Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty
Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy
Organ Culture Techniques
Dry Eye Syndromes
Ocular Physiological Phenomena
Compound Eye, Arthropod
Eye Protective Devices
Biological Specimen Banks
Posterior Eye Segment
National Practitioner Data Bank
Axial Length, Eye
Molecular Sequence Data
Eye Infections, Bacterial
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Eye Infections, Viral
Tomography, Optical Coherence
Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological
Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate
Eye Infections, Fungal
Eye Infections, Parasitic
Optic Nerve Diseases
Lens Implantation, Intraocular
Amino Acid Sequence
Reproducibility of Results
Visual Field Tests
Retinal Ganglion Cells
Eye Diseases, Hereditary
Ocular Motility Disorders
Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
A new surgical technique for deep stromal, anterior lamellar keratoplasty. (1/81)AIMS: To describe a new surgical technique for deep stromal anterior lamellar keratoplasty. METHODS: In eye bank eyes and sighted human eyes, aqueous was exchanged by air, to visualise the posterior corneal surface--that is, the "air to endothelium" interface. Through a 5.0 mm scleral incision, a deep stromal pocket was created across the cornea, using the air to endothelium interface as a reference plane for dissection depth. The pocket was filled with viscoelastic, and an anterior corneal lamella was excised. A full thickness donor button was sutured into the recipient bed after stripping its Descemet's membrane. RESULTS: In 25 consecutive human eye bank eyes, a 12% microperforation rate was found. Corneal dissection depth averaged 95.4% (SD 2.7%). Six patient eyes had uneventful surgeries; in a seventh eye, perforation of the lamellar bed occurred. All transplants cleared. Central pachymetry ranged from 0.62 to 0.73 mm. CONCLUSION: With this technique a deep stromal anterior lamellar keratoplasty can be performed with the donor to recipient interface just anterior to the posterior corneal surface. The technique has the advantage that the dissection can be completed in the event of inadvertent microperforation, or that the procedure can be aborted to perform a planned penetrating keratoplasty. (+info)
Evaluation of potential organ culture media for eye banking using human donor corneas. (2/81)AIM: To evaluate the ability of different commercially available cell culture solutions to preserve human donor corneas during 3 weeks of "closed system" organ culture at physiological temperature. This screening was performed in an attempt to establish a rational basis for the development of a serum-free organ culture medium for eye banking. METHODS: 72 normal human donor corneas were organ cultured for 21 days at 31 degrees C in eight different test media (nine corneas in each group). The basic culture solutions included: minimal essential medium (MEM), MEM with stabilised L-glutamine, M199, DIF-1000, SFM, F99, and F99 with ascorbic acid, insulin, bFGF, transferrin, selenium, and lipids (termed F99-Sr). All media were supplemented with 2% fetal calf serum (FCS), except for MEM, which was also studied at 8% FCS. The evaluation parameters included: (1) the endothelial cell loss as evaluated using trypan blue staining; (2) the ability of keratocytes and endothelial cells to incorporate tritiated uridine into RNA as evaluated using autoradiography and digital image analysis; (3) the leakage of immunogenic keratan sulphate as assessed using ELISA; and (4) changes in storage medium pH, glucose, and lactate content. RESULTS: SFM induced the lowest endothelial cell loss of 14% (SD 2%) and the highest RNA synthesis rates of all test solutions supplemented with 2% FCS. Corneas stored in SFM also showed the least leakage of keratan sulphate and the highest glucose consumption and lactate production. In five media (MEM with 2% FCS, MEM with stabilised L-glutamine, M199, F99, and F99-Sr), comparable and intermediate potentials for organ culture were observed with endothelial cell loss of 16-19%. By contrast, 29% (4%) of the endothelium was lost after storage in DIF-1000. Interestingly, the use of 8% FCS (in MEM) had a marked protective effect on the endothelium, which showed the highest RNA synthetic activity combined with a cell loss of only 11% (4%), compared with 19% (6%) at 2% FCS (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Among the present test solutions, SFM appears to be the most prominent candidate for a new corneal organ culture medium and should be further tested and possibly refined to effectively substitute serum addition. (+info)
Automated tri-image analysis of stored corneal endothelium. (3/81)BACKGROUND: Endothelial examination of organ culture stored corneas is usually done manually and on several mosaic zones. Some banks use an image analyser that takes account of only one zone. This method is restricted by image quality, and may be inaccurate if endothelial cell density (ECD) within the mosaic is not homogeneous. The authors have developed an analyser that has tools for automatic error detection and correction, and can measure ECD and perform morphometry on multiple zones of three images of the endothelial mosaic. METHODS: 60 human corneas were divided into two equal groups: group 1 with homogeneous mosaics, group 2 with heterogeneous ones. Three standard microscopy video images of the endothelium, graded by quality, were analysed either in isolation (so called mono-image analysis) or simultaneously (so called tri-image analysis), with 50 or 300 endothelial cells (ECs) counted. The automated analysis was compared with the manual analysis, which concerned 10 non-adjacent zones and about 300 cells. For each analysis method, failures and durations were studied according to image quality. RESULTS: All corneas were able to undergo analysis, in about 2 or 7.5 minutes for 50 and 300 ECs respectively. The tri-image analysis did not increase analysis time and never failed, even with mediocre images. The tri-image analysis of 300 ECs was always most highly correlated with the manual count, particularly in the heterogeneous cornea group (r=0.94, p<0.001) and prevented serious count errors. CONCLUSIONS: This analyser allows reliable and rapid analysis of ECD, even for heterogeneous endothelia mosaics and mediocre images. (+info)
Enhancing eye donation rates. Training students to be motivators. (4/81)PURPOSE: Medical professionals could enhance eye donation rates by reminding relatives during grief counseling at the time of patient's death. This study was designed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of final year medical students (future doctors) towards eye donation, prior to instruction in eye banking. METHODS: The responses of 49 final-year medical students to a questionnaire on eye donation were compared with 24 non-medical students (controls). The results were analysed statistically using the chi-square test. RESULTS: More than one-third of students and controls were unaware that eyes are removed within six hours of death. Eight (16.3%) students and 6 (25.0%) controls felt that a close relative's eyes could be donated after death only if he had indicated willingness (P = 0.05). Three (6.1%) students and 3 (12.5%) controls were undecided about donating their own eyes. Nineteen (38.8%) students and 6 (25%) controls did not know where to go in order to pledge/donate eyes. The controls had poorer knowledge of ocular and systemic contraindications, and they did not know that storage could be prolonged (P < 0.001). Only 27 (55.1%) students had knowledge of corneal storage. CONCLUSIONS: Controls were poorly informed about various aspects of eye donation suggesting inadequate dissemination of information by the media. Students and controls alike had misconceptions regarding donation of relatives' eyes and hesitation regarding their own. These aspects should be emphasized during undergraduate teaching to dispel misgivings regarding wastage of donor eyes and to encourage future doctors to promote eye donation. (+info)
Sensitivity and rapidity of blood culture bottles in the detection of cornea organ culture media contamination by bacteria and fungi. (5/81)AIMS: To test the bactericidal activity of standard organ culture medium, and to compare the sensitivity and rapidity of blood culture bottles with conventional microbiological methods for detection of bacteria and fungi inoculated in a standard cornea organ culture medium. METHODS: The bactericidal activity of contaminated standard organ culture medium containing 100 IU/ml penicillin, 0.1 mg/ml streptomycin, and 0.25 micro g/ml amphotericin B was evaluated after 48 hours of incubation at 31 degrees C with five inocula of 14 bacteria. Two yeasts (Candida spp) and one Aspergillus were also tested. Contaminated media were then inoculated in three blood bottles (aerobic, anaerobic, fungal) placed in a Bactec 9240 automat; three conventional microbiological broths were the control. Changes in colour of organ culture medium and growth on conventional broth were screened daily by visual inspection. The sensitivity and rapidity of detection of contamination were compared between the three methods: blood bottle, conventional, and visual. RESULTS: Organ culture medium eradicated five bacteria irrespective of the starting inoculums: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Branhamella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Propionibacterium acnes, and Haemophilus influenzae. For micro-organisms where the medium was ineffective or bactericidal only (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, Candida kruzei, Aspergillus fumigatus), the blood bottle, conventional, and visual methods detected microbial growth in 100%, 76.5%, and 70% of cases respectively. Mean detection time using blood bottles was 15.1 hours (SD 13.8, range 2-52). In cases of detection by the blood bottle method and the conventional method, the former was always faster: 95.5% against 65.2% detection within 24 hours (p=0.022) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Blood bottles detect more efficiently and more rapidly a wider range of bacteria and fungi than the conventional microbiological method and the visual inspection of organ culture media. (+info)
Awareness of eye donation in an adult population of southern India. A pilot study. (6/81)PURPOSE: To determine "awareness of eye donation" and corneal transplantation in an adult population of southern India. METHODS: 507 participants chosen by systematic random sampling were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Participants were selected among patients attending two community outreach programmes at different sites, and from patients presenting directly to the hospital. RESULTS: 257 participants (50.69%) were aware of eye donations. The major source of awareness was publicity campaigns (n=105). Only 22 (4.34%) participants were aware that eye donation had to be done within 6 hours of death. Four hundred and three (79.50%) participants were not aware of corneal transplantation. Illiteracy and rural residence were more likely predictors of ignorance. CONCLUSION: Although multiple strategies are currently followed to increase awareness of eye donations and corneal transplants, more innovative strategies have to be developed, especially to target illiterate and rural populations. (+info)
