Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Eye Banks: Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.Keratoplasty, Penetrating: Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.Tissue Preservation: The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty: A surgical procedure or KERATOPLASTY involving selective stripping and replacement of diseased host DESCEMET MEMBRANE and CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM with a suitable and healthy donor posterior lamella. The advantage to this procedure is that the normal corneal surface of the recipient is retained, thereby avoiding corneal surface incisions and sutures.Tissue Banks: Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing organs or tissue for future use.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy: Disorder caused by loss of endothelium of the central cornea. It is characterized by hyaline endothelial outgrowths on Descemet's membrane, epithelial blisters, reduced vision, and pain.Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Macula Lutea: An oval area in the retina, 3 to 5 mm in diameter, usually located temporal to the posterior pole of the eye and slightly below the level of the optic disk. It is characterized by the presence of a yellow pigment diffusely permeating the inner layers, contains the fovea centralis in its center, and provides the best phototropic visual acuity. It is devoid of retinal blood vessels, except in its periphery, and receives nourishment from the choriocapillaris of the choroid. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Blood Banks: Centers for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Eye Color: Color of the iris.Sperm Banks: Centers for acquiring and storing semen.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Milk Banks: Centers for acquiring, storing, and distributing human milk.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Compound Eye, Arthropod: Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Biological Specimen Banks: Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Eye Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.Eye Movement Measurements: Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Posterior Eye Segment: The back two-thirds of the eye that includes the anterior hyaloid membrane and all of the optical structures behind it: the VITREOUS HUMOR; RETINA; CHOROID; and OPTIC NERVE.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.National Practitioner Data Bank: A databank established by the Health Care Quality Improvement Act of 1986 authorizing the Department of Health and Human Services to collect and release information on the professional competence and conduct of physicians, dentists, nurses, and other health care practitioners. The data include adverse actions on physicians' malpractice, licensure, hospital privileges, concealing of pertinent information, and the like.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Eye Infections: Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.Axial Length, Eye: The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.Netherlands Antilles: Former Netherlands overseas territory in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It had included the islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius, and the southern part of St. Martin. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are under the direct administration of the Netherlands. (From US Department of State, Background Note)Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Pursuit, Smooth: Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Eye Infections, Viral: Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Conjunctiva: The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Retinal Detachment: Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Eye Infections, Fungal: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.Eye Infections, Parasitic: Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.Eye Pain: A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Eye Evisceration: The surgical removal of the inner contents of the eye, leaving the sclera intact. It should be differentiated from ORBIT EVISCERATION which removes the entire contents of the orbit, including eyeball, blood vessels, muscles, fat, nerve supply, and periosteum.Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Vitrectomy: Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Eye Hemorrhage: Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Retinal DiseasesMacular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Amblyopia: A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Hyperopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Convergence, Ocular: The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Electroretinography: Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.Corneal Topography: The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.Tonometry, Ocular: Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Lens Implantation, Intraocular: Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Blood DonorsVisual Field Tests: Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.Uveitis: Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Astigmatism: Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Eye Diseases, Hereditary: Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.Phacoemulsification: A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Ocular Motility Disorders: Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)Lenses, Intraocular: Artificial implanted lenses.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Fluorophotometry: Measurement of light given off by fluorescein in order to assess the integrity of various ocular barriers. The method is used to investigate the blood-aqueous barrier, blood-retinal barrier, aqueous flow measurements, corneal endothelial permeability, and tear flow dynamics.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Optometry: The professional practice of primary eye and vision care that includes the measurement of visual refractive power and the correction of visual defects with lenses or glasses.Mydriatics: Agents that dilate the pupil. They may be either sympathomimetics or parasympatholytics.Endophthalmitis: Suppurative inflammation of the tissues of the internal structures of the eye frequently associated with an infection.Contact Lenses: Lenses designed to be worn on the front surface of the eyeball. (UMDNS, 1999)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Uvea: The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.ConjunctivitisOrbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Aphakia: Absence of crystalline lens totally or partially from field of vision, from any cause except after cataract extraction. Aphakia is mainly congenital or as result of LENS DISLOCATION AND SUBLUXATION.Nystagmus, Optokinetic: Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.Glaucoma, Angle-Closure: A form of glaucoma in which the intraocular pressure increases because the angle of the anterior chamber is blocked and the aqueous humor cannot drain from the anterior chamber.Dominance, Ocular: The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Vitreous Detachment: Detachment of the corpus vitreum (VITREOUS BODY) from its normal attachments, especially the retina, due to shrinkage from degenerative or inflammatory conditions, trauma, myopia, or senility.Pseudophakia: Presence of an intraocular lens after cataract extraction.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Nystagmus, Pathologic: Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Vision Disparity: The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.Retinal Perforations: Perforations through the whole thickness of the retina including the macula as the result of inflammation, trauma, degeneration, etc. The concept includes retinal breaks, tears, dialyses, and holes.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Keratoconus: A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Blinking: Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Lasers, Excimer: Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Fluorescein: A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.Blood Preservation: The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Eye Manifestations: Ocular disorders attendant upon non-ocular disease or injury.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Choroidal Neovascularization: A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Retinoscopy: An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.Injections, Intraocular: The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ: A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Macular Edema: Fluid accumulation in the outer layer of the MACULA LUTEA that results from intraocular or systemic insults. It may develop in a diffuse pattern where the macula appears thickened or it may acquire the characteristic petaloid appearance referred to as cystoid macular edema. Although macular edema may be associated with various underlying conditions, it is most commonly seen following intraocular surgery, venous occlusive disease, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, and posterior segment inflammatory disease. (From Survey of Ophthalmology 2004; 49(5) 470-90)Gonioscopy: Examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye with a specialized optical instrument (gonioscope) or a contact prism lens.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Aphakia, Postcataract: Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

