Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Eye Movement Measurements: Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.Pursuit, Smooth: Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Ocular Motility Disorders: Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Convergence, Ocular: The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.Nystagmus, Optokinetic: Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Nystagmus, Pathologic: Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Nystagmus, Physiologic: Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.ReadingDry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing: A technique that induces the processing of disturbing memories and experiences, by stimulating neural mechanisms that are similar to those activated during REM sleep. The technique consists of eye movements following side-to-side movements of the index and middle fingers, or the alternate tapping of the hands on the knees. This procedure triggers the processing of information, thus facilitating the connection of neural networks.Tissue Fixation: The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Vision Disparity: The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Dreams: A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Eye Color: Color of the iris.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Eye Banks: Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.Reticular Formation: A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Blinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Depth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Electronystagmography: Recording of nystagmus based on changes in the electrical field surrounding the eye produced by the difference in potential between the cornea and the retina.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Torsion Abnormality: An abnormal twisting or rotation of a bodily part or member on its axis.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Fetal Movement: Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Fixatives: Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Darkness: The absence of light.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Nystagmus, Congenital: Nystagmus present at birth or caused by lesions sustained in utero or at the time of birth. It is usually pendular, and is associated with ALBINISM and conditions characterized by early loss of central vision. Inheritance patterns may be X-linked, autosomal dominant, or recessive. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p275)Plant Viral Movement Proteins: Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Scotoma: A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary: The use of nails that are inserted into bone cavities in order to keep fractured bones together.Cataplexy: A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Compound Eye, Arthropod: Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Otolithic Membrane: A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Bone Wires: Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Optical Illusions: An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.Field Dependence-Independence: The ability to respond to segments of the perceptual experience rather than to the whole.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Perceptual Distortion: Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Posterior Eye Segment: The back two-thirds of the eye that includes the anterior hyaloid membrane and all of the optical structures behind it: the VITREOUS HUMOR; RETINA; CHOROID; and OPTIC NERVE.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Distance Perception: The act of knowing or the recognition of a distance by recollective thought, or by means of a sensory process which is under the influence of set and of prior experience.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Delta Rhythm: Brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the "deep sleep waves" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Eye Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus: Dense collection of cells in the caudal pontomesencephalic tegmentum known to play a role in the functional organization of the BASAL GANGLIA and in the modulation of the thalamocortical neuronal system.Hemianopsia: Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.Amblyopia: A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Exotropia: A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Eye Infections: Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Axial Length, Eye: The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Esotropia: A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Vestibular Nerve: The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Vestibular Function Tests: A number of tests used to determine if the brain or balance portion of the inner ear are causing dizziness.Feedback, Sensory: A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Vestibular Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Dominance, Ocular: The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.Figural Aftereffect: A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.
Established eye movement and pupillary response indicators of cognitive load are:[23] ... number of gaze fixations , 500 milliseconds. *saccade speed. *pupillary hippus[24]. Individual differences in processing ... Journal of Eye Movement Research. 12. doi:10.16910/jemr.12.3.3.. ... Towards Objective Measurement Applying Eye-Tracking Technology ...
Movements of the Eyes (Pion, London, 1988). Guerrasio, Lorenzo (2011). Subcortical Control of Visual Fixation. Dissertation, ... Microsaccades are a kind of fixational eye movement. They are small, jerk-like, involuntary eye movements, similar to miniature ... and microsaccade movements could be used as a diagnostic test for ADHD. Rapid eye movement sleep Saccade Darwin, R. W.; Darwin ... The current consensus is that all fixational eye movements are important for the maintenance of visibility. Experiments in ...
Krauskopf, J.; Cornsweet, T.N.; Riggs, L.A. (1960). "Analysis of eye movements during monocular and bionocular fixation". ... The Purkinje-image method of recording eye position. In: Eye movements and psychological processes, Monty and Senders, eds., ... Cornsweet, T.N. (1958). "New technique for the measurement of small eye movements". Journal of the Optical Society of America. ... His 1955 Ph.D. dissertation in experimental psychology involved small movements of the eye. Cornsweet was an assistant ...
Vision and eye movements in natural behaviour. Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-857094-5. Land M.F. (2007). Fixation ... This led to an interest in eye movement in animals and later in man. Land's group is mainly concerned with the role of eye ... Eye movements and the control of actions in everyday life. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 25: 296-324 Land M.F. (2006). ... In: Eye movements: a window on mind and brain (eds. RPG van Gompel, M.H. Fischer, W.S. Murray, R.L. Hill) Chapter 4. Oxford: ...
Afterimage human eye Eye movements Fixational eye movement Neural adaptation Visual perception. ... 5. Adler, F. H. M., Fliegelman, Maurice (AB) (1934). "Influence of Fixation on the Visual Acuity." Archives of Ophthalmology 12 ... eye tremor. It occurs in all normal people even when the eye is apparently still and is due to the constant activity of ...