Stability of RNA from the retina and retinal pigment epithelium in a porcine model simulating human eye bank conditions. (7/81)PURPOSE: To assess RNA stability after death in a porcine model to simulate current human eye bank techniques. METHODS: Eye bank time interval data were collected from 191 donor specimens: death to refrigeration, enucleation, and tissue processing. A control porcine eye was enucleated, retina and RPE isolated, and specimens frozen (-80 degrees C). Fourteen porcine eyes remained at room temperature for 2 hours and then cooled to 4 degrees C. Retina and RPE were isolated and frozen (-80 degrees C) at 5, 12, 24, 29, 36, 48, and 72 hours. Four globes remained in a moist chamber, five whole and five sectioned globes were immersed in RNAlater (Ambion, Austin, TX) at 5, 12, 24, or 48 hours. RNA was isolated. The 28S and 18S rRNA peaks were analyzed by electrophoresis. RT-PCR was performed on each sample. Messenger RNA for GAPDH, beta-actin, mouse rhodopsin from retina (mRHO), and RPE-65 (from RPE) were analyzed with gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: The average time from death to refrigeration was 4.2 hours, to enucleation 6.4 hours, and to tissue processing 10.7 hours. RT-PCR gel electrophoresis patterns from retinal tissue had bands of similar intensity at each interval from beta-actin, GAPDH, and RHO. Band patterns from RPE demonstrated decay of the RT-PCR gene products after 5 hours. This decay was delayed by at least 24 hours with the use of RNAlater. The 28S rRNA decay was similar for retina and RPE. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal tissue RNA can be analyzed within the time constraints of current eye bank tissue processing, whereas analysis of RPE necessitates either rapid processing or use of RNAlater. These results should aid in future studies in which eye bank tissue is used for RNA analysis. (+info)
Is manual counting of corneal endothelial cell density in eye banks still acceptable? The French experience. (8/81)AIM: To examine the differences in manual endothelial cell counting methods in French eye banks and to analyse whether these differences could explain some substantial discrepancies observed in endothelial cell density (ECD) for corneas made available for transplant. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to the 22 eye banks asking for details of the technical features of the light microscopes used, the microscope calibration, strategy for cell counting, the technical staff, and the method of presenting endothelial data. RESULTS: All eye banks responded and 91% (20/22) used only manual counting methods, in real time, directly through a microscope, and 62 different technicians, with varying experience, were involved in such counting. Counting of cells within the borders of a grid that were in contact with two adjacent borders was the most common method (17/22, 77%). Of the eight banks (8/22, 36%) that did not calibrate their microscopes, six reported the highest ECD values. Of the 14 others (64%), six applied a "magnification correcting factor" to the initial cell counts. In five of these cases, the corrected ECD was lower than estimated on initial count. Most of the banks (12/22, 55%) counted 100 cells or less in one to six non-adjacent zones of the mosaic. 14 of the banks (14/22, 64%) also graded cell polymegethism while seven (7/22, 32%) also graded pleomorphism ("hexagonality"). CONCLUSIONS: Lack of microscope calibration appears to be the leading cause of variance in ECD estimates in French eye banks. Other factors such as differences in counting strategy, the evaluation of smaller numbers of cells, and the different extent of experience of the technicians may also contribute to intraobserver and interobserver variability. Further comparative studies, including cross checking and the outcome of repeated counts from manual methods, are clearly needed with cross calibration to a computer based image archiving and analysis system. (+info)
Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy is a degenerative disorder of the endothelial cells lining the inner surface of the cornea, which is the clear front part of the eye. The condition is named after the German ophthalmologist who first described it in 1911. The endothelial cells play a critical role in maintaining the shape and clarity of the cornea by regulating the flow of fluid and nutrients into and out of the cornea. In Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy, the endothelial cells become damaged and lose their ability to function properly, leading to swelling and clouding of the cornea. Symptoms of Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy may include blurred vision, sensitivity to light, tearing, and a feeling of grittiness or sand in the eye. The condition typically progresses slowly over time and can eventually lead to vision loss if left untreated. Treatment for Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy may include the use of eye drops to reduce swelling and inflammation, as well as the use of contact lenses or surgery to improve vision. In some cases, a corneal transplant may be necessary to replace the damaged endothelial cells and restore vision.
Corneal diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped outer layer of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber. The cornea plays a crucial role in focusing light onto the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. Corneal diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, injuries, genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and degenerative conditions. Some common examples of corneal diseases include: 1. Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea, which can be caused by infections, injuries, or other factors. 2. Corneal dystrophies: A group of genetic disorders that cause the cornea to thicken or become cloudy. 3. Corneal ulcers: Open sores on the cornea that can be caused by infections, injuries, or other factors. 4. Corneal scars: Scarring of the cornea that can affect vision. 5. Corneal dystrophies: A group of genetic disorders that cause the cornea to thicken or become cloudy. 6. Corneal dystrophies: A group of genetic disorders that cause the cornea to thicken or become cloudy. 7. Corneal dystrophies: A group of genetic disorders that cause the cornea to thicken or become cloudy. 8. Corneal dystrophies: A group of genetic disorders that cause the cornea to thicken or become cloudy. 9. Corneal dystrophies: A group of genetic disorders that cause the cornea to thicken or become cloudy. 10. Corneal dystrophies: A group of genetic disorders that cause the cornea to thicken or become cloudy. Treatment for corneal diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. In some cases, treatment may involve the use of eye drops, ointments, or other medications to manage symptoms or prevent infection. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to restore vision or prevent further damage to the eye.
Eye diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the eyes, including the structures and tissues that make up the eye, as well as the visual system. These conditions can range from minor irritations and infections to more serious and potentially blinding conditions. Some common examples of eye diseases include: 1. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause vision loss. 2. Glaucoma: A group of eye diseases that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. 3. Age-related macular degeneration: A progressive eye disease that affects the central part of the retina and can cause vision loss. 4. Diabetic retinopathy: A complication of diabetes that can damage the blood vessels in the retina and lead to vision loss. 5. Retinitis pigmentosa: A genetic disorder that causes progressive vision loss. 6. Conjunctivitis: An inflammation of the conjunctiva, the thin, clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye. 7. Uveitis: An inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, including the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. 8. Corneal dystrophies: A group of inherited conditions that cause abnormal growth of the cornea, the clear front part of the eye. 9. Optic neuritis: An inflammation of the optic nerve that can cause vision loss. 10. Strabismus: A condition in which the eyes do not align properly, which can cause double vision. These are just a few examples of the many eye diseases that can affect people. Early detection and treatment are important for preventing vision loss and preserving sight.
Eye injuries refer to any damage or trauma that affects the structures of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, retina, optic nerve, and surrounding tissues. These injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including physical trauma, chemical exposure, radiation, or infection. Eye injuries can range from minor to severe and can cause temporary or permanent vision loss, depending on the extent of the damage. Some common types of eye injuries include corneal abrasions, conjunctivitis, chemical burns, foreign body injuries, and retinal detachment. Treatment for eye injuries depends on the severity and type of injury. Minor injuries may be treated with eye drops or ointments, while more severe injuries may require surgery or other medical interventions. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else has suffered an eye injury to prevent further damage and promote the best possible outcome.
Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a common condition that affects the eyes by causing them to feel dry, itchy, and irritated. It occurs when the eyes do not produce enough tears or the tears produced are not of the right quality to lubricate and protect the eyes properly. Dry eye syndrome can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal changes, certain medications, environmental factors such as air conditioning or wind, and medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. It can also be a side effect of certain treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Symptoms of dry eye syndrome can include burning, stinging, redness, grittiness, and sensitivity to light. In severe cases, it can lead to vision problems and damage to the cornea. Treatment for dry eye syndrome typically involves using artificial tears or other lubricating eye drops to help keep the eyes moist. In some cases, medications or procedures may be recommended to help increase tear production or improve tear quality. It is important to consult with an eye doctor if you are experiencing symptoms of dry eye syndrome, as they can help diagnose the condition and recommend appropriate treatment.
