you have all eyes upon you, your next move should be ... The Occupy movement is only a little over a month old. It is a new colt, still wobbly on its legs, yet some of us want it to ... One hopes the movements organizers understand that Occupy Wall Street has created a moment, a fragment of time and ...
Experimental evaluation results show that the eye movement system achieves high accuracy of over 70%. However, the eye movement ... and built a wheelchair control system based on speech recognition and eye movement. In this study, the eye movement system is ... Keyphrases: Arduino, control, eye movement, limb defect, speech recognition. In: Tich Thien Truong, Trung Nghia Tran, Quoc Khai ... Controlling External Devices by Using Speech and Simple Eye Movements. 11 pages•Published: May 14, 2020. Duy Long Dao, Thanh An ...
Ahem Make that Eye-Phone. Eye-tracking could soon be coming to cell phones, allowing hands-free control of mobile devices that ... Eye Movements For Control. Forget touch or even voice control--a team of researchers is developing eye-tracking software for ... The Dartmouth team, led by professor Andrew Campbell, devised a new algorithm that learns to identify a persons eye movements ... The user has to arrange the phone so a virtual "error box" is situated around his or her eye; the system can recognize the eye ...
Movements_in_Reading.html?id=1PnaAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareEye Movements in Reading. ... Eye Movements in Reading: Perceptual and Language Processes. Perspectives in Neurolinguistics Neuropsychology and ... Eye Movements in Reading: Perceptual and Language Processes. Keith Rayner. Limited preview - 2012. ... Erlbaum experiment Experimental Psychology eye fixations factors fixated word fixation duration foveal frequency frontal eye ...
... the eye seems to be ahead of the voice when we read aloud. The precision eye-movement research of scientists such as Rayner and ... Eye movement studies have shown that mature, proficient readers do not skip words, use context to process words, or bypass ... For example, there is no evidence that colored lenses or overlays relieve language-based reading problems or that eye-movement ... Faulty eye movements or visual fatigue most often are symptoms, not causes, of reading difficulty. ...
... at Texas State University-San Marco is looking to create a system that can identify people by the way they flicker their eyes ... From those movements, the system calculates unique properties about peoples eyes, including the force their eye muscles use ... Eye movements could be next generation PC password A computer scientist at Texas State University-San Marco is looking to ... However, he thinks eye movements could be part of the next generation of a more established biometric, iris scans, which are ...
To encourage thoughtful and respectful conversations, first and last names will appear with each submission to CBC/Radio-Canadas online communities (except in children and youth-oriented communities). Pseudonyms will no longer be permitted.. By submitting a comment, you accept that CBC has the right to reproduce and publish that comment in whole or in part, in any manner CBC chooses. Please note that CBC does not endorse the opinions expressed in comments. Comments on this story are moderated according to our Submission Guidelines. Comments are welcome while open. We reserve the right to close comments at any time.. ...
J. M. Henderson, "Eye movements and scene perception," in Oxford Handbook of Eye Movements, S. Liversedge, I. Gilchrist, and S ... "The role of posterior parietal cortex in the regulation of saccadic eye movements," in Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements, S. P. ... "Linguistic and cognitive influences on eye movements during reading," in Oxford Handbook of Eye Movements, S. Liversedge, I. ... D. E. Angelaki, "The oculomotor plant and its role in three-dimensional eye orientation," in Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements, ...
Challenge: Relevance from eye movements (1 message). Late submission to the special issue of IJCV (1 message). NJ Postdoctoral ...
Anticipatory eye movements (4 messages). Eyes Tea Boston (1 message). Get involved! OTCBVS04, IEEE Intl Workshop, June, ...
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep and Hippocampal Theta Oscillations Precede Seizure Onset in the Tetanus Toxin Model of Temporal Lobe ...
1. orthodox sleep, nonrapid eye movement sleep, NREM sleep, nonrapid eye movement, NREM, sleep, slumber. usage: a recurring ... sleep state during which rapid eye movements do not occur and dreaming does not occur; accounts for about 75% of normal sleep ...
And it, they simply depend on what pattern of eye movements you use. Are you using this kind of an eye movement, or youre ... MUSIC] Okay, so now, were, were going to shift gears and talk about eye movements. Eye movements beyond the VOR. And one of ... And therefore, I have shifted not only my gaze, but Ive shifted my gaze using a head movement and no-eye movement. Ive ... In the next segment, what were going to do is look at the primary type of eye movement that we use to change our gaze. And ...
