Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)
Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Diseases affecting the eye.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
A technique that induces the processing of disturbing memories and experiences, by stimulating neural mechanisms that are similar to those activated during REM sleep. The technique consists of eye movements following side-to-side movements of the index and middle fingers, or the alternate tapping of the hands on the knees. This procedure triggers the processing of information, thus facilitating the connection of neural networks.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.
A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Recording of nystagmus based on changes in the electrical field surrounding the eye produced by the difference in potential between the cornea and the retina.
Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
Images seen by one eye.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
Perception of three-dimensionality.
Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.
An abnormal twisting or rotation of a bodily part or member on its axis.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)
An increase in the rate of speed.
Nystagmus present at birth or caused by lesions sustained in utero or at the time of birth. It is usually pendular, and is associated with ALBINISM and conditions characterized by early loss of central vision. Inheritance patterns may be X-linked, autosomal dominant, or recessive. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p275)
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.
A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.
The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
Differential response to different stimuli.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
The absence of light.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.

Cerebellar Purkinje cell simple spike discharge encodes movement velocity in primates during visuomotor arm tracking. (1/3218)

Pathophysiological, lesion, and electrophysiological studies suggest that the cerebellar cortex is important for controlling the direction and speed of movement. The relationship of cerebellar Purkinje cell discharge to the control of arm movement parameters, however, remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine how movement direction and speed and their interaction-velocity-modulate Purkinje cell simple spike discharge in an arm movement task in which direction and speed were independently controlled. The simple spike discharge of 154 Purkinje cells was recorded in two monkeys during the performance of two visuomotor tasks that required the animals to track targets that moved in one of eight directions and at one of four speeds. Single-parameter regression analyses revealed that a large proportion of cells had discharge modulation related to movement direction and speed. Most cells with significant directional tuning, however, were modulated at one speed, and most cells with speed-related discharge were modulated along one direction; this suggested that the patterns of simple spike discharge were not adequately described by single-parameter models. Therefore, a regression surface was fitted to the data, which showed that the discharge could be tuned to specific direction-speed combinations (preferred velocities). The overall variability in simple spike discharge was well described by the surface model, and the velocities corresponding to maximal and minimal discharge rates were distributed uniformly throughout the workspace. Simple spike discharge therefore appears to integrate information about both the direction and speed of arm movements, thereby encoding movement velocity.  (+info)

Eye movement deficits following ibotenic acid lesions of the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi in monkeys II. Pursuit, vestibular, and optokinetic responses. (2/3218)

The eyes are moved by a combination of neural commands that code eye velocity and eye position. The eye position signal is supposed to be derived from velocity-coded command signals by mathematical integration via a single oculomotor neural integrator. For horizontal eye movements, the neural integrator is thought to reside in the rostral nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (nph) and project directly to the abducens nuclei. In a previous study, permanent, serial ibotenic acid lesions of the nph in three rhesus macaques compromised the neural integrator for fixation but saccades were not affected. In the present study, to determine further whether the nph is the neural substrate for a single oculomotor neural integrator, the effects of those lesions on smooth pursuit, the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), vestibular nystagmus (VN), and optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) are documented. The lesions were correlated with long-lasting deficits in eye movements, indicated most clearly by the animals' inability to maintain steady gaze in the dark. However, smooth pursuit and sinusoidal VOR in the dark, like the saccades in the previous study, were affected minimally. The gain of horizontal smooth pursuit (eye movement/target movement) decreased slightly (<25%) and phase lead increased slightly for all frequencies (0.3-1.0 Hz, +/-10 degrees target tracking), most noticeably for higher frequencies (0.8-0.7 and approximately 20 degrees for 1.0-Hz tracking). Vertical smooth pursuit was not affected significantly. Surprisingly, horizontal sinusoidal VOR gain and phase also were not affected significantly. Lesions had complex effects on both VN and OKN. The plateau of per- and postrotatory VN was shortened substantially ( approximately 50%), whereas the initial response and the time constant of decay decreased slightly. The initial OKN response also decreased slightly, and the charging phase was prolonged transiently then recovered to below normal levels like the VN time constant. Maximum steady-state, slow eye velocity of OKN decreased progressively by approximately 30% over the course of the lesions. These results support the previous conclusion that the oculomotor neural integrator is not a single neural entity and that the mathematical integrative function for different oculomotor subsystems is most likely distributed among a number of nuclei. They also show that the nph apparently is not involved in integrating smooth pursuit signals and that lesions of the nph can fractionate the VOR and nystagmic responses to adequate stimuli.  (+info)

Optimality of position commands to horizontal eye muscles: A test of the minimum-norm rule. (3/3218)

Six muscles control the position of the eye, which has three degrees of freedom. Daunicht proposed an optimization rule for solving this redundancy problem, whereby small changes in eye position are maintained by the minimum possible change in motor commands to the eye (the minimum-norm rule). The present study sought to test this proposal for the simplified one-dimensional case of small changes in conjugate eye position in the horizontal plane. Assuming such changes involve only the horizontal recti, Daunicht's hypothesis predicts reciprocal innervation with the size of the change in command matched to the strength of the recipient muscle at every starting position of the eye. If the motor command to a muscle is interpreted as the summed firing rate of its oculomotor neuron (OMN) pool, the minimum-norm prediction can be tested by comparing OMN firing rates with forces in the horizontal recti. The comparison showed 1) for the OMN firing rates given by Van Gisbergen and Van Opstal and the muscle forces given by Robinson, there was good agreement between the minimum-norm prediction and experimental observation over about a +/-30 degrees range of eye positions. This fit was robust with respect to variations in muscle stiffness and in methods of calculating muscle innervation. 2) Other data sets gave different estimates for the range of eye-positions within which the minimum-norm prediction held. The main sources of variation appeared to be disagreement about the proportion of OMNs with very low firing-rate thresholds (i.e., less than approximately 35 degrees in the OFF direction) and uncertainty about eye-muscle behavior for extreme (>30 degrees ) positions of the eye. 3) For all data sets, the range of eye positions over which the minimum-norm rule applied was determined by the pattern of motor-unit recruitment inferred for those data. It corresponded to the range of eye positions over which the size principle of recruitment was obeyed by both agonist and antagonist muscles. It is argued that the current best estimate of the oculomotor range over which minimum-norm control could be used for conjugate horizontal eye position is approximately +/-30 degrees. The uncertainty associated with this estimate would be reduced by obtaining unbiased samples of OMN firing rates. Minimum-norm control may result from reduction of the image movement produced by noise in OMN firing rates.  (+info)

Visuomotor processing as reflected in the directional discharge of premotor and primary motor cortex neurons. (4/3218)

Premotor and primary motor cortical neuronal firing was studied in two monkeys during an instructed delay, pursuit tracking task. The task included a premovement "cue period," during which the target was presented at the periphery of the workspace and moved to the center of the workspace along one of eight directions at one of four constant speeds. The "track period" consisted of a visually guided, error-constrained arm movement during which the animal tracked the target as it moved from the central start box along a line to the opposite periphery of the workspace. Behaviorally, the animals tracked the required directions and speeds with highly constrained trajectories. The eye movements consisted of saccades to the target at the onset of the cue period, followed by smooth pursuit intermingled with saccades throughout the cue and track periods. Initially, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for direction and period effects in the firing. Subsequently, a linear regression analysis was used to fit the average firing from the cue and track periods to a cosine model. Directional tuning as determined by a significant fit to the cosine model was a prominent feature of the discharge during both the cue and track periods. However, the directional tuning of the firing of a single cell was not always constant across the cue and track periods. Approximately one-half of the neurons had differences in their preferred directions (PDs) of >45 degrees between cue and track periods. The PD in the cue or track period was not dependent on the target speed. A second linear regression analysis based on calculation of the preferred direction in 20-ms bins (i.e., the PD trajectory) was used to examine on a finer time scale the temporal evolution of this change in directional tuning. The PD trajectories in the cue period were not straight but instead rotated over the workspace to align with the track period PD. Both clockwise and counterclockwise rotations occurred. The PD trajectories were relatively straight during most of the track period. The rotation and eventual convergence of the PD trajectories in the cue period to the preferred direction of the track period may reflect the transformation of visual information into motor commands. The widely dispersed PD trajectories in the cue period would allow targets to be detected over a wide spatial aperture. The convergence of the PD trajectories occurring at the cue-track transition may serve as a "Go" signal to move that was not explicitly supplied by the paradigm. Furthermore, the rotation and convergence of the PD trajectories may provide a mechanism for nonstandard mapping. Standard mapping refers to a sensorimotor transformation in which the stimulus is the object of the reach. Nonstandard mapping is the mapping of an arbitrary stimulus into an arbitrary movement. The shifts in the PD may allow relevant visual information from any direction to be transformed into an appropriate movement direction, providing a neural substrate for nonstandard stimulus-response mappings.  (+info)

Short-latency vergence eye movements induced by radial optic flow in humans: dependence on ambient vergence level. (5/3218)

Radial patterns of optic flow, such as those experienced by moving observers who look in the direction of heading, evoke vergence eye movements at short latency. We have investigated the dependence of these responses on the ambient vergence level. Human subjects faced a large tangent screen onto which two identical random-dot patterns were back-projected. A system of crossed polarizers ensured that each eye saw only one of the patterns, with mirror galvanometers to control the horizontal positions of the images and hence the vergence angle between the two eyes. After converging the subject's eyes at one of several distances ranging from 16.7 cm to infinity, both patterns were replaced with new ones (using a system of shutters and two additional projectors) so as to simulate the radial flow associated with a sudden 4% change in viewing distance with the focus of expansion/contraction imaged in or very near both foveas. Radial-flow steps induced transient vergence at latencies of 80-100 ms, expansions causing increases in convergence and contractions the converse. Based on the change in vergence 90-140 ms after the onset of the steps, responses were proportional to the preexisting vergence angle (and hence would be expected to be inversely proportional to viewing distance under normal conditions). We suggest that this property assists the observer who wants to fixate ahead while passing through a visually cluttered area (e.g., a forest) and so wants to avoid making vergence responses to the optic flow created by the nearby objects in the periphery.  (+info)

Common 3 and 10 Hz oscillations modulate human eye and finger movements while they simultaneously track a visual target. (6/3218)

1. A 10 Hz range centrally originating oscillation has been found to modulate slow finger movements and anticipatory smooth eye movements. To determine if an interaction or linkage occurs between these two central oscillations during combined visuo-manual tracking, frequency and coherence analysis were performed on finger and eye movements while they simultaneously tracked a visual target moving in intermittently visible sinusoidal patterns. 2. Two different frequencies of common or linked oscillation were found. The first, at 2-3 Hz, was dependent on visual feedback of target and finger tracking positions. The second, at around 10 Hz, still occurred when both target and finger positions were largely obscured, indicating that this common oscillation was generated internally by the motor system independent of visual feedback. Both 3 and 10 Hz oscillation frequencies were also shared by the right and left fingers if subjects used these together to track a visual target. 3. The linking of the 10 Hz range oscillations between the eyes and finger was task specific; it never occurred when eye and finger movements were made simultaneously and independently, but only when they moved simultaneously and followed the target together. However, although specific for tracking by the eyes and fingers together, the linking behaviour did not appear to be a prerequisite for such tracking, since significant coherence in the 10 Hz range was only present in a proportion of trials where these combined movements were made. 4. The experiments show that common oscillations may modulate anatomically very distinct structures, indicating that single central oscillations may have a widespread distribution in the central nervous system. The task-specific manifestation of the common oscillation in the eye and finger suggests that such mechanisms may have a functional role in hand-eye co-ordination.  (+info)

Projections and firing properties of down eye-movement neurons in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal in the cat. (7/3218)

To clarify the role of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) in the control of vertical eye movements, projections of burst-tonic and tonic neurons in and around the INC were studied. This paper describes neurons with downward ON directions. We examined, by antidromic activation, whether these down INC (d-INC) neurons contribute to two pathways: a commissural pathway to the contralateral (c-) INC and a descending pathway to the ipsilateral vestibular nucleus (i-VN). Stimulation of the two pathways showed that as many as 74% of neurons were activated antidromically from one of the pathways. Of 113 d-INC neurons tested, 44 were activated from the commissural pathway and 40 from the descending pathway. No neurons were activated from both pathways. We concluded that commissural and descending pathways from the INC originate from two separate groups of neurons. Tracking of antidromic microstimulation in the two nuclei revealed multiple low-threshold sites and varied latencies; this was interpreted as a sign of existence of axonal arborization. Neurons with commissural projections tended to be located more dorsally than those with descending projections. Neurons with descending projections had significantly greater eye-position sensitivity and smaller saccadic sensitivity than neurons with commissural projections. The two groups of INC neurons increased their firing rate in nose-up head rotations and responded best to the rotation in the plane of contralateral posterior/ipsilateral anterior canal pair. Neurons with commissural projections showed a larger phase lag of response to sinusoidal rotation (54.6 +/- 7.6 degrees ) than neurons with descending projections (45.0 +/- 5.5 degrees ). Most neurons with descending projections received disynaptic excitation from the contralateral vestibular nerve. Neurons with commissural projections rarely received such disynaptic input. We suggest that downward-position-vestibular (DPV) neurons in the VN and VN-projecting d-INC neurons form a loop, together with possible commissural loops linking the bilateral VNs and the bilateral INCs. By comparing the quantitative measures of d-INC neurons with those of DPV neurons, we further suggest that integration of head velocity signals proceeds from DPV neurons to d-INC neurons with descending projections and then to d-INC neurons with commissural projections, whereas saccadic velocity signals are processed in the reverse order.  (+info)

Optic flow selectivity in the anterior superior temporal polysensory area, STPa, of the behaving monkey. (8/3218)

Earlier studies of neurons in the anterior region of the superior temporal polysensory area (STPa) have demonstrated selectivity for visual motion using stimuli contaminated by nonmotion cues, including texture, luminance, and form. The present experiments investigated the motion selectivity of neurons in STPa in the absence of form cues using random dot optic flow displays. The responses of neurons were tested with translation, rotation, radial, and spiral optic flow displays designed to mimic the types of motion that occur during locomotion. Over half of the neurons tested responded significantly to at least one of these displays. On a cell by cell basis, 60% of the neurons tested responded selectively to rotation, radial, and spiral motion, whereas 20% responded selectively to translation motion. The majority of neurons responded maximally to single-component optic flow displays but was also significantly activated by the spiral displays that contained their preferred component. Moreover, there was a bias in the selectivity of the neurons for radial expansion motion. These results suggest that neurons within STPa are contributing to the analysis of optic flow. Furthermore, the preponderance of cells selective for radial expansion provides evidence that this area may be specifically involved in the processing of forward locomotion and/or looming stimuli. Finally, these results provide carefully controlled physiological evidence for an extension and specialization of the motion-processing pathway into the anterior temporal lobe.  (+info)