Eye movements in reading Fixation (visual) Optical coherence tomography (OCT) Myron Yanoff; Jay S. Duker (6 November 2013). ... ISBN 978-1-4557-5001-6. Jasjit S. Suri (2008). Image Modeling of the Human Eye. Artech House. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-59693-209-8. ...
Kafkas, A., & Montaldi, D. (2012). Familiarity and recollection produce distinct eye movement, pupil and medial temporal lobe ... Kafkas, A., & Montaldi, D. (2011). Recognition memory strength is predicted by pupillary responses at encoding while fixation ... The extent of dilation of the pupil in the eye could be an indicator of interest and attention.[10] Methods of reliable ...
Eye movements, perception, and legibility in reading. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 33.. 1936. Eye movements in reading. Journal ... Fixation pause duration in reading. Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 44.. 1952. Interpretation of illumination data. ... Eye movements, influence of[edit]. 1939, Type form.. 1940. Line width.. 1941. Modern type face and Old English.. 1942. Size of ... Eye movements in reading a modern type face and Old English. American Journal of Psychology, Vol. 54. (Donald G. Paterson as co ...
This has revealed that reading is performed as a series of eye fixations with saccades between them. Humans also do not appear ... It is necessary to understand visual perception and eye movement to understand the reading process.[30] ... RSVP controls for differences in reader eye movement, and consequently is often used to measure reading speed in experiments. ... In the eye of the reader: foveal and peripheral perception - from letter recognition to the joy of reading) (in German). ...
Analyzing the eye movement and fixation data showed no significant difference in time spent looking at the players (black or ... Participants' eye movement and fixations were recorded during the video, and afterward the participants answered a series of ... Memmert, D (September 2006). "The effects of eye movements, age, and expertise on inattentional blindness". Consciousness and ... The critical analyses involved differences in eye movements between the detected and undetected trials. These repetition trials ...
Visual Inattentiveness: Defined as an absence of attentive visual behavior such as fixation and following movements. Children ... Hypermetropia: A condition where the eye is too small and eyes have to over focus to see clearly; also called farsightedness. ... Deep set eyes Thickened ear helices: Ear helices are the outer rings of cartilage of the ears. Short, narrow and slanting ... The bridge of the nose looks sunken in and the eyes are set widely apart and often protrude out of the sockets. Small mouth ...
Saccades are very rapid and precise eye movements between two positions, and are important in establishing fixation. Smooth ... Eye movements are important behaviors for locating and tracking objects in the visual world. Two of the major types of eye ... Deficits in eye movement behavior among patients with schizophrenia have been reported since the beginning of the 20th century ... There is evidence that schizophrenia affects perception of contrast and motion, control of eye movements, detection of visual ...
Researchers used an Eyelink eye tracker to record the movements of the participants' eyes. Reading times were found to be ... Fixations follow an opposite pattern with longer fixations on low frequency words. Research has also found that high frequency ... In one study, participants' eye movements were recorded as they scanned single sentence stimuli for topic relevant words. ... White, Sarah J.; Warrington, Kayleigh L.; McGowan, Victoria A.; Paterson, Kevin B. "Eye movements during reading and topic ...
The fixation point of the eyes is linked to an individual's focus of attention. Thus, by monitoring eye movements, we can study ... Eye tracking allows us to study cognitive processes on extremely short time scales. Eye movements reflect online decision ... Spatial planning and movement, speech production, and complex motor movements are all aspects of action. Consciousness is the ... Eye tracking. This methodology is used to study a variety of cognitive processes, most notably visual perception and language ...
... involuntary eye movements that accompanied normal fixation were the cause of polyopic images. These involuntary eye movements ... of an object at fixation. Polyopia occurs when both eyes are open, or when one eye is open, during fixation on a stimulus. ... However, Bender's theory does not account for recent studies in which fixation did not change and no eye movements were ... The polyopic images occur monocular bilaterally (one eye open on both sides) and binocularly (both eyes open), differentiating ...
Since saccades and fixations are indicative of word recognition, electrooculography (EOG) is used to measure eye movements and ... saccadic eye movements while they read. This has furthered understanding of how certain patterns of eye movement increases word ... Eyes make brief, unnoticeable movements called saccades approximately three to four times per second. Saccades are separated by ... serial letter recognition and parallel letter recognition). Other factors such as saccadic eye movements and the linear ...
... studies specifically monitor eye movements to ensure that the observer's eyes are continually fixated on the central fixation ... When frontal eye field patients did make antisaccades, they had increased latency of their eye movements compared to controls. ... the production of eye movements). Lesions to the superior frontal lobe areas that include the frontal eye fields seem to ... disrupt some forms of overt eye movements. It has been demonstrated by Guitton, Buchtel, & Douglas that eye movement directed ...