Eye abnormalities refer to any deviation from the normal structure or function of the eye. These abnormalities can be present at birth or develop over time due to various factors such as genetics, injury, disease, or aging. Some common examples of eye abnormalities include: 1. Refractive errors: These are errors in the way the eye focuses light, leading to conditions such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism. 2. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause vision loss. 3. Glaucoma: A group of eye diseases that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. 4. Retinal disorders: Conditions that affect the retina, the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye, such as macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. 5. Eye infections: Infections of the eye, such as conjunctivitis or keratitis, can cause redness, swelling, and vision problems. 6. Eye injuries: Trauma to the eye, such as a blow to the head or a foreign object in the eye, can cause damage to the eye and vision loss. 7. Eye tumors: Benign or malignant tumors in the eye can cause vision problems and other symptoms. Eye abnormalities can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including eye exams, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. Treatment options depend on the specific abnormality and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions.
Eye burns refer to injuries or damage to the eye caused by exposure to a harmful substance or heat. These burns can range from mild to severe and can cause a variety of symptoms, including pain, redness, tearing, sensitivity to light, and vision loss. Eye burns can be caused by a variety of factors, including chemical burns from exposure to acids, bases, or other chemicals, thermal burns from exposure to heat or flames, and radiation burns from exposure to ultraviolet or infrared radiation. Treatment for eye burns depends on the severity of the injury and the specific cause of the burn. In some cases, simple measures such as washing the eye with cool water or applying a cold compress may be sufficient. In more severe cases, medical treatment may be necessary, including the use of prescription medications, surgery, or other interventions. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else has suffered an eye burn.
Eye neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the eye or its surrounding tissues. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) and can affect any part of the eye, including the eyelids, conjunctiva, iris, ciliary body, choroid, and retina. Eye neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on their location and size. Some common symptoms include changes in vision, eye pain or discomfort, redness or swelling of the eye, and the appearance of a growth or mass on the eye or eyelid. Diagnosis of eye neoplasms typically involves a comprehensive eye exam, including a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment options for eye neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.
Eye injuries, penetrating refers to damage to the eye caused by a foreign object or substance that has penetrated the outer protective layer of the eye, such as the cornea or sclera. Penetrating eye injuries can be caused by a variety of objects, including sharp objects like glass or metal, as well as blunt objects like or tools. These injuries can cause damage to the internal structures of the eye, including the lens, retina, and optic nerve, which can lead to vision loss or even blindness. Treatment for penetrating eye injuries typically involves removing the foreign object and repairing any damage to the eye's internal structures. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to restore vision.
Eye Foreign Bodies refer to any foreign object that enters the eye, causing injury or irritation to the eye's surface or internal structures. These foreign bodies can be anything from small particles of dust or sand to larger objects such as metal shavings, glass fragments, or insect parts. The presence of a foreign body in the eye can cause symptoms such as pain, redness, tearing, sensitivity to light, and vision impairment. If left untreated, a foreign body can cause more serious complications such as infection, corneal ulceration, or damage to the retina. Treatment for eye foreign bodies typically involves removing the object with specialized instruments under local anesthesia. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent infection. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect you have a foreign body in your eye to prevent further damage.
Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that damage the optic nerve, which is responsible for transmitting visual information from the eye to the brain. This damage can lead to gradual vision loss and, in severe cases, blindness. There are several types of glaucoma, including open-angle glaucoma, closed-angle glaucoma, and normal-tension glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma is the most common type and typically affects both eyes. It occurs when the drainage system in the eye becomes blocked, causing increased pressure inside the eye. Closed-angle glaucoma is less common and occurs when the iris blocks the drainage system, causing a sudden increase in eye pressure. Normal-tension glaucoma occurs when the eye pressure is within the normal range, but the optic nerve is still damaged. Symptoms of glaucoma may include blurred vision, eye pain, redness, and sensitivity to light. However, many people with glaucoma have no symptoms until the disease is advanced. That's why regular eye exams are important for early detection and treatment. Treatment for glaucoma typically involves lowering eye pressure with medication, laser therapy, or surgery. The goal of treatment is to slow or stop the progression of the disease and preserve vision.
Eye infections, also known as ocular infections, are infections that affect the structures of the eye, including the eyelids, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, and retina. These infections can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other microorganisms, and can range from mild to severe. Common symptoms of eye infections include redness, itching, burning, discharge from the eye, sensitivity to light, and blurred vision. In some cases, eye infections can cause more serious complications, such as vision loss or even blindness. Treatment for eye infections depends on the type and severity of the infection. In general, treatment may involve the use of antibiotics, antiviral medications, or antifungal medications, as well as measures to relieve symptoms such as eye drops or ointments. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or repair damage to the eye. Prevention of eye infections involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding touching the eyes, as well as practicing safe behaviors such as not sharing towels or makeup with others. It is also important to wear protective eyewear when working with chemicals or other substances that can irritate the eyes.
Myopia, also known as nearsightedness, is a common vision condition in which a person can see objects that are close to them clearly, but objects that are far away appear blurry. This occurs when the eyeball is too long or the cornea is too curved, causing light to focus in front of the retina instead of on it. As a result, the person sees distant objects as if they are out of focus. Myopia can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery. It is a common condition, affecting an estimated 2.2 billion people worldwide, and can often be managed with proper eye care and regular eye exams. However, if left untreated, myopia can lead to more serious vision problems, such as glaucoma or cataracts.
Eye infections caused by bacteria are a common type of eye infection that can affect people of all ages. These infections can cause a range of symptoms, including redness, swelling, itching, discharge, and sensitivity to light. Bacterial eye infections can affect the surface of the eye (conjunctivitis) or the inside of the eye (endophthalmitis). Conjunctivitis is the most common type of bacterial eye infection and can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus. Endophthalmitis is a more serious infection that can cause vision loss and is typically treated with antibiotics administered directly into the eye. Bacterial eye infections are usually treated with antibiotics, which can be taken orally or applied directly to the eye. In some cases, additional treatment may be necessary to manage symptoms or prevent complications. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have a bacterial eye infection, as prompt treatment can help prevent the infection from spreading and reduce the risk of complications.
A cataract is a clouding of the natural lens in the eye that affects vision. The lens is responsible for focusing light onto the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. When the lens becomes cloudy, it can interfere with the ability of light to pass through and be focused properly, leading to vision problems. Cataracts are a common age-related condition, but they can also be caused by injury, disease, or certain medications. Symptoms of cataracts may include blurry vision, difficulty seeing at night, sensitivity to light, double vision, and the appearance of halos around lights. Treatment for cataracts typically involves surgery to remove the cloudy lens and replace it with an artificial lens. This procedure, called cataract surgery, is generally safe and effective, and can significantly improve vision in people with cataracts.
Eye infections caused by viruses are a common type of ocular disease. These infections can affect the cornea, conjunctiva, eyelids, and other structures of the eye. Symptoms of viral eye infections may include redness, itching, burning, discharge, sensitivity to light, and blurred vision. Some viral eye infections can be mild and resolve on their own, while others can be more severe and require medical treatment. Common viruses that can cause eye infections include herpes simplex virus (HSV), adenovirus, and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Treatment for viral eye infections may include antiviral medications, pain relief, and measures to prevent the spread of the virus to others. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have a viral eye infection, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Refractive errors are a group of conditions that affect the way light passes through the eye and reaches the retina. The retina is a light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye that converts light into electrical signals that are sent to the brain for processing. When light does not pass through the eye correctly, it can result in refractive errors. Refractive errors can be classified into three main categories: myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism. Myopia occurs when the eye is too long or the cornea is too curved, causing light to focus in front of the retina instead of on it. Hyperopia occurs when the eye is too short or the cornea is too flat, causing light to focus behind the retina instead of on it. Astigmatism occurs when the cornea is irregularly shaped, causing light to focus unevenly on the retina. Refractive errors can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery. The type of correction needed depends on the severity and type of refractive error, as well as the individual's visual needs and lifestyle. Regular eye exams are important for detecting and managing refractive errors to prevent vision loss and maintain good eye health.