... learn the structure of the eye and how it moves. In The Artists Magazine, Paul Leveille shares helpful tips and illustrations. ... Eye Movements. A When the eyes are looking to one side or the other, the skin and muscles around the eyes form a teardrop shape ... The movement of muscles and skin around the eyeballs is what actually reveals expressions. The illustrations depict how the eye ... D When the eye looks up, the eyelid folds even more under the brow, and more of the white of the eye shows under the iris. The ...
Changing channels on your Comcast X1 will be truly hands-free as the company is adding eye control to its cable platform. ... Comcast users can now change channels with eye movements - Pennsylvania , June 17 : ... Comcast users can now change channels with eye movements. Pennsylvania , June 17 : Changing channels on your Comcast X1 will be ... Comcast is supporting all popular eye gaze hardware and software on the market to make the feature accessible. To use eye ...
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is an information processing psychotherapy that was developed to resolve ... "Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)". If you have expertise in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing ( ... Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Websites. ArticlesWebsitesExpertsStoreEvents ... Hover over the stars and click to rate this Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) website. ...
Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing In Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy. This book is for therapists who know how to do ... The Breakthrough "Eye Movement" Therapy for Overcoming Anxiety, Stress, and Trauma. In a new introduction, Shapiro presents the ... Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Store. ArticlesWebsitesExpertsStoreEvents ... Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Basic Principles, Protocols, and Procedures. Detailed descriptions and ...
... we investigate eye movement analysis as a new sensing modality for activity recognition. Eye movement data were recorded using ... We first describe and evaluate algorithms for detecting three eye movement characteristics from EOG signals-saccades, fixations ... and blinks-and propose a method for assessing repetitive patterns of eye movements. We then devise 90 different features based ... The work demonstrates the promise of eye-based activity recognition (EAR) and opens up discussion on the wider applicability of ...
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is an information processing psychotherapy that was developed to resolve ... "Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)". If you have expertise in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing ( ... Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Websites. ArticlesWebsitesExpertsStoreEvents ...
This is an example of a persons eye movements as the text is being read. It shows the typical patterns found in eye movement ... Brief history of eye movements in visual cognition. At one time, researchers believed that the eyes and the mind were not ... Because eye movements are essentially motor movements, it takes time to plan and execute a saccade. In addition, the end-point ... When do viewers move their eyes when looking at scenes? Past studies have shown that attention precedes an eye movement to a ...
  • These are the standard movement used in swiss made quartz timepieces and I must say they never cease to amaze me. (watchaddictchannel.com)
  • Quartz - Powered by a battery that sends an electrical signal through crystal quartz, the movement makes the second hand move in individual ticks. (goldsteindiamonds.com)
  • But, looking back at the out of style, and they well-detailed design, adroit craftsmanship and quartz movement in Japan. (cophignon.com)
  • a dangerous man the complete collection awakening rebellion claim and surrender Nov 23, 2020 Posted By Dan Brown Ltd TEXT ID d79e394a Online PDF Ebook Epub Library ordini idonei a dangerous man the complete collection awakening rebellion claim surrender amazones serena grey libros en idiomas extranjeros surrender a dangerous man Suryavarman I is a campaign in Age of Empires II HD: Rise of the Rajas. (org.ua)
  • This discussion forum is facilitated by Francine Shapiro, the originator and developer of EMDR (for Eye Movement Desensitization and. (behavior.net)
  • This neat little pony makes over 100 unique sounds and movements and comes with a fully motorized head, eyes, and ears that make it look like hes come to life. (vipgearz.com)
  • Encourages the development of hand-eye coordination. (architoys.pt)
  • Crucial spatial developmental, along with strengthening hand-eye coordination, is all part of Magic Cars* fun! (magiccars.com)