Purpose: When tested under monocular viewing conditions, humans and monkeys with infantile strabismus often show strong eye movement responses to nasally directed visual motion stimuli and weak responses to temporally directed stimuli. The goal of this study was to compare and contrast these naso-temporal asymmetries during three visually mediated eye movement responses - optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), smooth-pursuit (SP) and ocular following (OFR).. Methods: Two strabismic monkeys (1 esotrope (ET) and 1 exotrope (XT)) were tested under monocular viewing conditions during nasal or temporal OKN, SP or OFR stimulation. OKN stimulus was unidirectional motion of a 70°X50° random dot pattern at 20, 40 or 80 °/s for 1 minute. SP stimulus was foveal step-ramp target motion at 10, 20 or 40 °/s. OFR stimulus was brief (200ms) unidirectional motion of a 38°X29° random dot pattern at 20, 40 or 80 °/s. Data from both left and right eye viewing conditions were combined for statistical analysis of eye ...
Purpose: To determine whether the patterns of fixational eye movements are altered when images are defocused (low pass-filtered).. Methods: Six subjects (3 male, 3 female, 22 - 32 years of age, Caucasian origin) were asked to inspect an image on the computer screen which was either in focus or low-pass filtered by convolution with a point spread function that was equivalent to 5D of myopic defocus. The screen was at 79 cm distance and one pixel on the screen subtended a visual angle of 1.45 arcmin. The movements of the right eye were tracked at 166 Hz sampling rate in a highly magnified video image (39.9 pixels/mm) by custom-developed software (Visual C++ 8.0). A commercial IR camera (DMK 22AUC03, www.theimagingsource.com) was used and a single IR LED that generated a bright first Purkinje image. The angular resolution in natural eyes was determined to be 1-2 arcmin. Differences in eye movements variables were determined in the pooled data of all subjects using t-tests, analyzing the ...
Eye movement includes the voluntary or involuntary movement of the eyes, helping in acquiring, fixating and tracking visual stimuli. Specific systems are used in maintaining fixation, when reading and in music reading. A special type of eye movement, rapid eye movement, occurs during REM sleep. The eyes are the visual organs of the human body, and move using a system of six muscles. The retina, a specialised type of tissue containing photoreceptors, senses light. These specialised cells convert light into electrochemical signals. These signals travel along the optic nerve fibers to the brain, where they are interpreted as vision in the visual cortex. Primates and many other vertebrates use three types of voluntary eye movement to track objects of interest: smooth pursuit, vergence shifts and saccades. These movements appear to be initiated by a small cortical region in the brains frontal lobe. This is corroborated by removal of the frontal lobe. In this case, the reflexes (such as reflex ...
The present disclosure is intended to describe embodiments for improving image data acquisition and processing in accelerated dynamic magnetic resonance imaging sequences. One embodiment is described where a method includes an acquisition sequence configured to acquire an undersampled set of magnetic resonance data. The undersampled set of magnetic resonance data has a pseudo-random sampling pattern within a data space acquired at a first time, the pseudo-random sampling pattern being influenced by other pseudo-random sampling patterns within the data space arising from the acquisition of additional undersampled sets of magnetic resonance data at respective times. In some embodiments, the pseudo-random sampling patterns of the undersampled sets of magnetic resonance data interleave to yield a desired sampling pattern.
The present disclosure is intended to describe embodiments for improving image data acquisition and processing in accelerated dynamic magnetic resonance imaging sequences. One embodiment is described where a method includes an acquisition sequence configured to acquire an undersampled set of magnetic resonance data. The undersampled set of magnetic resonance data has a pseudo-random sampling pattern within a data space acquired at a first time, the pseudo-random sampling pattern being influenced by other pseudo-random sampling patterns within the data space arising from the acquisition of additional undersampled sets of magnetic resonance data at respective times. In some embodiments, the pseudo-random sampling patterns of the undersampled sets of magnetic resonance data interleave to yield a desired sampling pattern.
There was a lot of past effort to figure out what fixational eye movements contribute to our vision, adds lead author Ziad Hafed, Ph.D., Sloan-Swartz Fellow in the Systems Neurobiology Laboratory, but nobody had looked at the neural mechanism that generates these movements. Without such knowledge, one could only go so far in evaluating microsaccades significance and why they actually exist. Wondering whether the command center responsible for generating fixational eye movements resides within the same brain structure that is in charge of initiating and directing large voluntary eye movements, Hafed decided to measure neural activity in the superior colliculus before and during microsaccades. He not only discovered that the superior colliculus is an integral part of the neural mechanism that controls microsaccades, but he also found that individual neurons in the superior colliculus are highly specific about which particular microsaccade directions and amplitudes they command-whether they be, ...
Neural data and models have proposed that the brain achieves invariant object recognition by learning and combining several views of a three-dimensional object. How such invariant codes are learned when active eye movements scan a scene, given that the cortical magnification introduces a large source of variability in the visual representation even for the same view of the object? How does the brain avoid the problem of erroneously classifying together parts of different objects when an eye movement changes the cortical representation from one to the other? How does the brain differentiate between saccades on the same object and saccades between different objects? A biologically inspired ARTSCAN model of visual object learning and recognition with active eye movements proposes answers to these questions. The model explains how surface attention interacts with eye movement generating modules and object recognition modules so that the views that correspond to the same object are selectively ...
Internal monitoring of oculomotor commands may help to anticipate and keep track of changes in perceptual input imposed by our eye movements. Neurophysiological studies in non-human primates identified corollary discharge signals of oculomotor commands that are conveyed via thalamus to frontal cortices. We tested whether disruption of these monitoring pathways on the thalamic level impairs the perceptual matching of visual input before and after an eye movement in human subjects. Fourteen patients with focal thalamic stroke and twenty healthy control subjects performed a task requiring a perceptual judgment across eye movements. Subjects reported the apparent displacement of a target cue that jumped unpredictably in sync with a saccadic eye movement. In a critical condition of this task, six patients exhibited clearly asymmetric perceptual performance for rightward versus leftward saccade direction. Furthermore, perceptual judgments in seven patients systematically depended on oculomotor targeting
The spatial alignment of gaze location between the measuring eye tracker and the responding display system is obviously crucial in gaze-contingent studies. However, a misalignment is almost inevitable during eye movements due to time delays between the eye tracker and the display equipment. This system latency includes the time for data transmission from the eye tracker to the display, the processing time for image manipulation, and the time for refreshing the display. The total delay varies based on the equipment and software, and reported values have ranged between 9 and 50 ms (Dorr & Bex, 2011; Saunders & Woods, in press; Schumacher, Allison, & Herpers, 2004; Triesch, Sullivan, Hayhoe, & Ballard, 2002; Yang, Wang, Tong, & Rayner, 2012). For fast saccadic eye movements, that time delay may cause a large misalignment. Take a 20° saccade as an example: the peak velocity can be 350°/s-450°/s (Enderle, Blanchard, & Bronzino, 2005), which may lead to 8° displacement on average within 20 ms. ...
Rapid eye movement in babies - My four month old baby son seems to have rapid eye movement at different times during the day. Is that normal. Its not very fast movement either. REM. Rapid eye movements may be entirely normal in infants HOWEVER THIS is the kind of observation your Pediatrician will NOT be annoyed about if you question him/her......suggest you check this out.... Hope this is helpful Dr Z
Child Development Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of child development research.
Purpose: To investigate whether glaucoma produces measurable changes in eye movements.. Methods: Fifteen glaucoma patients with asymmetric vision loss (difference in mean deviation [MD] , 6 dB between eyes) were asked to monocularly view 120 images of natural scenes, presented sequentially on a computer monitor. Each image was viewed twice-once each with the better and worse eye. Patients eye movements were recorded with an Eyelink 1000 eye-tracker. Eye-movement parameters were computed and compared within participants (better eye versus worse eye). These parameters included a novel measure: saccadic reversal rate (SRR), as well as more traditional metrics such as saccade amplitude, fixation counts, fixation duration, and spread of fixation locations (bivariate contour ellipse area [BCEA]). In addition, the associations of these parameters with clinical measures of vision were investigated.. Results: In the worse eye, saccade ...
Reading requires very accurate saccadics which are fixations from one spot to another. A second type of eye movement which involves tracking is, also, related to attention and reading. Children who have poor eye movements are easily distracted and loose their place. Remember, the eye movement system was designed so that peripheral vision detects motion and danger. Imagine what happens when the system works correctly in the class room. As soon as there is peripheral movement the eyes move towards the source of movement. This results in the complaint of inattention. Thus, reflexive eye movement skills must be socialized so that they do not respond reflexively to peripheral information. In addition, speed and accuracy must be trained so that one does not loose ones place.. The skills are easily improvable with vision therapy (See testimonial for patient comments). Once the information is brought into the eyes it must be sent back to the brain for appropriate processing. The information must be ...
This study examined performance measures and eye movements associated with complex arithmetic strategies in young and older adults. Participants added pairs of three-digit numbers using two different strategies, under choice and no-choice conditions. Older adults made more errors but were not significantly slower than young adults, and response times and errors showed no interaction between age and the number of carries. Older adults chose strategies less adaptively than young adults. Eye movements were consistent with use of required strategies on no-choice trials and reported strategies on choice trials. Eye movement data also suggested that young adults more successfully distinguished between strategies. Implications of these findings for understanding aging effects in complex arithmetic are discussed ...
p,Humans can distinguish visual stimuli that differ by features the size of only a few photoreceptors. This is possible despite the incessant image motion due to fixational eye movements, which can be many times larger than the features to be distinguished. To perform well, the brain must identify the retinal firing patterns induced by the stimulus while discounting similar patterns caused by spontaneous retinal activity. This is a challenge since the trajectory of the eye movements, and consequently, the stimulus position, are unknown. We derive a decision rule for using retinal spike trains to discriminate between two stimuli, given that their retinal image moves with an unknown random walk trajectory. This algorithm dynamically estimates the probability of the stimulus at different retinal locations, and uses this to modulate the influence of retinal spikes acquired later. Applied to a simple orientation-discrimination task, the algorithm performance is consistent with human acuity, whereas ...
Kawaii, a positive adjective that denotes such positive connotations as cute, lovable, and charming, becomes more important as one kansei value. It plays an important role in the success of many products. Based on this success, we believe that kawaii will be a key factor for future product design. In one of our previous study, we experimentally evaluated kawaii illustrations using eye tracking device. The result clarified relationship between kawaii feelings and eye movement indexes. In our other study, we experimentally evaluated kawaiiness of spoon designs. However, we have not employed the eye tracking in the study yet. Then, in this study, we evaluated the kawaiiness of spoon designs using eye tracking. The participant compared and selected more kawaii spoon designs from the pairs on the display, and eye movements had been recording meanwhile. Finally, we obtained the suggestion for the relationship between kawaii feelings and eye movement indexes for spoon designs ...
An eye movement measuring apparatus comprises: an image forming part configured to obtain data optically to form a fundus oculi image of an eye based on the obtained data; and an image analysis part configured to analyze the formed fundus oculi image to determine eye movement of the eye.
A pair of Beckman Institute researchers has discovered that by directing the eye movements of test subjects they were able to affect the participants ability to solve a problem, demonstrating that eye movement is not just a function of cognition but can actually affect our cognitive processes.
This paper introduces an approach to use eye movement data in the context of program comprehension studies. The central aspect is the development of coding schemes, which reflect cognitive processes behind the observable visual behavior of programmers. For this purpose, we discuss to first use a quantitative approach to find those episodes in the eye movements that yield the most potential for analysis. Subsequently, qualitative methods can be used on this subset.. ...
Apparatus for recording eye movement. A light source has its rays directed toward the eye of a subject and a glass dome secured to spectacle frames worn by the subject. The primary and secondary glints reflected off the glass dome and eye cornea, respectively, are transmitted via mirrors, lenses and a fiber optic image guide to a video camera tube. The position of the glints on an XY axis is electronically determined and the information is fed to a computer which compares the data from the two glints and compensates for the head movement which corresponds to movement of the primary glint.
Extraocular eye movement is a function of cranial nerves and can be easily assesed. This article briefly discusses extraocular eye movement at an appropriate level for medical providers like nurses, EMTs, and paramedics.
The arrangement of the contents of real-world scenes follows certain spatial rules that allow for extremely efficient visual exploration. What remains underexplored is the role different types of objects hold in a scene. In the current work, we seek to unveil an important building block of scenes-anchor objects. Anchors hold specific spatial predictions regarding the likely position of other objects in an environment. In a series of three eye tracking experiments we tested what role anchor objects occupy during visual search. In all of the experiments, participants searched through scenes for an object that was cued in the beginning of each trial. Critically, in half of the scenes a target relevant anchor was swapped for an irrelevant, albeit semantically consistent, object. We found that relevant anchor objects can guide visual search leading to faster reaction times, less scene coverage, and less time between fixating the anchor and the target. The choice of anchor objects was confirmed through an
Video created by Duke University for the course Medical Neuroscience. At this juncture in our exploration of motor control, lets focus on one of the best studied paradigms for understanding the neural control of movement: the eye movement system.
Are the eyes able to fixate, track, and jump from object to object efficiently? In the classroom, normal eye movements allow rapid and accurate shifting of the eyes along a line of print while reading or from book to desk to chalkboardboard. Individuals with poor eye movement skills tend to be poor readers. In sports, efficient eye movements contribute to eye-hand coordination, visual reaction time, and accurate tracking. Recent research has shown that poor eye movement skills influence scores on the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. Research has also shown that eye movements can be improved!. ...
The fundamental role of the visual system is to guide behavior in natural environments. In order to optimize information transmission many animals have evolved a non-homogeneous retina and serially sample visual scenes by saccadic eye movements. Such eye movements, however, introduce high-speed retinal motion and decouple external and internal reference frames. Until now, these processes have only been studied with unnatural stimuli, eye movement behavior, and tasks. These experiments confound retinotopic and geotopic coordinate systems and may probe a non-representative functional range. Here we develop a real-time gaze-contingent display with precise spatio-temporal control over high-definition natural movies. In an active condition, human observers freely watched nature documentaries and indicated the location of periodic narrow-band contrast increments relative to their gaze position. In a passive condition under central fixation, the same retinal input was replayed to each observer by ...