A new surgical technique for deep stromal, anterior lamellar keratoplasty. (1/81)

AIMS: To describe a new surgical technique for deep stromal anterior lamellar keratoplasty. METHODS: In eye bank eyes and sighted human eyes, aqueous was exchanged by air, to visualise the posterior corneal surface--that is, the "air to endothelium" interface. Through a 5.0 mm scleral incision, a deep stromal pocket was created across the cornea, using the air to endothelium interface as a reference plane for dissection depth. The pocket was filled with viscoelastic, and an anterior corneal lamella was excised. A full thickness donor button was sutured into the recipient bed after stripping its Descemet's membrane. RESULTS: In 25 consecutive human eye bank eyes, a 12% microperforation rate was found. Corneal dissection depth averaged 95.4% (SD 2.7%). Six patient eyes had uneventful surgeries; in a seventh eye, perforation of the lamellar bed occurred. All transplants cleared. Central pachymetry ranged from 0.62 to 0.73 mm. CONCLUSION: With this technique a deep stromal anterior lamellar keratoplasty can be performed with the donor to recipient interface just anterior to the posterior corneal surface. The technique has the advantage that the dissection can be completed in the event of inadvertent microperforation, or that the procedure can be aborted to perform a planned penetrating keratoplasty.  (+info)

Evaluation of potential organ culture media for eye banking using human donor corneas. (2/81)

AIM: To evaluate the ability of different commercially available cell culture solutions to preserve human donor corneas during 3 weeks of "closed system" organ culture at physiological temperature. This screening was performed in an attempt to establish a rational basis for the development of a serum-free organ culture medium for eye banking. METHODS: 72 normal human donor corneas were organ cultured for 21 days at 31 degrees C in eight different test media (nine corneas in each group). The basic culture solutions included: minimal essential medium (MEM), MEM with stabilised L-glutamine, M199, DIF-1000, SFM, F99, and F99 with ascorbic acid, insulin, bFGF, transferrin, selenium, and lipids (termed F99-Sr). All media were supplemented with 2% fetal calf serum (FCS), except for MEM, which was also studied at 8% FCS. The evaluation parameters included: (1) the endothelial cell loss as evaluated using trypan blue staining; (2) the ability of keratocytes and endothelial cells to incorporate tritiated uridine into RNA as evaluated using autoradiography and digital image analysis; (3) the leakage of immunogenic keratan sulphate as assessed using ELISA; and (4) changes in storage medium pH, glucose, and lactate content. RESULTS: SFM induced the lowest endothelial cell loss of 14% (SD 2%) and the highest RNA synthesis rates of all test solutions supplemented with 2% FCS. Corneas stored in SFM also showed the least leakage of keratan sulphate and the highest glucose consumption and lactate production. In five media (MEM with 2% FCS, MEM with stabilised L-glutamine, M199, F99, and F99-Sr), comparable and intermediate potentials for organ culture were observed with endothelial cell loss of 16-19%. By contrast, 29% (4%) of the endothelium was lost after storage in DIF-1000. Interestingly, the use of 8% FCS (in MEM) had a marked protective effect on the endothelium, which showed the highest RNA synthetic activity combined with a cell loss of only 11% (4%), compared with 19% (6%) at 2% FCS (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Among the present test solutions, SFM appears to be the most prominent candidate for a new corneal organ culture medium and should be further tested and possibly refined to effectively substitute serum addition.  (+info)

Automated tri-image analysis of stored corneal endothelium. (3/81)