Eye movements[edit]. In primates, eye movements can be divided into several types: fixation, in which the eyes are directed ... with eye movements only to compensate for movements of the head; smooth pursuit, in which the eyes move steadily to track a ... Eye movements are evoked by activity in the deep layers of the SC. During fixation, neurons near the front edge - the foveal ... usually composed of combined head and eye movements, rather than eye movements per se. This discovery reawakened interest in ...
pursuit eye movement or sustained fixation that occurs in direct response to moving or salient stimuli. There is currently no ... There were longer periods of eye opening and increased responses to command stimuli as well as higher scores on the JFK coma ... Because of this inconsistency, extended assessment may be required to determine if a simple response (e.g. a finger movement or ... Without treatment, the patient showed signs of mutism, athetoid movements of the extremities, and complete dependence for all ...
In this journal they examined the electrical method of the electro-oculogram (EOG), a device used to record eye movement. They ... collected information to see the pattern of search, spatial distributions, and duration of fixation on one object. In 1954, ... Ford's most famous published work, "Eye movements during simulated radar search.", was co-authored with Carroll White in 1960. ... White, C. T., & Ford, A. (1960). Eye movements during simulated radar search. JOSA, 50(9), 909. Ford, A. (1954). Bioelectrical ...
Cyclotropias or torsional deviations Patients with eccentric fixation because the movement of the deviating eye stops when the ... 4. As the alternate cover test is performed, the examiner watches the patients eye for movement. If movement is seen, the prism ... eye turned in), BASE UP for a hypodeviation (eye turned down) or BASE DOWN for a hyperdeviation (eye turned up). Steps: 1. The ... This means that when the PCT was performed, the deviating eye was neutralised and no movement was seen at these points on the ...
This has revealed that reading is performed as a series of eye fixations with saccades between them. Humans also do not appear ... RSVP controls for differences in reader eye movement, and consequently is often used to measure reading speed in experiments. ... RSVP eliminates inter-word saccades, limits intra-word saccades, and prevents reader control of fixation times (Legge, ... A key technique in studying how individuals read text is eye tracking. ...
Eye movement in reading Eye movement in music reading Fixation (visual) Optical coherence tomography (OCT) Myron Yanoff; Jay S ... As the clarity of information in the parafovea is not as great as in the fovea, the SWIFT model of eye movements in reading, ... Inhoff, Albrecht Werner; Rayner, Keith (1986). "Parafoveal word processing during eye fixations in reading: Effects of word ... with less common words providing less of a reduction in fixation duration when they reach foveal fixation. ...
... the fixation reflex is also added to the movement. In other animals, the gravity organs and eyes are strictly connected.[ ... during head movement by producing eye movements in the direction opposite to head movement, thus preserving the image on the ... Using these direct connections, eye movements lag the head movements by less than 10 ms, and thus the vestibulo-ocular reflex ... The same neural integrators also generate eye position for other conjugate eye movements such as saccades and smooth pursuit. ...
Neurons in the otoliths control not only these signals for control of eye movements, but also signals for head movement ... The difference between these two test results is the patient's fixation ability and vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) efficiency. ... the semicircular canals send information to the brain and correct eye movements in the direction opposite head movement by ... The patient is then asked to lie down on the table and checked for nystagmus, or uncontrollable eye movements. Nystagmus in ...
... includes the voluntary or involuntary movement of the eyes, helping in acquiring, fixating and tracking visual stimuli. Specific systems are used in maintaining fixation, when reading and in music reading. A special type of eye movement, rapid eye movement, occurs during REM sleep. The eyes are the visual organs of the human body, and move using a system of six muscles. The retina, a specialised type of tissue containing photoreceptors, senses light. These specialised cells convert light into electrochemical signals. These signals travel along the optic nerve fibers to the brain, where they are interpreted as vision in the visual cortex. Primates and many other vertebrates use three types of voluntary eye movement to track objects of interest: smooth pursuit, vergence shifts and saccades. These ...
The cortical area called frontal eye field (FEF) plays an important role in the control of visual attention and eye movements.[3] Electrical stimulation in the FEF elicits saccadic eye movements. The FEF have a topographic structure and represents saccade targets in retinotopic coordinates.[4]. The frontal eye field is reported to be activated during the initiation of eye movements, such as voluntary saccades[5] and pursuit eye movements.[6] There is also evidence that it plays a role in purely sensory processing and that it belongs to a "fast brain" system through a superior colliculus - medial dorsal nucleus - FEF ascending pathway.[7]. In humans, its earliest activations in regard to visual stimuli occur at 45 ms with activations related ...
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a form of psychotherapy. It was developed to help relieve stress and trauma from disturbing and unresolved life experiences. It is used to help with post-traumatic stress disorder. EMDR involves movement of the eyes as a form of therapy. It has been being tested and researched since it was first developed in the 1980's. It has caused much controversy among scientists who do not believe that eye movement is an effective form of therapy and does not help. ...