L. Itti, Keynote lecture: Computational modeling of bottom-up and top-down visual attention in complex dynamic environments, European Conference on Eye Movements (ECEM 2015), Vienna, Austria, Aug 2015.. Abstract: Visual attention and eye movements in primates have been widely shown to be guided by a combination of stimulus-dependent or bottom-up cues, as well as task-dependent or top-down cues. Both the bottom-up and top-down aspects of attention and eye movements have been modeled computationally. Yet, is is not until recent work which I will describe that bottom-up models have been strictly put to the test, predicting significantly above chance the eye movement patterns, functional neuroimaging activation patterns, or most recently neural activity in the superior colliculus of human or monkey participants inspecting complex static or dynamic scenes. In recent developments, models that increasingly attempt to capture top-down aspects have been proposed. In one system which I will describe, ...
In two experiments, we investigated the relationship between experience-dependent eye movements, awareness, and hippocampus-dependent memory. In Experiment 1, young adults and older adults viewed 120 novel scenes and 120 repeated scenes and made an old-new judgment for each scene together with a confidence rating. Both groups sampled fewer regions and made fewer fixations when viewing repeated scenes than when viewing novel scenes. The important finding was that the two groups exhibited these eye movement effects only when they were aware of the familiar or novel status of the scenes. First, they exhibited these effects only when they were confident (and accurate) in their old-new judgment and not when they were guessing (and inaccurate). Second, they exhibited these effects only when their old-new judgments were correct and not when they were incorrect. In contrast, memory-impaired patients failed to view the familiar and the novel scenes differently, and they were also impaired at remembering ...
Humans shift their gaze from detail to detail by using eye movements. Although each eye movement changes the position of the image that is reflected to the retinas of the eyes, we experience a spatially stable stream of vision that is uninterrupted by eye movements. To achieve this stable stream of vision, the brain must take into account the eye movement, and temporarily suppress vision during rapid gaze shifts. How the brain does this, remains to be solved. The present research approaches this question from two perspectives. First, we test a theory according to which visual stability is achieved by suppressing in the ability of visual brain areas to communicate with higher brain areas during eye movements. Second, we study whether the disruption of these mechanisms leads to a breakdown in visual stability in specific clinical populations (e.g. Parkinsons disease). Deficits in visual stability could compromise spatial cognition and lead to symptoms such as vertigo and hallucinations ...
This page is under construction. Here we list upcoming conferences and meetings related to eye movements and vision research, which you can browse on the left menu. Please contact us if you would like your event listed here. Other events to be added to menu left:The SWAET (Scandinavian Workshop on Applied Eye Tracking) - a regional variety of the ECEM.
It had long been thought that rodents primarily use their heads rather than their eyes to orient toward salient stimuli (Schneider, 1969). However, with recent advances in high-speed video technology (Stahl, 2004) saccade-like eye movements have been documented in mice with amplitude and speed similar to that of other species (Sakatani and Isa, 2004, 2007). In this study we show that saccadic eye movements can be evoked by microstimulation in the SC, and the amplitudes of these eye movements depend on the stimulation locations. Our results suggest that eye movements in mice and their topographic representations may share similar circuit mechanisms with other well studied species. Given the abundance of genetic tools available in mice, our findings provide an important foundation for future studies using mice to investigate the organization and developmental of sensorimotor transformations in the SC.. In primates, the purpose of saccades is to target the fovea toward locations of interests in ...
FIGURE 5-1. Clinical evaluation of range of eye movements. Versions and cover test measurements allow the examiner to decide whether the eye movements are normal (no limitation) or limited. Forced duction testing is used to differentiate a restriction (positive resistance to movement of the globe) from a paresis (no resistance to movement of the globe).. FIGURE 5-1. Clinical evaluation of range of eye movements. Versions and cover test measurements allow the examiner to decide whether the eye movements are normal (no limitation) or limited. Forced duction testing is used to differentiate a restriction (positive resistance to movement of the globe) from a paresis (no resistance to movement of the globe).. Was this article helpful?. ...
In the paper by Thurtell and colleagues,1 two patients with epilepsy are described in whom in one stimulation over the frontal eye field (FEF) resulted in dysconjugate contraversive horizontal eye movements and in the other similar eye movements were observed as a result of focal seizures (see page 683). The neural system controlling eye movements, particularly rapid conjugate versive movements, called saccades, is one of the most thoroughly understood neural circuits in the brain. It contains a number of cortical centres, … ...
The proposed PhD project will develop and study pattern recognition methods and machine learning techniques for context inference based on eye movement analysis. Potential applications are in activity and health monitoring, location-awareness, assisted living, and cognition-aware user interfaces. The research will be experimental, using portable eye tracking equipment and wearable sensor systems, and will involve user studies and data collection in daily life settings. In addition to experimental skills, the work will require to develop a thorough understanding of pattern recognition, machine learning and statistical signal processing techniques suitable for inferring various aspects of context from eye movements ...
Recent research suggests that when people retrieve information from memory they tend to fixate on the location where the information had appeared during encoding. We used this phenomenon to investigate if different information is activated in memory when people use a rule- versus a similarity-based decision strategy. In two studies, participants first memorized multiple pieces of information about various job candidates (exemplars). In subsequent test trials they judged the suitability of new candidates that varied in their similarity to the previously learned exemplars. Results show that when using similarity, but not when using a rule, participants fixated longer on the previous location of exemplars that resembled the new candidates than on the location of dissimilar exemplars. This suggests that people using similarity retrieve previously learned exemplars, whereas people using a rule do not. The study illustrates that eye movements can provide new insights into the memory processes ...
submitted by [email protected] We are seeking research participants in a study investigating how our eyes move when locating hidden objects. Participants will have their eye movements monitored while they complete a series of computerized visual search tasks. Eligible participants will be given $5 for their participation in this brief experiment.. All adults over 18 years of age with normal or corrected-to-normal vision are eligible to participate. The task takes less than 30 minutes to complete, and there are no anticipated risks to participation. Please contact Samantha Kong via email ([email protected]) if you are interested in participating.. ...
The students have adapted an open-source game called Pong, where a player moves a bat to hit a ball as it bounces around the screen. The adaptation enables the player to move the bat using their eye.. To play the game, the user wears glasses containing an infrared light and a webcam that records the movement of one eye. The webcam is linked to a laptop where a computer program synchronises the players eye movements to the game.. The prototype game is very simple but the students believe that the technology behind it could be adapted to create more sophisticated games and applications such as wheelchairs and computer cursors controlled by eye movements.. The technology was developed using off-the-shelf hardware and cost approximately £25 to make. Eye-movement systems that scientists currently use to study the brain and eye motion cost around £27,000, said the researchers.. Dr Aldo Faisal, the teams supervisor from the Department of Computing and the Department of Bioengineering at Imperial ...
Face perception plays a crucial role in primate social communication. We have investigated the pattern of eye movements produced by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) as they viewed images of faces. Eye positions were recorded accurately using implanted eye coils, while neutral upright, inverted and sc …
Visual orienting of attention and gaze are widely considered to be mediated by shared neural pathways, with automatic phenomena such as inhibition of return (IOR)--the bias against returning to recently visited locations--being generated via the direct pathway from retina to superior colliculus (SC). Here, we show that IOR occurs without direct access to the SC, by using a technique that employs stimuli visible only to short-wave-sensitive (S) cones. We found that these stimuli, to which the SC is blind , were quite capable of eliciting IOR, measured by traditional manual responses. Critically, however, we found that S cone stimuli did not cause IOR when saccadic eye movement responses were required. This demonstrates that saccadic IOR is not the same as traditional IOR, providing support for two separate cortical and collicular mechanisms of IOR. These findings represent a clear dissociation between visual orienting of attention and gaze.
Eyes normally move only in response to stimuli or direct commands from the brain. If severe, rapid involuntary eye movements may interfere with vision....
This space is for sharing freeware tools related to eye tracking and eye movement research, developing these tools through collaboration, and discussing these tools in related forums. You can browse through current and completed EMRA projects on the left. We always welcome new collaborators, students and senior researchers, manufacturers and industrial members who are willing
Eye-tracking aims to determine where one directs ones gaze, or, put simply, it where one looks (for instance, on a computer monitor). Because of the richness and importance of visual information in the environment and because the acuity (sharpness) of human vision rapidly falls off as one departs from the centre of the gazes focus, humans have evolved to possess a powerful (fast and effective) oculomotor system: six muscles that move the eye-ball in the eye-socket guided by groups of cells in several regions of the brain, most notably in the superior colliculus and frontal eye fields. The behaviour of the oculomotor system is characterised by two states: the gaze is either (virtually) stationary- referred to as fixation- or it is on a fast move- referred to as saccade. Since research to date has convincingly shown that no information is acquired during the eye-movement (saccade), which means we only see during the fixation, psychologists tend to be interested in the latter: the location ...
United States News: Comcast users can now change channels with eye movements - Pennsylvania , June 17 : Changing channels on your Comcast X1 will be truly hands-free as the company is adding eye control to its cable platform.
New research shows that the brain area involved in eye movements is also involved in transmitting information to the visual cortex.
Researchers are interested in studying the changes in eye movement that accompany the development of neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons Disease.
Indeed, both humans and monkeys make two to three fast eye movements every second in this manner, with each eye-movement lasting less than one-tenth of a second. Because the eye acts like a camera, each eye-movement results in a different view of the scene falling onto the retina.. However, despite these fast changes in viewpoint (which can also result from head movements), humans and monkeys do not see a scene that jumps around: Instead, they are able to stitch together the information obtained during each fixation to perceive a stable visual scene. They are also able to keep track of where relevant objects are in the scene even with these frequent changes in viewpoint. This is a very challenging task. Visual neurons respond more to relevant objects than to irrelevant ones. This increased response to relevant stimuli marks relevant stimuli.. Since each visual neuron in the brain only responds when a specific part of the retina is stimulated, each change in viewpoint with an eye-movement ...
Active exploration of the visual world depends on sequential shifts of gaze that bring prioritized regions of a scene into central vision. The efficiency of this system is commonly attributed to a mechanism of inhibition of return (IOR) that discourages re-examination of previously-visited locations. Such a process is fundamental to computational models of attentional selection and paralleled by neurophysiological observations of inhibition of target-related activity in visuomotor areas. However, studies examining eye movements in naturalistic visual scenes appear to contradict the hypothesis that IOR promotes exploration. Instead, these reports reveal a surprisingly strong tendency to shift gaze back to the previously fixated location, suggesting that refixations might even be facilitated under natural conditions. Here we resolve this apparent contradiction, based on a probabilistic analysis of gaze patterns recorded during both free-viewing and search of naturalistic scenes. By simulating saccadic
Looking for online definition of oculomotor response in the Medical Dictionary? oculomotor response explanation free. What is oculomotor response? Meaning of oculomotor response medical term. What does oculomotor response mean?
The purpose of eye movements is to ensure clear, optimal vision. In order to see clearly, images must be held steady on the retina. Best visual acuity is achieved when the image of the object of interest is brought to and held on the fovea of the retina. Two main types of eye movements are responsible for that: those that keep images stable on the retina (gaze holding mechanisms) and those that change the line of sight (gaze shifting mechanisms). Several functional classes of eye movements have been defined; each has distinctive physiological properties that suit best to its particular task. Thus, vestibular and optokinetic eye movements hold images of the seen world steady on the retina during perturbations of the head. Saccades are rapid eye movements that bring the image of an object of interest, detected in the periphery of vision, onto the fovea where it can be seen best. Smooth pursuit eye movements place the images of a moving target close to fovea. Vergence eye movements place the images ...
Eye movement prediction by Kalman filter with integrated linear horizontal oculomotor plant mechanical model - The goal of this paper is to predict future horizontal eye movement trajectories within a specified time interval. To achieve this goal a linear horizontal oculomotor plant mechanical model is developed. The model consists of the eye globe and two extraocular muscles: lateral and medial recti. The model accounts for such anatomical properties of the eye as muscle location, elasticity, viscosity, eyeglobe rotational inertia, muscle active state tension, length tension and force velocity relationships. The mathematical equations describing the oculomotor plant mechanical model are transformed into a Kalman filter form. Such transformation provides continuous eye movement prediction with a high degree of accuracy. The model was tested with 21 subjects and three multimedia files. Practical application of this model lies with direct eye gaze input and interactive displays systems as a method to
Schizophrenic patients are heterogeneous with respect to voluntary eye movement performance, with some showing impairment (e.g., high antisaccade error rates) and others having intact performance. To investigate how this heterogeneity may correlate with different cognitive outcomes after treatment, we used a prosaccade and antisaccade task to investigate the effects of haloperidol in schizophrenic subjects at three time points: baseline (before medication), 3-5days post-medication, and 12-14days post-medication. We also investigated changes on the Stroop Task and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in these same subjects. Results were compared to matched controls. When considered as a single patient group, haloperidol ...
The problem of moving the eyes to fixate a new target in space (or indeed any other movement) entails two separate issues: controlling the amplitude of movement (how far), and controlling the direction of the movement (which way). The amplitude of a saccadic eye movement is encoded by the duration of neuronal activity in the lower motor neurons of the oculomotor nuclei. As shown in Figure 20.6, for instance, neurons in the abducens nucleus fire a burst of action potentials prior to abducting the eye (by causing the lateral rectus muscle to contract) and are silent when the eye is adducted. The amplitude of the movement is correlated with the duration of the burst of action potentials in the abducens neuron. With each saccade, the abducens neurons reach a new baseline level of discharge that is correlated with the position of the eye in the orbit. The steady baseline level of firing holds the eye in its new position. Figure 20.6Motor neuron activity in relation to saccadic eye movements. The experimental