Vision disorders refer to a range of conditions that affect an individual's ability to see clearly or perceive visual information accurately. These disorders can affect any part of the visual system, including the eyes, the optic nerve, the brain, or the visual pathways that connect these structures. Some common vision disorders include: 1. Refractive errors: These are errors in the shape of the eye that cause light to focus incorrectly on the retina, leading to blurred vision. Examples include nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), and astigmatism. 2. Cataracts: A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause。 3. Glaucoma: Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss or blindness. 4. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): AMD is a progressive eye disease that affects the macula, the part of the retina responsible for central vision. 5. Diabetic retinopathy: This is a complication of diabetes that can cause damage to the blood vessels in the retina, leading to vision loss. 6. Retinitis pigmentosa: This is a genetic disorder that causes progressive damage to the retina, leading to night blindness and eventually vision loss. 7. Amblyopia: Amblyopia, also known as lazy eye, is a condition in which the brain does not properly use one eye, leading to reduced vision in that eye. These are just a few examples of the many vision disorders that can affect individuals. Treatment for these disorders may include corrective lenses, surgery, medication, or other interventions, depending on the specific condition and its severity.
Retinal detachment is a medical condition in which the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye, separates from the underlying tissue. This can cause vision loss and, if left untreated, can lead to permanent blindness. Retinal detachment can occur due to a variety of factors, including trauma, eye surgery, or certain medical conditions such as diabetes or high blood pressure. Treatment typically involves surgery to repair the detached retina and prevent further damage.
Eye infections caused by fungi are a common type of ocular infection. Fungal eye infections can affect the cornea, conjunctiva, or eyelids. Symptoms of fungal eye infections may include redness, itching, burning, discharge, and sensitivity to light. Treatment for fungal eye infections typically involves the use of antifungal medications, such as topical creams or ointments, or oral medications. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the infected tissue. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have a fungal eye infection, as untreated infections can lead to serious complications, such as vision loss.
Eye infections caused by parasites are a type of ocular disease that can affect the eyes and surrounding structures. These infections are caused by microscopic organisms such as protozoa, helminths, and arthropods that can invade the eye and cause inflammation, irritation, and damage to the eye's tissues. Some common examples of parasitic eye infections include: 1. Trachoma: A bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis that is transmitted through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects. 2. Onchocerciasis: A parasitic infection caused by the worm Onchocerca volvulus that is transmitted through the bite of infected blackflies. 3. River blindness: Another name for onchocerciasis, which is also known as African trypanosomiasis. 4. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii that can be transmitted through contact with infected cat feces or contaminated food and water. 5. Chagas disease: A parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi that is transmitted through the bite of infected triatomine bugs. These infections can cause a range of symptoms, including redness, itching, discharge, pain, and vision loss. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics, antiparasitic medications, or other medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the parasite or repair damage to the eye.
Eye pain, also known as ocular pain, is a condition characterized by discomfort or pain in the eye or surrounding area. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including eye injuries, infections, inflammation, allergies, and other medical conditions. Eye pain can range from mild discomfort to severe pain that can affect vision and overall quality of life. It can also be accompanied by other symptoms such as redness, tearing, sensitivity to light, blurry vision, double vision, and headache. In the medical field, eye pain is typically evaluated by an ophthalmologist or optometrist, who will perform a thorough eye examination to determine the cause of the pain. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, eye drops, surgery, or other interventions. It is important to seek medical attention for eye pain as soon as possible to prevent potential complications and ensure proper treatment.
Strabismus is a medical condition in which the eyes are not aligned properly, causing them to point in different directions. This can result in double vision, difficulty seeing in depth, and other visual problems. Strabismus can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle weakness or paralysis, nerve damage, or problems with the brain's visual processing centers. Treatment for strabismus may include glasses, patches, eye exercises, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.
Eye hemorrhage, also known as ocular hemorrhage, is a medical condition in which there is bleeding within the eye or surrounding structures. This can occur in various parts of the eye, including the conjunctiva, retina, choroid, or vitreous humor. The severity of eye hemorrhage can vary depending on the location and amount of bleeding. In some cases, it may be a minor issue that resolves on its own, while in other cases, it can be a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. Eye hemorrhage can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, high blood pressure, blood disorders, eye infections, and certain medications. It can also be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as a brain tumor or bleeding disorder. Treatment for eye hemorrhage depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the bleeding. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary, while in other cases, medications or surgery may be required to stop the bleeding and prevent further damage to the eye.
Retinal diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the retina, which is the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye. The retina is responsible for converting light into electrical signals that are transmitted to the brain, where they are interpreted as visual images. Retinal diseases can affect any part of the retina, including the photoreceptor cells (rods and cones), the blood vessels, and the supporting cells. Some common types of retinal diseases include: 1. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD): A progressive disease that affects the central part of the retina, leading to vision loss. 2. Diabetic retinopathy: A complication of diabetes that can cause damage to the blood vessels in the retina, leading to vision loss. 3. Retinal detachment: A condition in which the retina separates from the underlying tissue, leading to vision loss if left untreated. 4. Retinitis pigmentosa: A group of inherited retinal diseases that cause progressive vision loss due to the death of photoreceptor cells. 5. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause vision loss. Retinal diseases can be treated with a variety of methods, including medication, laser therapy, surgery, and lifestyle changes. Early detection and treatment are crucial for preserving vision in people with retinal diseases.
Macular degeneration is a medical condition that affects the macula, which is the central part of the retina in the eye responsible for sharp, central vision. There are two main types of macular degeneration: dry and wet. Dry macular degeneration is the most common form and is characterized by the gradual accumulation of small yellow deposits called drusen in the macula. These deposits can cause the retina to thin and the macula to become damaged, leading to a loss of central vision. Wet macular degeneration is less common but more severe. It occurs when abnormal blood vessels grow beneath the retina and leak fluid or blood, causing damage to the macula and leading to a rapid loss of vision. Both forms of macular degeneration can be treated, but the best course of action depends on the severity of the condition and the individual patient's needs. Treatment options may include lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery.
Blindness is a medical condition characterized by a severe loss of vision that affects a person's ability to see and navigate their environment. In medical terms, blindness is defined as visual acuity of less than 20/200 in the better eye, even with corrective lenses. This means that a person with blindness cannot see as well as a person with normal vision, and may have difficulty recognizing faces, reading, or performing other tasks that require good vision. Blindness can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic disorders, eye injuries, infections, diseases such as glaucoma or cataracts, and aging. It can also be caused by neurological conditions such as stroke or brain injury, or by certain medications or toxins. Treatment for blindness depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, corrective lenses or surgery may be able to improve vision. In other cases, rehabilitation and assistive technology such as braille, audio books, and guide dogs may be necessary to help individuals with blindness live independently and participate fully in society.
Amblyopia, also known as lazy eye, is a condition in which one eye fails to develop normal vision while the other eye develops normal vision. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including strabismus (crossed eyes), anisometropia (unequal refractive errors), or a lack of visual input from one eye due to a cataract or other ocular condition. In amblyopia, the brain may not properly integrate the visual information from the affected eye, leading to reduced visual acuity and a decreased ability to see details. Amblyopia can be treated with a combination of glasses or contact lenses, patching the healthy eye, and vision therapy. If left untreated, amblyopia can lead to permanent vision loss in the affected eye.
Hyperopia, also known as farsightedness, is a common vision condition in which an individual is able to see distant objects clearly, but has difficulty focusing on objects that are close to them. This occurs because the eyeball is shorter than normal, or the cornea is too flat, causing light to focus behind the retina instead of on it. As a result, the images appear blurry or indistinct to the person with hyperopia. Hyperopia can be corrected with glasses or contact lenses that have a convex lens, which helps to focus the light onto the retina. In some cases, refractive surgery may also be an option to correct hyperopia.
Ocular hypertension is a condition characterized by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) within the eye, which is above the normal range of 10-21 mmHg. The elevated IOP can cause damage to the optic nerve, leading to vision loss or even blindness if left untreated. Ocular hypertension is often asymptomatic, meaning that individuals with the condition may not experience any noticeable symptoms. However, it is considered a risk factor for the development of glaucoma, a progressive eye disease that can cause irreversible vision loss. Diagnosis of ocular hypertension typically involves measuring the IOP using a tonometer, a device that measures the pressure within the eye. If the IOP is consistently above 21 mmHg, the individual may be diagnosed with ocular hypertension. Treatment for ocular hypertension typically involves medications to lower the IOP, such as eye drops or oral medications. In some cases, laser surgery or other procedures may be recommended to reduce the pressure within the eye. Regular monitoring of the IOP is also important to ensure that the condition is being effectively managed and to detect any potential complications.
Glaucoma, open-angle, is a type of glaucoma that occurs when the drainage system in the eye becomes blocked or damaged, leading to an increase in pressure within the eye. This increased pressure can damage the optic nerve, which can result in vision loss or blindness if left untreated. In open-angle glaucoma, the drainage system of the eye is not completely blocked, but rather the angle between the iris and the cornea becomes narrower, reducing the amount of fluid that can drain out of the eye. This can cause the pressure within the eye to gradually increase over time, leading to damage to the optic nerve. Open-angle glaucoma is the most common type of glaucoma and is often referred to as "the sneak thief of sight" because it typically progresses slowly and without noticeable symptoms in the early stages. However, if left untreated, it can cause significant vision loss or blindness. Treatment for open-angle glaucoma typically involves medications to lower the pressure within the eye, laser surgery, or surgery to improve the drainage of fluid from the eye.