... , named after German mathematician Johann Benedict Listing (1808-1882), describes the three-dimensional orientation of the eye and its axes of rotation. Listing's law has been shown to hold when the head is stationary and upright and gaze is directed toward far targets, i.e., when the eyes are either fixating, making saccades, or pursuing moving visual targets. Listing's law (often abbreviated L1) has been generalized to yield the binocular extension of Listing's law (often abbreviated L2) which also covers vergence. Listing's law states that the eye does not achieve all possible 3D orientations and that, instead, all achieved eye orientations can be reached by starting from one specific "primary" reference orientation and then rotating about an axis that lies within the plane orthogonal to the primary orientation's gaze direction (line of sight / visual axis). This ...
In 1968, Celia Green analyzed the main characteristics of such dreams, reviewing previously published literature on the subject and incorporating new data from participants of her own. She concluded that lucid dreams were a category of experience quite distinct from ordinary dreams, and said they were associated with rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep). Green was also the first to link lucid dreams to the phenomenon of false awakenings.[18] Lucid dreaming was subsequently researched by asking dreamers to perform pre-determined physical responses while experiencing a dream, including eye movement signals.[19][20] In 1980, Stephen LaBerge at Stanford University developed such techniques as part of his doctoral dissertation.[21] In 1985, LaBerge performed a pilot study that showed that time perception while counting during a lucid dream is about the same as during waking life. Lucid dreamers counted out ten seconds while dreaming, signaling ...
... , also known as dorsal midbrain syndrome, vertical gaze palsy, and Sunset Sign, is an inability to move the eyes up and down. It is caused by compression of the vertical gaze center at the rostral interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF). The eyes lose the ability to move upward and down. It is a group of abnormalities of eye movement and pupil dysfunction. It is caused by lesions of the upper brain stem and is named for Henri Parinaud (1844-1905), considered to be the father of French ophthalmology. Parinaud's Syndrome is a cluster of abnormalities of eye movement and pupil dysfunction, characterized by: Paralysis of upgaze: Downward gaze is usually preserved. This vertical palsy is supranuclear, so doll's head maneuver should elevate the eyes, but eventually all upward gaze mechanisms fail. Pseudo-Argyll Robertson ...
An optokinetic drum -also called catford drum- is a rotating instrument to test vision in which individuals are seated facing the wall of the drum. The interior surface of the drum is normally striped; thus, as the drum rotates, the subject's eyes are subject to a moving visual field while the subject remains stationary, this phenomenon is called optokinetic Nystagmus. The speed of the drum and the duration of the test may be varied. Control groups are placed in a drum without stripes or rotation. After exposure to the rotating drum, subjects are surveyed to determine their susceptibility to motion sickness. A study in which the optokinetic drum was used to test the symptoms of the sopite syndrome showed increased mood changes in response to the visual cues, though these effects were compounded by other environmental factors such as boredom and lack of activity.[1] ...
... (EOG) is a technique for measuring the corneo-retinal standing potential that exists between the front and the back of the human eye. The resulting signal is called the electrooculogram. Primary applications are in ophthalmological diagnosis and in recording eye movements. Unlike the electroretinogram, the EOG does not measure response to individual visual stimuli. To measure eye movement, pairs of electrodes are typically placed either above and below the eye or to the left and right of the eye. If the eye moves from center position toward one of the two electrodes, this electrode "sees" the positive side of the retina and the opposite electrode "sees" the negative side of the retina. Consequently, a potential difference occurs between the electrodes. Assuming that the resting ...
The first student movement arisen on November 3, 1929, developed into a nationwide anti-Japanese movement, and lasted about 5 months. Focusing on students, about 54,000 people engaged in this movement. It spread and affected the rally and protests abroad such as in Manchuria, Kando, Kirn, Shanghai, Beijing of China, Japan and USA. After this, the spirit of the student independence movement succeeded to the secret society movement, resistance movement about oppressive draft, the grain exploitation in 1940s, and the second student independence movement in May, 1943, etc. Like this, the Gwangju student independence movement was the opportunity which identified that the students was the inner circle members of the independence movement and the trigger of the national liberation enhancement in the stagnant atmosphere of labor/peasant movement at the end of the 1920s. For these reasons the Gwangju independence movement is evaluated one of the representative racial movements equivalent to the March ...
... refers to motion of a fetus caused by its own muscle activity. Locomotor activity begins during the late embryological stage, and changes in nature throughout development. Muscles begin to move as soon as they are innervated. These first movements are not reflexive, but arise from self-generated nerve impulses originating in the spinal cord. As the nervous system matures, muscles can move in response to stimuli. Generally speaking, fetal motility can be classified as either elicited or spontaneous, and spontaneous movements may be triggered by either the spine or the brain. Whether a movement is supraspinally determined can be inferred by comparison to movements of an anencephalic fetus. Although the heart begins to beat on the 23rd day after conception, this article primarily deals with voluntary and reflex movements. Ages are given as age from fertilization rather than as gestational age. Some sources contend that there is no ...