In the past few years, there has been an explosion of eye movement research in cognitive science and neuroscience. This has been due to the availability of off the shelf eye trackers, along with software to allow the easy acquisition and analysis of eye movement data. Accompanying this has been a realisation that eye movement data can be informative about many different aspects of perceptual and cognitive processing.
In the past few years, there has been an explosion of eye movement research in cognitive science and neuroscience. This has been due to the availability of off the shelf eye trackers, along with software to allow the easy acquisition and analysis of eye movement data. Accompanying this has been a realisation that eye movement data can be informative about many different aspects of perceptual and cognitive processing.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduced rapid eye movement latency. A predictor of recurrence in depression. AU - Giles, Donna E.. AU - Jarrett, Robin B.. AU - Roffwarg, Howard P.. AU - Rush, A. John. PY - 1987/12. Y1 - 1987/12. N2 - In this longitudinal study of 25 successfully treated depressed patients, rapid eye movement (REM) latency during an episode of depression was evaluated as a predictor of recurrence. Patients with reduced REM latency prior to treatment were more likely to develop another episode of depression during the follow-up period.. AB - In this longitudinal study of 25 successfully treated depressed patients, rapid eye movement (REM) latency during an episode of depression was evaluated as a predictor of recurrence. Patients with reduced REM latency prior to treatment were more likely to develop another episode of depression during the follow-up period.. KW - Depression. KW - Longitudinal studies. KW - Rapid eye movement. KW - Sleep. UR - ...
List of causes of Abnormal eye movements and Gait disorder, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, in particular schizophrenia, show a variety of eye movement abnormalities that putatively reflect alterations of perceptual inference, learning and cognitive control. While these abnormalities are consistently found at the group level, a particularly difficult and important challenge is to translate these findings into clinically useful tests for single patients. In this paper, we argue that generative models of eye movement data, which allow for inferring individual computational and physiological mechanisms, could contribute to filling this gap. We present a selective overview of eye movement paradigms with clinical relevance for schizophrenia and review existing computational approaches that rest on (or could be turned into) generative models. We conclude by outlining desirable clinical applications at the individual subject level and discuss the necessary validation studies. ...
We describe an experiment in which the eye movements of participants, carrying out tasks using two contrasting graph designs, were recorded by means of a remote eye tracking device. A variety of eye movement properties were measured and analysed both temporally and spatially. Both graph designs were based on specific psychological theories and established graph design guidelines. One incorporated attributes thought likely to enhance usability, the other included attributes likely to have the opposite effect. The results demonstrate that the design and location of a graphs legend and its spatial relationship to the data area are extremely important in determining a graphs usability. The incorporation of these and other design features may promote or detract from perceptual proximity and therefore influence a displays usability. The paper demonstrates that this influence is reflected in eye movement patterns, which can be readily monitored by means of a remote eye tracking system, and that a ...
The cortical area called frontal eye field (FEF) plays an important role in the control of visual attention and eye movements.[3] Electrical stimulation in the FEF elicits saccadic eye movements. The FEF have a topographic structure and represents saccade targets in retinotopic coordinates.[4]. The frontal eye field is reported to be activated during the initiation of eye movements, such as voluntary saccades[5] and pursuit eye movements.[6] There is also evidence that it plays a role in purely sensory processing and that it belongs to a fast brain system through a superior colliculus - medial dorsal nucleus - FEF ascending pathway.[7]. In humans, its earliest activations in regard to visual stimuli occur at 45 ms with activations related to changes in visual stimuli within 45-60 ms (these are comparable with response times in the primary visual cortex).[7] This fast brain pathway also provides auditory input at even shorter times starting at 24 ms and being affected by auditory ...
The influence of eye movements on hand use and pervasive stereotypies in Rett syndrome was studied, to better understand the developmental abnormality in this disorder. Nine patients in the post-regression phase were offered objects. As expected, the
In internuclear opthalmoplegia, for horizontal movements, the adducting eye is slowed while the abducting eye typically has normal velocity and has a nystagmus. This is covered in much more detail below under the heading of asymmetrical saccadic slowing. For vertical eye movements, the MLF appears to primarily carry posterior canal signals and anterior canal derived eye movements are spared (Cremer et al, 1999). Breaks in binocular fusion may occur in patients with INO (Mills et al, 2008).. Ocular myasthenia may cause weakness of all ocular muscles, or be restricted to individual muscles. Thus, the horizontal-vertical distinction does not help in the diagnosis. Rather, the diagnosis is usually made via observation of fluctuation of ocular alignment from minute to minute, restriction of eye movement to the central range, and post-saccadic drift (see following section on post-saccadic drift for an example). Myasthenics may also develop a progressive slowing of saccades over time, due to fatigue ...
Visual problems can affect up to two thirds of stroke patients. Visual problems can affect up to two thirds of stroke patients, but can sometimes go undetected if patients do not recognise them as an after-effect of the condition or if they are unable to communicate the problem to their medical team or families. Research has often focused on visual field loss, caused by an interruption in the pathways that deliver an image from the eye to the brain for processing. Study led by scientists at Liverpool, however, has shown that damage to the nerve supply that controls eye movement is also a common problem after a stroke. Impaired eye movement can impact on the ability to follow a moving object or read words on a page. Treatments include exercises to strengthen the eye muscles when looking at objects close to the face, as well as prisms that can be fitted to glasses to join double vision. The research highlights the need for developing stricter assessment methods to ensure vision problems are ...
The effect of face inversion has been heavily studied, whereas fewer studies have investigated inversion in scenes. We investigated the influence of scene inversion on decisions and contextual guidance of eye movements during visual search. A saccade contingent display termination paradigm was used to assess the temporal dynamics of the effect. Observers searched for a computer mouse in office scenes and performed a yes/no detection task. Observers sensitivity (d) was lower for inverted images relative to upright. Observers false positive rate decreased with additional eye movements when they viewed upright images, but remained constant during the first three eye movements when viewing inverted images. The average distance of observers eye movements to the target location was greater for inverted than upright scenes. We interpret that inverting an image disrupts the rapid extraction of scene gist, subsequently disrupting guidance in eye movement behavior and slowing the process of rejecting ...
Fixation changes in glaucoma are generally overlooked, as they are not strikingly evident as in macular diseases. Fundus perimetry might give additional insights into this aspect, along with traditional perimetric measures. In this work we propose a novel method to quantify glaucomatous changes in fixation features as detected by fundus perimetry and relate them to the extent of glaucomatous damage. We retrospectively analysed fixation data from 320 people (200 normal subjects and 120 with glaucoma) from the Preferred Retinal Locus (PRL) detection of a Compass perimeter. Fixation stability was measured as Bivariate Contour Ellipse Area (BCEA), and using two novel metrics: (1) Mean Euclidean Distance (MED) from the Preferred Retinal Locus, and (2) Sequential Euclidean Distance (SED) of sequential fixation locations. These measures were designed to capture the spread of fixation points, and the frequency of position changes during fixation, respectively. In the age corrected analysis, SED was
Rapid Eye Movement wasis a brilliant fanzine. Sadly departed R.E.M. ed. Simon Dwyers inspired delving yielded-up a celebrated corpus sublime. Mining a rare seam, Simon hewed from a fissure where music, politics, culture and the occult converged (Occulture); always deftly swerving the decent into accursed obscurantism. Hed go on to do a stint at Sounds and eventually launch Occulture in earnest with the 1989 publication of Rapid Eye vol. 1 - this lavish artefact earned Simon his many plaudits. Of interest here though are the 3 early issues of Rapid Eye Movement featuring collaborators Alan Anger, Mick Dwyer and Lol Loveitt. These fanzines soar way above most other contenders, primarily on account of their searching interviews; check out the in-depth chats with Scritti Politti, The Piranhas (5 pages apiece), Patrik Fitzgerald (7 pages), Tony Parsons & Julie Burchill, and Mark Perry, and you soon get the picture. Theres a profile on the Bridge House (Canning Town) namechecking gaffers Tony ...
Deep brain stimulation; Parkinson??s Disease; Oculomotor function; Neurophysiology; Eye movement; Neurodegeneration; DEEP BRAIN-STIMULATION; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; OCULAR MOVEMENTS; LEVODOPA; IMPROVEMENT; SACCADES; ...
Crawford, T J and Broerse, A and den Boer, J A (2001) Parsing Cognition in Schizophrenia Using Saccadic Eye Movements. Neuropsychologia, 39. pp. 742-756. ISSN 0028-3932. Full text not available from this repository ...
2004. Beck, J.C., Gilland, E., Tank, D.W., Baker, R. Quantifying the ontogeny of optokinetic and vestibuloocular behaviors in zebrafish, medaka, and goldfish.J. Neurophysiology 92(6), 3546-61 (2004). [Full Text/PDF]. Beck, J.C., Gilland, E., Baker, R., Tank, D.W. Instrumentation for measuring oculomotor performance and plasticity in larval organisms. Methods in Cell Biology (76), 385-413 (2004).. Major, G., Baker, R., Aksay, E., Mensh, B., Seung, H.S. and Tank, D.W., Plasticity and tuning by visual feedback of the stability of a neural integrator. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (20), 7739-7744 (2004). [Fulltext/PDF]. Major, G., Baker, R., Aksay, E., Seung, H.S. and Tank, D.W., Plasticity and tuning of the time course of analog persistent firing in a neural integrator. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(20), 7745 (2004) [Fulltext/PDF]. Mensh, B.D., Aksay, E., Lee, D.D., Seung, H.S. and Tank, D.W. Spontaneous eye movements in goldfish: Oculomotor integrator performance, plasticity, and ...
In 9 fetuses studied, the median number of eye movements at 18 weeks after conception were 25 per hour, increasing to 101 per hour at 34 weeks ...
The ability to conduct a visual search for an object in a naturalistic scene is a crucial component of everyday interactions with the environment. This process requires the recognition of different items, accessing stored semantic knowledge about those items and their relationships with other objects, and guiding vision based on that knowledge. Classical models of attention emphasize low-level visual salience maps for attentional guidance. However, behavioral studies increasingly support a role for object knowledge in guiding attention and eye movements. Despite strong behavioral evidence that conceptual information about objects and scenes is critical for real world guidance of attention, very little is known about the neural basis of the guidance of attention based on meaning.. Previous human imaging studies have identified several brain regions that represent object and scene/context knowledge as it relates to visual recognition. In particular, regions of the temporal lobes (inferior temporal ...
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is seen as a promising treatment option for fear-related psychiatric diseases such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Indeed, experimental studies have shown that performing goal-directed eye movements following recall of autobiographical episodic memories can reduce the vividness and emotionality of these memories. However, the effect of goal-directed eye movements on retention of fear memory has not been tested directly, and critically, the mechanisms by which eye movements may affect mnemonic processes remain poorly understood. Previous research suggests that performing tasks involving endogenous attention suppresses neural activity in the default mode network (DMN), a large-scale brain network which includes the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and medial temporal lobe regions such as the amygdala and hippocampus. These regions are also critically implicated in fear and safety learning. We therefore hypothesized that ...
Mannan, S.K., Hodgson, T.L., Husain, M. and Kennard, C. (2008) Eye movements in visual search indicate impaired saliency processing in Parkinsons disease. Progress in Brain Research, 171, pp. 559-562. ISSN (print) 0079-6123 ...
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A fundamental task performed by many visual systems is to distinguish apparent motion caused by eye movements from real motion occurring within the environment. During saccadic eye movements, this task is achieved by inhibitory signals of central and retinal origin that suppress the output of motion-detecting neurons. To investigate the retinally-generated component of this suppression, we used a computational model of a locust looming-detecting pathway that experiences saccadic suppression. This model received input from the camera of a mobile robot that performed simple saccade-like movements, allowing the models response to simplified real stimuli to be tested. Retinally-generated saccadic suppression resulted from two inhibitory mechanisms within the looming-detectors input architecture. One mechanism fed inhibition forward through the network, inhibiting the looming-detectors initial response to movement. The second spread inhibition laterally within the network, suppressing the ...
An electronystagmogram (ENG) measures normal eye movement and involuntary rapid eye movements called nystagmus. It also checks the muscles that control eye movements. ENG checks how well the eyes, inner ears, and brain help you keep your balance and position (such as when you change from lying down to standing).. ENG is done to help see whether there is damage or a problem in how the inner ear, brain, or nerves connecting them work. These problems may cause dizziness, vertigo, or loss of balance. Nystagmus occurs normally when the head is moved. But nystagmus without moving your head or nystagmus that does not go away may be caused by conditions that affect the inner ear, brain, or the nerves connecting them.. During ENG, electrodes are attached to the face near the eyes to record eye movements. The movements are recorded on graph paper. A series of recordings is done.. ...
Prolonged Eye Gaze (usually for a few seconds or more), coupled with a breath focus with multiple members of an audience, one person at a time, is one of the primary ways for speakers to access the state of Relational Presence with their audience, forming the cornerstone of Speaking Circles practice.. More generally in human behavior, eye gaze is critical for processing social signals. We use eye gaze, including focused eye contact and inspection of facial expression, to predict anothers intention and mental state.1 Infants begin to use eye gaze socially at around four months of age. An infants eye contact with their caregiver may influence the development of typical social gaze behaviors1 and also directly reflect the infants attachment and comfort with their mother.2 The amount of eye contact between a mother and her newborn may also correlate with her sensitivity or capacity for attunement.3 Shared eye gaze thus underlies and is formative in the development of social ...
DANBURY, CONN. - Western Connecticut State University Assistant Professor of Psychology Dr. Bernard P. Gee will discuss the role of retinal cells in humans ability to search and navigate efficiently through our surroundings during a research lecture at 4 p.m. on Wednesday, Feb. 27, 2013, in Room 125 of the Science Building on the universitys Midtown campus, 181 White St. in Danbury. The talk will address the previously unanswered question of how eye movements are affected by brain circuits when a human is looking for something, such as in the book, Wheres Waldo? The event is free and open to the public. There will be a reception to follow. Gee earned bachelors degrees in psychology and biological sciences from San Jose State University, and a Ph.D. in neuroscience from the University of Rochester. His research has focused on brain circuits involved in visual perception, learning and memory.. For more information, call (203) 837-8749.. Western Connecticut State University offers outstanding ...
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS ...
Riby, Deborah and Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth (2009) Eye movements and gaze interpretation by individuals with Williams syndrome and autism. In: Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD) biennial meeting, 2nd April 2009, Denver, Colorado. Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