  • 2. While working at your desk, give your eyes a break every so often, you can achieve this by changing your focus from what is in front of you to a distant object at least 3 metres away. (eyetrend.com.au)
  • Hughes was a witness to the movement of black bodies from fields into factories - his people's transformation. (onbeing.org)
  • But instead of other people's eyes, it's my own eyes. (markarmstrongillustration.com)
  • Subtle changes like eye movement might be lost by automatic conversions if they are not QCed. (doom9.org)
  • Although Chappelle is not directly addressing the COVID-19 pandemic, it's hard to ignore the fact that it's an unprecedented period as you watch the crowd react to Chappelle, while your only clue about this that they might think is provided by their subtle body movements and their eyes. (fr24news.com)
  • As a 3 phase PWM driven motor, there's no way to guarantee if a pulse is a rotor movement or a duty cycle, so this reading will probably depend slightly on battery voltage. (rcgroups.com)
  • Its movement rotor is made especially for Porsche Design to have a motor-sport look. (beckertime.com)
  • Second, I'm trying to work with some functions that Andy and Alex Dimov wrote which allows you to remove the eyes from the 3DMeNow head (imported into Vizard) so that the eyes can be animated. (worldviz.com)
  • I am trying to interface an Arrington Eye Tracker with the Vizard platform. (worldviz.com)
  • Слова и текст песни Bright Eyes Spring Cleaning предоставлены сайтом Megalyrics.ru. (megalyrics.ru)
  • Текст Bright Eyes Spring Cleaning найден в открытых источниках или добавлен нашими пользователями. (megalyrics.ru)
  • Слушать онлайн Bright Eyes Spring Cleaning на Megalyrics - легко и просто. (megalyrics.ru)
  • Rigged with automatic movement, the are manufactured alongside other watch. (cophignon.com)
  • Don't shut your eyes…don't turn out the lights…you might run into the coolest person you've ever met! (blogspot.com)
  • Protesters ritually cover their right eyes or patch them shut with bloodied bandages. (castac.org)
  • The vpx plugin only supports getting the gaze point of one eye. (worldviz.com)
  • What specific functions do you need, other than getting the gaze point of both eyes? (worldviz.com)
  • At present, I want to access the Pupil Width (APW and BPW), Quality of eye movement data (AQU and BQU), Fixation Duration (AFX and BFX) and the x,y gaze direction coordinates (ALX, ALY and BLX, BLY) for both the eyes. (worldviz.com)
  • The main component of a mechanical movement is the mainspring, a spring that gradually unwinds and transmits energy. (watchaddictchannel.com)
  • Join the Mechanical Watch Movement! (goldsteindiamonds.com)
  • To complicate things, there are different mechanical watch "movements," the mechanism that drives the hands and complications of the watch, which have their pros and cons. (goldsteindiamonds.com)
  • Vintage and luxury watch collectors prefer mechanical movements. (goldsteindiamonds.com)
  • For the first time since Mexico's independence people have stopped turning their eyes upwards and waiting for some good lord or hero to come and solve the problem. (cinerebelde.org)
  • At the same time, his eyes betray nothing of his own thoughts, even as they seemingly bore into the very souls of those he's looking at. (rwbyfanon.com)
  • Real-time animation selections, four times as many as animations as before and highly realistic movements. (pocketgamer.com)
  • Their Eyes Were Watching God is a novel decades ahead of its time. (papersowl.com)
  • HDTV, digital recording or online visual media, etc.) shows that a ball has left its position and come to rest in another location, the ball will not be deemed to have moved if that movement was not reasonably discernible to the naked eye at the time," the new rule states. (dbwgc.com)
  • it isn't devoid of issues, like blue birds chasing Dash undewater, which looks kinda silly, and in my opinion the front layer of the scenario requires a smoothing/blur effect on scrolling, since otherwise the pixel-by-pixel movement puts a great strain in the eyes after playing for a while. (equestriagaming.net)
  • Is this an illustration that's apt to cause eye strain? (markarmstrongillustration.com)
  • Maybe the light of those shifting worlds can only be seen by the minds eye, maybe it's reserved for those that venture out in the camanhaich. (sandrakelly.me)
  • As our helicopter clears the treetops, we look North, and as far as the eye can see, dust is rising from movement of armor headed south. (sudoan18bobinh.com)
  • When it gets to the tent and the Dyatlov group the true horror of this dusty cloud is revealed as the dust hits their eyes, lungs and throats, causing severe irritation, burning and restricted breathing. (dyatlovpass.com)
