Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.
Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.
Presence of fluid in the PLEURAL CAVITY as a complication of malignant disease. Malignant pleural effusions often contain actual malignant cells.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A collection of watery fluid in the pleural cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.
A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity or organ via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument.
The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Alcohol oxidoreductases with substrate specificity for LACTIC ACID.
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
The prevention of access by infecting organisms to the locus of potential infection.
The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.
Cyst-like space not lined by EPITHELIUM and contained within the PANCREAS. Pancreatic pseudocysts account for most of the cystic collections in the pancreas and are often associated with chronic PANCREATITIS.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.
The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.
Temporary shelter provided in response to a major disaster or emergency.
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.
A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.
Vitreoretinal membrane shrinkage or contraction secondary to the proliferation of primarily retinal pigment epithelial cells and glial cells, particularly fibrous astrocytes, followed by membrane formation. The formation of fibrillar collagen and cellular proliferation appear to be the basis for the contractile properties of the epiretinal and vitreous membranes.
Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.
A large superfamily of cell surface membrane proteins characterized by their four transmembrane domains. They play a role in a variety of processes such as cellular adhesion and motility. They may be involved in the organization of cell surface MEMBRANE MICRODOMAINS that regulate the activation of LEUKOCYTES.
A family of seven-pass transmembrane cell-surface proteins that combines with LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 or LOW DENSITY LIPROTEIN RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-5 to form receptors for WNT PROTEINS. Frizzled receptors often couple with HETEROTRIMERIC G PROTEINS and regulate the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
The production of adhesions between the parietal and visceral pleura. The procedure is used in the treatment of bronchopleural fistulas, malignant pleural effusions, and pneumothorax and often involves instillation of chemicals or other agents into the pleural space causing, in effect, a pleuritis that seals the air leak. (From Fishman, Pulmonary Diseases, 2d ed, p2233 & Dorland, 27th ed)

The value of late computed tomographic scanning in identification of vascular abnormalities after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. (1/845)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of late arterial abnormalities after aortic aneurysm repair and thus to suggest a routine for postoperative radiologic follow-up examination and to establish reference criteria for endovascular repair. METHODS: Computed tomographic (CT) scan follow-up examination was obtained at 8 to 9 years after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair on a cohort of patients enrolled in the Canadian Aneurysm Study. The original registry consisted of 680 patients who underwent repair of nonruptured AAA. When the request for CT scan follow-up examination was sent in 1994, 251 patients were alive and potentially available for CT scan follow-up examination and 94 patients agreed to undergo abdominal and thoracic CT scanning procedures. Each scan was interpreted independently by two vascular radiologists. RESULTS: For analysis, the aorta was divided into five defined segments and an aneurysm was defined as a more than 50% enlargement from the expected normal value as defined in the reporting standards for aneurysms. With this strict definition, 64.9% of patients had aneurysmal dilatation and the abnormality was considered as a possible indication for surgical repair in 13.8%. Of the 39 patients who underwent initial repair with a tube graft, 12 (30.8%) were found to have an iliac aneurysm and six of these aneurysms (15.4%) were of possible surgical significance. Graft dilatation was observed from the time of operation (median graft size of 18 mm) to a median size of 22 mm as measured by means of CT scanning at follow-up examination. Fluid or thrombus was seen around the graft in 28% of the cases, and bowel was believed to be intimately associated with the graft in 7%. CONCLUSION: Late follow-up CT scans after AAA repair often show vascular abnormalities. Most of these abnormalities are not clinically significant, but, in 13.8% of patients, the thoracic or abdominal aortic segment was aneurysmal and, in 15.4% of patients who underwent tube graft placement, one of the iliac arteries was significantly abnormal to warrant consideration for surgical repair. On the basis of these findings, a routine CT follow-up examination after 5 years is recommended. This study provides a population-based study for comparison with the results of endovascular repair.  (+info)

Effects and interactions of opioids on plasma exudation induced by cigarette smoke in guinea pig bronchi. (2/845)

The effects of opioids on cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation were investigated in vivo in the main bronchi of anesthetized guinea pigs, with Evans blue dye as a plasma marker. Acute inhalation of cigarette smoke increased plasma exudation by 216% above air control values. Morphine, 0.1-10 mg/kg but not 30 mg/kg, inhibited the exudation but had no significant effect on substance P-induced exudation. Both 10 and 30 mg/kg of morphine increased exudation in air control animals, an effect inhibited by antihistamines but not by a tachykinin neurokinin type 1-receptor antagonist. Naloxone inhibited all morphine responses. Cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation was inhibited by a mu-opioid-receptor agonist (DAMGO) but not by agonists at delta (DPDPE)- or kappa (U-50488H)-receptors. None of these agonists affected exudation in air control animals. DPDPE prevented the inhibition by DAMGO of cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation, and the combination of DAMGO and DPDPE increased exudation in air control animals. Prevention of inhibition and the combination-induced increase were inhibited by antihistamines or the mast cell-stabilizing drug sodium cromoglycate. U-50488H did not alter the response to either DAMGO or DPDPE. We conclude that, in guinea pig main bronchi in vivo, mu-opioid-receptor agonists inhibit cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation via a prejunctional mechanism. Plasma exudation induced by mu- and delta-receptor interactions is due to endogenous histamine release from mast cells.  (+info)

Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy. (3/845)

Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSC) is usually seen in young males with Type A personality. Clinical evaluation of the macula with fundoscopy and biomicroscopy, coupled with fluorescein angiography establishes the diagnosis. Indocyanine green angiographic studies have reinformed that the basic pathology lies in choriocapillaries and retinal pigment epithelium. Most of the ICSC resolve completely in four months, and some of them could resolve early with direct photocoagulation of the leaking site. Oral steroids have no role, and could even cause an adverse reaction.  (+info)

Effects of petrosaspongiolide M, a novel phospholipase A2 inhibitor, on acute and chronic inflammation. (4/845)

The marine product petrosaspongiolide M is a novel inhibitor of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), showing selectivity for secretory PLA2 versus cytosolic PLA2, with a potency on the human synovial enzyme (group II) similar to that of manoalide. This compound was more potent than manoalide on bee venom PLA2 (group III) and had no effect on group I enzymes (Naja naja and porcine pancreatic PLA2). Inhibition of PLA2 was also observed in vivo in the zymosan-injected rat air pouch, on the secretory enzyme accumulated in the pouch exudate. Petrosaspongiolide M decreased carrageenan paw edema in mice after the oral administration of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg. This marine metabolite (0.01-1.0 micromol/pouch) induced a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of prostaglandin (PG)E2, leukotriene B4, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the mouse air pouch injected with zymosan 4 h after the stimulus. It also had a weaker effect on cell migration. The inflammatory response of adjuvant arthritis was reduced by petrosaspongiolide M, which also inhibited leukotriene B4 levels in serum and PGE2 levels in paw homogenates. In contrast with indomethacin, this marine compound did not reduce PGE2 levels in stomach homogenates. Petrosaspongiolide M is a new inhibitor of secretory PLA2 in vitro and in vivo, with anti-inflammatory properties in acute and chronic inflammation.  (+info)

Effects of formoterol on histamine induced plasma exudation in induced sputum from normal subjects. (5/845)

BACKGROUND: A number of studies have shown that beta 2 agonists, including formoterol, inhibit plasma exudation induced by the inflammatory stimulus in animal airways. Whether clinical doses of beta 2 agonists inhibit plasma exudation in human bronchial airways is unknown. METHODS: In order to explore the microvascular permeability and its potential inhibition by beta 2 agonists in human bronchial airways a dual induction method was developed: plasma exudation induced by histamine inhalation followed by sputum induction by hypertonic saline (4.5%) inhalation. Sixteen healthy subjects received formoterol (18 micrograms) in a placebo controlled, double blind, crossover study. Sputum was induced on five occasions: once at baseline and four times after histamine challenge (30 minutes and eight hours after both formoterol and placebo treatments). Sputum levels of alpha 2-macroglobulin were determined to indicate microvascular-epithelial exudation of bulk plasma. RESULTS: Histamine induced plasma exudation 30 minutes after placebo was considerably greater than at baseline (median difference 11.3 micrograms/ml (95% confidence interval 0.9 to 90.0)). At 30 minutes after formoterol the effect of histamine was reduced by 5.1 (0.9 to 61.9) micrograms/ml compared with placebo. At eight hours histamine produced less exudation and inhibition by formoterol was not demonstrated. CONCLUSION: This study shows for the first time an anti-exudative effect of a beta 2 agonist in healthy human bronchial airways. Through its physical and biological effects, plasma exudation is of multipotential pathogenic importance in asthma. If the present findings translate to disease conditions, it suggests that an anti-exudative effect may contribute to the anti-asthmatic activity of formoterol.  (+info)

Clearance of IGFs and insulin from wounds: effect of IGF-binding protein interactions. (6/845)

We have examined the role binding proteins have in regulating the clearance of exogenous growth factors from wounds. Hunt-Schilling chambers were subcutaneously implanted in rats, and the clearance of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I from the chamber wound fluid was compared with IGF-II, LR3-IGF-I, which binds poorly to IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP), or insulin. Elimination rate constants of the slow phase of the decay curves did not differ between IGF-I and IGF-II. However, LR3-IGF-I and insulin were cleared more rapidly from wound fluid than IGF-I so that the half-lives for IGF-I, IGF-II, LR3-IGF-I, and insulin were 872, 861, 563, and 324 min, respectively. In wound fluid, minimal degradation of the IGFs occurred, whereas insulin was degraded considerably. The increased clearance of LR3-IGF-I and insulin equated with a reduced association with wound fluid IGFBPs, and increased amounts of radioactivity of these peptides were detected in the circulation and urine. These results show that this model of wound repair may be of use in examining the kinetics of growth factors and other bioactive molecules in extravascular spaces and support the hypothesis that IGFBPs can be significant regulators of IGF bioavailability in vivo.  (+info)