We are conducting a study involving the interaction between language and vision in children within the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We are interested in understanding, in particular, how different verb types presented in sentences might direct attention to objects in real scenes. This can help us understand how ASD children might anticipate properties of events (sentences/scenes) as these unfold over time. We measure eye movements as sentences and short video clips are presented simultaneously. Eye movements are measured by an instrument called an eye tracker (in the present study, this is a small bar positioned under the computer screen--similar to a sensor bar that comes with popular video-game consoles such as the Wii). An eye tracker registers precisely, both in terms of space and time, where the eyes look at on the screen. This study may help us understand the nature of the mechanisms controlling sentence and scene interpretation and will give us insights into how attention might work ...
Question - What causes fast eye movements when suffering from vertigo?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Vertigo, Ask an ENT Specialist
Saccadic eye movement. ...
The title comes from the 4th stage of sleep (a.k.a. Rapid Eye Movement). Arthur Woodbury is very tired of being overweight and ...
"Rapido Eye Movement" 07. "Revenge of the Ranger Wranglers" 08. "The Knight Hawk" 09. "Hercules Cup" 10. "Orange Juice Simpson" ...
"Rapido Eye Movement" 07. "Revenge of the Ranger Wranglers" 08. "The Knight Hawk" 09. "Hercules Cup" 10. "Orange Juice Simpson" ...
In R. Groner & P. Fraisse (Eds.), Cognition and eye movements. Amsterdam: North Holland (1982). Levine, Marvin (1971). " ...
... eye movement control mechanisms; neuronal damage; retinal degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Arthritis and associated ... This research is directed into the following areas: molecular genetics of blinding eye diseases with brain disorders; treatment ...
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Sleep-Wakefulness, Environment and Physiology and Rapid Eye Movement Sleep: Regulation and Function; ... He also heads the Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Laboratory, where he hosts a number of scholars and research students. In between, ... "Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Laboratory - Lab details". Jawaharlal Nehru University. 2017. "NASI fellows". National Academy of ... "Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Laboratory". Jawaharlal Nehru University. 2017. "Indian fellow". Indian National Science Academy. 2017 ...
Due to the involuntary movement of the eye, it has been called "dancing eyes". In a normal condition, while the head rotates ... eye movements, while nystagmus is characterised by the combination of a smooth pursuit, which usually acts to take the eye off ... The resulting movement of the eyes may be recorded and quantified by special devices called electronystagmograph (ENG), a form ... These send signals to the nuclei for eye movement in the brain. From here, a signal is relayed to the extraocular muscles to ...
... eye movement control mechanisms; neuronal damage; retinal degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Arthritis and associated ... He sees the diseases of an aging population - in the brain, spine, bones, joints and eyes - being cured, easing an enormous ... This research is directed into the following areas: molecular genetics of blinding eye diseases with brain disorders; treatment ...
... is used to explain the conjugacy of saccadic eye movement in stereoptic animals. The law ... The law also states that apparent monocular eye movements are actually the summation of conjugate version and disjunctive (or ... Yarbus, A. L. (1967). Eye Movements and Vision. New York: Plenum Press. Pickwell LD (September 1972). "Hering's law of equal ... learned aspect of binocularly coordinated eye movements. Helmholtz's arguments were mainly related to Listing's law and can be ...
"Nudists Eye Youth Movement". Failure Magazine. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2017. Blum, ...
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Armenian Medical Network. Retrieved 2007-09-19. "The Rhythms of Life: The Biological Clocks ... The SCN receives information about illumination through the eyes. The retina of the eye contains "classical" photoreceptors (" ... Thus, the information of the time of the day as relayed by the eyes travels to the clock in the brain, and, through that, ... He noted that 24-hour patterns in the movement of the leaves of the plant Mimosa pudica continued even when the plants were ...
This led to an interest in eye movement in animals and later in man. Land's group is mainly concerned with the role of eye ... Eye movements and the control of actions in everyday life. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 25: 296-324 Land M.F. (2006). ... In: Eye movements: a window on mind and brain (eds. RPG van Gompel, M.H. Fischer, W.S. Murray, R.L. Hill) Chapter 4. Oxford: ... B 355: 1147-1150 Land M.F., Mennie N., Rusted J. (1999) The roles of vision and eye movements in the control of activities of ...
Eye movements when viewing advertisements. Frontiers in psychology, 5. Hervet, G., Guérard, K., Tremblay, S., & Chtourou, M. S ... Lapa, C. (2007). Using eye tracking to understand banner blindness and improve website design. Cho, C. H., & as-, U. O. T. A. A ... investigated whether Internet users avoid looking at ads inserted on a non-search website using an analysis of eye movements, ... Porta, M., Ravarelli, A., & Spaghi, F. (2013). Online newspapers and ad banners: an eye tracking study on the effects of ...
Along with Norman H. Mackworth he designed a head-mounted camera to record eye movements. He used this to study eye movements ... "Movements of the eye" (1968). Scientific American 219. (Cover story) Llewellyn-Thomas, Edward. "Fight--or Ultimately Die", ... Llewellyn-Thomas published sixty scientific articles on psychology and eye movement over the course of his life. Active in the ... Here he initiated research into human eye movements. He also explored various aspects of aerospace medicine, psycho- ...
Approaches include eye movement monitoring, structural and functional brain imaging, and computational modeling methods. Some ... Ryan, Jennifer D.; Riggs, Lily; McQuiggan, Doug (15 August 2010). "Eye Movement Monitoring of Memory". Journal of Visualized ... Techniques such as eye movements make it possible to assess responses without relying on verbal reports. Computers can be used ...
Primarily, experimenters recorded eye movements while participants studied a series of photos. Individuals were then involved ... Acta Psychologica, 122(2), 160-173 Sharot, T., Davidson, M.L., Carson, M.M., Phelps, E.A. (2008). Eye movements predict ... in a recognition task in which their eye movements were recorded for the second time. From the previous tasks, it was ... discovered that eye fixations, maintaining a visual gaze on a single location, were more clustered for remembering rather than ...
Among his contributions to his scientific field, were observational studies within eye movement. He was one of the founding ... Wade, Nicholas J (2010). "Pioneers of eye movement research". Iperception. Pion Ltd. 1 (2): 33-68. doi:10.1068/i0389. PMC ...
But when the participant makes an eye movement in the same direction as the pattern movement, the velocity of the eye movement ... which momentarily occurs following a rapid eye-movement. A saccade is a fast eye motion, and because it is a motion that is ... The eyes can never be observed in motion, yet an external observer clearly sees the motion of the eyes. The phenomenon is often ... Bridgeman, G.; Hendry, D.; Stark, L. (1975). "Failure to detect displacement of visual world during saccadic eye movements" ( ...
According to this law eye movements are always equal in intensity in the two eyes but not in direction. Eye movements can ... Hering then studied eye movements. He developed the Hering's law of equal innervation to describe the conjugacy of eye ... This prediction was experimentally confirmed by Yarbus in his seminal work on eye movements. However it is now known that ... Hering's law predicts that because the eyes must always move by equal amounts, both eyes should move in the new binocular ...
Therefore, the eyes must continually move in order to direct the fovea to the desired goal. Prior to an overt eye movement, ... a condition wherein it is difficult to exert eye movements voluntarily, particularly vertical movements. Patients were found to ... Peterson, M.S.; Kramer, A.F.; Irwin, D.E. (April 2004). "Covert shifts of attention precede involuntary eye movements". ... This larger activation evident with overt attention shifts was attributed to the added involvement of eye movements. Attention ...
Ocular drift is the fixational eye movement characterized by a smoother, slower, roaming motion of the eye when fixed on an ... which translates eye movement through a latex probe in contact with the eye leading to piezoelectric strain gauge. This method ... Rapid eye movement Saccade Pritchard R.M., Heron W., & Hebb D.O. (1960). Visual Perception Approached by the Method of ... Resolution of intersaccadic eye movements is technically challenging . The motion of ocular drift is related to the processing ...
Volkmann and many others have provided the broad outline of an answer to the question how the eye rotates during eye movements ... Movements of the eye are kinematically complex and can be described as a combination of rotations about changing rotation ... Leigh, R.J.; Zee, D.S. (2006). The neurology of eye movements. Oxford University Press. Simonsz, H. J. "The Mechanics of Squint ... Ruete's second model of 1857 was an altogether more sophisticated model that demonstrates both the movements of the eye and, ...
... naked-eye observations were used to observe eye movement, until later in the late 19th and mid-20th century eye-tracking ... He had 232 participants fitted with eye-tracking cameras to trace their eye movements as they read online texts and webpages. ... Computer literacy Wade, Nicholas J (2010). "Pioneers of Eye Movement Research". i-Perception. 1 (2): 33-68. doi:10.1068/i0389. ... "Keeping an eye on Google - Eye tracking SERPs through the years" Mangen, Anne; Walgermo, Bente R.; Brønnick, Kolbjørn (2013-01- ...
Eye movement (III, IV, VI)[edit]. Various deviations of the eyes due to abnormal function of the targets of the cranial nerves ... Both or one eye may be affected; in either case double vision (diplopia) will likely occur because the movements of the eyes ... The visual fields are tested for nerve lesions or nystagmus via an analysis of specific eye movements. The sensation of the ... Function of the vestibular nerve may be tested by putting cold and warm water in the ears and watching eye movements caloric ...
Eye movements[edit]. Most of the eye movements in "rapid eye movement" sleep are in fact less rapid than those normally ... "Do the eyes scan dream images during rapid eye movement sleep? Evidence from the rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder ... These eye movements follow the ponto-geniculo-occipital waves originating in the brain stem.[12][13] The eye movements ... a b c d e Birendra N. Mallick, Vibha Madan, & Sushil K. Jha (2008), "Rapid eye movement sleep regulation by modulation of the ...
Eye movements, perception, and legibility in reading. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 33.. 1936. Eye movements in reading. Journal ... Eye movements, influence of[edit]. 1939, Type form.. 1940. Line width.. 1941. Modern type face and Old English.. 1942. Size of ... Eye movements in reading a modern type face and Old English. American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 54. (Donald G. Paterson as co ... Eye movements in reading type sizes in optimal line widths. Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 34. (Tinker as co-author ...
"Cell movements in Xenopus eye development" in Nature magazine in 1980 highlighted the movements of the cells during development ... Holt, Christine (30 October 1980). "Cell movements in Xenopus eye development". Nature. Nature Publishing Group. 287 (5785): ... based on the eye polarity. From 1982 to 1986, she was a postdoctoral fellow in the Physiology Department at Oxford University ...
Eye movement abnormalities are also seen. There are about 500-1,000 cases of chorea acanthocytosis worldwide and it is not ... These movements are usually abrupt and irregular and present during both rest and sleep. Individuals with neuroacanthocytosis ... A common feature of the core syndromes is chorea: involuntary dance-like movements. In neuroacanthocytosis, this is ... Medication may be administered to decrease the involuntary movements produced by these syndromes. Antipsychotics are used to ...
Eye position and word identification during reading. In R. Groner et al.'s Eye movements and information processing. Amsterdam ... It is claimed that such speeds also require great practice, and extremely rapid eye movements, although research suggests that ... There is no evidence from eye movement research that individuals are making predictions of text based upon hypotheses about the ... Some speed reading courses stress that the human eye has to move very quickly. They also stress that the human eye should move ...
37.1992 years earlier art movement document Taiwan exhibition, painting exhibition "poolside" "Longjing home," painting " ... "Napoli bird's-eye view." 50.1995 year eighty senior beauty Artists exhibited painting "Geneva" painting "freshwater baiyang ... the artist in the eyes of freshwater, painting exhibition "freshwater baiyang Hall." 40.1993 on May 1 to 16, the third green ...
Lanthony shows how in Schreurs' work this effect may be observed in his paintings of figures with very large dark eyes, as well ... he was caught between the legacy of the Hague School and the rise of the Cobra movement. Artistic styles collided, clashed, and ... Haeften, Chris van (2016, in pr.), 'Through the Eyes of Jaap Schreurs'. In Guus van den Hout, (ed.) Jaap Schreurs: The ... Moreover, monocular vision often stimulates a painter to pay extra attention to the eyes of his figures. ...
Slowly a movement for religious tolerance developed. Jewish legend describes Jewish dispersion from as early as the Book of ... In the year's following Pompey's departure the Roman administration in Anatolia kept a wary and at times fearful eye on Parthia ... Rome, however, noticed once Mithridates turned his eye west in 108 BC, partitioning Paphlagonia with Nicomedes III of Bithynia ...
... such as eye and facial movements Capable of at-home training due to smaller, more portable size of sensor and signal generation ...
Wu Baiying (吳柏英; 吴柏英; Wú Bǎiyīng; Ng4 Baak3-jing1) is blind in her right eye. You Xun (游迅; Yóu Xùn; Jau4 Seon3) is killed by ... Before they died, the elders figured out new techniques to counter the swordplay movements of the five sects and carved them on ... The "Twin Extraordinaries Tong and Bai" (桐柏雙奇) are a couple who are each blind in one eye. They use golden walking sticks as ... Zhou Gutong (周孤桐; Zhōu Gūtóng; Zau1 Gu1-tung4) is blind in his left eye. ...
Other new religious movements also emerged in the form of gnostic sects such as Mandeanism, as well as the now extinct ... From there they pushed further North in the district of Eysala for the purpose of being hidden from the eyes from neighbouring ... with great upheavals and mass movements of people. Assyria and its empire were not unduly affected by these tumultuous events ... forming a larger pro-catholic movement within the Syriac Orthodox Church. So in 1662, when the Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate had ...
A secondary outflanking movement was made inland, over the higher ground, which was usually coral cliffs covered by kunai grass ... However, this secret transport did not long remain hidden from enemy eyes. With the passage of time they were spotted, and ...
... and before the eyes of the entire army he threw them to the elephants. All were trampled to death beneath the feet of the ... plucked off his limbs in succession by a sudden movement of his trunk." Knox's book depicts exactly this method of execution in ...
The eye emerged into the Windward Passage near Léogâne, although severely weakened. The pressure rose to 987 mbar (29.1 inHg), ... The movement slowed, and the 1966 hurricane summary remarked that "Inez probably became nearly stationary closer to the United ... Over the subsequent few days, the eye moved directly over the Florida Keys from Key Largo to Key West and continued through the ... While near peak intensity, Inez was located about 160 mi (260 km) southwest of San Juan, Puerto Rico, and the eye was tracked ...
He was one of the founders of the REFLEX movement in 1948 and in 1949 he was also one of the founders of the COBRA movement, ... like landscapes seen from a bird's eye view, exotic birds and stylised forms. His work is in the collection of the Centre ...
The workers were forced to wake up at six every morning and worked under the watchful eyes of their Thai national employers who ... the world to the global phenomenon of human trafficking and modern-day slavery and would begin the anti-trafficking movement in ...
... eye-REE-nee, and not in the contemporary form /ˈaɪriːn/ EYE-reen. David Garrick's acceptance of Irene for production prompted ... With the absence of rhyme and of the movement goes the absence of wit. And without the wit he is without the Johnsonian weight ...
The next day the cyclone developed an eye as it turned west-southwestward. On December 26, the cyclone made landfall on near ... International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (28 December 2000). "Sri Lanka: Cyclone Preliminary Appeal No. 36/00". ...
The sonnet is one of several in which the poet's heart is infatuated despite what his eyes can see. In Sonnet 141, Shakespeare ... the rightward movement of the third ictus (resulting in a four-position figure, × × / /, sometimes referred to as a minor ionic ...
Along with Mamadou Tandja, the President of the National Movement for the Development of Society (MNSD-Nassara), and André ... According to Assoumane, Mainassara's decision was "aimed at pulling wool over the international community's eyes" and intended ...
Obscenity, like beauty, is in the eyes of the beholder. The poem raises questions about the proper relation of the poet, or his ... for the most part occurs in descriptions of the movements of seduction or copulation," notes J.N. Adams, The Latin Sexual ...