Unenäod on une ajal magaja teadvuses tahtmatult esinevad nägemused, tundmused, mõtted ja emotsioonid.[1] Unenägude funktsioonid ei ole veel üheselt selged, kuigi eksisteerib mitmesuguseid teaduslikke, filosoofilisi ja religioosseid teooriaid. Unenägude teaduslikku uurimist kutsutakse oneiroloogiaks.[2]. Arvatakse, et kõige intensiivsemad unenäod esinevad kiirete silmaliigutuste (inglise keeles rapid eye movement) une staadiumis ehk REM-une ajal. Unenägude esinemise kohta on teada antud ka teistest unestaadiumidest ärgates, kuigi harvem. Mitte-REM unenäod on tavaliselt hägusemad, rahulikumad või halvemini meelde jäävad.[3] Siiski esineb väga intensiivseid unenägusid ka teistes unestaadiumides, samas pole ka mitte kõik REM-une aegsed äratused andnud kinnitust äsjasest unenäo nägemisest.[4]. Inimene näeb öö jooksul vähemalt 5 korda und, millest ta suudab mäletada 3-5 unenägu.[5] Unenäod võivad kesta paarist sekundist kuni paarikümne minutini.[3] Mida pikemalt inimene ...
Unenäod on une ajal magaja teadvuses tahtmatult esinevad nägemused, tundmused, mõtted ja emotsioonid.[1] Unenägude funktsioonid ei ole veel üheselt selged, kuigi eksisteerib mitmesuguseid teaduslikke, filosoofilisi ja religioosseid teooriaid. Unenägude teaduslikku uurimist kutsutakse oneiroloogiaks.[2] Arvatakse, et kõige intensiivsemad unenäod esinevad kiirete silmaliigutuste (inglise keeles rapid eye movement) une staadiumis ehk REM-une ajal. Unenägude esinemise kohta on teada antud ka teistest unestaadiumidest ärgates, kuigi harvem. Mitte-REM unenäod on tavaliselt hägusemad, rahulikumad või halvemini meelde jäävad.[3] Siiski esineb väga intensiivseid unenägusid ka teistes unestaadiumides, samas pole ka mitte kõik REM-une aegsed äratused andnud kinnitust äsjasest unenäo nägemisest.[4] Inimene näeb öö jooksul vähemalt 5 korda und, millest ta suudab mäletada 3-5 unenägu.[5] Unenäod võivad kesta paarist sekundist kuni paarikümne minutini.[3] Mida pikemalt inimene ...
1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 这些剧集在首播时为两集连播,但在其他电视台播映、重播以及DVD中分割为两集。 ...
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is seen as a promising treatment option for fear-related psychiatric ... and vmPFC relative to baseline compared to the fixation blocks. Further analyses will focus on whether this temporary ... Schubert, S. J., Lee, C. W., Araujo, G., Butler, S. R., Taylor, G., & Drummond, P. D. (2016). The Effectiveness of Eye Movement ... During extinction, one CS+ and one CS- was always followed by a block of goal-directed eye movements. Blood Oxygenation Level- ...
Eye movements and active vision: The saccade-and-fixate strategy is the way humans take in information from the world most of ... However, there is a mismatch between the extremely jerky movements of the image on the retina and the apparently smooth and ... Other articles where Saccades-fixation eye movement is discussed: photoreception: ... In photoreception: Eye movements and active vision. …that is not how the saccades-fixation eye movement pattern originated. ...
Although eye-tracking research in these participant groups has become easier with the advance... ... Eye-tracking research in infants and older children has gained a lot of momentum over the last decades. ... Average numbers of fixations per trial (left) and average fixation durations (right) for infant eye movement data, as reported ... If the left eye moves in a given direction, the right eye often does so too, whereas in noise the movement of the two eyes is ...
Object files across eye movements: Previous fixations affect the latencies of corrective saccades. ... Eye movement data were collected using an EyeLink 1000 (SR Research Ltd., Canada) sampling the left eye at 1000 Hz. Saccades ... Examining the in fluence of task set on eye movements and fixations. Journal of Vision, 11(8), 17:1-15. doi: 10.1167/11.8.17 ... Cells discharing before eye movements. Journal of Neurophysiology, 35, 575-586.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Analysis of Eye Movements during Monocular and Binocular Fixation John Krauskopf, T. N. Cornsweet, and L. A. Riggs ... John Krauskopf, T. N. Cornsweet, and L. A. Riggs, "Analysis of Eye Movements during Monocular and Binocular Fixation*," J. Opt ... Recordings of the horizontal component of movements of the eyes were made during monocular and binocular fixation. The ... Correlation of directed magnitude of saccades and eye position prior to saccade.. Fixation condition. Subject. Left eye. Right ...