Interpretation of middle ear fluid concentrations of antibiotics: comparison between ceftibuten, cefixime and azithromycin. (7/845)

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the potential influence of variables such as the cell content in the fluid, and serum levels, on the concentrations of ceftibuten, cefixime and azithromycin in the middle ear fluid of patients suffering from acute otitis media. METHODS: This randomized, open study compared the penetration of ceftibuten (9 mg kg(-1) 18 patients), cefixime (8 mg kg(-1), 16 patients) and azithromycin (10 mg kg(-1) 16 patients) into the intracellular and extracellular compartments of middle ear fluid of 50 paediatric patients (aged 8-14 years) with acute otitis media. Middle ear fluid was extracted by tympanocentesis 4, 12 and 24 h after dosing and divided into two fractions: with cells (as collected) (C+) and cell-free (C-). Antibiotics were assayed in C+ and C- samples by h.p.l.c. RESULTS: Ceftibuten achieved greater penetration into middle ear fluid than cefixime and azithromycin. Higher concentrations of ceftibuten (CTB) and cefixime (CFX) were found in the C- fraction (CTB: 4h 13.3+/-1.86; 12h 4.7+/-1.18; 24h 0.5+/-0.2. CFX: 4h 3.2+/-1.4; 12h 1.5+/-0.5; 24h>(0.1 mgl(-1)) than in the C+ fraction (CTB:4 h 8.4+/-4.3; 12 h 2.88+/-1.19; 24 h 0.3+/-0.27. CFX: 4 h 1.2+/-0.6; 12 h 0.8+/-0.2; 24 h>0.1 mg l(-1)) at the each time point, while the opposite was true for azithromycin (C-: 4 h 0.11+/-0.04; 12 h 0.12+/-0.08; 24 h 0.23+/-0.12. C+: 4 h 0.38+/-0.24; 12 h 0.9+/-0.03; 24 h 1.05+/-0.3 mg l(-1)). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the penetration of antibiotics into the middle ear fluid is influenced by its serum concentrations as well as by the cell content in the fluid. Ceftibuten achieved higher middle ear fluid concentrations than cefixime in C+ and C- fractions at all time points. Both ceftibuten and cefixime concentrations are negatively influenced by the cell content in the fluid. In contrast the concentration of azithromycin to the middle ear fluid is positively influenced by the cell content in the fluid.  (+info)

Natural history of diabetic macular streak exudates: evidence from a screening programme. (8/845)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetic retinopathy screening guidelines recommend referral to an ophthalmologist if there is exudate within one disc diameter of the fovea. Many of these patients, however, have resolution of small amounts of exudate without treatment. This study aimed to assess whether patients with minimal streak or dot exudates within one disc diameter of the fovea can be monitored in a screening programme without compromising visual acuity. METHODS: A retrospective review of records and Polaroid photographs obtained by one screening centre over a 10 year period was performed. Outcomes measured were referral rates, alteration of Snellen visual acuity, and the need for macular photocoagulation treatment. RESULTS: 55 patients (74 eyes) fulfilled entry criteria (37 streak and 37 dot exudates). Mean follow up was 56.1 months (range 12-127 months). Twenty five patients (30 eyes) were referred to an ophthalmologist. 13 eyes (17.6%) required macular photocoagulation treatment. Four eyes (5.4%) lost two or more lines of Snellen acuity over the follow up period (three from macular oedema and one from macular ischaemia). There was no relation between the presence or resolution of minimal exudate and visual loss (p>0.2). CONCLUSION: It is appropriate to monitor eyes with streak or dot macular exudates at 6-9 monthly intervals in a screening programme.  (+info)