The Vipassanā Movement, also known as the Insight Meditation Movement, is rooted in Theravāda Buddhism, especially from the ... "before the eyes," which refers to direct experiential perception. Thus, the type of seeing denoted by "vipassanā" is that of ... The term vipassana is often conflated with the Vipassana movement, a movement which started in the 1950s in Burma but has ... as well as derivatives from those traditions such as the movement led by S. N. Goenka. In the Vipassanā Movement, the emphasis ...
"eyes positioned alongside"), the jinshi who ranked second overall just below zhuangyuan. Tanhua (探花, lit. "flower snatcher"), ... In the twentieth century, the New Culture Movement portrayed the examination system as a cause for China's weakness in such ...
The intelligent design movement associated with the Discovery Institute, attempts to "defeat [the] materialist world view" ... Oppenheimer, Mark (1 February 2013). "Seeing Darwin Through Christian Eyes? It All Depends on the Christian". New York Times. ... both in the public eye and within the scientific community. Tobacco companies funded think tanks and lobbying groups, started ...
Ischemia within the arteries branching from the internal carotid artery may result in symptoms such as blindness in one eye, ... The main symptoms involve impairments in vision, body movement, and speaking. The causes of brain ischemia vary from sickle ...
From late June to late July, Aucilla cruised the waters of the West Indies in support of U.S. 2nd Fleet units keeping an eye on ... At that time, the oiler began a tender availability as well as a leave and upkeep period preparatory to overseas movement. ...
At first there was a general movement for a Western Leyte and soon after, many prominent men and leaders rallied behind the ... Felix, Rocel C. (7 April 2006). "Genetic Engineering Eyed to Solve Problems of Abaca Industry". NewsFlash.org. STAR. Archived ... movement. Six attempts to pass a law for the division of Leyte were made. On the sixth attempt, then Congressman Nicanor ...
... eye-inflicted viral disease, stricture of cerebral artery, and vocal fold nodule. Nonetheless, Prayudh has put a lot of efforts ... in which he discussed the controversy related to the concepts dhammakaya and Nirvana as interpreted by the Dhammakaya Movement ...
We have so to speak only the splendid frame left of the gigantic picture that our creator has set before our eyes." With this ... There is no detailed written evidence about the later movements to San Francisco and Nevada City. Very obviously the collection ...
We got into something else." In his 2004 live performances of Smile, "I'm in Great Shape" begins the third movement of the ... ISBN 0-586-08014-7. DeRogatis, Jim (1996). Kaleidoscope Eyes: Psychedelic Rock From the 1960s to the 1990s. London: Fourth ... Starting the third movement with "I'm in Great Shape" was probably a performance decision. I always felt that this song ... album, but on The Smile Sessions, it is presented earlier in the first movement as the link between "Do You Like Worms?" and " ...
They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a ... They are named for their bobbing or dipping movements. There are 5 species worldwide and 2 species which occur in Pakistan. ... They are medium to large waders with strong black or yellow-black bills, large yellow eyes and cryptic plumage. Despite being ... As their name suggests, many species have a white ring around each eye. There are 96 species worldwide and 1 species which ...
... engagements on the river bed which were initiated by Aemilius to divert the prying eyes of Perseus away from a turning movement ... "The large turning movement executed by Nasica to circumvent the enemy's position." Paullus aimed to fight in the afternoon when ... one story is that Paullus waited until late enough in the day for the sun not to be in the eyes of his troops, and then sent an ...
The unrestricted movement of people and goods within a city is essential to its commerce and vitality, and streets provide the ... "eyes on the street"-can reduce crime, encourage the exchange of ideas, and generally make the world a better place. A street ...
During 1937 she moved to Czechoslovakia and worked for the communist movement in Prague till the German occupation took effect ... mandated by the party hierarchy to keep an eye on the prominent communist novelist Erich Weinert, who was also, accompanied by ...
The Preparedness movement effectively exploited the surge of outrage over the "Lusitania" in May 1915, forcing the Democrats to ... The only road to peace was disarmament in the eyes of many. Garrison's plan unleashed the fiercest battle in peacetime history ... The Preparedness movement had what political scientists call a "realism" philosophy of world affairs-they believed that ... Most of the leaders of the women's movement, typified by Jane Addams, likewise sought pacifistic solutions. The most prominent ...
Changing channels on your Comcast X1 will be truly hands-free as the company is adding eye control to its cable platform. ... Comcast users can now change channels with eye movements - Pennsylvania , June 17 : ... Comcast users can now change channels with eye movements. Pennsylvania , June 17 : Changing channels on your Comcast X1 will be ... Comcast is supporting all popular eye gaze hardware and software on the market to make the feature accessible. To use eye ...
The design and the method for measuring eye movements were based on an earlier study of eye movements (Smith et al., 2006). The ... Eye movements were recorded at 30 Hz with a ViewPoint Eye Tracker (Arrington Research) and PC-60 software (version 2.8.3,416) ... Viewing was binocular, though only movements of the left eye were tracked. The eye tracker was adjusted for each participant ... separately the eye movements that occurred when novel and repeated scenes were correctly identified and the eye movements that ...
Eye movement of lateral rectus muscle, superior view Eye movement of medial rectus muscle, superior view Eye movement of ... Eye movement of superior rectus muscle, superior view Eye movement of superior oblique muscle, superior view Eye movement of ... A special type of eye movement, rapid eye movement, occurs during REM sleep. The eyes are the visual organs of the human body, ... This type of movement helps in the depth perception of objects Pursuit movement or smooth pursuit is the movement the eyes make ...
Kansei value / Kawaii / Spoon designs / Eye movements / / / / (英). Kansei value / Kawaii / Spoon designs / Eye movements ... Evaluation of Kawaiiness for Spoon Designs using Eye Movements. ○Tipporn Laohakangvalvit・Michiko Ohkura(SIT) HCS2017-32 HIP2017 ... The participant compared and selected more kawaii spoon designs from the pairs on the display, and eye movements had been ... The participant compared and selected more kawaii spoon designs from the pairs on the display, and eye movements had been ...
Eye-movement systems that scientists currently use to study the brain and eye motion cost around £27,000, said the researchers. ... Eye-movement game targets disabled. By Jason Ford 26th March 2010 4:39 pm 16th December 2015 12:03 pm ... To play the game, the user wears glasses containing an infrared light and a webcam that records the movement of one eye. The ... Researchers in Dr Faisals lab are now refining the technology so that it can monitor movements in both eyes. This would enable ...
If severe, rapid involuntary eye movements may interfere with vision.... ... Eyes normally move only in response to stimuli or direct commands from the brain. ... The movements of acquired nystagmus often include slow eye movement to one side followed by rapid movement back. ... If severe, rapid involuntary eye movements may interfere with vision. Rapid eye movement, or REM, can occur as a natural ...
Formal Correction: Erratum: Eye Movement Monitoring of Memory Posted by JoVE Editors on 09/16/2010. Citeable Link. ... Althoff, R. R., Cohen, N. J. Eye-movement-based memory effect: a re-processing effect in face perception. J. Exp. Psychol. ... A correction was made to Eye Movement Monitoring of Memory. There was an error in the author, Douglas A. McQuiggans, name. The ... Ryan, J. D., Riggs, L., McQuiggan, D. A. Eye Movement Monitoring of Memory. J. Vis. Exp. (42), e2108, doi:10.3791/2108 (2010). ...
For this purpose, we discuss to first use a quantitative approach to find those episodes in the eye movements that yield the ... This paper introduces an approach to use eye movement data in the context of program comprehension studies. The central aspect ...
Researchers in Australia developed an algorithm to understand more about the link between personality and eye movements. ...
Eye tracking device is a tool created to help measure eye and head movements. The first devices for tracking eye movement took ... Heller D (1988) "On the history of eye movement recording" in Eye movement research: physiological and psychological aspects, ... Modern eye tracking[edit]. Four major cognitive systems are involved in eye movement during reading: language processing, ... Horizontal eye movement in reading. Left-to-right movement may be seen as "upstairs", and right-to-left saccades are clear. ...
Eye movements[edit]. Most of the eye movements in "rapid eye movement" sleep are in fact less rapid than those normally ... "Do the eyes scan dream images during rapid eye movement sleep? Evidence from the rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder ... These eye movements follow the ponto-geniculo-occipital waves originating in the brain stem.[12][13] The eye movements ... a b c d e Birendra N. Mallick, Vibha Madan, & Sushil K. Jha (2008), "Rapid eye movement sleep regulation by modulation of the ...
Human eye - Movements of the eyes: Because only a small portion of the retina, the fovea, is actually employed for distinct ... a golf ball-the eyes must keep adjusting their gaze to compensate for the continuous small movements of the head and to ... The extraocular muscles that carry out these movements are under ... Movements of the eyes*The axes of the eye. *Actions of muscles ... The binocular movements (the movements of the two eyes) fall into two classes, the conjugate movements, when both eyes move in ...
Traces show movements of head, right eye, left eye, and vergence (right eye - left eye). Image velocities were the same as the ... Eye movements while stacking a set of blocks (a, c, e) or observing someone else stack the blocks (b, d, f). a,b, show ... Eye movements: the past 25 years.. Kowler E1.. Author information. 1. Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, Piscataway ... Thin lines show eye traces; thick lines show movements of the visible cursor used to move the blocks. From Task constraints in ...
... physiology and diseases of the eye. Submissions should focus on focusing on new diagnostic and surgical techniques, instrument ... Eye Movement Control. Guest Editors: Stefanie I. Becker, Gernot Horstmann, and Arvid Herwig *Eye Movement Control, Stefanie I. ... Alterations of Eye Movement Control in Neurodegenerative Movement Disorders, Martin Gorges, Elmar H. Pinkhardt, and Jan ... Inhibition of Return in Fear of Spiders: Discrepant Eye Movement and Reaction Time Data, Elisa Berdica, Antje B. M. Gerdes, ...
Conjugate eye movement refers to motor coordination of the eyes that allows for bilateral fixation on a single object. Several ...
... and controlling the direction of the movement (which way). The amplitude of a saccadic eye movement is encoded by the duration ... Figure 20.6Motor neuron activity in relation to saccadic eye movements. The experimental setup is shown on the right. In this ... and are silent when the eye is adducted. The amplitude of the movement is correlated with the duration of the burst of action ... or indeed any other movement) entails two separate issues: controlling the amplitude of movement (how far), ...
One research group is performing beginning research on identifying people by the way their eyes move around a picture or a ... Eye Movements Control New Laptop Computer]. From those movements, the system calculates unique properties about peoples eyes, ... Eye movements alone have an "equal error rate" of about 34 percent, he and his colleagues found. The equal error rate is a ... However, he thinks eye movements could be part of the next generation of a more established biometric, iris scans, which are ...
A new study suggests a study of eye movement patterns may provide insight on memory. The research is compelling as memory may ... Eye Movements May Give Clues on Memory. By Rick Nauert PhD Associate News Editor ... "In other words, there may be circumstances in which eye movements provide a more robust account of past events or experiences ... Eye movements were also monitored during the task and provided an indirect measure of memory. ...
Eye-pursuit and reafferent head movement signals carried by pursuit neurons in the caudal part of the frontal eye fields during ... Land MF, McLeod P (2000) From eye movements to actions: how batsmen hit the ball. Nat Neurosci 3:1340-1345PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Hayhoe M, Ballard D (2005) Eye movements in natural behavior. Trends Cogn Sci 9(4):188-193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Saccadic eye movements Prediction Internal models Squash Gaze pursuit Electronic supplementary material. The online version of ...
In a study published in Current Biology researchers at Karolinska Institutet show that our eye movements are partly governed by ... How we explore our world with our eyes can influence everything from social interaction to learning. ... In a study published in Current Biology researchers at Karolinska Institutet show that our eye movements are partly governed by ... The researchers showed the participants 80 images of varying content while studying their eye movements in the three seconds ...
Eye movements and active vision: The saccade-and-fixate strategy is the way humans take in information from the world most of ... However, there is a mismatch between the extremely jerky movements of the image on the retina and the apparently smooth and ... Other articles where Saccades-fixation eye movement is discussed: photoreception: ... In photoreception: Eye movements and active vision. …that is not how the saccades-fixation eye movement pattern originated. ...
You say you want a revolution? - The Beatles By one measure at least, the movement that began with Occupy Wall Street is ... The Occupy movement commands the attention of the entire world. When you have all eyes upon you, your next move should be ... The Occupy movement is only a little over a month old. It is a new colt, still wobbly on its legs, yet some of us want it to ... One hopes the movements organizers understand that Occupy Wall Street has created a moment, a fragment of time and ...
Movements_in_Reading.html?id=1PnaAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareEye Movements in Reading. ... Eye Movements in Reading: Perceptual and Language Processes. Perspectives in Neurolinguistics Neuropsychology and ... Eye Movements in Reading: Perceptual and Language Processes. Keith Rayner. Limited preview - 2012. ... Erlbaum experiment Experimental Psychology eye fixations factors fixated word fixation duration foveal frequency frontal eye ...
... the eye seems to be ahead of the voice when we read aloud. The precision eye-movement research of scientists such as Rayner and ... Eye movement studies have shown that mature, proficient readers do not skip words, use context to process words, or bypass ... For example, there is no evidence that colored lenses or overlays relieve language-based reading problems or that eye-movement ... Faulty eye movements or visual fatigue most often are symptoms, not causes, of reading difficulty. ...
... at Texas State University-San Marco is looking to create a system that can identify people by the way they flicker their eyes ... From those movements, the system calculates unique properties about peoples eyes, including the force their eye muscles use ... Eye movements could be next generation PC password A computer scientist at Texas State University-San Marco is looking to ... However, he thinks eye movements could be part of the next generation of a more established biometric, iris scans, which are ...
To encourage thoughtful and respectful conversations, first and last names will appear with each submission to CBC/Radio-Canadas online communities (except in children and youth-oriented communities). Pseudonyms will no longer be permitted.. By submitting a comment, you accept that CBC has the right to reproduce and publish that comment in whole or in part, in any manner CBC chooses. Please note that CBC does not endorse the opinions expressed in comments. Comments on this story are moderated according to our Submission Guidelines. Comments are welcome while open. We reserve the right to close comments at any time.. ...
J. M. Henderson, "Eye movements and scene perception," in Oxford Handbook of Eye Movements, S. Liversedge, I. Gilchrist, and S ... "The role of posterior parietal cortex in the regulation of saccadic eye movements," in Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements, S. P. ... "Linguistic and cognitive influences on eye movements during reading," in Oxford Handbook of Eye Movements, S. Liversedge, I. ... D. E. Angelaki, "The oculomotor plant and its role in three-dimensional eye orientation," in Oxford Handbook on Eye Movements, ...
Challenge: Relevance from eye movements (1 message). Late submission to the special issue of IJCV (1 message). NJ Postdoctoral ...
Anticipatory eye movements (4 messages). Eyes Tea Boston (1 message). Get involved! OTCBVS04, IEEE Intl Workshop, June, ...
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep and Hippocampal Theta Oscillations Precede Seizure Onset in the Tetanus Toxin Model of Temporal Lobe ...
1. orthodox sleep, nonrapid eye movement sleep, NREM sleep, nonrapid eye movement, NREM, sleep, slumber. usage: a recurring ... sleep state during which rapid eye movements do not occur and dreaming does not occur; accounts for about 75% of normal sleep ...