BACKGROUND: Endothelial examination of organ culture stored corneas is usually done manually and on several mosaic zones. Some banks use an image analyser that takes account of only one zone. This method is restricted by image quality, and may be inaccurate if endothelial cell density (ECD) within the mosaic is not homogeneous. The authors have developed an analyser that has tools for automatic error detection and correction, and can measure ECD and perform morphometry on multiple zones of three images of the endothelial mosaic. METHODS: 60 human corneas were divided into two equal groups: group 1 with homogeneous mosaics, group 2 with heterogeneous ones. Three standard microscopy video images of the endothelium, graded by quality, were analysed either in isolation (so called mono-image analysis) or simultaneously (so called tri-image analysis), with 50 or 300 endothelial cells (ECs) counted. The automated analysis was compared with the manual analysis, which concerned 10 non-adjacent zones and about 300 cells. For each analysis method, failures and durations were studied according to image quality. RESULTS: All corneas were able to undergo analysis, in about 2 or 7.5 minutes for 50 and 300 ECs respectively. The tri-image analysis did not increase analysis time and never failed, even with mediocre images. The tri-image analysis of 300 ECs was always most highly correlated with the manual count, particularly in the heterogeneous cornea group (r=0.94, p<0.001) and prevented serious count errors. CONCLUSIONS: This analyser allows reliable and rapid analysis of ECD, even for heterogeneous endothelia mosaics and mediocre images.  (+info)

Enhancing eye donation rates. Training students to be motivators. (4/81)

PURPOSE: Medical professionals could enhance eye donation rates by reminding relatives during grief counseling at the time of patient's death. This study was designed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of final year medical students (future doctors) towards eye donation, prior to instruction in eye banking. METHODS: The responses of 49 final-year medical students to a questionnaire on eye donation were compared with 24 non-medical students (controls). The results were analysed statistically using the chi-square test. RESULTS: More than one-third of students and controls were unaware that eyes are removed within six hours of death. Eight (16.3%) students and 6 (25.0%) controls felt that a close relative's eyes could be donated after death only if he had indicated willingness (P = 0.05). Three (6.1%) students and 3 (12.5%) controls were undecided about donating their own eyes. Nineteen (38.8%) students and 6 (25%) controls did not know where to go in order to pledge/donate eyes. The controls had poorer knowledge of ocular and systemic contraindications, and they did not know that storage could be prolonged (P < 0.001). Only 27 (55.1%) students had knowledge of corneal storage. CONCLUSIONS: Controls were poorly informed about various aspects of eye donation suggesting inadequate dissemination of information by the media. Students and controls alike had misconceptions regarding donation of relatives' eyes and hesitation regarding their own. These aspects should be emphasized during undergraduate teaching to dispel misgivings regarding wastage of donor eyes and to encourage future doctors to promote eye donation.  (+info)

Sensitivity and rapidity of blood culture bottles in the detection of cornea organ culture media contamination by bacteria and fungi. (5/81)

AIMS: To test the bactericidal activity of standard organ culture medium, and to compare the sensitivity and rapidity of blood culture bottles with conventional microbiological methods for detection of bacteria and fungi inoculated in a standard cornea organ culture medium. METHODS: The bactericidal activity of contaminated standard organ culture medium containing 100 IU/ml penicillin, 0.1 mg/ml streptomycin, and 0.25 micro g/ml amphotericin B was evaluated after 48 hours of incubation at 31 degrees C with five inocula of 14 bacteria. Two yeasts (Candida spp) and one Aspergillus were also tested. Contaminated media were then inoculated in three blood bottles (aerobic, anaerobic, fungal) placed in a Bactec 9240 automat; three conventional microbiological broths were the control. Changes in colour of organ culture medium and growth on conventional broth were screened daily by visual inspection. The sensitivity and rapidity of detection of contamination were compared between the three methods: blood bottle, conventional, and visual. RESULTS: Organ culture medium eradicated five bacteria irrespective of the starting inoculums: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Branhamella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Propionibacterium acnes, and Haemophilus influenzae. For micro-organisms where the medium was ineffective or bactericidal only (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, Candida kruzei, Aspergillus fumigatus), the blood bottle, conventional, and visual methods detected microbial growth in 100%, 76.5%, and 70% of cases respectively. Mean detection time using blood bottles was 15.1 hours (SD 13.8, range 2-52). In cases of detection by the blood bottle method and the conventional method, the former was always faster: 95.5% against 65.2% detection within 24 hours (p=0.022) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Blood bottles detect more efficiently and more rapidly a wider range of bacteria and fungi than the conventional microbiological method and the visual inspection of organ culture media.  (+info)

Awareness of eye donation in an adult population of southern India. A pilot study. (6/81)

PURPOSE: To determine "awareness of eye donation" and corneal transplantation in an adult population of southern India. METHODS: 507 participants chosen by systematic random sampling were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Participants were selected among patients attending two community outreach programmes at different sites, and from patients presenting directly to the hospital. RESULTS: 257 participants (50.69%) were aware of eye donations. The major source of awareness was publicity campaigns (n=105). Only 22 (4.34%) participants were aware that eye donation had to be done within 6 hours of death. Four hundred and three (79.50%) participants were not aware of corneal transplantation. Illiteracy and rural residence were more likely predictors of ignorance. CONCLUSION: Although multiple strategies are currently followed to increase awareness of eye donations and corneal transplants, more innovative strategies have to be developed, especially to target illiterate and rural populations.  (+info)