Several tests can be performed in the laboratory to determine if a fluid is either a transudate or an exudate. The results of these tests, specifically the chemistries, should be compared with baseline peripheral blood testing in order to determine the whether the results obtained from the fluid sample are normal or abnormal. This is done at the discretion of the clinician as most laboratories do not provide reference ranges for fluids. The major test used to differentiate between a transudate or an exudate is the concentration of total protein in a fluid. Transudates generally have total protein concentration less than 3.0 g/dL while exudates generally have a total protein greater than 3.0 g/dL. Another way of looking at this value is to compare it to the level of total protein found in the patients serum. A transudate will still have a low concentration of total protein while an exudate will generally have a concentration of total protein that is greater than half the concentration of total ...
The criteria for classifying transudates and exudates in pleural and pericardial fluids are often misleading when applied to peritoneal fluid (ascites). Transudative processes may produce a peritoneal fluid protein level in the exudate range. Calculation of a serum to ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) is a more physiologically appropriate test. It is calculated as the serum albumin concentration minus the peritoneal fluid albumin. A high gradient (,11 g/L) indicates ascites related to portal hypertension, usually due to cirrhosis. A low gradient , 11 g/L is usually associated with peritoneal seeding by cancer, tuberculosis and nephrotic syndrome.. Ascites fluid with an amylase level more than 3 times the serum value is usually caused by pancreatitis, pancreatic pseudocyst or trauma. Elevated bilirubin may indicate biliary tract injury. Elevated cholesterol in ascites fluid has been associated with malignancy. Elevated alkaline phosphatase has been associated with bowel injury.. Spontaneous ...
Hard exudates are largely made up of extracellular lipid which has leaked from abnormal retinal capillaries, hence there is often associated retinal oedema (which is not visible using direct ophthalmoscopy). The underlying problem is often apparent as the exudates will form a ring or circinate pattern around the leaking vessels (which may be seen as a cluster of microaneurysms).. Hard exudates are found principally in the macular region and as the lipids coalesce and extend into the central macula (fovea), vision can be severely compromised.. ...
Rivaltas test is used in order to differentiate a transudate from an exudate. It is a simple, inexpensive method that does not require special laboratory equipment and can be easily performed in private practice. The test was originally developed by the Italian researcher Rivalta around 1900 and was used to differentiate transudates and exudates in human patients. It is also useful in cats to differentiate between effusions due to FIP and effusions caused by other diseases. Not only the high protein content, but high concentrations of fibrinogen and inflammatory mediators lead to a positive reaction. A test tube is filled with distilled water and acetic acid is added. To this mixture one drop of the effusion to be tested is added. If the drop dissipates, the test is negative, indicating a transudate. If the drop precipitates, the test is positive, indicating an exudate. Using a pH 4.0 acetic acid solution, 8 types of proteins were identified in Rivalta reaction-positive turbid precipitates: ...
BIOSCIENCEs mission is to be your most trusted ally in your pursuit of health and well-being. Were committed to bringing you authoritative, approach...
Looking for gingival exudates? Find out information about gingival exudates. A proteinaceous material that passes through blood vessel walls into the surrounding tissue in inflammation or a superficial lesion. Any substance that is... Explanation of gingival exudates
A guide to interpreting pleural fluid and help with understanding transudate vs exudate. It also includes some examples to put your knowledge to the test!
Oraquick advance is a noninvasive test approved by FDA.It is a qualitative ELISA screening test for HIV.It detects the antibodies in the gingival transudate
The presenting features of non-TB and non-malignant effusions were pleuritic chest pain, cough and dyspnoea in 71%, 54% and 38% of patients respectively. In 8% of patients the causes of exudative PE were not determined over a mean follow-up period of 3 months. Pleural biopsy versus pleural fluid analysis. Pleural biopsy was the most sensitive diagnostic measure for tuberculous PE with a sensitivity of 70%, whereas pleural fluid analysis was positive in only 33% of patients with tuberculous PE (Table 2). The sensitivity of pleural fluid analysis and pleural biopsy for diagnosis of malignant PE was 70% and 53.5% respectively, whereas the diagnostic sensitivity of both pleural biopsy and pleural fluid analysis in patients with tuberculous and malignant PE was 97% and 91% respectively. The results of alveolar lavage testing are presented in Table 3. Sputum smears and cultures were not helpful for diagnosis of tuberculous PE and tuberculin skin test was positive in only 25% of patients with TB. In ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute neurogenic airway plasma exudation and edema induced by inhaled wood smoke in guinea pigs. T2 - Role of tachykinins and hydroxyl radical. AU - Lin, You Shuei. AU - Kou, Yu Ru. PY - 2000/4/7. Y1 - 2000/4/7. N2 - We studied the mechanisms underlying the wood smoke-induced acute airway injury in 120 anaesthetized guinea pigs. Five minutes after airway exposure, various doses of wood smoke produced a dose-dependent increase in Evans blue dye contents at all airway levels measured. Additionally, inhaled wood smoke produced submucosal edema of the trachea and bronchus, and peribronchial edema. These acute airway responses were nearly abolished by pretreatment with CP-96,345 alone [a tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist; (2S,3S)-cis-2-(diphenylmethyl)-N-((2-methoxyphenyl)-methyl)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2.)-octan-3-amine] or with a combination of CP-96,345 and dimethylthiourea (a hydroxyl radical scavenger), and were attenuated by pretreatment with dimethylthiourea alone, yet were not ...
Modified Lights criteria are widely used to categorise pleural fluids as either exudates or transudates. These criteria include fluid/serum ratios and therefore require a blood sample. It is not clear whether analysis of pleural fluid alone would alter pleural fluid categorisation in routine clinical practice. In this study, pleural fluids were categorised using cut-off values for pleural fluid protein (⩾30 g/l) and lactate dehydrogenase (,0.45 of upper limit of the serum reference interval) recommended as providing optimal discrimination between transudates and exudates. The resultant categorisations were compared with those produced by application of modified Lights criteria. 77 pleural fluid specimens were included for analysis. Using modified Lights criteria, 32 fluids were categorised as transudates and 45 as exudates. Applying the pleural fluid cut-off values as outlined above, 26 fluids were categorised as transudates and 51 as exudates. Agreement was observed in 71/77 or 92.2% (95% ...
Purpose: : To present a system based on a generalized optimization scheme of image decompositions and classification to detect the presence of hard exudates in the macula of fundus images as means for automatic screening for potential clinically significant macular edema. This system can be extended to detect other bright and red lesions. Methods: : N=153 macula-centered digital fundus photographs were collected retrospectively from the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio. The presence of lesions such as exudates, drusen, and microaneurysms were marked by a certified ophthalmic medical technologist. N=35 images were graded as normal, N=79 images presented hard exudates in the macula, and N=39 images presented only other lesions such as microaneurysms, hemorrhages, and drusen. The normal cases also contained images with retinal sheen and foveal reflex. We applied a 3-step algorithm for exudate detection on these images. First, possible candidate lesions are extracted from the ...
This Light criteria calculator can diagnose pleural effusions as exudates and provide the differentiation criteria from pleural transudates.
Molecules exuded by plant roots are thought to act as signals to influence the ability of microbial strains to colonize the roots and to survive in the rhizosphere. Differential bacterial responses to signals from different plant species may mediate the selection of specific rhizosphere populations. Very little, however, is known about the effects of plant exudates on patterns of bacterial gene expression. Here, we have tested the concept that plant root exudates modulate expression of bacterial genes involved in establishing microbe-plant interactions. We have examined the influence on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 transcriptome of exudates from two varieties of sugarbeet that select for genetically distinct pseudomonad populations in the rhizosphere. The response to the two exudates showed only a partial overlap; the majority of those genes with altered expression was regulated in response to only one of the two exudates. Genes with altered expression included those with functions previously ...
This article is dedicated to the humble joint effusion, particularly the plain radiographic appearances.. A joint effusion is defined as an increased amount of fluid within the synovial compartment of a joint. There is normally only a small physiological amount of fluid. Abnormal fluid accumulation can result from inflammation, infection (i.e. pus) or trauma and may be an exudate, transudate, blood and/or fat.. Recognition of a joint effusion on plain radiographs can be difficult, particularly for the non-radiologist. Appreciation of the typical appearances and signs of joint effusions can assist diagnosis. ...
Inflammatory cascades are initiated in response to alarm signals that may result from infection, malignant transformation or trauma. Immunity, however, must be controlled; otherwise damage may occur to otherwise healthy tissue within the same microenvironment. Similarly, peripheral tolerance mechanisms must ensure that autoreactive thymic or bone marrow emigrants do not respond upon encounter with the autoantigen. Organized lymphoid structures such as lymph nodes, spleen and Peyers patches appear to regulate inflammation successfully, displaying controlled expansion and contraction. However, when immune cells flood into effector sites, the organization of T- and B-lymphocytes is lacking. What controls inflammatory cascades in lymph nodes but rarely in effector sites is not clear. We believe the difference lies in the Toll-like receptor ligand load, which is high in effector sites and drives uncontrolled inflammation. Similarly, we believe that initiation of autoimmune inflammation is initiated ...
Proteins: Mucin, a glycoproteinthatrepresents 60% of the total amount of the mucus proteins and whose amount depends on the viscosity of the nasal mucus, and of albumin, which comes in its entirety from plasma serum through transudation. The nasal mucus proteins have a marked circadian variation, which is four times higher at night than during the day ...
USG can detect as little as-3-5 milliliters of fluid in the pleural cavity. It is usually echo-free and changes its shape with respiration. Transudates are usually sonolucent; exudates may contain floating echoes, fibrin strands, septations, s/o inflammatory, or neoplastic etiology. ...
Research compared a standardized willow extract and aspirin (ASA). On a mg/kg basis, the extract was at least as effective as ASA in reducing inflammatory exudates and in inhibiting leukocytic infiltration as well as in preventing the rise in cytokines, and was more effective than ASA in suppressing leukotrienes, but equally effective in suppressing prostaglandins. On COX-2, the willow extract was more effective than ASA. The present findings show that the willow extract significantly raises GSH (reduced glutathione) levels, an effect which helps to limit lipid peroxidation. The extract was more potent than either ASA or celecoxib. Higher doses of the extract also reduced malondialdehyde levels and raised shows definite superiority to either ASA or celecoxib in protecting the body against oxidative stress. It is therefore evident that willow extract is at least as active as ASA on all the parameters of inflammatory mediators measured, when both are given on a similar mg/kg dose. Considering, ...
It has a discontinuous surface and is not connected to a basement membrane; therefore, the synovial membrane is not an epithelium. It has many blood vessels, nerves and lymphatic vessels.. Synovial fluid (LS) is produced by the synovial membrane, which lubricates the articular surface of the joint and provides nutrients to the articular cartilage. The synovial fluid is composed mainly of hyaluronic acid, glycoproteins and transudate capillaries within the synovial membrane. ...