  • No hassle with your makeup and no makeup remover panda eyes. (milymakeup.com)
  • After David offers Leeloo some clothes, he also offers her a device for applying eye makeup. (scifiinterfaces.com)
  • Leeloo feels an unfamiliar sensation and pulls her face away, and we see that the device has applied complete eye makeup for her. (scifiinterfaces.com)
  • Of course three momentary buttons aren't enough to control all the variables in eye makeup. (scifiinterfaces.com)
  • Anyway, since those buttons aren't sufficient for setting up the eye makeup, let's hope that it's networked to some other device with a richer interface, like a voice interface or Cornelius' WIMP computer, where she can have a rich interaction for setting up those buttons. (scifiinterfaces.com)
  • Children will love to turn the handles and clock hands and watch the eyes on the big, friendly face roll around with glee to a pleasing clicking sound and chiming bell. (architoys.pt)
  • Turn the handles to rotate each hand with a pleasing clicking sound and chiming bell as the clock's eyes roll round and round. (architoys.pt)
  • The game engine handles quick movements and reactions without a delay, and manages to control large crowds of homing enemies with naturality, as well as mantain the aggresive movement of fruited birds while the released ones fly away. (equestriagaming.net)
  • This is a clear enough signal for Leeloo, who puts the device up to her eyes like a large pair of sunglasses. (scifiinterfaces.com)
  • The truly unique home needs an utterly different style, and these eye-catching switch plates could be just what's missing in your home. (switchhits.com)
  • The focus was on clothing that I felt would either enhance the movement or expression of the dancer, while still remaining timeless in its style. (gramilano.com)
  • The perfect balance of the original dial, with the 'Big Eye' subdial makes it a timeless elegant classical wristwatch. (highlifewatches.com)
  • It is through the eyes of Hughes that we can understand the significance of the Great Migration of black people from the south to the north. (onbeing.org)
  • Brian has a critical eye and great ability to break down complex basketball movements into their most fundamental elements, and then incorporate an effective training protocol to progressively teach their mastery. (180shooter.com)
  • Although the Methodist movement had been built upon staunch abolitionism in Great Britain, and although it contained many abolitionist preachers within its ranks, within a nation whose economy was built upon this theological falsehood, the new religious movement found itself failing in many places to remain true to what had set it apart. (hannahadairbonner.com)
  • There's a great deal of crisis, and people are increasingly raising their heads and opening their eyes, and they have to see a movement out there that starts with thousands today and tens of thousands in a few weeks, that grows to the point where we will not relent on this. (medium.com)
  • They both have great eyes. (shibbsden.com)
  • The case is well preserved, and the original light brown dial with its 'Big Eye' subdial looks great. (highlifewatches.com)
  • in the blink of an eye, objects around his room have mysteriously been moved. (blogspot.com)
  • Grab your Discounted Retro Vintage Fish Eye Ball Glass Shape Black Dial Pocket Watch while the store LAUNCH DISCOUNT is on. (weargg.com)
  • But overall, it is a very clean, legible and easy on the eyes straightforward dial. (watchaddictchannel.com)
  • I have my eye on the Black Dial, Black Bezel with leather strap. (watchuseek.com)
  • they have an old religious heritage and history, and they were directly influenced by the religious movements around them, specifically Wahhabism. (mosul-eye.org)
  • Eye exercises are a means of relieving temporary eyestrain induced by prolonged periods of focused work. (eyetrend.com.au)
  • I spent many, many hours researching clothing and trying to figure out what would work best for dance and movement. (gramilano.com)
  • The Shanghai based group Round Eye have shown no mercy nor fatigue in sound development or work ethic and have as of late been a crucial force in bridging a wide gap between the eastern and western hemispheres of DIY punk rock. (indiemusicreviews.net)
  • Putting everything together to create a complete image with effective eye movements, balance, focal points, legibility, and communication requires good design skills. (lingganchina.com)
  • Soft, comfortable rocking movements and a striking design in a wood and aluminium base. (europeanleathergallery.com)
  • Nature is filled with pattern and design and movement, and sometimes one must slow down to notice. (artisticquiltswithcolors.com)