Optic nerve diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the optic nerve, which is the nerve responsible for transmitting visual information from the retina to the brain. These diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including vision loss, eye pain, and changes in visual perception. Some common optic nerve diseases include: 1. Glaucoma: A group of eye diseases that damage the optic nerve, often caused by elevated pressure inside the eye. 2. Optic neuritis: Inflammation of the optic nerve that can cause vision loss, eye pain, and sensitivity to light. 3. Optic atrophy: A condition in which the optic nerve becomes thin and weak, leading to vision loss. 4. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy: A genetic disorder that causes progressive vision loss, often starting in young adulthood. 5. Optic nerve drusen: Small deposits of calcium and other minerals that can form on the optic nerve, causing vision loss. 6. Optic nerve glioma: A type of brain tumor that can affect the optic nerve, causing vision loss and other symptoms. Treatment for optic nerve diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. In some cases, medications or surgery may be used to manage symptoms or slow the progression of the disease. Early detection and treatment are important for preserving vision and preventing further damage to the optic nerve.
DNA, Bacterial refers to the genetic material of bacteria, which is a type of single-celled microorganism that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the human body. Bacterial DNA is typically circular in shape and contains genes that encode for the proteins necessary for the bacteria to survive and reproduce. In the medical field, bacterial DNA is often studied as a means of identifying and diagnosing bacterial infections. Bacterial DNA can be extracted from samples such as blood, urine, or sputum and analyzed using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or DNA sequencing. This information can be used to identify the specific type of bacteria causing an infection and to determine the most effective treatment. Bacterial DNA can also be used in research to study the evolution and diversity of bacteria, as well as their interactions with other organisms and the environment. Additionally, bacterial DNA can be modified or manipulated to create genetically engineered bacteria with specific properties, such as the ability to produce certain drugs or to degrade pollutants.
Uveitis is an inflammation of the uvea, which is the middle layer of the eye that includes the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. It can affect one or both eyes and can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. Symptoms of uveitis may include redness, pain, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, and floaters. If left untreated, uveitis can lead to serious complications, such as glaucoma, cataracts, and vision loss. Treatment for uveitis typically involves the use of corticosteroids and other anti-inflammatory medications, as well as management of any underlying causes of the inflammation.
Astigmatism is a common refractive error that affects the way light enters the eye and is focused on the retina. It occurs when the cornea, the clear outer layer of the eye, is not perfectly round, but instead has an irregular shape that causes light to bend differently at different points. This results in blurred vision at all distances, as well as the perception of distorted or wavy vision. Astigmatism can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, eye injuries, and certain medical conditions such as keratoconus. It can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery. In some cases, astigmatism may also be associated with other eye conditions, such as cataracts or glaucoma, and may require additional treatment.
Hereditary eye diseases are a group of conditions that are caused by genetic mutations and are passed down from parents to their children. These diseases can affect various parts of the eye, including the retina, lens, cornea, and optic nerve, and can cause a range of symptoms, from mild vision problems to complete blindness. Some common examples of hereditary eye diseases include: 1. Retinitis pigmentosa: A group of inherited diseases that cause progressive damage to the retina, leading to vision loss and eventual blindness. 2. Congenital cataracts: A condition in which the lens of the eye becomes cloudy before or shortly after birth. 3. Glaucoma: A group of eye diseases that can cause damage to the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. 4. Macular degeneration: A condition in which the central part of the retina, called the macula, begins to deteriorate, leading to vision loss. 5. Usher syndrome: A group of inherited disorders that affect both hearing and vision. Hereditary eye diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including genetic testing, ophthalmic exams, and imaging studies. Treatment options may include medications, surgery, and other interventions, depending on the specific disease and its severity. Early detection and treatment are important for managing these conditions and preserving vision.
Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.
Ocular motility disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect the movement of the eyes. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including damage to the nerves or muscles that control eye movement, problems with the brain's ability to coordinate eye movements, or abnormalities in the shape or position of the eyes or orbit. Symptoms of ocular motility disorders can include double vision, difficulty tracking objects with the eyes, limited ability to move the eyes in certain directions, and a sensation of the eyes being stuck or unable to move. These symptoms can be caused by a variety of conditions, including muscle weakness or paralysis, nerve damage, or problems with the brain's control of eye movement. Diagnosis of ocular motility disorders typically involves a comprehensive eye examination, including tests of eye movement and coordination, as well as imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment options for ocular motility disorders depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, physical therapy, or surgery. In some cases, corrective lenses or other optical aids may also be helpful in improving vision and reducing symptoms.
Corneal opacity is a medical condition that refers to a decrease in transparency or clarity of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea is responsible for refracting light and allowing it to pass through the eye to the retina, where it is converted into electrical signals that are sent to the brain for interpretation. Corneal opacity can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, infection, inflammation, scarring, and certain diseases such as keratoconus or Fuchs' dystrophy. It can also be a symptom of other eye conditions, such as cataracts or glaucoma. The severity of corneal opacity can vary widely, ranging from mild cloudiness or haze to complete opacity, which can result in vision loss or blindness. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the opacity, and may include medications, surgery, or the use of artificial corneas or other devices to improve vision.
Endophthalmitis is a serious medical condition that occurs when the inner part of the eye, called the vitreous humor, becomes infected or inflamed. This can happen as a result of a bacterial, fungal, or viral infection, or it can be caused by a traumatic injury to the eye. Symptoms of endophthalmitis may include severe eye pain, redness, sensitivity to light, and vision loss. If left untreated, endophthalmitis can lead to permanent vision loss or even blindness. Treatment for endophthalmitis typically involves the use of antibiotics or antifungal medications to fight the infection, as well as surgery to remove any infected or damaged tissue from the eye. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else may have endophthalmitis, as prompt treatment is crucial for preventing permanent damage to the eye.
Diabetic Retinopathy is a medical condition that affects the blood vessels in the retina, which is the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. It is a common complication of diabetes mellitus, and it can lead to vision loss if left untreated. Diabetic Retinopathy occurs when high blood sugar levels damage the blood vessels in the retina, causing them to leak or become blocked. This can lead to swelling, bleeding, and the formation of abnormal blood vessels, which can further damage the retina and cause vision loss. There are two main types of diabetic retinopathy: non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is the more common type and is characterized by damage to the blood vessels in the retina, but without the formation of new blood vessels. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is a more advanced form of the disease, and it is characterized by the growth of new blood vessels in the retina, which can cause bleeding and further vision loss. Diabetic Retinopathy is typically diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include dilating the pupils to allow for a better view of the retina. Treatment options for Diabetic Retinopathy may include laser therapy, medication, or surgery, depending on the severity of the condition. Early detection and treatment are crucial for preventing vision loss in people with diabetes.
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, which is the thin, transparent membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye. It is commonly known as "pink eye" and can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, allergies, irritants, and certain medications. The symptoms of conjunctivitis can include redness, itching, tearing, sensitivity to light, and discharge from the eyes. The severity and duration of the symptoms can vary depending on the cause of the inflammation. Treatment for conjunctivitis depends on the underlying cause. For bacterial conjunctivitis, antibiotics may be prescribed. For viral conjunctivitis, there is no specific treatment, but the symptoms can be managed with over-the-counter eye drops or ointments. Allergic conjunctivitis can be treated with antihistamines or allergy drops. In some cases, the conjunctivitis may resolve on its own without any treatment. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have conjunctivitis, as it can be contagious and can spread to others, especially if it is caused by a virus.
Aphakia is a medical condition in which the lens of the eye is completely or partially missing. This can occur due to trauma, surgery, or a congenital defect. Without a lens, the eye is unable to focus light properly, leading to vision loss or blindness. In some cases, an artificial lens may be implanted to replace the missing lens and restore vision. Aphakia can also increase the risk of other eye problems, such as cataracts and glaucoma.
Glaucoma, Angle-Closure is a type of glaucoma that occurs when the angle between the iris and the cornea becomes blocked, leading to an increase in pressure within the eye. This pressure can damage the optic nerve, which can result in vision loss or blindness if left untreated. Angle-closure glaucoma is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment to prevent permanent vision loss. It is more common in people of Asian descent and is often associated with certain eye conditions, such as narrow angles or high myopia. Treatment options for angle-closure glaucoma include laser therapy, medication, and surgery.