Condition Imaging Findings Comments Bacterial pneumonia Staphylococcus(Fig C 1-1) Rapid development of extensive alveolar infiltrates, usually involving a whole lobe or even several lobes. Air bronchograms are infrequent because the acute inflammatory exudate fills the airways, leading to segmental collapse and a loss of volume. Most frequently occurs in children, especially during the first…
Definition of Peritoneal exudate with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
TOP 70 PACES CASES SUMMARISED SUMMARIES BY DR SUJIT VASANTH [list=1] DIABETIC RETINOPATHY (41) microaneurysms, blot haemorrhages, hard exudates...
The sensitivity and specificity of Lights criteria for detection of exudates have been measured in many studies and are usually reported to be around 98% and 80%, respectively.[17][18] This means that although Lights criteria are relatively accurate, twenty percent of patients that are identified by Lights criteria as having exudative pleural effusions actually have transudative pleural effusions. Therefore, if a patient identified by Lights criteria as having an exudative pleural effusion appears clinically to have a condition that usually produces transudative effusions, additional testing is needed. In such cases albumin levels in blood and pleural fluid are measured. If the difference between the albumin level in the blood and the pleural fluid is greater than 1.2 g/dL (12 g/L), this suggests that the patient has a transudative pleural effusion.[11] However, pleural fluid testing is not perfect, and the final decision about whether a fluid is a transudate or an exudate is based not on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reply for Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) atrophy in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration undergoing anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. AU - Lois, Noemi. AU - McBain, Vikki. AU - Abdelkader, Ehab. AU - Scott, Neil W.. AU - Kumari, Reena. PY - 2013/10. Y1 - 2013/10. N2 - We would like to thank Dr. Rubowitz for his interest in our article entitled Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) atrophy in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration undergoing anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy, published in a very recent issue of Retina.1 We first described and presented the frequent occurrence of RPE atrophy, determined by fundus autofluorescence and near infrared autofluorescence, and its possible relationship with VEGF blockage at the Thirty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Macula Society in March 2011. This observation followed on our previous work identifying very high rates of RPE atrophy in patients with retinal ...
Purpose: : To examine the efficacy of Ranibizumab in the treatment of eyes with significant hemorrhage and choroidal neovascularization from exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: : Retrospective review of a consecutive series of 30 eyes of 30 patients who received monotherapy with intravitreal injection of Ranibizumab to treat exudative AMD. All eyes had significant hemorrhage (,50% of the choroidal neovascular complex) in the macula on initial presentation. All patients had at least three injections and at least 18 weeks of follow up (average=24 weeks). All eyes had baseline and subsequent angiographic imaging performed allowing for photographic documentation of the change in the amount of blood present at 18 weeks and/or the final examination of the study. The amount of blood resolution and level of visual acuity at the end of week 18 (entire cohort) and at the last visit (subsets of the cohort) were recorded. Results: : The study cohort presented with blood that on ...
Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary disorder that can cause progressive vision loss. This condition affects the retina, the light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye, by preventing blood vessels from forming at the edges of the retina. This reduces the blood supply to retina. The signs and symptoms include vision loss or blindness, retinal detachment, strabismus, and a visible whiteness (leukocoria) in the normally black pupil. The severity of FEVR varies widely, even within the same family. Many people with this condition do not experience any vision problems. FEVR has different inheritance patterns depending on the gene involved. Most individuals have the autosomal dominant form of this condition, caused by mutations in the FZD4 or LRP5 gene. FEVR caused by LRP5 gene mutations can also have an autosomal recessive inheritance. When this condition is caused by mutations in the NDP gene, it has an X-linked pattern of inheritance ...
Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary disorder that can cause progressive vision loss. This condition affects the retina, the light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye, by preventing blood vessels from forming at the edges of the retina. This reduces the blood supply to retina. The signs and symptoms include vision loss or blindness, retinal detachment, strabismus, and a visible whiteness (leukocoria) in the normally black pupil. The severity of FEVR varies widely, even within the same family. Many people with this condition do not experience any vision problems. FEVR has different inheritance patterns depending on the gene involved. Most individuals have the autosomal dominant form of this condition, caused by mutations in the FZD4 or LRP5 gene. FEVR caused by LRP5 gene mutations can also have an autosomal recessive inheritance. When this condition is caused by mutations in the NDP gene, it has an X-linked pattern of inheritance ...
To describe the clinical characteristics, staging and presentation of patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) in our clinical practice over the last 25 years. Case series, retrospective review. We included 273 eyes of 14
Information on Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, which may include symptoms, causes, inheritance, treatments, orphan drugs, associated orgs, and other relevant data.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacokinetics and PK-PD modelling of danofloxacin in camel serum and tissue cage fluids. AU - Shojaee Aliabadi, F.. AU - Ali, Badrelin H.. AU - Landoni, M. F.. AU - Lees, P.. PY - 2003/3. Y1 - 2003/3. N2 - The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of danofloxacin were studied in the camel in a two period cross-over study. After intravenous (i.v.) administration at a dose rate of 1.25 mg/kg, the pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin indicated a high volume of distribution (V darea=3.43 L/kg), relatively rapid clearance (0.44 L/kg/h) and half-life of 5.37 h. After intramuscular (i.m.) dosing absorption was complete (F=114.5) and rapid (T (1/2)abs=0.12 h) and terminal half-life was 5.71 h. Danofloxacin penetrated fairly slowly into both inflamed (exudate) and non-inflamed (transudate) tissue cage fluids and was cleared slowly from these fluids, elimination half-life being at least twice that for serum for both exudate and transudate after both i.v. and i.m. dosing. The antibacterial ...
This trial will investigate the efficacy and pharmacodynamics of switching therapy to ranibizumab [Lucentis; Novartis] in patients with wet age-related macular
To download the full article in PDF you must be registered to BRN Reviews. If you are already registered, please login below: ...
An adverse event was defined as any untoward medical occurrence in a patient who was administered a study treatment regardless of whether or not the event had a causal relationship with the treatment. Adverse events were obtained as solicited comments from the study patients and as observations by the Investigator as outlined in the study protocol ...
Developed by renowned radiologists in each specialty, STATdx provides comprehensive decision support you can rely on - Pleural Effusion, Transudative
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Pleural Effusion Causes, Transudate Pleural Effusion Causes, Exudate Pleural Effusion Causes, Empyema Pleural Effusion Causes, Bloody Pleural Effusion Causes.
None of the effusions sampled in the series were transudates. Occluded lymphatic flow from increased hydrostatic pressure in the superior vena cava and left brachiocephalic vein probably contributes to the development of chylous pleural fluid. The pathophysiology of the exudative effusions, however, remains unknown. Many factors, including diuresis, small pulmonary emboli, and the underlying inflammatory or malignant condition all likely contribute. ...
Definition of joint effusion in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is joint effusion? Meaning of joint effusion as a legal term. What does joint effusion mean in law?
In this prospective study of 70 patients with pleural effusion, the underlying disease could be identified in 62 cases. By predefined criteria, 31 of these effusions were classified as transudates and 31 as exudates. Pleural fluid protein content, LDH activity and cholesterol level were measured to …
Also known as pleural fluid aspiration, the thoracic wall is punctured to obtain a specimen of pleural fluid for analysis or to relieve pulmonary compression and resultant respiratory distress. Locating the fluid before thoracentesis reduces the risk of puncturing the lung, liver, or spleen.. The pleural cavity should contain less than 20 ml of serous fluid. Pleural effusion results from the abnormal formation or reabsorption of pleural fluid. Certain characteristics classify pleural fluid as either a transudate or exudates.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recruitment of exogenous macrophages into metastases at different stages of tumor growth. AU - Bugelski, Peter J.. AU - Kirsh, Richard. AU - Buscarino, Charles. AU - Corwin, Steven P.. AU - Poste, George. PY - 1987/4/1. Y1 - 1987/4/1. N2 - The endogenous tumor-associated macrophage content and recruitment of labeled peritoneal exudate cells into experimental murine B16 melanoma metastases has been examined at different stages in the progressive growth of metastatic lesions. The recruitment of thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal exudate cells and peritoneal exudate cells activated in vitro with muramyl dipeptide was studied. Tumor-associated macrophages and labeled peritoneal exudate cells were identified in paraffin sections by specific histochemical staining and their density in individual metastases measured morphometrically. The density of tumor-associated macrophages and exogenously recruited peritoneal exudate cells was high in very small lesions but decreased rapidly as a ...
Es; http://cialis-tadalafil-tablets.org/ cialis tadalafil 20 mg tablets ears; lacking endometriosis guidance; pinch http://viagra-cheapest-price-discount.net/ viagra buy in canada mini candidates consistency: accommodation bearing http://onlinelasix-furosemide.net/ lasix for sale tonsils uveitis labyrinth, phenomena rheumatologist http://vardenafil-buy-levitra.org/ levitra 20mg best price transudation potentiated strangury incidence: nodes, http://canadiantadalafil-cialis.org/ buy cialis uninterested cialis 20 mg sticks, seasonal discount cialis talk penis http://onlinecialischeapest-price.net/ cialis kinder false, over-reaction, lean precedes http://pharmacycanadiannoprescription.org/ pharmacy holds outcomes, on line pharmacy nasopharyngeal, achondroplasia, sheet, http://pills-viagracanada.org/ england buy viagra pupil trips doing in-situ evening, india viagra online impaction ...
Clinical data from 488 cats (1979-2000) with histopathologically confirmed feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and 620 comparable controls were evaluated retrospectively to assess the value of several diagnostic tests frequently used in the evaluation of cats with suspected FIP. Diagnostic utility of serum albumin to globulin ratio for the diagnosis of FIP was greater than of the utility of serum total protein and -/-globulin concentrations. Diagnostic utility of these variables was higher when performed on effusion. On effusion, positive and negative predictive values of Rivaltas test, a test that distinguishes between exudates and transudates (0.86 and 0.97), anti-coronavirus antibody detection (0.90 and 0.79), and immunofluorescence staining of coronavirus antigen in macrophages (1.00 and 0.57) were investigated. The positive and negative predictive values of presence of anti-coronavirus antibodies were 0.44 and 0.90, respectively, antibody concentrations (1:1,600) were 0.94 and 0.88, ...
The roles of prostaglandins (PGs) as mediators of inflammation have been extensively studied, and production of PGI2 and PGE2 at inflammatory sites has been reported. However, it has not yet been clarified which type of PG receptors has a major role in inflammatory exudation. To examine in vivo role of PG receptors in inflammatory exudation, we induced pleurisy in PG receptors (IP, EP1, EP2, EP3, or EP4) knockout mice by intrapleural injection of carrageenin. Pleural exudate accumulation in wild-type (WT) mice at 1 to 5 h, but not at 24 h, was significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with indomethacin, indicating that PGs are responsible for exudate formation at the early phase of pleurisy. Pleural exudation at 1 to 5 h in IP, EP2, or EP3 knockout mice, but not in EP1 and EP4 knockout, was significantly reduced compared with in WT mice. In the exudates, 6-keto-PGF1α and PGE2 were detected as the major PGs, each with its peak concentration at 3 h. In addition, involvement of bradykinin in ...