  • Burning, gritty and teary eyes are usually the symptoms of dry eyes, commonly experienced by computer users, contact lens wearers, the elderly, and those constantly exposed to dry air and wind. (eyetrend.com.au)
  • They are crystalline and dangerous, diamonds that can gouge your eyes out. (nytyrant.com)
  • The Round Eye Shield Ring is made of 18k Yellow gold, Champagne diamonds, Blue sapphires and Tsavorites. (auverture.com)
  • The eyes are set with tiny diamonds. (catherinehillsjewellery.com)
  • If you have an eye for detail you will appreciate the mechanism inside the watch. (goldsteindiamonds.com)
  • If you are looking for the best sunglasses for dry eye , you will quickly find that there is a lot of choice on the market. (sunglassactive.com)
  • In this article, we filtered out the best dry eye sunglasses for you. (sunglassactive.com)
  • The non-polarized model from Ray-Ban prevailed as the best sunglasses for dry eye . (sunglassactive.com)
  • The winner among the best sunglasses for dry eye convinced across the board in the list. (sunglassactive.com)
  • The Oakley model is an overall very good pair of sunglasses for dry eye that, in principle, has no weaknesses. (sunglassactive.com)
  • The CGID model is a very affordable pair of sunglasses for dry eye . (sunglassactive.com)
  • The Eyekeeper model is a classic, small, round sunglasses for dry eye with prescription lenses. (sunglassactive.com)
  • All those times she'd felt hidden eyes upon her, the quick flickers of movement half seen, the searching, the knowing, that there was another layer of this magical place she hadn't yet explored. (sandrakelly.me)
  • Rabbi Menachem Creditor: Masorti Movement Urgent email (in Hebrew, with inaccurate but quick translation): חוק הגיור רע ליהודים! (blogspot.com)
  • Before you get into it, keep an eye on the stock market. (mobilistarockstars.com)
  • If it's possible, you should keep an eye on the movement trends over a three-year periods, using historical data for past years as you see fit. (mobilistarockstars.com)
  • Most ePAX machines include two LCD touch screens, one for the ball and something for the dealer, in order that a player can simultaneously start to see the ball movement on the keep an eye on screen as well as the dealer's reactions. (nayannaquezado.com)
  • Keep an eye out for more Operation information and sign up below! (vsuw.org)
  • But from my understanding all it does is move the eye texture around, it doesn't actually move the geometry. (worldviz.com)
  • As pedestrians we move quickly, gingerly coordinating our movements so as not to bump into each other. (irrationalexpectations.com)
  • I love using busy, bold designs that move your eye in all directions. (artisticquiltswithcolors.com)
  • We call communism the real movement which abolishes the present state of things. (edu.bd)
  • One of the many things I love about My Mind's Eye…theircollections mix and match so well with one another. (typepad.com)
  • This brings me to a seemingly ordinary yet vital point in our everyday walk: the EYE-FOOT coordination. (bloggingwithkay.com)
  • Carefully crafted movements define a masterpiece and make it distinct from an ordinary watch. (goldsteindiamonds.com)
  • The flat and mono based nature of online interactions cause increased stress due to prolonged eye contact, non-directional audio cues and minimal movement," said Horan, "in addition, the brain overcompensates to understand the unique participant attributes and the context of the meeting, which impacts us in several ways. (immersitech.io)
  • There's something about shape, gleam, patterning, movement, authenticity and that very fine line between familiar and unique that catches our eyes. (anunboringpath.com)
  • Oh Muslim, arise, there is a black-eyed virgin in Paradise. (typepad.com)
  • We will return to Kabul - neither Bush nor Powell - oh heresy, don't even try, there is a black-eyed virgin in Paradise. (typepad.com)
  • Oh heresy, don't even try, there is a black-eyed virgin in Paradise. (typepad.com)
  • Regards to the Taliban, oh blessings of the All-Merciful, the Sunna after the Koran, there is a black-eyed virgin in Paradise. (typepad.com)
  • The Sunna after the Koran, there is a black-eyed virgin in Paradise. (typepad.com)
  • Bin Laden, there is a black-eyed virgin in Paradise. (typepad.com)
  • The rule of jihad today does not require much thought, oh Muslim, arise, there is a black-eyed virgin in Paradise. (typepad.com)
  • The black-eyed virgin obsession is starting to make us suspect that sexual frustration is indeed one of those mysterious 'root causes' of radical Islam. (typepad.com)