Stability of RNA from the retina and retinal pigment epithelium in a porcine model simulating human eye bank conditions. (7/81)

PURPOSE: To assess RNA stability after death in a porcine model to simulate current human eye bank techniques. METHODS: Eye bank time interval data were collected from 191 donor specimens: death to refrigeration, enucleation, and tissue processing. A control porcine eye was enucleated, retina and RPE isolated, and specimens frozen (-80 degrees C). Fourteen porcine eyes remained at room temperature for 2 hours and then cooled to 4 degrees C. Retina and RPE were isolated and frozen (-80 degrees C) at 5, 12, 24, 29, 36, 48, and 72 hours. Four globes remained in a moist chamber, five whole and five sectioned globes were immersed in RNAlater (Ambion, Austin, TX) at 5, 12, 24, or 48 hours. RNA was isolated. The 28S and 18S rRNA peaks were analyzed by electrophoresis. RT-PCR was performed on each sample. Messenger RNA for GAPDH, beta-actin, mouse rhodopsin from retina (mRHO), and RPE-65 (from RPE) were analyzed with gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: The average time from death to refrigeration was 4.2 hours, to enucleation 6.4 hours, and to tissue processing 10.7 hours. RT-PCR gel electrophoresis patterns from retinal tissue had bands of similar intensity at each interval from beta-actin, GAPDH, and RHO. Band patterns from RPE demonstrated decay of the RT-PCR gene products after 5 hours. This decay was delayed by at least 24 hours with the use of RNAlater. The 28S rRNA decay was similar for retina and RPE. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal tissue RNA can be analyzed within the time constraints of current eye bank tissue processing, whereas analysis of RPE necessitates either rapid processing or use of RNAlater. These results should aid in future studies in which eye bank tissue is used for RNA analysis.  (+info)

Is manual counting of corneal endothelial cell density in eye banks still acceptable? The French experience. (8/81)

AIM: To examine the differences in manual endothelial cell counting methods in French eye banks and to analyse whether these differences could explain some substantial discrepancies observed in endothelial cell density (ECD) for corneas made available for transplant. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to the 22 eye banks asking for details of the technical features of the light microscopes used, the microscope calibration, strategy for cell counting, the technical staff, and the method of presenting endothelial data. RESULTS: All eye banks responded and 91% (20/22) used only manual counting methods, in real time, directly through a microscope, and 62 different technicians, with varying experience, were involved in such counting. Counting of cells within the borders of a grid that were in contact with two adjacent borders was the most common method (17/22, 77%). Of the eight banks (8/22, 36%) that did not calibrate their microscopes, six reported the highest ECD values. Of the 14 others (64%), six applied a "magnification correcting factor" to the initial cell counts. In five of these cases, the corrected ECD was lower than estimated on initial count. Most of the banks (12/22, 55%) counted 100 cells or less in one to six non-adjacent zones of the mosaic. 14 of the banks (14/22, 64%) also graded cell polymegethism while seven (7/22, 32%) also graded pleomorphism ("hexagonality"). CONCLUSIONS: Lack of microscope calibration appears to be the leading cause of variance in ECD estimates in French eye banks. Other factors such as differences in counting strategy, the evaluation of smaller numbers of cells, and the different extent of experience of the technicians may also contribute to intraobserver and interobserver variability. Further comparative studies, including cross checking and the outcome of repeated counts from manual methods, are clearly needed with cross calibration to a computer based image archiving and analysis system.  (+info)