And it, they simply depend on what pattern of eye movements you use. Are you using this kind of an eye movement, or youre ... MUSIC] Okay, so now, were, were going to shift gears and talk about eye movements. Eye movements beyond the VOR. And one of ... And therefore, I have shifted not only my gaze, but Ive shifted my gaze using a head movement and no-eye movement. Ive ... In the next segment, what were going to do is look at the primary type of eye movement that we use to change our gaze. And ...
... learn the structure of the eye and how it moves. In The Artists Magazine, Paul Leveille shares helpful tips and illustrations. ... Eye Movements. A When the eyes are looking to one side or the other, the skin and muscles around the eyes form a teardrop shape ... The movement of muscles and skin around the eyeballs is what actually reveals expressions. The illustrations depict how the eye ... D When the eye looks up, the eyelid folds even more under the brow, and more of the white of the eye shows under the iris. The ...
Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing In Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy. This book is for therapists who know how to do ... The Breakthrough "Eye Movement" Therapy for Overcoming Anxiety, Stress, and Trauma. In a new introduction, Shapiro presents the ... Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Store. ArticlesWebsitesExpertsStoreEvents ... Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Basic Principles, Protocols, and Procedures. Detailed descriptions and ...
"Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)". If you have expertise in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing ( ... Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing is considered a mind-body approach that focuses on .... Views: 3220. Average: ... Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) Articles. ArticlesWebsitesExpertsStoreEventsRSS ... Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing or EMDR was developed by Dr. Francine Shapiro in the middle 1980s. EMDR is one ...
... we investigate eye movement analysis as a new sensing modality for activity recognition. Eye movement data were recorded using ... We first describe and evaluate algorithms for detecting three eye movement characteristics from EOG signals-saccades, fixations ... and blinks-and propose a method for assessing repetitive patterns of eye movements. We then devise 90 different features based ... The work demonstrates the promise of eye-based activity recognition (EAR) and opens up discussion on the wider applicability of ...
  • Primates and many other vertebrates use three types of voluntary eye movement to track objects of interest: smooth pursuit, vergence shifts and saccades. (wikipedia.org)
  • While many elaborate algorithms to classify eye movements into fixations and saccades exist, detection of smooth pursuit eye movements is still challenging. (harvard.edu)
  • Nystagmus -- one type of REM that can appear as shaking, jittering, side to side or up and down movements -- is a symptom of disease. (livestrong.com)
  • The movements of acquired nystagmus can cause vertigo and dizziness, a condition called oscillopsia. (livestrong.com)
  • The movements of acquired nystagmus often include slow eye movement to one side followed by rapid movement back. (livestrong.com)
  • Vertical nystagmus, an up and down movement of the eyes, may be described as a rolling vision sensation, Windsor reports. (livestrong.com)
  • It is possible with some laser platforms to do corneal refractive laser surgery on a patient with nystagmus (if that is what you mean by rapid eye movement), in order to correct myopia. (healthtap.com)
  • Eye-movement systems that scientists currently use to study the brain and eye motion cost around £27,000, said the researchers. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • Researchers in Dr Faisal's lab are now refining the technology so that it can monitor movements in both eyes. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • We measured eye movements in young adults, older adults, and memory-impaired patients with damage to the medial temporal lobe as they viewed 120 novel scenes and 120 previously viewed scenes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Patients' eye movements were recorded with an Eyelink 1000 eye-tracker. (city.ac.uk)
  • Eye movement includes the voluntary or involuntary movement of the eyes, helping in acquiring, fixating and tracking visual stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, the reflexes (such as reflex shifting the eyes to a moving light) are intact, though the voluntary control is obliterated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brain exerts ultimate control over both voluntary and involuntary eye movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the movement of muscles, numerous areas in the brain contribute to involuntary and voluntary eye movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • The muscles, when contracting, cause movement of the eyeball, by pulling the eyeball towards the muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rapid eye movements and muscle twitching are accompanied by an increase in heart rate and breathing rate. (livestrong.com)
  • The eyes are the visual organs of the human body, and move using a system of six muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six extraocular muscles facilitate eye movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • These muscles arise from the common tendinous ring in the orbit, the eye cavity, and attach to the eyeball. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most muscles not only move the eye in a cardinal direction, but also slightly rotate the pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three antagonistic pairs of muscles control eye movements: the lateral and medial rectus muscles, the superior and inferior rectus muscles, and the superior and inferior oblique muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertical movements require the coordinated action of the superior and inferior rectus muscles, as well as the oblique muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the eye is abducted, the rectus muscles are the prime vertical movers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oblique muscles are also primarily responsible for torsional movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three nerves control the eye muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusions: Eye movements are altered by visual field loss, and these changes are related to changes in clinical measures. (city.ac.uk)
  • Eye movements recorded while passively viewing images could potentially be used as biomarkers for visual field damage. (city.ac.uk)
  • Anchoring visual search in scenes: Assessing the role of anchor objects on eye movements during visual search. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In a series of three eye tracking experiments we tested what role anchor objects occupy during visual search. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, studies examining eye movements in naturalistic visual scenes appear to contradict the hypothesis that IOR promotes exploration. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Comcast is supporting all popular eye gaze hardware and software on the market to make the feature accessible. (newkerala.com)
  • Classification of smooth pursuit episodes can be difficult in the presence of eye-tracking noise, and we thus recently proposed an algorithm that clusters gaze recordings from several observers in order to improve classification robustness. (harvard.edu)
  • Here, we present SPOCK, a novel gaze interaction method based on smooth pursuit eye movements requiring only minimal extensions to button-based interfaces. (harvard.edu)
  • The eyes swing rapidly back and forth like a pendulum. (livestrong.com)
  • It has been suggested that task instructions and expectation might be important in determining the relationship between eye movements and awareness ( Greene, 2007 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Eyes normally move only in response to stimuli or direct commands from the brain. (livestrong.com)
  • and torsional, movements that bring the top of the eye toward the nose (intorsion) or away from the nose (extorsion). (wikipedia.org)
  • The relative contribution of the rectus and oblique groups depends on the horizontal position of the eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Perhaps differential eye movements in response to familiar and novel scenes are a manifestation of the phenomenon of priming. (jneurosci.org)
  • Does Glaucoma Alter Eye Movements When Viewing Images of Natural Scenes? (city.ac.uk)
  • 6 dB between eyes) were asked to monocularly view 120 images of natural scenes, presented sequentially on a computer monitor. (city.ac.uk)
  • We here present parts of our ongoing work to facilitate the large-scale analysis of smooth pursuit eye movements made while viewing dynamic natural scenes. (harvard.edu)
  • If severe, rapid involuntary eye movements may interfere with vision. (livestrong.com)
  • Pennsylvania , June 17 : Changing channels on your Comcast X1 will be truly hands-free as the company is adding eye control to its cable platform. (newkerala.com)
  • To use eye control, customers will have to sign into Comcast's web-based remote control and link it to their cable account. (newkerala.com)
  • In one of our previous study, we experimentally evaluated kawaii illustrations using eye tracking device. (ieice.org)
  • However, we have not employed the eye tracking in the study yet. (ieice.org)
  • Then, in this study, we evaluated the kawaiiness of spoon designs using eye tracking. (ieice.org)
  • The amplitude of a saccadic eye movement is encoded by the duration of neuronal activity in the lower motor neurons of the oculomotor nuclei. (nih.gov)
  • Since a change of stimulus is required to effect a visual response, and since saccadic eye movements change the locus of the retinal image, the hypothesis was developed that there should be a brain response following saccadic eye movement. (sciencemag.org)
  • The remaining 50 degrees of the gaze shift were accomplished by the saccadic eye movement. (rochester.edu)
  • The subsequent decades saw more elaborate attempts to interpret eye movement, including a claim that meaningful text requires fewer fixations to read than random strings of letters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bold letters represent fixations - what the eye is seeing directly in its foveal view. (readingrockets.org)
  • They questioned the influence of cognitive factors on fixations given that eye movement latency was so long and the fixation times were so variable. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Together these fixations and saccadic eye movements are used to locate and gather information from objects or features of interest from the environment. (avsabonline.org)
  • In this study, we examine eye movements made in the context of demanding natural behavior, while playing squash. (springer.com)
  • Eye movements are a behavior that can be measured and their measurement provides a sensitive means of learning about cognitive and visual processing. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Along different lines, recent research in neuroeconomics has used saccadic eye movements as a tool to uncover the neural bases of primate choice behavior. (pnas.org)
  • In our saccade task, we also systematically manipulated the visual salience of our stimuli, because salience is known to be an important determinant of eye-movement behavior. (pnas.org)
  • Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is characterized by repeatedly waking up after REM sleep, which may include vocalizations or complex motor behaviors. (psychcentral.com)
  • Eye movement includes the voluntary or involuntary movement of the eyes, helping in acquiring, fixating and tracking visual stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The brain exerts ultimate control over both voluntary and involuntary eye movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the movement of muscles, numerous areas in the brain contribute to involuntary and voluntary eye movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Involuntary eye movements, a condition often referred to as a nystagmus, make the eyes appear to shake or move back and forth, up or down. (livestrong.com)
  • If necessary, video-oculography is used to provide a precise recording of these involuntary eye movements. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • If severe, rapid involuntary eye movements may interfere with vision. (livestrong.com)
  • Living with either a vestibular or an eye movement disorder is very disruptive to everyday life. (coursera.org)
  • In nonfoveate mammals, such as mice, there are 3 primary types of eye movements: (a) the optokinetic reflex (OKR), (b) the vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR), and (c) spontaneous eye movements. (jci.org)
  • Thus, vestibular and optokinetic eye movements hold images of the seen world steady on the retina during perturbations of the head. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The magnetic search coil technique is the most sensitive and accurate technique used in modern ocular motor and vestibular research for measuring horizontal, vertical and torsional eye movements. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The optokinetic reflex (OKR) uses visual input from the retina to stabilize the eye while the vestibulo-ocular reflex (OKR) responds to vestibular information from the labyrinth. (frontiersin.org)
  • For compensation of higher velocity stimuli, the CEM system depends on the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) which uses vestibular input to estimate head movement and generate oppositely directed eye movements. (frontiersin.org)
  • Changes in either plant response properties, sensory sensitivity, or environmental changes in the relationship of vision and vestibular input to movement will change the appropriate mapping from stimulus to response and thus the system must change the mapping so that retinal slip continues to be appropriately compensated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Vision, audition and somatosensation provide information about objects in the world, information about self movement is provided through the vestibular and proprioceptive systems. (rochester.edu)
  • Due to the connection between the eye muscles and the vestibular system, eye movement disorders can also occur with balance disorders or vertigo. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Chapter by chapter, readers are introduced to key technicians based in the powerful standard protocol of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). (selfgrowth.com)
  • If you have expertise in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and your own website and/or product for this topic, please review this form for complete details. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) , developed by Dr. Francine Shapiro , is a research-supported, integrative psychotherapy approach designed to treat symptoms of trauma and posttraumatic stress . (goodtherapy.org)
  • EMDR sessions follow a specific sequence of phases, and practitioners use bilateral stimulation, such as eye movements, to help the client process unresolved memories from adverse experiences. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychotherapy treatment designed to help heal psychological trauma. (childtrends.org)
  • Eyes Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychotherapy treatment designed to alleviate distress associated with psychological trauma. (childtrends.org)
  • Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing ( EMDR ) is a form of psychotherapy . (wikipedia.org)
  • EMDR involves movement of the eyes as a form of therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nystagmus is a condition where the eyes make rapid, repetitive and uncontrolled movements. (medindia.net)
  • This condition could stem from eye problems such as eye misalignment or cataracts, but a nystagmus may also appear if your child has vitamin deficiencies or inner ear conditions. (livestrong.com)
  • Jerk nystagmus is characterized by slow eye movements in one direction with a rapid correction phase in the opposite direction, while pendular nystagmus is characterized by small oscillations of the eyes with no movement being distinctively slower or faster than the other. (petmd.com)
  • Nystagmus -- one type of REM that can appear as shaking, jittering, side to side or up and down movements -- is a symptom of disease. (livestrong.com)
  • The movements of acquired nystagmus can cause vertigo and dizziness, a condition called oscillopsia. (livestrong.com)
  • The movements of acquired nystagmus often include slow eye movement to one side followed by rapid movement back. (livestrong.com)
  • Vertical nystagmus, an up and down movement of the eyes, may be described as a rolling vision sensation, Windsor reports. (livestrong.com)
  • From those movements, the system calculates unique properties about people's eyes, including the force their eye muscles use and other properties about the fat and flesh around the eye and the eyeball itself, Komogortsev explained. (livescience.com)
  • In research they recently presented, Komogortsev and his team recorded people's eyes as the subjects read part of a poem ("The Hunting of the Snark" by Lewis Carroll), looked at Rorschach inkblots and watched a black screen on which white dots suddenly appeared. (livescience.com)
  • To support this project, we recorded and analyzed people's eye movements while they constructed calculational proofs. (cornell.edu)
  • But Hollenstein sees improvements on the horizon, with better webcams and smartphone cameras, for example, that could passively collect eye-tracking data as participants read in the leisure of their homes. (wired.com)
  • During each test trial, participants frequently spent more time viewing the face that had been previously paired with the scene-an eye-movement-based memory effect. (psychcentral.com)
  • It is conceivable that eye-tracking could be used to obtain information about past events from participants who are unaware or attempting to withhold information," offers Dr. Hannula. (psychcentral.com)
  • We recorded eye movements while participants made three-alternative, forced-choice recognition memory judgments for scenes. (pnas.org)