"Examining the Influence of Task Set on Eye Movements and Fixations." Journal of Vision 17th ser. 11.8 (2011): 1-15. ... parameters of eye movements. Here, we find that more participant-directed tasks (in which the task establishes general goals of ... fixation duration). Further, task set influenced the rate of change in fixation duration over the course of viewing but not ... of the present study was to examine the influence of task set on the spatial and temporal characteristics of eye movements ...
subjective super-resolution, LED, predictive-coding, fixation eye movement, visual system, Full Text: FreePDF(2MB). Summary: We ... Subjective Super-Resolution Model on Coarse High-Speed LED Display in Combination with Pseudo Fixation Eye Movements. Toyotaro ... subjective super-resolution hypothesis in human visual system and reports simulation results with pseudo fixation eye movements ...
... were conducted to examine the influence of text located to the left of fixation during each fixational pause using an eye- ... information acquired during each fixational pause is widely assumed to extend 14 to 15 characters to the right of fixation but ... A Further Look at Postview Effects in Reading: An Eye-Movements Study of Influences from the Left of Fixation ... Descriptors: Eye Movements, Reading Processes, Experiments, Visual Discrimination, Alphabets, College Students, Foreign ...
Algorithms ; Biometry ; Data Interpretation, Statistical ; Eye Movement Measurements ; Eye Movements ; Humans ; Software. ... Eye movement data analyses are commonly based on the probability of occurrence of saccades and fixations (and their ... iMap: a novel method for statistical fixation mapping of eye movement data. Behavior Research Methods , 43 (3), 864 - 878 . ... iMap: a novel method for statistical fixation mapping of eye movement data. ...
CLINICAL EXAMINATION OF EYE MOVEMENTS. Fixation. Fixation should be observed in the primary gaze position by asking the patient ... The eye is never completely still during fixation, because it is interrupted by miniature eye movements (microsaccades, ... Range of eye movement is smaller in the right eye, therefore, it is a paretic eye. The diagnosis is right superior oblique ... Functional class of eye movements. The various types of eye movements subserve the same goal-the projection and maintenance of ...
Analysis of Eye Movements during Monocular and Binocular Fixation* John Krauskopf, T. N. Cornsweet, and L. A. Riggs. J. Opt. ... Jacob Nachmias, "Meridional Variations in Visual Acuity and Eye Movements during Fixation*," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 50, 569-571 (1960 ... It was concluded that for most individuals, the directional nonuniformity of eye movements during fixation is not sufficient to ... Meridional Variations in Visual Acuity and Eye Movements during Fixation Jacob Nachmias ...
Gaze-contingent manipulation of the FVF demonstrates the importance of fixation duration for explaining search behavior - ... Engbert, R., Mergenthaler, K., Sinn, P. & Pikovsky, A. (2011) An integrated model of fixational eye movements and microsaccades ... Malcolm, G. L. & Henderson, J. M. (2010) Combining top-down processes to guide eye movements during real-world scene search. ... Laubrock, J., Engbert, R. & Kliegl, R. (2008) Fixational eye movements predict the perceived direction of ambiguous apparent ...
Inefficient Eye Movements: Gamification Improves Task Execution, But Not Fixation Strategy. Vision, 3 (3). ISSN 2411-5150 ... visual search; eye movements; attention; strategy; decision. Divisions:. Faculty of Science and Health , Psychology, Department ... However, there was no difference in eye movement strategy between the two groups, suggesting this improvement in accuracy was ... not due to the participants making more optimal eye movement decisions. Instead, the motivation encouraged participants to ...
... and a fixation light beam (24). A fixation light spot in the vicinity of the fovea (30) and the fovea are imaged by means of a ... camera (40). This makes it possible to check whether the patient has reliably fixated the fixation light source (22). In ... A device for ophthalmologically treating the eye has a treatment laser beam (UV) for ablating parts of the cornea (12) ... The said eye tracker of the prior art, which is assumed herein to be known, detects, for example, movements of the eye by ...
Adapted from []. F=fixation; C=cue; D=delay; R=eye movement response; PD=preferred direction of the neuron; NPD=an example of a ...
Prematurity is especially associated with eye pathology, including retinopathy of prematurity, amblyopia, strabismus and ... An integrated system of voluntary and reflexive eye movements to allow normal alignment, fixation on objects of interest and ... Normal Development of Vision and Eye Movements. Age. Normal vision and eye movements. ... Normal Development of Vision and Eye Movements. Age. Normal vision and eye movements. ...
Human eye - Movements of the eyes: Because only a small portion of the retina, the fovea, is actually employed for distinct ... a golf ball-the eyes must keep adjusting their gaze to compensate for the continuous small movements of the head and to ... The extraocular muscles that carry out these movements are under ... At a certain point, fixation is broken off, and the eyes spring ... The binocular movements (the movements of the two eyes) fall into two classes, the conjugate movements, when both eyes move in ...
5. The Role of Eye Movements in Reading: .. Processing During Fixations.. Theories of Eye Guidance. ... Unique in its treatment of research using eye movement measures. *Includes numerous case examples, tables and figures to ...