  • A Punjab National Bank logo is pictured outside its branch in New Delhi, India, February 16, 2018. (
  • Bank of Canada Governor Stephen Poloz held Canada's trend-setting interest rate steady at 1.25 per cent on Wednesday, March 7, 2018, citing growing uncertainty over international trade. (
  • Though analysts disagree on how many more times the Bank of Canada will raise rates this year, most of them believe it will implement at least one more hike before the end of 2018. (
  • The company will establish Turkey's first vocational high school in Balıkesir , teaching mining technology and will also develop an on-the-job training program in partnership with the Mine Engineering and Geology Departments of Çanakkale 18 Mart University and Balıkesir University, which will be made a formal part of the curriculum from September 2018 onwards, the bank said. (
  • San Antonio Eye Bank is pleased to aid grief support efforts in the city of Laredo by donating refreshments and workbooks for the 2018 GriefShare series occurring in Laredo, Texas. (
  • In recent years, the number of donor corneas procured by eye banks is steadily increasing all over the world. (
  • To compare anterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) with eye bank technician slit-lamp examination (SLE) in characterizing lesions in donor corneas. (
  • Twenty-nine donor corneas identified by eye bank technicians to have opacities or lesions potentially representing pathologic findings affecting the stroma were evaluated through the use of technician SLE, SLE photography, and OCT. Technicians were tasked with describing the lesion, estimating the lesion depth, and photographing their SLE findings. (
  • In the initial years, corneas were excised from a deceased body in the open at the cremation site at Pashupatinath temple (the major cremation site of Kathmandu), mostly on the bank of river with crowd of people watching. (
  • There were 17 eyes (40%) that were re-bubbled, with 16 successfully re-bubbled eyes quickly attaining clear corneas and good vision, and 1 eye in the replacement group. (
  • Current Source of Tissue(Name of Eye Bank(s) or Institute(s) Where you source corneas from? (
  • The bank will provide high quality corneas to Sri Lankan patients as well as patients from other countries, especially those from other Asian countries and foreign hospitals. (
  • The Singapore National Eye Centre Director, Professor Donald Tan said that Sri Lanka was the first international eye donator when it donated six corneas to Singapore in 1964. (
  • The International Cornea Project® is a humanitarian program whose mission is to provide corneas for transplantation to ophthalmologists and eye banks around the world. (
  • The Eye Bank of Ethiopia (EBE) today celebrates its 15 years of service reversing corneal blindness through the collection and processing of donor corneas. (
  • a place for the storage of corneas that have been removed from the eyes of people recently deceased, used for transplanting to the eyes of persons having corneal defects. (
  • A place where corneas of eyes removed immediately after death are preserved for subsequent keratoplasty. (
  • Yesterday afternoon, Deutsche Bank vice chairman and managing director Brian Mulligan filed a claim with the city of Los Angeles, letting it be known that he plans on suing for $50 million, over an altercation with the LAPD that left Mulligan with 'a broken shoulder blade and 15 nasal fractures. (
  • Commerzbank's shares were trading up more than 3.5 percent with Postbank up nearly 1.5 percent and Deutsche Bank rising more than 1 percent in a flat market. (
  • Commerzbank and Deutsche Bank -- with whom Citi once explored a merger -- were the second and third most actively traded stocks on the German market. (
  • Deutsche Bank could move up to 4,000 jobs away from Britain, the group's compliance chief said Wednesday (26 April), as Germany's largest lender struggles to work out the consequences of Brexit. (
  • Shetty did so using the bank's SWIFT system to log in with passwords that allowed him, and in at least some instances a more junior official, to serve as both the person who sent messages and as the person who reviewed them for approval, according to court documents and interviews with bank executives. (
  • She said that the Bank indeed can separate out pro poor investments: "We know that distributed renewables are a much more efficient way of delivering energy access, so if that's really the Bank's goal, then it should put its money where its mouth is. (
  • Austin said that by the eye bank's records, there were 16 Boulder County cases in 2013 in which donations of eye tissues were denied by the coroner or delayed beyond time frames compatible with tissue preservation, and that in the previous year, there were 12. (
  • Reside within The Eye-Bank's service area: New York City, Long Island, and the lower Hudson Valley (Westchester, Rockland, Putnam and Orange Counties). (
  • It's a great way to give back and to help support the eye bank's sight-saving mission! (
  • All these photos will be auctioned off to support the eye bank's mission. (
  • Throughout the Eye Bank's history, we have helped to ensure that those suffering from corneal blindness in Ethiopia are able to get the care they need," said Dr. Menen Ayalew Shibeshi, Medical Director of the EBE. (
  • As a cornea transplant recipient, Lynn received a packet from the eye bank at his surgery with a card and instructions encouraging him to write a thank you note to his donor's family, To maintain confidentiality, these written letters of gratitude are mailed to the eye bank's family services coordinator and then forwarded to the proper donor family member. (
  • Turkish Central Bank deputy governor and rate-setter Erkan Kilimci is leaving the bank, three sources familiar with the matter told Reuters on Aug. 30, two weeks before the bank's monetary policy committee meets to address a slump in the Turkish Lira. (