  • The shiny black plastic reads like a cosmetic object, and professional enough that you can presume it's safe to use near delicate eye parts. (scifiinterfaces.com)
  • Please ensure your hands are clean (ie.washed hands), prior to attempting these eye exercises. (eyetrend.com.au)
  • Winnie likes to make eye contact with us and then do the loudest squeal or yell, while making excited movements with her hands. (ourfreakingbudget.com)
  • Lucien Piccard watches are admired movement in their watches makes this a difficult feat to. (cophignon.com)
  • A Japanese exporter said that scrap suppliers have a mixed view on the future direction of prices and that exporters were keeping a close eye on the movements in steel mill buying prices. (groom.com.pl)
  • Small movements might not be detected in the VFR conversion, depending on how it's done. (doom9.org)
  • 1. Keep your computer screen approximately 50-60cm from your eyes and hold any reading material at least 40cm away from your eyes, under good lighting. (eyetrend.com.au)
  • As General Le Minh Dao says good-bye, tears begin to well in his eyes…'I do not want you to die with me. (sudoan18bobinh.com)
  • She tells her story honestly, and points out the good and the bad in both the pro-choice and pro-life movements. (bookpikks.com)
  • After 1 set of eye movements he saw a white light, after three sets of eye movements his SUDs was reduced from 7 to 1. (behavior.net)
  • My Phish Earrings with Diamond Eyes are elegant statement drop earrings reminiscent of fishes, that give a sense of movement and elongate the neck. (catherinehillsjewellery.com)
  • I can get the eye geometry to be removed okay, but the texture map from the face seems to be getting applied to the eyes rather than the texture map for the teeth, eyes, and tongue that gets created when you export a 3DMeNow head. (worldviz.com)
  • Thanks to the stretchy quality they will adapt to eyelid movements and allow the skin to breathe. (milymakeup.com)
  • They are quality built and some have Swiss ETA 2836-2 Auto Movements. (watchuseek.com)
  • My personal belief is, having now handled a few of these, that they are indeed on a similar quality level to the typical ETA movement family such as Hamilton, Tissot, Swiss Army, etc. (watchuseek.com)
  • The real problem seems to be that it's applying the wrong texture map to the eyes. (worldviz.com)
  • Oh, before I forget, the watch is powered by the powerful Japanese Miyota movement. (breitlingreplicas.com)
  • In 1903, the company changed it's name to Omega, becoming the only watch brand in history to have been named after one its own movements. (highlifewatches.com)
  • Trump Tower, New York City, 10/19/19 People marched from Union Square to Trump Tower to announce the beginning of a movement to demand the Trump Pence regime get #OutNow. (medium.com)
  • All this is just a glimpse of why it is necessary, and possible, to build a mass protest movement that will not be deterred or provoked, and will continue week after week, then day after day, until this fascist regime is driven from power. (medium.com)
  • An eye for detail is part of their make-up. (gramilano.com)
  • Their eye for detail is astonishing and their relationship with the creatures of the bush is fascinating. (raymears.com)
  • In 'Eyes' I was playing around with a looser style of synchronising sound and movement. (artoonix.com)
  • The exposed gears are true to the signature style of steampunk art, an art movement that has been becoming more and more popular. (switchhits.com)
  • R esearchers from two Swiss universities wanted to know if they could enhance the learning of words from a foreign language by exposing people to the words during non-rapid eye movement sleep the deep, dreamless sleep period that most of us experience during the first few hours of the night. (divorceuk.eu)
  • 4)Begin Looking People In The Eyes To Let Them Know That You Are Honest And Sincere About You Wanting To Uplift The Community! (afroconsciousmedia.com)
  • Twitter hashtag campaigns such as #Eye4HK have gained international traction, with people all over the world uploading selfies with one eye covered. (castac.org)
  • The international campaign to isolate and demonise Israel by the BDS movement and the on-going Palestinian incitement of hatred against Jewish people are two expressions of anti-Semitism to which we cannot afford to turn a blind eye", ECI Founding Director Tomas Sandell said in a statement in Brussels on Tuesday. (ec4i.org)
  • This is a condensed version of what will be a very big Operation Uplift movement later in the year. (vsuw.org)
  • How did you arrive at the movements that suited each outfit - the position seen in the final photograph? (gramilano.com)
  • Playing at driving helps to build your child's sense of position, direction, and movement. (magiccars.com)