  • In an eye-tracking experiment, participants watched videos of a new magic trick, wherein a coin placed beneath a napkin disappears, reappearing under a different napkin. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Two experiments were conducted in which participants swung a hand-held pendulum while tracking an oscillating stimulus or while keeping their eyes fixed on a stationary location directly above an oscillating stimulus. (psu.edu)
  • It was expected that the participants ' rhythmic movements would become entrained to the oscillating stimulus in both conditions but that visual tracking would strengthen this entrainment. (psu.edu)
  • Also, participants judge pointed locations mainly using a hand cue even if the pointer pointed with her eyes and her hand. (psu.edu)
  • Participants watched a taped episode of Mad Men , complete with commercials, while wearing a pair of Tobii eye-tracking glasses. (observer.com)
  • Participants will have both vertical (up and down) and horizontal (side to side) saccadic eye movements measured at two time points before starting treatment with OGT 918 and after 12 months of treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Upward movements are carried out by the combined actions of the superior rectus and the inferior oblique muscles, and downward movements by the inferior rectus and the superior oblique. (britannica.com)
  • This linking of the muscles of the two eyes is an important physiological feature and has still more important pathological interest in the analysis of squint, when the two eyes fail to be directed at the same point. (britannica.com)
  • The direction of the movement is determined by which eye muscles are activated. (nih.gov)
  • Although in principle any given direction of movement could be specified by independently adjusting the activity of individual eye muscles, the complexity of the task would be overwhelming. (nih.gov)
  • In consequence, activation of neurons in the PPRF on the right results in a reduction in the activity of the lower motor neurons whose muscles would oppose movements of the eyes to the right. (nih.gov)
  • When you look at an object, you're using several muscles to move both eyes to focus on it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you have a problem with the muscles, the eyes don't work properly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The movement of muscles and skin around the eyeballs is what actually reveals expressions. (artistsnetwork.com)
  • A When the eyes are looking to one side or the other, the skin and muscles around the eyes form a teardrop shape. (artistsnetwork.com)
  • Ptosis/dropping eyelid occurs due to the weakness of muscles, or lack of nerve supply to the muscle that is responsible for raising the upper eye lid. (medindia.net)
  • The eyes are the visual organs of the human body, and move using a system of six muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six extraocular muscles facilitate eye movement. (wikipedia.org)
  • These muscles arise from the common tendinous ring in the orbit, the eye cavity, and attach to the eyeball. (wikipedia.org)
  • The muscles, when contracting, cause movement of the eyeball, by pulling the eyeball towards the muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most muscles not only move the eye in a cardinal direction, but also slightly rotate the pupil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three antagonistic pairs of muscles control eye movements: the lateral and medial rectus muscles, the superior and inferior rectus muscles, and the superior and inferior oblique muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertical movements require the coordinated action of the superior and inferior rectus muscles, as well as the oblique muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the eye is abducted, the rectus muscles are the prime vertical movers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oblique muscles are also primarily responsible for torsional movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three nerves control the eye muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eye misalignment or other conditions involving the eye muscles may require patching one eye or a surgical procedure to help correct the condition. (livestrong.com)
  • Then we must compute the difference between our current line of sight and the position of the target, incorporate information about the capabilities of the body segments which will contribute to moving the line of sight (e.g. the mobility of the eyes and head given their current positions), and coordinate more than 40 muscles and muscle groups to smoothly look at the target. (rochester.edu)
  • This involves not only the eye muscles themselves and the nerves that control them, but also the control centres in the brainstem and cerebellum or in our cortex. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing was discovered in 1987 by a research psychologist named Francine Shapiro who was taking a walk in a park. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Those moments inspired Hampton to create the 1987 documentary television series "Eyes on the Prize," widely considered to be the quintessential film account of the civil rights movement. (kqed.org)
  • The optokinetic reflex (OKR) is a closed loop system that directly responds to retinal slip, generating eye movements with the direction and magnitude of measured retinal slip. (frontiersin.org)
  • Checkups with a pediatrician may not detect subtle eye conditions, so parents should watch for signs such as abnormal eye movements or head positions. (livestrong.com)
  • Most intriguingly, the association of both mental retardation and autism with HOXA1 mutations suggests that early malformation of the brainstem, which controls "lower" functions such as eye movement and breathing, may also lead to impairment in higher cognitive and behavioral function. (emaxhealth.com)
  • A method for measuring eye movement using a scleral search coil in a magnetic field. (psu.edu)
  • Implantation of magnetic search coils for measurement of eye position: an improved method. (psu.edu)
  • If you collect enough eye-movement information, no matter the type of stimulus, it's pretty reliable," Komogortsev said. (livescience.com)
  • Identification and Reprocessing - While tracking a stimulus with his or her eyes - typically the movement of a finger or light - the client recalls an image or situation that evokes negative emotions related to trauma or other issues. (promises.com)
  • Abstract-In this work, we investigate eye movement analysis as a new sensing modality for activity recognition. (psu.edu)
  • Although it may have seemed to be abstract and geometrical to an untrained eye, cubist art do depict real objects. (avsabonline.org)
  • From The relationship of anticipatory smooth eye movement to smooth pursuit initiation. (nih.gov)
  • Smooth pursuit eye movements place the images of a moving target close to fovea. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • smooth pursuit eye movements. (coursera.org)
  • In primates, smooth pursuit eye movements match eye motion to target motion to keep the eye pointed at smoothly moving targets. (mit.edu)
  • Previous research has shown for example that saccadic eye movements can increase the accuracy of limb movements when performed simultaneously (Abrams, Meyer, & Kornblum, 1990). (psu.edu)
  • Still, eye tracking is unlikely to change how computer scientists build their algorithms, says Jacob Andreas, a researcher at Microsoft-owned Semantic Machines. (wired.com)
  • He added that, for example, scientists can use ground stations, such as GPS or tiltmeters, to monitor possible ground movement due to volcanic activity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using this deep learning method, scientists could gain valuable insights into the movement of the ground, particularly in areas with active volcanoes or earthquake zones and faults, said Sun. The program may be able spot potential warning signs, such as sudden land shifts that might be a portent of an oncoming volcanic eruption, or earthquake. (eurekalert.org)
  • Albert Pan (left), an associate professor at the Fralin Biomedical Research Institute, and Manxiu 'Michelle' Ma, a research associate in the Pan lab, were part of a team of scientists who worked with zebrafish to discover that genes linked to autism spectrum disorder and other brain abnormalities may be playing a role in people who cannot control their eye movements. (nih.gov)
  • It has caused much controversy among scientists who do not believe that eye movement is an effective form of therapy and does not help. (wikipedia.org)
  • This lack of reliability arises from the fact that eye movement occurs frequently, rapidly, and over small angles, to the extent that it is impossible for an experimenter to perceive and record the data fully and accurately without technological assistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients in the OGT 918 trial who participate in this sub-study will have their saccadic eye movements measured to see if improvement occurs with OGT 918 treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If you notice these symptoms in your child, contact an eye doctor for an examination, since early detection and treatment may help improve or protect your child's vision. (livestrong.com)
  • The two-minute eye movement examination can be used to accurately measure certain eye movement parameters during the reading process and thus help to detect these disabilities earlier. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A careful examination of eye movements thus ensures that these functions are also tested and that dysfunctions can be detected. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • For the test, patients sit in a chair with their head positioned as for a regular eye examination (steadied by a chin cup and headrest) and follow with their eyes a series of lights or laser spots moving on a screen at a distance of 1 meter (3 feet). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For example, if the right eye is moved to the right, the electrode on that side notes that positive movement and the opposite electrode see the negative aspect of this eye movement. (zocdoc.com)
  • In particular, the ability to perform eye movements opposite a target (antisaccades) was more impaired in ME/CFS patients than controls, particularly for positional errors. (meresearch.org.uk)
  • The findings, to publish this week in The Journal of Neuroscience - the official journal of the nearly 40,000-member Society for Neuroscience - underscore the importance of the Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule-Like 1 gene in the development of eye movements. (nih.gov)
  • Subjects tracked two cycles of constant velocity (40 deg/s) motion (traces show target and eye velocity). (nih.gov)
  • We quantified the percentage of direction errors, the time to onset of the eye movement (saccadic reaction time: SRT), and the metrics and dynamics of the movement itself (amplitude, peak velocity, duration) for subjects in different age groups. (nih.gov)
  • The model was designed to replicate the initial eye velocity response observed during pursuit of different target motions. (mit.edu)
  • Examples of anticipatory smooth eye movements, showing pursuit (lower traces) beginning before horizontal motion of the target (upper traces). (nih.gov)
  • Bilateral stimulation, in the form of eye movements, tones, or taps are used to reprocess the distressing event. (goodtherapy.org)
  • Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing uses bilateral movements of the eyes to help the brain reprocess traumatic events. (promises.com)
  • Eye movements bring regions of interest toward the fovea. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ophthalmology is a lot more than a specialist topic, just because most people know hardly anything about how best to look after their eyes and how to identify when there is a problem. (selfgrowth.com)
  • and torsional, movements that bring the top of the eye toward the nose (intorsion) or away from the nose (extorsion). (wikipedia.org)
  • For a reading task, Rayner (1998) reported that the eyes fixated for around 200-250 ms on words. (avsabonline.org)
  • The research, published by Cell Press in the journal Neuron , provides insight into the relationship between activity in the hippocampus , eye movements, and both conscious and unconscious memory. (psychcentral.com)
  • For horizontal eye movements these are the abducens nucleus (Ab) and the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (NPH). (frontiersin.org)
  • Perhaps these differential eye movements depend on awareness and are also hippocampus-dependent. (jneurosci.org)
  • In examining the mechanisms of the eye movements, then, one must resolve them into a number of reflex responses to changes in the environment or the individual, remembering, of course, that there is an overriding voluntary control. (britannica.com)
  • It is generally agreed that internal models are responsible for predicting future sensory state for control of body movements. (springer.com)
  • Finally, we will talk about how you can modify this reflexive control of the eyes and how you can control where you are looking. (coursera.org)
  • Pennsylvania , June 17 : Changing channels on your Comcast X1 will be truly hands-free as the company is adding eye control to its cable platform. (newkerala.com)
  • To use eye control, customers will have to sign into Comcast's web-based remote control and link it to their cable account. (newkerala.com)
  • In this case, the reflexes (such as reflex shifting the eyes to a moving light) are intact, though the voluntary control is obliterated. (wikipedia.org)
  • or dysfunctions of the control centers, movement exercises can also be carried out to support the treatment. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Our eye movements help us select the correct memory images and also to suppress competing, incorrect memory images", said researcher in cognitive science Roger Johansson. (healthcanal.com)
  • Barborica A, Ferrera VP (2003) Estimating invisible target speed from neuronal activity in monkey frontal eye field. (springer.com)
  • There appear to be no records of eye movement research until the early 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article reviews the past 25 years of research on eye movements (1986-2011). (nih.gov)
  • If the Texas State University research goes well, Komogortsev's team could field test an eye-movement security machine in "the next year or two or three," Bowyer said. (livescience.com)
  • Further in the future, eye-movement scans could also help security officials determine if someone is ill or emotionally distressed, conditions that can affect eye movements according to some research, Komogortsev said. (livescience.com)
  • People who read normally tend to have one dominant eye while people with dyslexia do not, research shows. (the-scientist.com)
  • Lecturer Ms Sandra Land, is doing research on eye movements in isiZulu reading in an effort to discover strategies developed by highly competent readers of the language. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • This was made possible with the aid of a computer programme especially developed for her research by an eye-tracking software company in the United States. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • It was instantly clear to Land that the programme could be used not only to improve reading skills, but to record and analyse eye movements for the purpose of reading research as well. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • The work has led to a better understanding of how prediction, learning and attention work with sensory signals to contribute to the effective operation of eye movements in visually rich environments. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Schmoe explained, "You can sometimes evaluate eye movements, and the eye muscle and vision can look fine, but when the brain has to deal with a complex sensory environment, and the mechanisms to compensate have been injured, this can be a terrifying situation. (medium.com)
  • We must be able to gather accurate sensory information about our surroundings, distinguish our movements from the movements of objects in the world, and coordinate our own movements in order to orient, and navigate smoothly through a complex setting. (rochester.edu)
  • These movements appear to be initiated by a small cortical region in the brain's frontal lobe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional properties of corticotectal neurons in the monkey's frontal eye field. (psu.edu)
  • Composition and topographic organization of signals sent from the frontal eye ffield to the superior colliculus. (psu.edu)
  • In development for almost two years, the system relies on a highly-accurate camera that reads the driver's face more than 50 times per second, scanning prominent points, such as the nose and eyes, to detect movement and thereby the driver's line of sight. (motorauthority.com)
  • There have been previous attempts to create a system that could be worn over extended periods of time that have relied on accelerometers, which detect movement, but these often couldn't tell the difference between the movements of the mother and the child. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • For example, Ibn al Haytham , a medical man in 11th-century Egypt, is reported to have written of reading in terms of a series of quick movements and to have realised that readers use peripheral as well as central vision . (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus began a protracted e-mailing process with staff of the Reading Plus organisation in Boston in the United States which worked with Land to put together a Zulu package so that readers' eye movements could be mapped directly onto the texts they read. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • In this unit, we will examine the organization and function of the brain and spinal mechanisms that govern bodily movement. (coursera.org)
  • We show in addition that these predictive movements are extraordinarily precise and operate continuously in time across multiple trajectories and multiple movements. (springer.com)