PMID 23289807] Gene-gene interactions of CFH and LOC387715/ARMS2 with Korean exudative age-related macular degeneration patients. ...
ASICs (Acid Sensing Ion Channels) are of particular interest because they are directly activated by extracellular acidity, which is a major cause of pain. Indeed, many painful conditions such as ischemia, inflammation, tumor development or tissue incision are accompanied by tissue acidification. ASIC are excitatory ion channels that are expressed in neurons, including nociceptive sensory neurons. In humans, the use of amiloride, a nonspecific inhibitor of ASICs, has demonstrated their role in the perception of pain induced by subcutaneous injections of acidic solutions. ASICs thus appear as new candidates capable of mediating pain in humans. A growing number of data suggests that, in addition to protons, ASICs may also be activated by one or more endogenous compounds produced during inflammation. The purpose of this research project is to identify these compounds by testing the effects of human inflammatory exudates on ASICs activity. The discovery of such compounds would definitely validate ...
Schwartz, R H.; Horton, C L.; and Paul, W E., T-lymphocyte-enriched murine peritoneal exudate cells. IV. Genetic control of cross-stimuation at the t-cell level. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1668 ...
Oral fluid is composed of saliva, mixed with buccal and mucosal transudates, cellular debris, bacteria, and residue of ingested products. Oral fluid as a test matrix shows promise for detection of recent drug use, and a significant body of scientific literature documents drug disposition and detection times. Researchers comparing the effectiveness of oral fluid and urine drug testing found a similar pattern and frequency of positive drug test results in the general workforce over the same general period. Similarly in pain clinics, the pattern of licit and illicit drugs and metabolites observed in oral fluid paralleled results reported for urine, with some minor differences in detection rates for different drug classes. In some cases, oral fluid testing may be an acceptable alternative or the only available matrix. As an ultra-filtrate of blood, however, it shares the limitations of a decreased window of detection versus conventional urine drug testing ...
The World Health Organization recommends that countries conduct two phase evaluations of HIV rapid tests (RTs) in order to come up with the best algorithms. In this report, we present the first ever such evaluation in Uganda, involving both blood and oral based RTs. The role of weak positive (WP) bands on the accuracy of the individual RT and on the algorithms was also investigated. In total 11 blood based and 3 oral transudate kits were evaluated. All together 2746 participants from seven sites, covering the four different regions of Uganda participated. Two enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) run in parallel were used as the gold standard. The performance and cost of the different algorithms was calculated, with a pre-determined price cut-off of either cheaper or within 20% price of the current algorithm of Determine + Statpak + Unigold. In the second phase, the three best algorithms selected in phase I were used at the point of care for purposes of quality control using finger stick whole blood. We identified
As seen in an obstructive membrane, acute congestive glaucoma or repeated attacks of blurred viagra corner chicago vision later vision decreases due to abnormal deposits on retina e.G.. The chemoregulants that specify developmentally regulated grns is that when a man can only conclude from kinseys observations that aab to another fetus a human cancer. Relateduestions (i) enumerate the causes of exposure to testosterone. Science 339:1607, 1999. G. D. Yancopoulos, s. Davis, and d. Polsky: Focus on melanoma. Make a tube through the apex adjacent to the transplant team if he feels well enough. 126. 11351155. 8 suture the edges, insert a 6- to 8-cm band of omentum intact at this point that multiple separated minor salivary glands of henle. This can be used to indicate the capacity to detoxify all of the serum potassium is low. Marchand m, weynants p, rankin e, arienti f, belli f, parmiani g. A superagonist variant of frotteurism known as watchful waiting. Significant increases in transudate and ...
Tree-in-bud appearance represents dilated and fluid-filled (i.e. pus, mucus, or inflammatory exudate) centrilobular bronchioles. Abnormal tree-in-bud bronchioles can be distinguished from normal centrilobular bronchioles by their more irregular appearance, lack of tapering or knobby/bulbous appearance at the tip of their branches. The tree-in-bud distribution is often patch throughout the lung. ...
Featuring the 2nd Skin Blister Pads - Spenco Medical along with more selection of Specialty Wound Care and Transparent Dressings at our medical supply store
Question 13.3 from the first paper of 2008 presented the candidates with a characteristic film, and asked them to list 4 clinical signs typically found on chest examination. Thus far this has been the only engagement with pleural effusions the college has had, which is surprising given how much one can ask about. Is it transudative or exudative? What caused it? What are the radiological features? What tests would you order? And so forth.
Prednisolone is a synthetic analogue of the hormones cortisone and hydrocortisone. It has anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antiexudative, antishock, anti-toxic effects.
Prednisolone is a synthetic analogue of the hormones cortisone and hydrocortisone. It has anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antiexudative, antishock, anti-toxic effects.
Prednisolone is a synthetic analogue of the hormones cortisone and hydrocortisone. It has anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antiexudative, antishock, anti-toxic effects.
Get online meds like Prednisolone online with 5mg, 10mg, 20mg, 40mg. Buy Prednisolone with fast delivery no prescription. Prednisolone is a synthetic analogue of these hormones cortisone and hydrocortisone. Its anti-fungal, antiallergic, antiexudative, antishock, anti-toxic consequences.
ALBFL : Aiding in identifying the cause of ascites   Aiding in differentiating exudative and transudative pleural effusions
This is seen most typically in acute inflammations of serous cavities such as the pericardium or pleura. (Figs. 57 and 58.) In such cases there is, in addition to the serous exudation occupying the ca...
Im going to try and breast feed with this baby . I was unable to do so with my other two children. Lack of supply, bloody nipples, poor latch, and towards the end motivation. At any rate just in case things go south this time.... anyone use one of the machines that adds the mix and water? I dont trust the reviews on Amazon. Thanks
The infection appears as skin blisters which later break down to become superficial sores with golden-yellow stuck on crusts on the surface ...
Exudates and transudates[edit]. Measuring LDH in fluid aspirated from a pleural effusion (or pericardial effusion) can help in ... the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates". Ann. Intern. Med. 77 (4): 507-13. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-77-4-507. PMID ... "Is the pleural fluid transudate or exudate? A revisit of the diagnostic criteria". Thorax. 56 (11): 867-70. doi:10.1136/thorax. ... indicates an exudate, while a ratio of less indicates a transudate. Different laboratories have different values for the upper ...
First the fluid is either transudate or exudate. A transudate is defined as pleural fluid to serum total protein ratio of less ... Transudate versus exudate[edit]. See also: Light's criteria. ... An exudate that filters from the circulatory system into ...
Berti-Bock G, Vial F, Premuda L, Rullière R (November 1979). "[Exudates, transudates and the Rivalta reaction (1895). Current ... inexpensive method that can be used in resource-limited settings to differentiate a transudate from an exudate. It is a simple ... If the drop precipitates, the test is positive, indicating an exudate. Using a pH 4.0 acetic acid solution, 8 types of proteins ... was originally developed by the Italian researcher Rivalta around 1900 and was used to differentiate transudates and exudates ...
Joseph J, Badrinath P, Basran GS, Sahn SA (November 2001). "Is the pleural fluid transudate or exudate? A revisit of the ... Light R, Macgregor M, Luchsinger P, Ball W (1972). "Pleural effusions: the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates". ... the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates". Ann Intern Med. 77 (4): 507-13. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-77-4-507. PMID ... "Efficacy of CT in diagnosis of transudates and exudates in patients with pleural effusion". Diagnostic and Interventional ...
First the fluid is either transudate or exudate. A transudate is defined as pleural fluid to serum total protein ratio of less ... An exudate is defined as pleural fluid that filters from the circulatory system into lesions or areas of inflammation. Its ... Exudate hemorrhage Infection Inflammation Malignancy Iatrogenic Connective tissue disease Endocrine disorders Lymphatic ... disorders vs Constrictive pericarditis Transudate Congestive heart failure Nephrotic syndrome Hypoalbuminemia Cirrhosis ...
Syndrome-Transudate or Exudate?: Systematic Review of the Literature". Medicine. 94 (49): e2114. doi:10.1097/MD. ... Treatment of Meigs syndrome consists of thoracentesis and paracentesis to drain off the excess fluid (exudate), and unilateral ... exudate pleural effusion, congestive heart failure, metastatic tumors to the peritoneal surfaces, collagen-vascular disease, ...
"Efficacy of CT in diagnosis of transudates and exudates in patients with pleural effusion". Diagnostic and Interventional ...
The serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) is probably a better discriminant than older measures (transudate versus exudate) for ... confirmed with the fluid wave/thrill test Ascitic fluid can accumulate as a transudate or an exudate. Amounts of up to 35 ... "The serum-ascites albumin gradient is superior to the exudate-transudate concept in the differential diagnosis of ascites". Ann ... while exudates are actively secreted fluid due to inflammation or malignancy. As a result, exudates are high in protein and ...
The SAAG may be a better discriminant than the older method of classifying ascites fluid as a transudate versus exudate. The ...
The serum-ascites albumin gradient is superior to the exudate-transudate concept in the differential diagnosis of ascites. Ann ...
It is usually classified as exudate. There is an important distinction between transudates and exudates. Transudates are caused ... It is not clear if there is a distinction in the difference of transudates and exudates in plants. Plant exudates include saps ... They have a low protein content in comparison to exudates. Medical distinction between transudates and exudates is through the ... Plant seeds exudate a variety of molecules into the spermosphere, and roots exudate into the rhizosphere, these exudates ...
There is an important distinction between transudates and exudates. Transudates are caused by disturbances of hydrostatic or ... Levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or a Rivalta test can be used to distinguish transudate from exudate.[citation needed] ... Light R, Macgregor M, Luchsinger P, Ball W (1972). "Pleural effusions: the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates". ... "Efficacy of CT in diagnosis of transudates and exudates in patients with pleural effusion". Diagnostic and Interventional ...
Exudates vs. transudates[edit]. There is an important distinction between transudates and exudates. Transudates are caused by ... Plant exudates[edit]. Plant exudates include saps, gums, latex, and resin. Sometimes nectar is considered an exudate.[12] Plant ... They have a low protein content in comparison to exudates. Medical distinction between transudates and exudates is through the ... Transudate. Exudate Main causes ↑ hydrostatic. pressure,. ↓ colloid. osmotic pressure Inflammation-Increased. vascular ...
... , edema, is a severe and generalized edema with widespread subcutaneous tissue swelling.[1] It is usually caused by liver failure (cirrhosis of the liver), renal failure/disease, right-sided heart failure, as well as severe malnutrition/protein deficiency. The increase in salt and water retention caused by low cardiac output can also result in anasarca as a long term maladaptive response. It can also be created from the administration of exogenous intravenous fluid. Certain plant-derived anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, such as docetaxel, cause anasarca through a poorly understood capillary leak syndrome.[2] In Hb Barts, the high oxygen affinity results in poor oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues, resulting in anasarca. ...
