Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS.
Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.
Presence of fluid in the PLEURAL CAVITY as a complication of malignant disease. Malignant pleural effusions often contain actual malignant cells.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A collection of watery fluid in the pleural cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Tuberculosis of the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs.
A procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a body cavity or organ via a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument.
The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
The act or practice of killing or allowing death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy, i.e., in order to release a person from incurable disease, intolerable suffering, or undignified death. (from Beauchamp and Walters, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, 5th ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.

The value of late computed tomographic scanning in identification of vascular abnormalities after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. (1/845)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of late arterial abnormalities after aortic aneurysm repair and thus to suggest a routine for postoperative radiologic follow-up examination and to establish reference criteria for endovascular repair. METHODS: Computed tomographic (CT) scan follow-up examination was obtained at 8 to 9 years after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair on a cohort of patients enrolled in the Canadian Aneurysm Study. The original registry consisted of 680 patients who underwent repair of nonruptured AAA. When the request for CT scan follow-up examination was sent in 1994, 251 patients were alive and potentially available for CT scan follow-up examination and 94 patients agreed to undergo abdominal and thoracic CT scanning procedures. Each scan was interpreted independently by two vascular radiologists. RESULTS: For analysis, the aorta was divided into five defined segments and an aneurysm was defined as a more than 50% enlargement from the expected normal value as defined in the reporting standards for aneurysms. With this strict definition, 64.9% of patients had aneurysmal dilatation and the abnormality was considered as a possible indication for surgical repair in 13.8%. Of the 39 patients who underwent initial repair with a tube graft, 12 (30.8%) were found to have an iliac aneurysm and six of these aneurysms (15.4%) were of possible surgical significance. Graft dilatation was observed from the time of operation (median graft size of 18 mm) to a median size of 22 mm as measured by means of CT scanning at follow-up examination. Fluid or thrombus was seen around the graft in 28% of the cases, and bowel was believed to be intimately associated with the graft in 7%. CONCLUSION: Late follow-up CT scans after AAA repair often show vascular abnormalities. Most of these abnormalities are not clinically significant, but, in 13.8% of patients, the thoracic or abdominal aortic segment was aneurysmal and, in 15.4% of patients who underwent tube graft placement, one of the iliac arteries was significantly abnormal to warrant consideration for surgical repair. On the basis of these findings, a routine CT follow-up examination after 5 years is recommended. This study provides a population-based study for comparison with the results of endovascular repair.  (+info)

Effects and interactions of opioids on plasma exudation induced by cigarette smoke in guinea pig bronchi. (2/845)

The effects of opioids on cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation were investigated in vivo in the main bronchi of anesthetized guinea pigs, with Evans blue dye as a plasma marker. Acute inhalation of cigarette smoke increased plasma exudation by 216% above air control values. Morphine, 0.1-10 mg/kg but not 30 mg/kg, inhibited the exudation but had no significant effect on substance P-induced exudation. Both 10 and 30 mg/kg of morphine increased exudation in air control animals, an effect inhibited by antihistamines but not by a tachykinin neurokinin type 1-receptor antagonist. Naloxone inhibited all morphine responses. Cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation was inhibited by a mu-opioid-receptor agonist (DAMGO) but not by agonists at delta (DPDPE)- or kappa (U-50488H)-receptors. None of these agonists affected exudation in air control animals. DPDPE prevented the inhibition by DAMGO of cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation, and the combination of DAMGO and DPDPE increased exudation in air control animals. Prevention of inhibition and the combination-induced increase were inhibited by antihistamines or the mast cell-stabilizing drug sodium cromoglycate. U-50488H did not alter the response to either DAMGO or DPDPE. We conclude that, in guinea pig main bronchi in vivo, mu-opioid-receptor agonists inhibit cigarette smoke-induced plasma exudation via a prejunctional mechanism. Plasma exudation induced by mu- and delta-receptor interactions is due to endogenous histamine release from mast cells.  (+info)

Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy. (3/845)

Idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSC) is usually seen in young males with Type A personality. Clinical evaluation of the macula with fundoscopy and biomicroscopy, coupled with fluorescein angiography establishes the diagnosis. Indocyanine green angiographic studies have reinformed that the basic pathology lies in choriocapillaries and retinal pigment epithelium. Most of the ICSC resolve completely in four months, and some of them could resolve early with direct photocoagulation of the leaking site. Oral steroids have no role, and could even cause an adverse reaction.  (+info)

Effects of petrosaspongiolide M, a novel phospholipase A2 inhibitor, on acute and chronic inflammation. (4/845)

The marine product petrosaspongiolide M is a novel inhibitor of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), showing selectivity for secretory PLA2 versus cytosolic PLA2, with a potency on the human synovial enzyme (group II) similar to that of manoalide. This compound was more potent than manoalide on bee venom PLA2 (group III) and had no effect on group I enzymes (Naja naja and porcine pancreatic PLA2). Inhibition of PLA2 was also observed in vivo in the zymosan-injected rat air pouch, on the secretory enzyme accumulated in the pouch exudate. Petrosaspongiolide M decreased carrageenan paw edema in mice after the oral administration of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg. This marine metabolite (0.01-1.0 micromol/pouch) induced a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of prostaglandin (PG)E2, leukotriene B4, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the mouse air pouch injected with zymosan 4 h after the stimulus. It also had a weaker effect on cell migration. The inflammatory response of adjuvant arthritis was reduced by petrosaspongiolide M, which also inhibited leukotriene B4 levels in serum and PGE2 levels in paw homogenates. In contrast with indomethacin, this marine compound did not reduce PGE2 levels in stomach homogenates. Petrosaspongiolide M is a new inhibitor of secretory PLA2 in vitro and in vivo, with anti-inflammatory properties in acute and chronic inflammation.  (+info)

Effects of formoterol on histamine induced plasma exudation in induced sputum from normal subjects. (5/845)

BACKGROUND: A number of studies have shown that beta 2 agonists, including formoterol, inhibit plasma exudation induced by the inflammatory stimulus in animal airways. Whether clinical doses of beta 2 agonists inhibit plasma exudation in human bronchial airways is unknown. METHODS: In order to explore the microvascular permeability and its potential inhibition by beta 2 agonists in human bronchial airways a dual induction method was developed: plasma exudation induced by histamine inhalation followed by sputum induction by hypertonic saline (4.5%) inhalation. Sixteen healthy subjects received formoterol (18 micrograms) in a placebo controlled, double blind, crossover study. Sputum was induced on five occasions: once at baseline and four times after histamine challenge (30 minutes and eight hours after both formoterol and placebo treatments). Sputum levels of alpha 2-macroglobulin were determined to indicate microvascular-epithelial exudation of bulk plasma. RESULTS: Histamine induced plasma exudation 30 minutes after placebo was considerably greater than at baseline (median difference 11.3 micrograms/ml (95% confidence interval 0.9 to 90.0)). At 30 minutes after formoterol the effect of histamine was reduced by 5.1 (0.9 to 61.9) micrograms/ml compared with placebo. At eight hours histamine produced less exudation and inhibition by formoterol was not demonstrated. CONCLUSION: This study shows for the first time an anti-exudative effect of a beta 2 agonist in healthy human bronchial airways. Through its physical and biological effects, plasma exudation is of multipotential pathogenic importance in asthma. If the present findings translate to disease conditions, it suggests that an anti-exudative effect may contribute to the anti-asthmatic activity of formoterol.  (+info)

Clearance of IGFs and insulin from wounds: effect of IGF-binding protein interactions. (6/845)