  • They met those involved in the production of bank notes and spoke to the Bank's regional agents. (
  • FILE - In this file photo dated Wednesday, March 11, 2020, pedestrians wearing face masks walk past the Bank of England in London. (
  • The Bank of England kept its main interest rate unchanged at the record low of 0.1% on Thursday Sept. 17, 2020, as it waits to see how the economy recovers from recession and what Britain's future trade relationship with the European Union will be. (
  • Sen. Jeff Flake eyes 2020 primary challeng. (
  • Speaking to TOI, SBM India CEO Sidharth Rath said the bank was hiring senior management for its operations here. (
  • Medindia's Emergency Medical Consulting service has information on a wide range of emergency services that include information on eye banks located across India, ambulances, hospitals, blood banks, 24-hour pharmacies and oxygen supplies available near your location. (
  • NEW DELHI/MUMBAI (Reuters) - The Punjab National Bank branch in south Mumbai sits just down the road from both the Bombay Stock Exchange and the Reserve Bank of India, at a physical centre of one of the world's fastest growing major economies. (
  • The Global Alliance of Eye Bank Associations is formed of the Eye Bank Association of America, the European Eye Bank Association, the Association of Eye Banks of Asia, the Eye Banks Association of Australia and New Zealand, the Pan American Association of Eye Banks and the Eye Banks Association of India. (
  • HONG KONG (Reuters) - Chinese and U.S. regulators are negotiating a pact aimed at encouraging Chinese financial institutions to buy into small and medium-sized banks in the United States, bankers briefed on the plan said on Tuesday. (
  • A Sino-U.S. Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to encourage Chinese banks to invest in U.S. lenders is in the making, and China's banking regulator has sought feedback from big domestic banks, bankers told Reuters. (
  • A preliminary investigation by the nation's tax authority said of the PNB fraud that "the hit Indian banks would take in the end may well exceed" $3 billion , according to an internal note seen by Reuters. (
  • FRANKFURT (Reuters) - Banking giant Citigroup ( C.N ) is on the lookout for acquisitions in Germany and could swoop on a big bank, its local head told Reuters in an interview, news that sent German bank stocks shooting up. (
  • Citigroup is looking for acquisitions in Germany and could swoop on a big bank, its local head told Reuters in an interview. (
  • CARACAS (Reuters) - U.S. sanctions on Venezuela have led the New York Federal Reserve to crack down on Puerto Rico's $50 billion offshore banking industry, according to four sources and a document seen by Reuters. (
  • Reuters was unable to determine how many banks were awaiting responses on their applications to open accounts. (
  • Sixteen of Puerto Rico's 80 offshore banking and financial services firms are owned by Venezuelan individuals or companies, according to a Reuters review of their websites, corporate registry records, and directors' LinkedIn pages and personal websites. (
  • NEW YORK (Reuters) - Top U.S. banks must make deeper cost cuts to drive earnings growth, with revenue expected to remain under pressure for the foreseeable future, analysts said. (
  • HONG KONG (Reuters) - For the Chinese banks seeking billions of dollars in upcoming stock offerings, a concern is growing that the money will only refinance old loans and do little to prevent the lenders from hitting up shareholders for more cash in a few years or less. (
  • Bank of Chongqing plans to raise up to $800 million in a Hong Kong IPO, while Bank of Shanghai is seeking around $2 billion in a combined Shanghai and Hong Kong offering, according to previous reports by Reuters and IFR. (
  • LONDON (Reuters) - Britain's Prince Charles visited the Bank of England on Wednesday to highlight the role the central bank is playing in supporting the economy through lockdowns imposed to tackle COVID-19. (
  • In October 2007, Minsheng Banking Corp ( 600016.SS ), China's seventh-largest by assets, agreed to buy 9.9 percent of San Francisco-based UCBH Holdings Inc UCBH.O for more than $200 million in the first investment by a mainland Chinese bank in a U.S. bank. (
  • I feel lots of uncertainties still exist in the U.S. financial market and we want to keep a distance from these toxic assets at this moment," said Ma Weihua, CEO of Merchants Bank, China's sixth-largest lender by assets. (
  • Europe's markets mostly held around the flat line Tuesday, but banks were under pressure amid reports on a fresh money laundering scandal, while investors kept an eye on China's economy and Wall Street on the heels of a tough session for U.S. equities. (
  • China's local commercial banks are eagerly looking for initial public offerings either in Hong Kong or mainland China to refill their coffers as bad debt increases. (
  • China's local commercial banks are eagerly looking for initial public offerings in either Hong Kong or mainland China to refill their coffers with fresh capital, as bad debt piles up following a period of rapid expansion. (
  • Zheng Hui, the 58-year-old president of Agricultural Development Bank of China, is a defender of many traditions, such as bonding with business friends over a bottle of baijiu, China's rice wine. (
  • China's largest banks are well capitalized compared to their global peers. (
  • By issuing new shares, the banks will be diluting historically low share prices, with little clarity on where the cash is going or how it will help them weather the turmoil building up in China's financial markets. (
  • But given the downshift in China's economic engine, Beijing is expected to continue to push its banks to keep lending to prop up consumers and businesses. (