Promote eye-hand coordination. Promotes bilateral UE movements. Promote crossing midline. Instructions: The client should try ... Purpose: To improve and increase bilateral skills, fine motor skill, eye hand coordination and strength. Dressing Cube Tasks: ... The client performs radial deviation of the wrist and returns to the starting position controlling the movement back. The ... Purpose: Improve fine and gross motor UE movements. Increase endurance. Improve finger strength and dexterity. Improve static ...
Eye Frame Time. Normal -ised Pupil_X. Normal -ised Pupil_Y. Normal -ised Gaze_X. Normal -ised Gaze_Y. Eye Movement. Patch ... Fixation Detection for Head-Mounted Eye Tracking Based on Visual Similarity of Gaze Targets MPIIEgoFixation Dataset Julian ... These movements feign a shift in gaze estimates in the frame of reference defined by the eye trackers scene camera. To address ... Fixation Detection for Head-Mounted Eye Tracking Based on Visual Similarity of Gaze Targets ...
Eye Movements / physiology * Fixation, Ocular / physiology * Form Perception / physiology* * Macaca mulatta * Male ...
We tested participants ability to recall their own eye movements in 2 experiments using natural or artificial scenes. In each ... We tested participants ability to recall their own eye movements in 2 experiments using natural or artificial scenes. In each ... Memory for our own fixation locations appears to add next to nothing beyond what common sense tells us about the likely ... For example, a radiologist might think he has looked at "everything" in an image, but eye tracking data suggest that this is ...
The fixation is presented upon the display and the stimulus is altered to allow resensitization of the subjects retina, ... thereby allowing prolonged visual fixation upon the resulting dynamic target. A dynamic stimulus may utilize a frequency ... Alteration of a fixation or peripheral stimulus displayed on a computer-driven display allows a human subject to maintain ... extended visual fixation upon the resulting dynamic stimulus. ... Device and method for stimulating eye movement. US20150231020 * ...
Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2). The ... Eye movements from both eyes were recorded horizontally and vertically by a video-oculography system (EyeBrain® T2). The ... Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an ... Such poor visual fixation capability in dyslexic children could be due to impaired attention abilities, as well as to an ...
Fixation Stability and Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia Susana T L Chung; Girish Kumar; Roger Winghong Li; Dennis M Levi. ... TAGS: eye movement, eye, age-related macular degeneration, disorder of macula of retina Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.. 2014; 55 ... Functional impact of fixational eye movements during an orientation discrimination task in people with macular disease ...
  • Even an initial glimpse of a scene has been found to generate an abstract representation of the image that can be stored in memory for use in subsequent eye movements (Castelhano & Henderson, 2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2009;67(1):50-54 50 CONCEPTS OF COLOR, SHAPE, SIZE AND POSITION IN TEN CHILDREN WITH RETT SYNDROME Renata de Lima Velloso1 , Ceres Alves de Araújo2 , José Salomão Schwartzman1 Abstract - Individuals with Rett syndrome (RS) present severe motor, language and cognitive deficits, as well as spontaneous hand movement loss. (slideshare.net)
  • They typically occur during prolonged visual fixation (of at least several seconds), not only in humans, but also in animals with foveal vision (primates, cats, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ear canal microphone measurements in humans ( n = 19 ears in 16 subjects) and monkeys ( n = 5 ears in three subjects) performing a saccadic eye movement task to visual targets indicated that the eardrum moves in conjunction with the eye movement. (pnas.org)
  • In species with mobile eyes (e.g., humans, monkeys), visual and auditory spatial cues bear no fixed relationship to one another but change dramatically and frequently as the eyes move, about three times per second over an 80° range of space. (pnas.org)
  • Eye trackers are just one example of a computing technology that offer tremendous potential for humans. (yorku.ca)
  • The second part of the book applies this synthesis to the clinical and laboratory evaluation of patients with abnormal eye movements due to a broad range of disorders - from muscular dystrophy, and genetic disorders, to dementia, including visual and vestibular conditions. (oup.com)
  • To evaluate the possible role of abnormal eye movements, Dr Seiple and colleagues used the OCT-SLO equipment to make microscopic movies of the interior of the eye (fundus, including the retina and macula) as the patients viewed one of the world's most famous faces: the Mona Lisa. (medindia.net)
  • Due to the connection between the eye muscles and the vestibular system, eye movement disorders can also occur with balance disorders or vertigo. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • It also may accompany a number of eye disorders and neurological disorders, and be a reaction to alcohol and certain drugs. (uclahealth.org)
  • She also completed a fellowship in clinical Movement Disorders under the mentorship of Dr. Stanley Fahn at Columbia University and post-doctoral research training in Functional Neuroimaging with Dr. David Eidelberg at the Feinstein Institute. (stanford.edu)
  • Dr. Poston's research focuses on the development of novel neuroimaging biomarkers to improve diagnostic accuracy and monitor the efficacy of investigational treatments for Parkinson's Disease and other movement disorders. (stanford.edu)