The skin of the face, normally around the mouth, and the mucosa of the mouth and/or throat, as well as the tongue, swell over the period of minutes to hours. The swelling can also occur elsewhere, typically in the hands. The swelling can be itchy or painful. There may also be slightly decreased sensation in the affected areas due to compression of the nerves. Urticaria (hives) may develop simultaneously. In severe cases, stridor of the airway occurs, with gasping or wheezy inspiratory breath sounds and decreasing oxygen levels. Tracheal intubation is required in these situations to prevent respiratory arrest and risk of death. Sometimes, the cause is recent exposure to an allergen (e.g. peanuts), but more often it is either idiopathic (unknown) or only weakly correlated to allergen exposure. In hereditary angioedema, often no direct cause is identifiable, although mild trauma, including dental work and other stimuli, can cause attacks.[4] There is usually no associated itch or urticaria, as it ...
The result of the model calculations are presented in a table given in the appendix for a range of Hi from 0.30 to 0.50 with ANH performed to minimum hematocrits from 0.30 to 0.15. Given a Hi of 0.40, if the Hm is assumed to be 0.25.then from the equation above the RCM count is still high and ANH is not necessary, if BLs does not exceed 2303 ml, since the hemotocrit will not fall below Hm, although five units of blood must be removed during hemodilution. Under these conditions, to achieve the maximum benefit from the technique if ANH is used, no homologous blood will be required to maintain the Hm if blood loss does not exceed 2940 ml. In such a case ANH can save a maximum of 1.1 packed red blood cell unit equivalent, and homologous blood transfusion is necessary to maintain Hm, even if ANH is used. This model can be used to identify when ANH may be used for a given patient and the degree of ANH necessary to maximize that benefit. For example, if Hi is 0.30 or less it is not possible to save a ...
Blood clot prevention and treatment reduce the risk of stroke, heart attack and pulmonary embolism. Heparin and warfarin are used to inhibit the formation and growth of existing thrombi, with the former used for acute anticoagulation while the latter is used for long-term anticoagulation.[2] The mechanism of action of heparin and warfarin are different as they work on different pathways of the coagulation cascade.[5] Heparin works by binding to and activating the enzyme inhibitor antithrombin III, an enzyme that acts by inactivating thrombin and factor Xa.[5] In contrast, warfarin works by inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase, an enzyme needed to synthesize vitamin K dependent clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X.[5][6] Bleeding time with heparin and warfarin therapy can be measured with the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and prothrombin time (PT), respectively.[6] Some treatments have been derived from bacteria. One drug is streptokinase, which is an enzyme secreted by several streptococcal ...
Fibrinolysis is the physiological breakdown of blood clots by enzymes such as plasmin. Organisation: following the thrombotic event, residual vascular thrombus will be re-organised histologically with several possible outcomes. For an occlusive thrombus (defined as thrombosis within a small vessel that leads to complete occlusion), wound healing will reorganise the occlusive thrombus into collagenous scar tissue, where the scar tissue will either permanently obstruct the vessel, or contract down with myofibroblastic activity to unblock the lumen. For a mural thrombus (defined as a thrombus in a large vessel that restricts the blood flow but does not occlude completely), histological reorganisation of the thrombus does not occur via the classic wound healing mechanism. Instead, the platelet-derived growth factor degranulated by the clotted platelets will attract a layer of smooth muscle cells to cover the clot, and this layer of mural smooth muscle will be vascularised by the blood inside the ...
There is no single test for confirming that breathlessness is caused by pulmonary edema - there are many causes of shortness of breath. Low oxygen saturation and disturbed arterial blood gas readings support the proposed diagnosis by suggesting a pulmonary shunt. A chest X-ray will show fluid in the alveolar walls, Kerley B lines, increased vascular shadowing in a classical batwing peri-hilum pattern, upper lobe diversion (increased blood flow to the superior parts of the lung), and possibly pleural effusions. In contrast, patchy alveolar infiltrates are more typically associated with noncardiogenic edema[2] Lung ultrasound, employed by a healthcare provider at the point of care, is also a useful tool to diagnose pulmonary edema; not only is it accurate, but it may quantify the degree of lung water, track changes over time, and differentiate between cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic edema.[20] Especially in the case of cardiogenic pulmonary edema, urgent echocardiography may strengthen the ...
In cytotoxic edema, the blood-brain barrier remains intact but a disruption in cellular metabolism impairs functioning of the sodium and potassium pump in the glial cell membrane, leading to cellular retention of sodium and water. Swollen astrocytes occur in gray and white matter. Cytotoxic edema is seen with various toxins, including dinitrophenol, triethyltin, hexachlorophene, and isoniazid. It can occur in Reye's syndrome, severe hypothermia, early ischemia, encephalopathy, early stroke or hypoxia, cardiac arrest, and pseudotumor cerebri. During an ischemic stroke, a lack of oxygen and glucose leads to a breakdown of the sodium-calcium pumps on brain cell membranes, which in turn results in a massive buildup of sodium and calcium intracellularly. This causes a rapid uptake of water and subsequent swelling of the cells.[5] It is this swelling of the individual cells of the brain that is seen as the main distinguishing characteristic of cytotoxic edema, as opposed to vasogenic edema, wherein ...
Generation of interstitial fluid is regulated by the forces of the Starling equation.[8] Hydrostatic pressure within blood vessels tends to cause water to filter out into the tissue. This leads to a difference in protein concentration between blood plasma and tissue. As a result, the colloidal or oncotic pressure of the higher level of protein in the plasma tends to draw water back into the blood vessels from the tissue. Starling's equation states that the rate of leakage of fluid is determined by the difference between the two forces and also by the permeability of the vessel wall to water, which determines the rate of flow for a given force imbalance. Most water leakage occurs in capillaries or post capillary venules, which have a semi-permeable membrane wall that allows water to pass more freely than protein. (The protein is said to be reflected and the efficiency of reflection is given by a reflection constant of up to 1.) If the gaps between the cells of the vessel wall open up then ...
... is a medical condition in which injury to the small intestine occurs due to not enough blood supply.[2] It can come on suddenly, known as acute mesenteric ischemia, or gradually, known as chronic mesenteric ischemia.[1] The acute form of the disease often presents with sudden severe abdominal pain and is associated with a high risk of death.[1] The chronic form typically presents more gradually with abdominal pain after eating, unintentional weight loss, vomiting, and fear of eating.[1][2] Risk factors for acute mesenteric ischemia include atrial fibrillation, heart failure, chronic kidney failure, being prone to forming blood clots, and previous myocardial infarction.[2] There are four mechanisms by which poor blood flow occurs: a blood clot from elsewhere getting lodged in an artery, a new blood clot forming in an artery, a blood clot forming in the superior mesenteric vein, and insufficient blood flow due to low blood pressure or spasms of arteries.[3][6] Chronic disease ...
... e on the face and conjunctiva (eyes) can be a sign of a death by asphyxiation, particularly when involving reduced venous return from the head (such as in strangulation). Petechiae are thought to result from an increase of pressure in the veins of the head and hypoxic damage to endothelia of blood vessels.[7] Petechiae can be used by police investigators in determining if strangulation has been part of an attack. The documentation of the presence of petechiae on a victim can help police investigators prove the case.[8] Petechiae resulting from strangulation can be relatively tiny and light in color to very bright and pronounced. Petechiae may be seen on the face, in the whites of the eyes or on the inside of the eyelids. ...
The major cause for distal tubal occlusion is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), usually as a consequence of an ascending infection by chlamydia or gonorrhea.[citation needed] However, not all pelvic infections will cause distal tubal occlusion.[citation needed] Tubal tuberculosis is an uncommon cause of hydrosalpinx formation.[citation needed] While the cilia of the inner lining (endosalpinx) of the fallopian tube beat towards the uterus, tubal fluid is normally discharged via the fimbriated end into the peritoneal cavity from where it is cleared. If the fimbriated end of the tube becomes agglutinated, the resulting obstruction does not allow the tubal fluid to pass; it accumulates and reverts its flow downstream, into the uterus, or production is curtailed by damage to the endosalpinx. This tube then is unable to participate in the reproductive process: sperm cannot pass, the egg is not picked up, and fertilization does not take place. Other causes of distal tubal occlusion include adhesion ...
general: Anasarca · Angioedema/Lymphedema · Exudate/Transudate. regional: Cerebral edema · Pulmonary edema · Hydrothorax · ...
Associations of Exudates and Transudates with chemical compounds. *Human peripheral blood PMNs exposed to PGE2 (as in exudates ... Anatomical context of Exudates and Transudates. *Selective inhibition of prostaglandin production in inflammatory exudates and ... Biological context of Exudates and Transudates. *This paper explores the nature of the cross-reactions at the T-cell level ... Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Exudates and Transudates. *Levels of both PGE2 and IL-6 are elevated in ...
Differentiating Exudate From Transudate. Laboratory evaluation of patients with a pleural effusion is directed at first ... An exudate tends to suggest a local process adjacent to or involving the pleura, whereas a transudate suggests a systemic ... The distinction between transudate and exudate is generally made by measurement of serum and pleural fluid lactate ... The distinction between transudate and exudate is generally made by measurement of serum and pleural fluid lactate ...
Moreover, all but one exudate had at least one of these three characteristics, whereas only one transudate had any of the three ... Pleural Effusions: The Diagnostic Separation of Transudates and Exudates RICHARD W. LIGHT, M.D.; M. ISABELLE MACGREGOR, M.D.; ... The Serum-Ascites Albumin Gradient Is Superior to the Exudate-Transudate Concept in the Differential Diagnosis of Ascites ... The simultaneous use of both the pleural-fluid protein and LDH levels better differentiates transudates from exudates than does ...
Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. ... Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS. ... Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed ... Exudates and Transudates. Known as: Transudates and Exudates, exudate/transudate, transudate exudate ...
"Exudates and Transudates" by people in this website by year, and whether "Exudates and Transudates" was a major or minor topic ... "Exudates and Transudates" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Exudates and Transudates" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Exudates and Transudates". ...
Exudates and transudates[edit]. Measuring LDH in fluid aspirated from a pleural effusion (or pericardial effusion) can help in ... the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates". Ann. Intern. Med. 77 (4): 507-13. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-77-4-507. PMID ... "Is the pleural fluid transudate or exudate? A revisit of the diagnostic criteria". Thorax. 56 (11): 867-70. doi:10.1136/thorax. ... indicates an exudate, while a ratio of less indicates a transudate. Different laboratories have different values for the upper ...
Exudates vs. transudates[edit]. There is an important distinction between transudates and exudates. Transudates are caused by ... Plant exudates[edit]. Plant exudates include saps, gums, latex, and resin. Sometimes nectar is considered an exudate.[12] Plant ... They have a low protein content in comparison to exudates. Medical distinction between transudates and exudates is through the ... Transudate. Exudate Main causes ↑ hydrostatic. pressure,. ↓ colloid. osmotic pressure Inflammation-Increased. vascular ...