  • The mega banks and national banks appear to be better placed to withstand China's economic downturn," Standard & Poor's said in a note published last week. (
  • Such strength has given rise to the idea that rather than constantly issuing new shares, China's smaller banks should be folded into the larger ones. (
  • May Yan, a Barclays analyst who covers China's banks, echoed that view, saying the idea of China's big banks buying the smaller ones makes sense. (
  • Last month, Punjab National Bank, known as PNB, filed an initial criminal complaint with the country's Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) accusing celebrity jeweller Nirav Modi and others of defrauding the bank and causing it a loss of 2.8 billion Indian rupees (more than £31 million). (
  • A review of bank and government documents related to the case - and interviews with current and former PNB executives, bank auditors and experts - points to a lack of accountability and standards in the country's public banking system. (
  • A number of the country's largest local commercial lenders are either queued up in the IPO pipeline or have already successfully tapped the equity market for funds like Bank of Qingdao and Bank of Jinzhou. (
  • The Foreign Trade Bank of North Korea, the country's main foreign-exchange bank, has been told its account has been closed," Dow Jones reported, citing a statement from the Chinese financial institution. (
  • The Bank of China is one of the country's biggest state-owned banks and is subject to political directives from Chinese authorities. (
  • Harare - A Zimbabwean retail firm has been slapped with a $17 000 fine for failing to bank its earnings as the country's cash crisis continues to bite, a report on Friday said. (
  • But the same cannot be said for its small to mid-sized banks, where a pipeline of stock deals is adding up at a time when worries are rising about their exposure to the country's slowdown and the health of their balance sheets. (
  • Italy will pay up to €17 billion to break up two insolvent Venetian banks, which have posed a threat to the country's banking system, the government announced Sunday (25 June). (
  • The new Global Alliance of Eye Bank Associations aims to share knowledge and expertise, best practice guidelines, and information on scientific meetings and educational events. (
  • It offers donated eye, skin, cardiovascular, cartilage and musculoskeletal tissues as well as organs for transplant. (
  • In 2012, Sierra Donor Services supplies nearly 95 percent of the eye tissues needed for corneal transplant surgery by hospitals and clinics in the region, and in 2012 led the nation in the number of organs recovered. (
  • The eye bank is criticizing Hall for declining to sign a working protocol for handling donated eye tissues, as outlined by statute, and alleges that coroner denials or restrictions on donations have climbed 800 percent under her administration. (
  • For nearly 50 years, the San Diego Eye Bank® has served local, national, and international physicians by providing high quality transplant and research tissues. (
  • In addition, the team coordinates with different international eye banks, certified and accepted by the Ministry of Public Health in Lebanon, in order to supplement our need of ocular tissues. (
  • Chinese bankers have complained that it's been difficult for them to set up branches or invest in banks in the world's leading economy, due partly to U.S. regulators' tough supervision and strict approval process for financial deals. (
  • Over 100 U.S. banks have already been seized by regulators in the financial crisis, and more bank failures could come as the Obama administration also needs more capital to take over troubled lenders. (
  • The bank management also concealed from the regulators' scrutiny huge loan defaults by HDIL group firms. (
  • The conference brings together chief executives from leading European banks with EU-level regulators, policy-makers, and other stakeholders in Europe's economy at large. (
  • Banks complain of having to "ring fence" large amounts of capital and liquidity at every foreign branch because local regulators don't trust the lender's home authority in a crisis to free up capital being held at group level. (
  • The foundation's board of directors approved the grant to help accelerate research initiatives that aim to prevent, treat and reverse vision loss associated with childhood eye disease, according to a news release, which notes that 7 million children suffer from a common childhood eye disease. (
  • Insight is EBAA's monthly e-newsletter for member eye banks and R. Townley Paton Society members that provides information on events, educational opportunities, current news and other information curated for the eye banking and ophthalmic communities. (
  • Since our Bank of America rant seems to be favorite of our readers, this news story jumped right out. (
  • The news sent stock prices in Germany's three biggest commercial banks rising, making them the biggest gainers on the blue-chip DAX .GDAXI . (
  • Banks is the creator and host of the UPN/The CW reality television show America's Next Top Model, co-creator of True Beauty, and host of her own talk show, The Tyra Banks Show. (
  • The corner stone on the Federal Reserve Bank of New York in the financial district in New York City, U.S., March 4, 2019. (
  • Some of the banks warned that growth in their net interest income, the difference between what they earn on loans and pay on deposits, will slow in 2019 thanks to a flatter yield curve and a moderating economy. (
  • The extent of devolvement on DICGC in the event of all the banks 'under direction' or weak banks going into liquidation/ordered to be wound up, would be Rs 14098 crore as of end September, 2019, RBI said. (
  • A recovery technician is then dispatched to the hospital, funeral home, or medical examiner's office to recover the donor's eyes. (