  • Dr. Poston s research interests include the development, validation and application of functional and structural neuroimaging as biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of movement disorders. (stanford.edu)
  • When viewers are semantically primed by being presented with consistently similar scenes, the density of fixations increase, and fixation durations decrease (Henderson, Weeks Jr., & Hollingworth, 1999). (wikipedia.org)
  • The examiner can sometimes recognize this by observing the patient's eyes during visual fixation. (audiologyonline.com)
  • A phosphorescent ophthalmic instrument for fixating a patient's eye during an ophthalmic procedure. (google.com)
  • 7. The instrument of claim 1 wherein the fixation structure further comprises a vacuum source and passageways defined in the fixation structure for communicating the vacuum source with a bottom surface of the fixation structure securable against the patient's eye. (google.com)
  • 10. The ophthalmic instrument of claim 9 wherein the fixation ring comprises a vacuum source and an annular ring having a bottom surface and a passageway therein for communicating the vacuum source with the bottom surface and the patient's cornea. (google.com)
  • A scanning electron microscope (SEM) study and force measurements using an atomic force microscope (AFM) on the eye surfaces of three different insect species, dragonfly Aeshna mixta (Odonata), moth Laothoe populi (Lepidoptera) and fly Volucella pellucens (Diptera), were undertaken. (biologists.org)
  • The author of this chapter describes a binocular robotic vision system that was designed to emulate the neural images of cortical cells under vergence eye movements. (igi-global.com)
  • Aniseikonia, a condition caused by notable discrepancy of the refractive errors between two eyes, gives rise to diplopia because one image is smaller than the other and superimposed. (bmj.com)
  • Prematurity is especially associated with eye pathology, including retinopathy of prematurity, amblyopia, strabismus and refractive errors. (aafp.org)
  • This could help identify eyes at higher risk of cyclotorsion and its potential complications in refractive surgery. (healio.com)
  • The emergence of the remote video-based eye-tracker has allowed researchers to conduct eye movement research with a plethora of participant groups for which conventional eye-tracking techniques are unsuitable. (springer.com)
  • This applies to both the solutions provided by eye-tracker manufacturers and the research community. (springer.com)
  • In one application, an eye tracker is a passive instrument that measures and monitors the eyes to determine where, and at what, the human is looking. (yorku.ca)
  • In another, the eye tracker is an active controller that allows a human, through his or her eyes, to interact with and control a computer. (yorku.ca)
  • When a human uses an eye tracker for computer control, the "normal course of events" changes considerably. (yorku.ca)
  • This chapter is focused on the second of these two applications - the use of an eye tracker for computer input. (yorku.ca)
  • When an eye tracker is used for computer input, how well does the interaction work? (yorku.ca)
  • As a computer input device, an eye tracker typically emulates a computer mouse. (yorku.ca)
  • This information is further applied to an improved VR selection task in which a binocular eye tracker and an adaptive neural network algorithm is used during the disambiguation of partly occluded objects. (jvrb.org)
  • Sereno & Rayner (2003) believed that the best current approach to discover immediate signs of word recognition is through recordings of eye movement and event-related potential . (wikipedia.org)
  • The precision eye-movement research of scientists such as Rayner and Pollatsek (1989) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology showed in many experiments over 20 years that the reading eye fixates on most content words (especially nouns and verbs) in a rapid series of stops and jumps called fixations and saccades . (readingrockets.org)
  • Amblyopia is a reduction in vision, usually in one but sometimes in both eyes, that is not attributable to anatomic eye or optic nerve pathology. (aafp.org)
  • Eye tremors are pervasive in Parkinson's disease and could be an early warning sign of the neurodegenerative movement disorder, according to a case-control study. (medpagetoday.com)
  • By comparison, the same fixation instability was seen in just two of 60 age-matched controls, one of whom apparently had presymptomatic Parkinson's disease based on symptoms that developed over 2 years of follow up, the group reported online in the Archives of Neurology . (medpagetoday.com)
  • However, 63% of the Parkinson's patients had fixation instability that moved their focus enough on occasion to reach the 0.5° threshold thought to create problems with vision. (medpagetoday.com)
  • However, the Parkinson's disease patients did differ compared with the 60 age-matched controls recruited from among patients' family and friends, among whom just 3.3% showed similar oscillatory fixation instability. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Hemispheric differences in the processing of visual consequences of active vs. passive movements: A transcranial direct current stimulation study. (uni-giessen.de)
  • Eye movement studies have shown that mature, proficient readers do not skip words, use context to process words, or bypass phonics in establishing word recognition. (readingrockets.org)
  • To address this challenge, we present a novel fixation detection method for head-mounted eye trackers. (mpg.de)
  • Today, portable head-mounted eye trackers are available (see Figure 1 ) and the user is no longer required to remain stable, i.e., sitting on a chair or even using a chin rest. (jvrb.org)