We have examined the role binding proteins have in regulating the clearance of exogenous growth factors from wounds. Hunt-Schilling chambers were subcutaneously implanted in rats, and the clearance of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I from the chamber wound fluid was compared with IGF-II, LR3-IGF-I, which binds poorly to IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP), or insulin. Elimination rate constants of the slow phase of the decay curves did not differ between IGF-I and IGF-II. However, LR3-IGF-I and insulin were cleared more rapidly from wound fluid than IGF-I so that the half-lives for IGF-I, IGF-II, LR3-IGF-I, and insulin were 872, 861, 563, and 324 min, respectively. In wound fluid, minimal degradation of the IGFs occurred, whereas insulin was degraded considerably. The increased clearance of LR3-IGF-I and insulin equated with a reduced association with wound fluid IGFBPs, and increased amounts of radioactivity of these peptides were detected in the circulation and urine. These results show that this model of wound repair may be of use in examining the kinetics of growth factors and other bioactive molecules in extravascular spaces and support the hypothesis that IGFBPs can be significant regulators of IGF bioavailability in vivo.  (+info)

Interpretation of middle ear fluid concentrations of antibiotics: comparison between ceftibuten, cefixime and azithromycin. (7/845)

AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the potential influence of variables such as the cell content in the fluid, and serum levels, on the concentrations of ceftibuten, cefixime and azithromycin in the middle ear fluid of patients suffering from acute otitis media. METHODS: This randomized, open study compared the penetration of ceftibuten (9 mg kg(-1) 18 patients), cefixime (8 mg kg(-1), 16 patients) and azithromycin (10 mg kg(-1) 16 patients) into the intracellular and extracellular compartments of middle ear fluid of 50 paediatric patients (aged 8-14 years) with acute otitis media. Middle ear fluid was extracted by tympanocentesis 4, 12 and 24 h after dosing and divided into two fractions: with cells (as collected) (C+) and cell-free (C-). Antibiotics were assayed in C+ and C- samples by h.p.l.c. RESULTS: Ceftibuten achieved greater penetration into middle ear fluid than cefixime and azithromycin. Higher concentrations of ceftibuten (CTB) and cefixime (CFX) were found in the C- fraction (CTB: 4h 13.3+/-1.86; 12h 4.7+/-1.18; 24h 0.5+/-0.2. CFX: 4h 3.2+/-1.4; 12h 1.5+/-0.5; 24h>(0.1 mgl(-1)) than in the C+ fraction (CTB:4 h 8.4+/-4.3; 12 h 2.88+/-1.19; 24 h 0.3+/-0.27. CFX: 4 h 1.2+/-0.6; 12 h 0.8+/-0.2; 24 h>0.1 mg l(-1)) at the each time point, while the opposite was true for azithromycin (C-: 4 h 0.11+/-0.04; 12 h 0.12+/-0.08; 24 h 0.23+/-0.12. C+: 4 h 0.38+/-0.24; 12 h 0.9+/-0.03; 24 h 1.05+/-0.3 mg l(-1)). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the penetration of antibiotics into the middle ear fluid is influenced by its serum concentrations as well as by the cell content in the fluid. Ceftibuten achieved higher middle ear fluid concentrations than cefixime in C+ and C- fractions at all time points. Both ceftibuten and cefixime concentrations are negatively influenced by the cell content in the fluid. In contrast the concentration of azithromycin to the middle ear fluid is positively influenced by the cell content in the fluid.  (+info)

Natural history of diabetic macular streak exudates: evidence from a screening programme. (8/845)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diabetic retinopathy screening guidelines recommend referral to an ophthalmologist if there is exudate within one disc diameter of the fovea. Many of these patients, however, have resolution of small amounts of exudate without treatment. This study aimed to assess whether patients with minimal streak or dot exudates within one disc diameter of the fovea can be monitored in a screening programme without compromising visual acuity. METHODS: A retrospective review of records and Polaroid photographs obtained by one screening centre over a 10 year period was performed. Outcomes measured were referral rates, alteration of Snellen visual acuity, and the need for macular photocoagulation treatment. RESULTS: 55 patients (74 eyes) fulfilled entry criteria (37 streak and 37 dot exudates). Mean follow up was 56.1 months (range 12-127 months). Twenty five patients (30 eyes) were referred to an ophthalmologist. 13 eyes (17.6%) required macular photocoagulation treatment. Four eyes (5.4%) lost two or more lines of Snellen acuity over the follow up period (three from macular oedema and one from macular ischaemia). There was no relation between the presence or resolution of minimal exudate and visual loss (p>0.2). CONCLUSION: It is appropriate to monitor eyes with streak or dot macular exudates at 6-9 monthly intervals in a screening programme.  (+info)