  • We sought to assess whether trifolding may be safely conducted by an eye bank technician with cell loss comparable to standard peeling and lifting. (
  • Despite additional manipulation of the graft, trifolding of Descemet membrane and endothelium may be performed by an eye bank technician without significantly increased cell loss relative to graft preparation as a scroll. (
  • Customers leave an Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) branch in the southern Chinese city of Shenzhen, August 20, 2009. (
  • Merchants Bank opened its first U.S. branch in New York about a year ago, and Ma said the branch would hire more local staff to expand its business there. (
  • Although SBM had a local branch here, for all purposes we are a startup bank. (
  • The branch, clad in a stately colonial edifice, is now also at the heart of a fraud case linked to billionaire jeweller Nirav Modi that has shaken confidence in a state banking sector that accounts for some 70 percent of India's banking assets. (
  • According to court documents filed on Saturday by the CBI, branch deputy manager Gokulnath Shetty issued a series of fraudulent Letters of Undertaking - essentially guarantees sent to other banks so that they would provide loans to a customer, in this case a group of Indian jewellery companies. (
  • Wellesley Bank plans to open a branch on Federal Street in October, next to Bank of America and Fidelity Investments. (
  • Axis Bank opened a branch at Gopalapatnam on Tuesday, the fifth in the city, according to a press release. (
  • In 1980, Mannis and UC Davis Medical Center assumed leadership of a fledgling eye bank founded by the Lions Club, and grew its services over the years into a full-service nonprofit agency that today is known as Sierra Donor Services. (
  • In 1980, when Banks was 6 years old, her parents divorced. (
  • Rath had only recently taken charge after a long stint with Axis Bank, where corporate banking was among his responsibilities. (
  • Pre-stripped tissue transfers the financial risk of donor damage and case cancellation from the surgeon to the eye bank, removing one large obstacle to the adoption by surgeons of DMEK surgery. (
  • But Bank of America Corp, Citigroup Inc, Goldman Sachs Group Inc and Morgan Stanley still managed to beat analyst profit forecasts even as revenue slipped. (
  • Mr. Schneiderman will hold meetings with executives of several major banks, including Bank of America Corp., Morgan Stanley and Goldman Sachs, according to people familiar with the investigation. (
  • The bank will start business with a minimum startup capital of Rs 500 crore, and eyes a positive return and a break-even in the first year itself. (
  • ICICI Bank on Friday announced divesting 1.8 crore shares of ICICI Lombard, representing 3.96 per cent of its total equity share capital. (
  • According to the exchange filing, the bank has sold 3.96 per cent stake for a consideration of Rs 2,250 crore. (
  • The move comes after a slew of regulatory changes by the RBI following the Rs 4,500-crore PMC Bank fraud and to ensure better regulation of such lenders which are heavily influenced by regional political heavyweights. (
  • The multi-state co-operative bank has been under the RBI restriction since September 23, after it had found financial irregularities, including huge under-reporting of loans and non-performing assets to real estate developer HDIL to the tune of Rs 6,500 crore using hundreds of dummy accounts. (
  • The break-up would be Rs 3,414 crore in the case of state cooperative banks, district central cooperative banks and ₹10,684 crore in the case of UCBs including PMC Bank. (
  • The past twenty-five years in eye banking" (pdf). (
  • In two years, the bank plans to add 16 branches to its network. (
  • The C U Shah Eye Bank, over the last 30 years, has seen a tremendous increase in the number of eye donations. (
  • Mannis, who has served as ocular medical director for the eye bank for more than 30 years, aims to increase the number of tissue donations to meet all local needs, as well as those of international eye banks, where the need is greatest. (
  • Mannis also has worked for the past 15 years to expand eye-bank networks in Latin America, where 23 countries, including Mexico and Argentina, have no effective eye and tissue-banking services. (
  • More than 15 years ago, Roberg was diagnosed with Fuchs' Dystrophy, a disease which usually affects both eyes, and causes a gradual decline in vision due to corneal swelling and clouding. (
  • In recent years many BUILDING SOCIETIES have also established a limited range of banking facilities. (
  • With our state-of-the-art technology, combined with years of experience and technical knowledge, we are proud to provide CustomCut ® tissue processing for physicians and eye banks worldwide. (
  • Within the past two years, at least five suburban banks have launched operations in Boston and at least one more is planned for October. (
  • Vince Petryk, the owner of J.P. Licks, followed his loan officer from another bank to Rockland Trust two years. (
  • The island has for years nurtured its offshore banking sector by offering tax incentives to bank owners and promoting direct access to the U.S. financial system through the Fed rather than correspondent banks, which charge for their services and can end the relationship at a moment's notice. (
  • In recent years, U.S. prosecutors have examined the role Puerto Rico's offshore banks have played in efforts to launder Venezuelan funds through the United States. (
  • Her parents, who grew up in a Palestinian farming town, immigrated to the United States and returned to the West Bank five years ago, weren't pleased, either. (
  • The one-day forum, to be held in New Orleans on Friday, Nov. 10 at the Astor Crowne Plaza on Canal Street, will provide cornea surgeons, eye bank personnel and vendors with the latest scientific developments on corneal surgery and eye banking. (