Vitreous detachment is a condition in which the vitreous humor, a clear gel-like substance that fills the inside of the eye, separates from the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. This can occur as a result of aging, injury, or certain medical conditions such as diabetes or high blood pressure. Vitreous detachment is usually a benign condition and does not typically cause vision loss. However, in some cases, it can cause symptoms such as floaters, which are small specks or cobwebs that appear in the field of vision, or, which are brief flashes of light. In rare cases, a large detachment can cause a retinal tear or hole, which can lead to more serious vision problems. Treatment for vitreous detachment is typically not necessary unless it is causing significant symptoms or there is a risk of retinal detachment. In these cases, a doctor may recommend observation, medication, or surgery to repair the retinal tear or hole.
Pseudophakia is a medical condition in which a person has an artificial lens implanted in their eye, but the natural lens has not been removed. This is in contrast to phakia, which refers to a person who has a natural lens in their eye. Pseudophakia is often seen in people who have had cataract surgery, in which the natural lens is removed and replaced with an artificial one. The term "pseudophakia" is used to distinguish between people who have had cataract surgery and those who have not.
Pathologic nystagmus refers to an involuntary, rhythmic oscillation of the eyes that is abnormal or excessive. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including neurological disorders, eye diseases, head injuries, and certain medications. Pathologic nystagmus can affect the eyes' ability to focus and may cause double vision or other visual disturbances. It can also be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, so it is important to seek medical attention if you experience pathologic nystagmus.
Retinal Perforations refer to a hole or tear in the retina, which is the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye. This can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, high blood pressure, or eye infections. Retinal Perforations can lead to a condition called retinal detachment, which is a serious medical emergency that requires prompt medical attention. Retinal detachment occurs when the retina separates from the underlying tissue, causing vision loss and potentially permanent damage to the eye. Treatment for Retinal Perforations may include surgery to repair the tear or hole in the retina, as well as medications to manage any underlying conditions that may have contributed to the perforation.
Drosophila proteins are proteins that are found in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which is a widely used model organism in genetics and molecular biology research. These proteins have been studied extensively because they share many similarities with human proteins, making them useful for understanding the function and regulation of human genes and proteins. In the medical field, Drosophila proteins are often used as a model for studying human diseases, particularly those that are caused by genetic mutations. By studying the effects of these mutations on Drosophila proteins, researchers can gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of these diseases and potentially identify new therapeutic targets. Drosophila proteins have also been used to study a wide range of biological processes, including development, aging, and neurobiology. For example, researchers have used Drosophila to study the role of specific genes and proteins in the development of the nervous system, as well as the mechanisms underlying age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
Keratoconus is a progressive eye condition that affects the shape of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. In people with keratoconus, the cornea becomes thinner and bulges outward, creating a cone-like shape. This can cause vision problems, including distorted vision, difficulty seeing at night, and sensitivity to light. Keratoconus can affect people of all ages, but it is most common in teenagers and young adults. The exact cause of keratoconus is not known, but it is thought to be related to genetics and environmental factors such as eye rubbing or exposure to strong wind or sand. Treatment for keratoconus depends on the severity of the condition and the impact it has on vision. In mild cases, glasses or contact lenses may be sufficient to correct vision. In more severe cases, a type of contact lens called a rigid gas-permeable lens or a corneal transplant may be necessary.
Fluorescein is a water-soluble yellow-green dye that is commonly used in the medical field for diagnostic purposes. It is often injected into the bloodstream or applied topically to the skin or mucous membranes to visualize blood vessels, detect inflammation, and assess the integrity of the retina in the eye. Fluorescein is absorbed by the blood vessels and emits a bright green fluorescence when exposed to ultraviolet light. This allows healthcare providers to visualize the blood vessels and detect any abnormalities, such as leaks or blockages, that may be present. Fluorescein is also used in ophthalmology to detect and diagnose a variety of eye conditions, including macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal detachment. In these cases, a small amount of fluorescein dye is injected into the bloodstream and allowed to circulate before being absorbed by the retina. The dye then emits a bright green fluorescence, allowing healthcare providers to visualize the retina and detect any abnormalities or damage. Overall, fluorescein is a valuable tool in the medical field for visualizing blood vessels and detecting a variety of conditions and abnormalities.
Eye manifestations refer to any signs or symptoms that occur in the eye as a result of a medical condition or disease. These can include changes in vision, such as blurred or distorted vision, sensitivity to light, or difficulty seeing at night. Other eye manifestations may include redness, swelling, pain, discharge, or changes in the appearance of the eye, such as the formation of a white or yellowish spot on the iris (the colored part of the eye). Eye manifestations can be caused by a wide range of medical conditions, including infections, injuries, autoimmune disorders, and certain types of cancer. They can also be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as a neurological disorder or a systemic disease that affects the eyes.
Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a condition in which new blood vessels grow abnormally in the choroid, a layer of tissue in the eye that supplies blood to the retina. CNV can occur as a result of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a common eye disease that affects the central part of the retina, or as a complication of other eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy or uveitis. CNV can cause vision loss and is a leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 50. The new blood vessels that form in the choroid can leak fluid and blood into the retina, causing swelling and damage to the delicate tissue. This can lead to a distortion of vision, including blurry or distorted vision, and in severe cases, complete vision loss. Treatment for CNV depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, laser therapy or photodynamic therapy may be used to destroy the abnormal blood vessels and prevent further damage to the retina. In other cases, medications such as anti-VEGF drugs may be used to reduce the growth of new blood vessels and slow the progression of the disease. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the abnormal blood vessels or repair the damage to the retina.
Macular edema is a medical condition that occurs when there is fluid accumulation in the macula, which is the central part of the retina responsible for sharp, central vision. This fluid accumulation can cause swelling and damage to the macula, leading to vision loss or distortion. Macular edema can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, high blood pressure, retinal vein occlusion, and age-related macular degeneration. It can also be a complication of certain eye surgeries or injuries. Treatment for macular edema depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medications such as anti-inflammatory drugs or steroids may be prescribed to reduce inflammation and swelling. Laser therapy or photodynamic therapy may also be used to treat certain types of macular edema. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the fluid and restore vision.
Aphakia, postcataract refers to the condition of having no lens in the eye after cataract surgery. Cataract surgery involves removing the cloudy natural lens of the eye and replacing it with an artificial lens. If the natural lens is not removed completely during surgery, or if the artificial lens does not fit properly, it can result in aphakia. This condition can cause a variety of visual problems, including difficulty focusing on objects, sensitivity to light, and double vision. Treatment for aphakia may include the use of glasses or contact lenses to correct vision, or the implantation of a new artificial lens.
Microphthalmos is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally small size of one or both eyes. The term "microphthalmos" comes from the Greek words "micros," meaning small, and "ophthalmos," meaning eye. Microphthalmos can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to certain teratogens (substances that can cause birth defects), or abnormalities in the development of the eye during fetal development. Symptoms of microphthalmos may include a small, misshapen eye, reduced vision, and an increased risk of developing glaucoma or other eye problems. In some cases, microphthalmos can also be associated with other medical conditions, such as cleft palate or intellectual disability. Treatment for microphthalmos depends on the severity of the condition and the specific symptoms experienced by the individual. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct vision or prevent complications such as glaucoma. In other cases, supportive care and regular monitoring by an ophthalmologist may be sufficient.
Uveal diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the uvea, which is the middle layer of the eye that includes the iris, ciliary body, and choroid. The uvea plays a crucial role in regulating the amount of light that enters the eye and maintaining the shape of the eye. Uveal diseases can be classified into several categories, including inflammatory diseases, neoplastic diseases, and degenerative diseases. Some common examples of uveal diseases include: 1. Uveitis: Inflammation of the uvea, which can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, or other underlying medical conditions. 2. Glaucoma: A group of eye diseases that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss. 3. Retinal detachment: A condition in which the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye, separates from the underlying tissue. 4. Cataracts: A clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause vision loss. 5. Age-related macular degeneration: A progressive eye disease that affects the central part of the retina and can lead to vision loss. 6. Tumors: Benign or malignant tumors that can develop in the uvea. Uveal diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including eye exams, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. Treatment options depend on the specific disease and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions. Early detection and treatment are important for preventing vision loss and preserving eye health.
Vitreous hemorrhage is a medical condition in which blood accumulates within the vitreous humor, a clear gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina in the eye. This can occur due to a variety of causes, including trauma, bleeding disorders, diabetes, high blood pressure, and age-related changes in the eye. Vitreous hemorrhage can cause a range of symptoms, including floaters (spots or specks that appear to move around in the field of vision), blurred vision, and vision loss. In some cases, the blood may settle at the back of the eye and cause a shadow or obscuration of the vision. If the hemorrhage is severe or if it occurs in conjunction with other eye problems, it may require prompt medical attention. Treatment for vitreous hemorrhage depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the bleeding. In some cases, the blood may resolve on its own over time, and no treatment may be necessary. However, if the bleeding is severe or if it is causing significant vision loss, the doctor may recommend surgery to remove the blood and restore vision.