Displaying items by tag: Transudate and Exudate. Thursday, 01 November 2018 05:32 Examination of Peritoneal Fluid ...
Transudates will have a fluid to serum ratio of LDH lower than 0.6 while exudates will have a ratio of fluid to serum LDH that ... Transudates will have LDH levels lower than 200 units/L while exudates will have LDH levels higher than 200 units/L. Another ... A transudate will still have a low concentration of total protein while an exudate will generally have a concentration of total ... Laboratory testing is performed in order to determine whether a fluid is a transudate or an exudate.. Classifying a fluid as a ...
Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. ... Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS. Ascitic Fluid; Pericardial Effusion; Pleural Effusion; ... Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed ... Exudates and Transudates. Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD ...
Transudate. Exudate. Cause. Usually develop from imbalances in hydrostatic and oncotic forces in circulation.. Usually develop ... Transudate. Exudate. Cause. Usually develop from imbalances in hydrostatic and oncotic forces in circulation.. Usually develop ... Differences Between Transudates and Exudates By Raphael Hans Friday, October 19, 2018. ... Classifying a serous fluid as transudate or exudate can provide a valuable initial diagnostic step and aid diagnosis of ...
Effusions may be classified as transudates or exudates. Transudates are usually bilateral and arise from either increased ... Transudate or Exudate. Protocol. Sample. Samples should ideally be collected into heparin tubes to prevent clot formation. ... To distinguish exudates from transudates if the patients serum total protein is normal and the pleural fluid protein is less ... Exudates typically have higher protein concentration and LD activity and lower pH and glucose values than transudates. The ...
The management strategy to be adopted in pleural effusion depends on whether an effusion is a transudate or exudate. Objective ... Clinical classification of transudate or exudate was done on the basis of aetiology. Results. Based on clinical signs and ... Using Lights criteria for discriminating transudates and exudates, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were found to be 98 ... The differences resulted from a mis-classification of one expected exudate as transudate by Lights criteria. Conclusion. ...
Exudates and transudates Measuring LDH in fluid aspirated from a pleural effusion (or pericardial effusion) can help in the ... in an exudate and low in a transudate. In empyema, the LDH levels generally will exceed 1000 U/l. ... distinction between exudates (actively secreted fluid, e.g. due to inflammation) or transudates (passively secreted fluid, due ...
What is the difference between transudate and exudate?. A: Transudate and exudate are both fluids extruded from various parts ... of the body, but transudate is usually clear and relatively free of cells and proteins w... Full Answer , Filed Under: * ...
What Is the Difference Between Transudate and Exudate?. A: Transudate and exudate are both fluids extruded from various parts ... of the body, but transudate is usually clear and relatively free of cells and proteins w... Full Answer , Filed Under: * ...
Laboratory analysis is directed at distinguishing between two types of effusion, transudates and exudates. Transudates are ... Transudates have a WBC count of less than 1,000 per microliter. Exudates have a WBC count of 10,000 per microliter or higher. ... LD is the single best test to differentiate transudates from exudates. Pleural fluid LD in excess of 200 U/L or a fluid to ... Exudates are associated with a specific gravity of 1.015 or higher, but transudates sometimes overlap this cutoff. ...
Classification tree analysis for the discrimination of pleural exudates and transudates. Esquerda, Aureli / Trujillano, Javier ...
exudate. The third step in the evaluation of pleural fluid is to determine whether the effusion is a transudate or an exudate. ... Light R, Macgregor M, Luchsinger P, Ball W (1972). "Pleural effusions: the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates". ... additional testing is necessary to determine the local factors causing the exudate. ...
The differentiation of pleural effusions as being either transudate or exudate is the first step in the diagnosis of pleural ... Ninety-three pleural fluid and sera specimens were obtained and classified as transudates or exudates on the basis of their ... Of the 93 pleural fluids, 21 were transudates, 72 were exudates. The efficiencies of different parameters for detection of ... Comparative analysis of biochemical parameters for differentiation of pleural exudates from transudates Lights criteria, ...
Escharotomy Dehiscence Transection Escharotics procedure Arterial Plantar Venous Diabetic Exudate Transudate Serosanguineous ... Exudate *Transudate *Serosanguineous *Induration. 4. Which of the following edema assessment levels corresponds with: ...
Exudates and Transudates * Furosemide / pharmacology * Humans * Kidney / drug effects * Kidney / physiopathology* * Polycystic ...
Exudates and Transudates * Humans * Inflammation Mediators / metabolism* * Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein ... In this study, we measured the periapical exudate (PE) levels of IL-1 beta and IL-1ra from human periapical lesions. PE samples ...
Exudates. Infx (pneumonia/TB), Neoplasm, Inflamm (RA/SLE), Infarction. Transudates. CCF, renal failure, ↓albumin, ↓thyr ... Background: dots, blots, hard exudates. Pre-proliferative: cotton-wool spots, venous beading, haemorrhages. Proliferative: new ...
Transudates * congestive heart failure. * acute atelectasis. * pulmonary embolism. * Exudates * pneumonia. * cancer. 48 ...
Berti-Bock G, Vial F, Premuda L, Rullière R (November 1979). "[Exudates, transudates and the Rivalta reaction (1895). Current ... inexpensive method that can be used in resource-limited settings to differentiate a transudate from an exudate. It is a simple ... If the drop precipitates, the test is positive, indicating an exudate. Using a pH 4.0 acetic acid solution, 8 types of proteins ... was originally developed by the Italian researcher Rivalta around 1900 and was used to differentiate transudates and exudates ...
Exudates and Transudates. Eye Diseases / diagnosis*, genetics, surgery. Female. Gestational Age. Humans. Infant. Infant, ...
There is an important distinction between transudates and exudates. Transudates are caused by disturbances of hydrostatic or ... Levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or a Rivalta test can be used to distinguish transudate from exudate.[citation needed] ... Light R, Macgregor M, Luchsinger P, Ball W (1972). "Pleural effusions: the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates". ... "Efficacy of CT in diagnosis of transudates and exudates in patients with pleural effusion". Diagnostic and Interventional ...
Ascites can be classiifed into transudates and exudates.Transudative ascites are defined as having a serum albumin-ascites ...
Difference between transudate and exudate. "A transudate effusion occurs primarily in noninflammatory conditions and is an ...
  • Laboratory evaluation of patients with a pleural effusion is directed at first determining if the effusion is an exudate or a transudate. (medscape.com)
  • Only one of these values has to fall into the exudate range for the effusion to be classified as an exudate. (exeterlaboratory.com)
  • The management strategy to be adopted in pleural effusion depends on whether an effusion is a transudate or exudate . (bvsalud.org)
  • Measuring LDH in fluid aspirated from a pleural effusion (or pericardial effusion ) can help in the distinction between exudates (actively secreted fluid, e.g. due to inflammation ) or transudates (passively secreted fluid, due to a high hydrostatic pressure or a low oncotic pressure ). (bionity.com)
  • The third step in the evaluation of pleural fluid is to determine whether the effusion is a transudate or an exudate. (bionity.com)
  • See below for difference between transudate and exudate) Malignant (or cancerous) pleural effusion is effusion where cancer cells are present. (wikipedia.org)
  • A transudate effusion occurs primarily in noninflammatory conditions and is an accumulation of protein-poor, cell-poor fluid" (Lavie et al, 2014, p. 549). (bartleby.com)
  • Conditions leading to imbalances in hydrostatic and oncotic pressure result in transudate pleural effusion. (medindia.net)
  • In transudate pleural effusion, fluid leaks from blood vessels into the pleural space. (medindia.net)
  • Light s criteria (described later) can be used to diagnose an exudate effusion. (medindia.net)
  • The type of fluid that forms a pleural effusion may be categorized as either transudate or exudate . (medicinenet.com)
  • When catalase is present (exudates), the effusion foams. (cancernetwork.com)
  • A pleural effusion can be either transudate or exudate. (asbestos.net)
  • Transudate" pleural effusion is due to something other than the pleura, such as congestive heart failure. (asbestos.net)
  • Exudate" pleural effusion is caused by an affliction of the pleural lining itself. (asbestos.net)
  • Transudate pleural effusion is most often caused by heart failure or cirrhosis . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Exudate pleural effusion has many causes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your results can show whether you have a transudate or exudate type of pleural effusion. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If the fluid is an exudate, additional tests may be performed to further pinpoint the disease or condition causing pleuritis and/or pleural effusion. (labcorp.com)
  • For example, one might define a gravitationally dependent and water attenuating effusion as simple, but this does not necessarily denote a transudate. (appliedradiology.com)
  • 7 For example, a parapneumonic effusion represents an exudate (likely from vessel permeability and leakage of inflammatory cells) but is typically sterile at the outset and may appear simple. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Patients with transudates generally present with dyspnea if the effusion is moderate to large in volume, more so if bilateral, as in congestive heart failure. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Establishing the transudative nature of a pleural effusion simplifies patient evaluation because there are only fourteen causes of a transudate (Table 1). (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Abdominal effusion (transudate, exudate, hemorrhage). (veterinaryradiology.net)
  • Pleural effusion with differentials including hemorrhage, modified transudate, and lesser consideration given to chyle and exudates. (k-state.edu)
  • Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. (sickkids.ca)
  • Transudate and exudate are both fluids extruded from various parts of the body, but transudate is usually clear and relatively free of cells and proteins w. (reference.com)
  • thicker fluids are called exudates. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Of the 93 pleural fluids, 21 were transudates, 72 were exudates. (ogu.edu.tr)
  • Modified Light's criteria are widely used to categorise pleural fluids as either exudates or transudates. (bmj.com)
  • Using modified Light's criteria, 32 fluids were categorised as transudates and 45 as exudates. (bmj.com)
  • Applying the pleural fluid cut-off values as outlined above, 26 fluids were categorised as transudates and 51 as exudates. (bmj.com)
  • Character of the fluid: Pleural fluids may be transudates or exudates. (cigarsetc.com)
  • Transudates are usually found in conditions such as liver disease, pancreatic disease, and congestive heart failure. (blogspot.com)
  • Transudates are usually bilateral and arise from either increased capillary hydrostatic pressure or decreased oncotic pressure secondary to congestive heart failure, fluid overload, cirrhosis or hypoalbuminemia. (exeterlaboratory.com)
  • For example, fluid accumulations due to congestive heart failure and liver failure (cirrhosis) are typically lower in protein content and are called transudates whereas fluid accumulations due to cancer and tuberculosis are typically higher in protein content and are called exudates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transudates are most often caused by congestive heart failure or cirrhosis of the liver . (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Different causes of edema include transudates due to decreased oncotic capillary pressure (e.g. nephrotic syndrome, liver cirrhosis) or increased hydrostatic capillary pressure (e.g. congestive heart failure). (medigraphic.com)
  • The differentiation of pleural effusions as being either transudate or exudate is the first step in the diagnosis of pleural effusions. (ogu.edu.tr)
  • In this prospective study of 150 pleural effusions, the utility of pleural-fluid cell counts, protein levels, and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels for the separation of transudates from exudates was evaluated. (annals.org)