Paired box transcription factors (PAX genes) are a family of transcription factors that play important roles in the development and differentiation of various tissues and organs in the body. These proteins are characterized by a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the paired box, which allows them to recognize and bind to specific DNA sequences. PAX genes are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. They are expressed in many different tissues and organs throughout the body, including the brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, and reproductive organs. Mutations in PAX genes can lead to a variety of developmental disorders and diseases, including eye disorders, brain malformations, and certain types of cancer. Understanding the role of PAX genes in development and disease is an active area of research in the medical field.
Anisometropia is a condition in which the two eyes have different refractive errors, meaning that the amount of light that is focused on the retina is not the same in both eyes. This can cause blurred vision, headaches, and other symptoms. Anisometropia can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, eye injuries, and certain medical conditions. It is typically diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam and can be treated with corrective lenses or surgery.
A corneal ulcer is a painful, open sore or lesion that develops on the surface of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped front part of the eye. It is a common eye condition that can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections, trauma, exposure to irritants or chemicals, and certain diseases such as dry eye or autoimmune disorders. Symptoms of a corneal ulcer may include redness, pain, sensitivity to light, tearing, and vision changes. If left untreated, a corneal ulcer can cause serious complications, such as vision loss, scarring, and even perforation of the cornea, which can lead to blindness. Treatment for a corneal ulcer typically involves the use of antibiotics, antiviral, or antifungal medications to clear the infection, as well as the use of eye drops or ointments to reduce inflammation and promote healing. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or repair the cornea. It is important to seek prompt medical attention if you suspect you may have a corneal ulcer, as early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing complications and preserving vision.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
Coloboma is a medical term used to describe a congenital (present at birth) abnormality of the eye. It is characterized by a defect or hole in the eye's iris, retina, or choroid, which can result in visual impairment or blindness. Coloboma can occur in one or both eyes and can affect different parts of the eye, including the optic nerve, retina, and choroid. It is often associated with other genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, and can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition. Treatment for coloboma depends on the severity of the defect and may include surgery, glasses or contact lenses, and other interventions to improve vision and manage any associated complications.
Silicone oils are a type of synthetic oil that are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes. They are made from silicone polymers and are known for their low viscosity, high thermal stability, and chemical inertness. In the medical field, silicone oils are often used as a lubricant in surgical procedures, as well as in the manufacture of medical devices such as catheters, implants, and prosthetics. They are also used as a treatment for certain eye conditions, such as retinal detachment, where they are injected into the eye to help the retina reattach to the back of the eye. Silicone oils are generally considered safe for medical use, although they can cause some side effects, such as irritation or allergic reactions. They are also not recommended for use in patients with certain medical conditions, such as silicone allergy or compromised immune systems.
Retinal drusen are small, yellow or white deposits that can form on the retina, which is the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. They are a common finding in older adults and are often associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of vision loss in older adults. Retinal drusen are usually asymptomatic and do not cause vision loss on their own, but they can be a sign of early AMD or other eye diseases. In some cases, larger or more numerous drusen may be a risk factor for developing advanced AMD, which can cause significant vision loss.
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List of companies operating in West Bank settlements
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Library of Congress Classification:Class R -- Medicine
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Association of America3
- He serves on the Board of Directors of the Eye Bank Association of America. (iowalionseyebank.org)
- Adam is a skilled trainer and active member of numerous Eye Bank Association of America committees and boards, including current service as Certification Board chair, Accreditation Board member, and Medical Advisory Board member. (iowalionseyebank.org)
- Edelstein SL, DeMatteo J, Stoeger CG, Macsai MS, Wang CH. Report of the Eye Bank Association of America Medical Review Subcommittee on adverse reactions reported from 2007 to 2014 external icon . (cdc.gov)
- Esther joined Iowa Lions Eye Bank as executive director in January 2019. (iowalionseyebank.org)
- Jessica originally joined Iowa Lions Eye Bank in September of 2019 as a senior systems administrator. (iowalionseyebank.org)
- The retail banking portfolio reached around $395m by the end of 2020, recording a growth of 60% compared to 2019. (zawya.com)
- FILTON EYE BANK Contaminated Corneas in Organ Media 2018- 28 (0.91%) 2019 -45 (1.10%), 2020- 27 (1.03%), 2021- 39 (1.41%), 2022- 43 (2.1%) (until 15/08/22)Most common Identified Organisms C.Ablicans C. glabrata C.paraphilotisContaminated In Dextran Pre- Transplant 2018- 4 (0.17%) 2019 -6 (0.18%), 2020- 9 (0.46%), 2021- 0 (0%), 2022- 3 (0.3%) (until 15/08/22). (bvsalud.org)
- Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) or Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) usually is indicated for eyes with endothelial disease alongside other comorbidities (eg, glaucoma, iris defect, history of vitrectomy). (medscape.com)
- Preexisting clinical conditions for penetrating keratoplasty were found, such as changes in vascularization, glaucoma, previous surgery, aphakic and pseudophakic eyes and keratoplasties combined with other types of surgeries. (bvsalud.org)
- He treats patients experiencing corneal disease and ulcers, dry eye, eye infections, and red eye, and performs LASIK and laser vision correction surgery. (iowalionseyebank.org)
- What Causes Fungal Eye Infections? (cdc.gov)
- Some fungi that cause eye infections, such as Fusarium , live in the environment and are often associated with plant material. (cdc.gov)
- People who have had surgery to replace their corneas (the clear, front layer of the eye) are at higher risk of fungal eye infections. (cdc.gov)
- Fungal eye infections could happen after an invasive eye procedure such as an injection. (cdc.gov)
- Some infections have been traced to contaminated medical products such as contact lens solution, 3 irrigation solution 4 and dye 5 used during eye surgery, or corticosteroids injected directly into the eye. (cdc.gov)
- Rarely, fungal eye infections can happen after a fungal bloodstream infection such as candidemia spreads to the eye. (cdc.gov)
- The "face" of Eye Donation Month: A Community of Compassion, is Zoe (front left), recipient of a corneal transplant at only 6 weeks old. (restoresight.org)
- Less often, infection can occur after eye surgery such as corneal transplant surgery or cataract surgery. (cdc.gov)
- From 2007 to 2014, endophthalmitis, or infection of the interior of the eye, became more than twice as common for people with recent corneal transplant surgery. (cdc.gov)
- Regional bank First Republic Bank (FRC.N) slid 19.2%, following a downgrade by S&P Global and a report of more fundraising that fanned worries about the bank's liquidity despite a $30-billion rescue last week. (kitco.com)
- Towards NY close, the BOE Governor Carney's speech will be eyed for further insights into the central bank's policy outcome, as he is scheduled to speak at the Mansion House dinner, in London. (fxstreet.com)
- All eyes will, however, be on the central bank's president, Jean-Claude Trichet, to see if he alludes to the prospect of an acceleration in monetary-policy tightening further down the line. (centralbanking.com)
- What is the current size of saib Bank's retail banking portfolio? (zawya.com)
- Jessica develops, implements, and evaluates solutions that strategically advance eye bank and cornea service research for teaching and clinical translation for patient service. (iowalionseyebank.org)
- At 5 years' follow-up in the Cornea Donor Study, 23% of subjects had at least one rejection event, and 37% of the eyes with a rejection event had graft failure. (medscape.com)
- The cornea is the clear outer lens on the front of the eye. (medlineplus.gov)
- The donated cornea is processed and tested by a local eye bank to make sure it is safe for use in your surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
- Besides, the Euro and GBP traded with moderate losses along with the Swiss Franc, as markets look forward to the Swiss National Bank (SNB) and Bank of England (BOE) monetary policy announcements for the next direction. (fxstreet.com)
- With the European Central Bank all but certain to go with another 25bps this week, likely to be followed next week by the Swiss National Bank and the Bank of England, the Federal Reserve could well turn out to be an outlier. (cmcmarkets.com)
- NHS Blood and Transplant Tissue and Eye Services (TES) is a human multi- tissue , tissue bank supplying tissue for transplant to surgeons throughout the UK. (bvsalud.org)
- College of Wisconsin, current era from 28 patients with septal defects who factor HEY2 in formalin fixed tissue taken from a Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA underwent cardiac surgery and who were enrolled in our collection of hearts with atrial septal defects congenital heart disease tissue bank. (cdc.gov)