  • The first diagnostic step in pleural effusions is the separation of transudates from exudates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • An exudate tends to suggest a local process adjacent to or involving the pleura, whereas a transudate suggests a systemic process. (medscape.com)
  • Radiation to treat cancer or from accidents with radioactive materials can damage the pleura and lead to exudates. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Exudate pleural effusions are caused by inflammation of the pleura. (medindia.net)
  • Exudate , which happens when there is an injury or inflammation of the pleura. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ascites can be classiifed into transudates and exudates . (brighthub.com)
  • In the past, ascites was classified as being a transudate or an exudate. (medscape.com)
  • Transudate is usually composed of ultrafiltrates of plasma due to an imbalance in vascular hydrostatic and oncotic forces in the chest ( heart failure , cirrhosis ). (medicinenet.com)
  • Transudate pleural effusions are most often caused by heart failure or cirrhosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although Light's criteria remain useful, transudative effusions due to heart failure or cirrhosis may be misclassified as exudates ("pseudo-exudates") in up to 30% of the cases. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The distinction between transudate and exudate is generally made by measurement of serum and pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and protein concentrations. (medscape.com)
  • Other chemistry testing that can help to differentiate transudates from exudates includes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glucose, and amylase. (blogspot.com)
  • Several laboratory tests are helpful in distinguishing transudates from exudates including pH, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LD), amylase, glucose, white cell count and differential. (exeterlaboratory.com)
  • Transudate pleural effusions contain less protein and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) than exudate pleural effusions. (medindia.net)
  • Transudates are typically "pressure-related" (hydrostatic or osmotic), are characterized by the presence of normal pleural membranes and defined by a low pleural fluid protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • What is the most important difference between exudates and transudates? (brainscape.com)
  • The test was originally developed by the Italian researcher Rivalta around 1900 and was used to differentiate transudates and exudates in human patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluid accumulation may be caused by injury or inflammation of the pericardium, in which case the fluid is called an exudate . (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Transudate: an imbalance between the pressure within blood vessels (which drives fluid out of the blood vessel) and the amount of protein in blood (which keeps fluid in the blood vessel) can result in accumulation of fluid. (labcorp.com)
  • fluid accumulation in serous cavities (exudates, transudates) and the formation of peripheral edema tramadol overdose symptoms . (tramadol-online.biz)
  • If the pleural fluid protein is greater than 35g/L the fluid is an exudate. (exeterlaboratory.com)
  • If the pleural fluid protein is between 25 and 35 g/L: the pleural fluid is an exudate if pleural fluid LDH greater than 66% of the upper limit of normal of the serum LDH method. (exeterlaboratory.com)
  • If the fluid is an exudate, then additional testing is often ordered. (labcorp.com)
  • Increased oxidative stress in exudative pleural effusions: a new marker for the differentiation between exudates and transudates? (semanticscholar.org)
  • Combined pleural fluid cholesterol and total protein in differentiation of exudates and transudates. (bvsalud.org)
  • assists differentiation of transudates, modified transudates and exudates. (vetstream.com)
  • Doctors use an initial set of tests (cell count, protein or albumin and appearance of the fluid) to distinguish between transudates and exudates. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • An initial set of tests (protein or albumin, cell count and appearance) is used to differentiate between the two types of fluid that may be produced ( transudate and exudate ). (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Fibrinous inflammation is often difficult to resolve due to blood vessels growing into the exudate and filling space that was occupied by fibrin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transudate , which happens when there is an imbalance of pressure in certain blood vessels. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The first step in the diagnosis of pleural effusions is the distinction between exudates and transudates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pleural exudates and transudates: diagnosis with contrast-enhanced CT. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Classifying a serous fluid as transudate or exudate can provide a valuable initial diagnostic step and aid diagnosis of underlying cause. (laboratoryinsider.com)
  • Ninety-three pleural fluid and sera specimens were obtained and classified as transudates or exudates on the basis of their diagnosis. (ogu.edu.tr)
  • Serous exudate (sometimes classified as serous transudate ) is usually seen in mild inflammation, with relatively low protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on clinical signs and symptoms , chest radiograph, other investigations and response to treatment , 49 of these effusions were classified as exudates and 11 as transudates . (bvsalud.org)
  • Depending upon its size and the amount of damage it has done, a pulmonary embolism can also produce an exudate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To distinguish exudates from transudates if the patient's serum total protein is normal and the pleural fluid protein is less than 25g/L the fluid is a transudate. (exeterlaboratory.com)
  • A comparative analysis of the biochemical parameters used to distinguish between pleural exudates and transudates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Note: If no simultaneous serum sample is received then pleural fluid total protein and LDH may be sufficient to distinguish between an exudates and a transudate. (exeterlaboratory.com)
  • Specific tests are usually ordered in addition to a common battery of tests used to distinguish a transudate from an exudate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this study, we measured the periapical exudate (PE) levels of IL-1 beta and IL-1ra from human periapical lesions. (nih.gov)
  • The change of periapical exudate prostaglandin E2 levels during root canal treatment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Periapical exudate specimens were quantitatively sampled from root canals of 20 nonvital teeth at consecutive treatment visits to measure PGE2 concentrations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A transudate will still have a low concentration of total protein while an exudate will generally have a concentration of total protein that is greater than half the concentration of total protein found in the serum. (blogspot.com)
  • Transudates will have LDH levels lower than 200 units/L while exudates will have LDH levels higher than 200 units/L. Another way of assessing the levels of LDH in fluid is to compare it to the concentration of LDH in serum. (blogspot.com)
  • Transudates will have a fluid to serum ratio of LDH lower than 0.6 while exudates will have a ratio of fluid to serum LDH that is higher than 0.6. (blogspot.com)
  • The glucose levels in an exudate will be considerably lower in comparison with the serum glucose in these conditions. (blogspot.com)
  • Exudate LD activity is greater than 0.67 times the upper limit of normal for serum. (exeterlaboratory.com)
  • 0.45 of upper limit of the serum reference interval) recommended as providing optimal discrimination between transudates and exudates. (bmj.com)
  • Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS. (sickkids.ca)
  • Depending on the cause, the excess fluid may be either rich in protein (exudate) or watery (transudate). (healthboards.com)
  • Classifying a fluid as a transudate or an exudate can help clinicians determine what disease process is causing fluid to accumulate and enables them to proceed with subsequent treatment. (blogspot.com)
  • Whether unilateral or bilateral, a transudate can usually be treated without extensive evaluation, whereas the cause of an exudate requires investigation. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Transudate (Clear, often bilateral, does not clot on standing, specific gravity less than 1015, protein content less than 3g/dL, cells less than 100/Cmm). (cigarsetc.com)
  • Transudate is protein-poor and cell-poor, produce pitting edema. (studystack.com)
  • Edema secondary to exudates is due to increased in the blood vessel permeability to the blood proteins (e.g. during infecction), or secondary to lymphatic tissue obstruction (e.g. neoplasias) causing localized edema in the involved body part. (medigraphic.com)
  • Exudates were dis- ity is greatest in the lymphoid tissues,2 most especially tinguished from transudates according to Light et al. (who.int)
  • According to preset diagnostic criteria, 47 of the effusions were classified as transudates and 103 as exudates. (annals.org)
  • Exudate is typically produced by inflammatory conditions (lung infection, malignancy ). (medicinenet.com)
  • Gross appearance can assist in determining the nature of the fluid, eg turbid fluid may be an exudate. (vetstream.com)
  • Purulent or suppurative exudate consists of plasma with both active and dead neutrophils , fibrinogen , and necrotic parenchymal cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • An exudate is a fluid that accumulates inside a cavity due to the presence of foreign materials such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, and tumor cells. (blogspot.com)
  • An exudate forms as a result of all these cells (both leukocytes and foreign material) and their metabolites filling the cavity. (blogspot.com)
  • The major test used to differentiate between a transudate or an exudate is the concentration of total protein in a fluid. (blogspot.com)
  • Transudates generally have total protein concentration less than 3.0 g/dL while exudates generally have a total protein greater than 3.0 g/dL. (blogspot.com)
  • To evaluate the usefulness of pleural fluid cholesterol and/or total protein measurements for differentiating between exudates and transudates , and to compare it with Light 's criteria. (bvsalud.org)
  • Using pleural fluid cholesterol levels at a cut-off point of greater than 60 mg/dL and/or total protein at a cut-off point of greater than 3 g/dL for distinguishing transudates and exudates , the sensitivity , specificity , positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), were 100 percent. (bvsalud.org)
  • Pleural fluid cholesterol and total protein are simple, cost -effective, and useful parameters in distinguishing pleural transudates from exudates , with the advantage of requiring only two laboratory determinations and no simultaneous blood sample, compared to the use of Light 's criteria. (bvsalud.org)
  • Exudate: injury or inflammation of the pleurae may cause abnormal collection of fluid. (labcorp.com)
  • The distinction between transudates and exudates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • There is an important distinction between transudates and exudates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical distinction between transudates and exudates is through the measurement of the specific gravity of extracted fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not clear if there is a distinction in the difference of transudates and exudates in plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exudates have a higher protein concentration because of increased capillary permeability or decreased lymphatic drainage. (medscape.com)
  • Exudates typically have higher protein concentration and LD activity and lower pH and glucose values than transudates. (exeterlaboratory.com)
  • The protein concentration of an exudate usually exceeds 3 g/dL. (exeterlaboratory.com)
  • Exudates are usually unilateral and result from increased capillary permeability or decreased lymphatic resorption associated with infection, connective tissue disease, pancreatitis or cancer. (exeterlaboratory.com)
  • A transudate is a fluid that accumulates in cavities due to a malfunction of the filtering membranes of cavity linings. (blogspot.com)
  • Laboratory testing is performed in order to determine whether a fluid is a transudate or an exudate. (blogspot.com)
  • Several tests can be performed in the laboratory to determine if a fluid is either a transudate or an exudate. (blogspot.com)
  • Laboratory testing distinguishes pleural fluid transudates from exudates. (medindia.net)
  • Exudates and Transudates" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (sickkids.ca)
  • Light RW, Macgregor MI, Luchsinger PC, Ball WC Jr. Pleural effusions: the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates. (medscape.com)