- The S&P Banking index (.SPXBK) and the KBW Regional Banking index (.KRX) on Friday logged their largest two-week drop since March 2020. (kitco.com)
- Most common Identified Organisms Bacillus speciesDavid Lucas Eye Bank Contaminated Corneas in Organ Media 2020- 20(1.8%), 2021- 37(1.96%), 2022- 21(1.4%) (until 15/08/22). (bvsalud.org)
- NHSBT Eye Banks performs initial Microbiology sampling on all Corneas in Corneas in Organ Culture Media at 7 Days. (bvsalud.org)
- More hawkish members of the ECB have expressed hopes that the euro zone's central bank will be able to unwind its coronavirus stimulus program, known as PEPP, in the latter part of 2021. (nbcphiladelphia.com)
- Traders have raised bets of the Fed likely hitting a pause on rate hikes on Wednesday to ensure financial stability as bank sector troubles triggered by the collapse of Silicon Valley Bank and Signature Bank (SBNY.O) threaten to snowball. (kitco.com)
- This week might provide the catalyst for a change given last week's surprise rate hikes from the Reserve Bank of Australian and the Bank of Canada when the majority consensus had been for a hold from both. (cmcmarkets.com)
- Sticky core inflation is proving to be a rather intractable problem for central banks, and last week's hikes have got people thinking that a Fed "pause" this week may not be the slam dunk they think it is. (cmcmarkets.com)
- Bank of England Governor Andrew Bailey refused to exclude the possibility of further rate hikes in remarks to lawmakers on Wednesday. (yahoo.com)
- The yen has bounced back but remains under pressure, with the Bank of Japan's ultra-loose monetary policy, notably no rate hikes, expected to keep it from rallying much higher. (yahoo.com)
- All but two of the 43 economists polled by Bloomberg recently expect the European Central Bank (ECB) to keep interest rates at 2.75% this week. (centralbanking.com)
- LONDON - The European Central Bank decided on Thursday to keep its policy unchanged while market players look for clues on when its massive monetary stimulus might start to be wound down. (nbcphiladelphia.com)
- The European Central Bank is due to announce its latest monetary policy decision next week, followed by the Bank of England and the US Federal Reserve one week later. (yahoo.com)
- Both the central banks are expected to make no changes to its monetary policy settings and therefore, are likely to be a non-event. (fxstreet.com)
- The Bank of England (BoE) nine members strong Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) is expected to hold the Bank rate at 0.50% and the volume of the asset purchasing unchanged this Thursday. (fxstreet.com)
- It is worth mentioning that real estate mortgage is one of our priorities at saib Bank, in accordance with the Central Bank of Egypt (CBE) initiative. (zawya.com)
- Donor corneas processed in accordance with APABO (Pan American Association of Eye Banks) standards are used for transplantation. (who.int)
- Leading development banks are seeking to tap into the vast assets run by pension and fund managers as they try to ramp up low carbon investments in emerging markets. (climatechangenews.com)
- Inget yttrande i materialet utgör en rekommendation från CMC Markets eller författaren om en viss investering, säkerhet, transaktion eller investeringsstrategi. (cmcmarkets.com)
- Top central banks also moved on Sunday to bolster the flow of cash around the world, with the Fed offering daily currency swaps to ensure banks in Canada, Britain, Japan, Switzerland and the eurozone would have the dollars needed to operate. (kitco.com)
- With inflation still well over double the target rate for all central banks can the US Federal Reserve really afford the luxury of a pause, or are they right to be careful given the deflation coming out of China. (cmcmarkets.com)
- This week's central bank decisions could go a long way in determining how much further central banks are prepared to go before they can offer any insight into when they expect to stop raising rates. (cmcmarkets.com)
- This is in addition to our digital banking services. (zawya.com)
- This has certainly happened, and is reflected in the numbers of subscribers in our digital banking services and channels. (zawya.com)
- The second tenant, Apex Fund Services, is understood to have made a commitment to lease 1,383sq m (15,000sq ft) at a headline rent similar to the one agreed with Depfa Bank. (irishtimes.com)
- Also Elizabeth Glaser Paediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF), Global Fund (GF), UNICEF, UNDP, US Center for Disease Control (CDC), World Bank and WHO. (who.int)
- Financial support for genomic sequencing through WHO, is being provided by the African Development Bank as well as Health Pool Fund donors that include the European Union and the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO). (who.int)
- And these land banks, what they do, is access a whole wealth of grants to put together funding in order to get properties out of a state that no one else can turn around because of costs that would occur," Ellis said. (adirondackdailyenterprise.com)
- recommended Nichole Walker, senior wealth planner at City National Bank. (cnb.com)
- Over the weekend, UBS (UBS.N) agreed to buy rival Credit Suisse for $3.23 billion, in a shotgun merger engineered by Swiss authorities to avoid more market-shaking turmoil in global banking. (kitco.com)
- According to localhousingsolutions.org, land banks are defined as public authorities or nonprofit organizations created to acquire, hold, manage and redevelop property so that it may have a productive use to meet community goals, such as increasing affordable housing or stabilizing property values. (adirondackdailyenterprise.com)
- Thursday's big event is the Bank of England's (BoE) rate call, due at 11:00 GMT, and the central bank is widely expected to remain on hold on rates. (fxstreet.com)
- P10-A128â Trending of contamination rates across NHSBT eye banks. (bvsalud.org)
- Processes and facilities are of same standard between the two NHSBT Eye Banks and contamination rates are comparable. (bvsalud.org)
- Did she/he EVER have any eye problems, procedures or surgery? (cdc.gov)
- Local anesthesia (numbing medicine) will be injected around your eye to block pain and prevent eye movement during the surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
- A small number of people who have this surgery (about 4 to 7 for every 10,000 transplants) develop a fungal eye infection. (cdc.gov)
- We are delighted with the outcome and welcome both Apex and Depfa Bank as our new neighbours within the development," she said. (irishtimes.com)
- Does the national programme for Community Health Workers include eye health? (who.int)
- Eyes were not ex- leading to development of OT are poorly understood. (cdc.gov)
- MALONE - The Franklin County Economic Development Corp. and county legislators are discussing establishing a county land bank to address blighted properties and vacant houses. (adirondackdailyenterprise.com)
- Jeremy Evans, CEO of the development corporation, told legislators during their regular meeting Thursday morning that FCEDC officials and county officials have already been talking about regional land banks. (adirondackdailyenterprise.com)
- The county and the FCEDC had participated in regional discussions about land banks, which were sponsored by Keeseville-based ADKAction, and have researched the best practices of more successful land banks, the development corporation has said. (adirondackdailyenterprise.com)
- Video Data Bank is proud to represent the extensive video catalogs of renowned moving image makers George and Mike Kuchar. (vdb.org)
- As a result, data from Deutsche Bank showed the ECB purchased 74 billion euros in bonds in March, up from 53 billion and 60 billion euros in February and January. (nbcphiladelphia.com)
- But, that doesn't mean your bank will clear them. (marketplace.org)
- Payment service providers that do not meet the March 14 deadline for applying strong customer authentication for open banking in the UK can expect unforgiving enforcement action from the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA), experts have said. (foxwilliams.com)
- First Security Bank in Storden, Minnesota is a full-service bank, offering consumer and commercial products specializing in Ag banking and small business lending. (firstsecuritybanks.com)
- This will enhance the quality and speed of service that the bank provides, leading to a higher level of customer satisfaction. (zawya.com)
- Close Estás ingresando al nuevo sitio web de U.S. Bank en español. (usbank.com)
- Depfa Bank, formerly based in the nearby IFSC, has completed contacts to lease 1,856sq m (20,000sq ft) on the third and fourth floors of Block 5 at a rent of €484 per sq m (€45/sq ft). (irishtimes.com)
- What is the role that saib Bank plays in achieving financial inclusion? (zawya.com)
- Improper body posture and long hours in front of these terminals can result in many health hazards, including eye strain and fatigue and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) . (who.int)
- Do budgetary appropriations for Eye Health exist at MoH level? (who.int)
- Does the National coordinator/focal person for Eye Health exist in the country? (who.int)
- EBAA is the nationally-recognized accrediting and standards setting body for eye banks. (restoresight.org)
- According to the New York State Land Bank Program, a total of 35 land banks can be active simultaneously. (adirondackdailyenterprise.com)
- It's worked hard to regain its credibility and this banking issue really throws a wrench into it. (kitco.com)
- Dr. Sales also has expertise in eye banking. (iowalionseyebank.org)
- To buy single issues or subscribe , visit the Eye Shop or call +44 1371 851885. (eyemagazine.com)
- If you don't have a Central Banking account, please register for a trial. (centralbanking.com)
- If you have other eye problems, you may still have vision loss from those conditions. (medlineplus.gov)
- Demand for clean energy, transport and infrastructure solutions in developing countries is soaring, the head of the World Bank-affiliated Climate Investment Funds (CIFs) told Climate Home. (climatechangenews.com)