Exudates and transudates are two types of bodily fluids that can accumulate in various body cavities or tissues as a result of injury, inflammation, or other medical conditions. Here are the medical definitions:

1. Exudates: These are fluids that accumulate due to an active inflammatory process. Exudates contain high levels of protein, white blood cells (such as neutrophils and macrophages), and sometimes other cells like red blood cells or cellular debris. They can be yellow, green, or brown in color and may have a foul odor due to the presence of dead cells and bacteria. Exudates are often seen in conditions such as abscesses, pneumonia, pleurisy, or wound infections.

Examples of exudative fluids include pus, purulent discharge, or inflammatory effusions.

2. Transudates: These are fluids that accumulate due to increased hydrostatic pressure or decreased oncotic pressure within the blood vessels. Transudates contain low levels of protein and cells compared to exudates. They are typically clear and pale yellow in color, with no odor. Transudates can be found in conditions such as congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, or nephrotic syndrome.

Examples of transudative fluids include ascites, pleural effusions, or pericardial effusions.

It is essential to differentiate between exudates and transudates because their underlying causes and treatment approaches may differ significantly. Medical professionals often use various tests, such as fluid analysis, to determine whether a fluid sample is an exudate or transudate.

Pleural effusion is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, which is the thin, fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest wall. This space typically contains a small amount of fluid to allow for smooth movement of the lungs during breathing. However, when an excessive amount of fluid accumulates, it can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.

Pleural effusions can be caused by various underlying medical conditions, including pneumonia, heart failure, cancer, pulmonary embolism, and autoimmune disorders. The fluid that accumulates in the pleural space can be transudative or exudative, depending on the cause of the effusion. Transudative effusions are caused by increased pressure in the blood vessels or decreased protein levels in the blood, while exudative effusions are caused by inflammation, infection, or cancer.

Diagnosis of pleural effusion typically involves a physical examination, chest X-ray, and analysis of the fluid in the pleural space. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the effusion and may include medications, drainage of the fluid, or surgery.

Malignant pleural effusion is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space (the area between the lungs and the chest wall) due to the spread of malignant (cancerous) cells from a primary tumor located elsewhere in the body. This type of effusion is typically associated with advanced-stage cancer, and it can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain. The presence of malignant pleural effusion often indicates a poor prognosis, and treatment is generally focused on palliating symptoms and improving quality of life.

Medical definitions typically focus on the relevance of a term to medical practice, and I'm not sure if there is a specific medical definition for "plant exudates." However, in a broader context, plant exudates refer to the various substances that are released or exuded by plants, often as a result of damage or stress. These can include a wide variety of compounds, such as sap, resins, latex, gums, essential oils, and tannins. Some of these compounds can have medicinal properties and are used in various forms of traditional and modern medicine. For example, the resin from certain pine trees (rosin) has been used to treat respiratory ailments, while willow bark, which contains salicin (a precursor to aspirin), has been used for pain relief for centuries.

Hydrothorax is a medical term that refers to the abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the pleural space, which is the potential space between the lungs and the chest wall. This condition often results from various underlying pathological processes such as liver cirrhosis, heart failure, or kidney disease, where there is an imbalance in the body's fluid regulation leading to the accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity. The presence of hydrothorax can cause respiratory distress and other symptoms related to lung function impairment.

Pleural Tuberculosis is a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) that involves the infection and inflammation of the pleura, which are the thin membranes that surround the lungs and line the inside of the chest cavity. This condition is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium, which can spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks.

In pleural tuberculosis, the bacteria reach the pleura either through direct extension from a nearby lung infection or via bloodstream dissemination. The infection can cause the pleura to become inflamed and produce excess fluid, leading to pleural effusion. This accumulation of fluid in the pleural space can cause chest pain, coughing, and difficulty breathing.

Diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as chest X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests such as acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy, culture, and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) to detect the presence of M. tuberculosis in the pleural fluid or tissue samples.

Treatment of pleural tuberculosis typically involves a standard course of anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT), which includes a combination of multiple antibiotics such as isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. The duration of treatment may vary depending on the severity of the infection and the patient's response to therapy. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain the pleural effusion or remove the infected pleura.

Paracentesis is a medical procedure in which a thin needle or catheter is inserted through the abdominal wall to remove excess fluid from the peritoneal cavity. This procedure is also known as abdominal tap or paracentesis aspiration. The fluid removed, called ascites, can be analyzed for infection, malignant cells, or other signs of disease. Paracentesis may be performed to relieve symptoms caused by the buildup of excess fluid in the abdomen, such as pain, difficulty breathing, or loss of appetite. It is commonly used to diagnose and manage conditions such as liver cirrhosis, cancer, heart failure, and kidney failure.

The pleura is the medical term for the double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest cavity. The two layers of the pleura are called the parietal pleura, which lines the chest cavity, and the visceral pleura, which covers the surface of the lungs.

The space between these two layers is called the pleural cavity, which contains a small amount of lubricating fluid that allows the lungs to move smoothly within the chest during breathing. The main function of the pleura is to protect the lungs and facilitate their movement during respiration.

L-Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme found in various tissues within the body, including the heart, liver, kidneys, muscles, and brain. It plays a crucial role in the process of energy production, particularly during anaerobic conditions when oxygen levels are low.

In the presence of the coenzyme NADH, LDH catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, generating NAD+ as a byproduct. Conversely, in the presence of NAD+, LDH can convert lactate back to pyruvate using NADH. This reversible reaction is essential for maintaining the balance between lactate and pyruvate levels within cells.

Elevated blood levels of LDH may indicate tissue damage or injury, as this enzyme can be released into the circulation following cellular breakdown. As a result, LDH is often used as a nonspecific biomarker for various medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), liver disease, muscle damage, and certain types of cancer. However, it's important to note that an isolated increase in LDH does not necessarily pinpoint the exact location or cause of tissue damage, and further diagnostic tests are usually required for confirmation.

Euthanasia is the act of intentionally ending a person's life to relieve suffering, typically carried out at the request of the person who is suffering and wants to die. This practice is also known as "assisted suicide" or "physician-assisted dying." It is a controversial issue that raises ethical, legal, and medical concerns.

Euthanasia can be classified into two main types: active and passive. Active euthanasia involves taking direct action to end a person's life, such as administering a lethal injection. Passive euthanasia, on the other hand, involves allowing a person to die by withholding or withdrawing medical treatment that is necessary to sustain their life.

Euthanasia is illegal in many countries and jurisdictions, while some have laws that allow it under certain circumstances. In recent years, there has been growing debate about whether euthanasia should be legalized and regulated to ensure that it is carried out in a humane and compassionate manner. Supporters argue that individuals have the right to choose how they die, especially if they are suffering from a terminal illness or chronic pain. Opponents, however, argue that legalizing euthanasia could lead to abuse and coercion, and that there are alternative ways to alleviate suffering, such as palliative care.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is a graphical representation used in medical decision-making and statistical analysis to illustrate the performance of a binary classifier system, such as a diagnostic test or a machine learning algorithm. It's a plot that shows the tradeoff between the true positive rate (sensitivity) and the false positive rate (1 - specificity) for different threshold settings.

The x-axis of an ROC curve represents the false positive rate (the proportion of negative cases incorrectly classified as positive), while the y-axis represents the true positive rate (the proportion of positive cases correctly classified as positive). Each point on the curve corresponds to a specific decision threshold, with higher points indicating better performance.

The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a commonly used summary measure that reflects the overall performance of the classifier. An AUC value of 1 indicates perfect discrimination between positive and negative cases, while an AUC value of 0.5 suggests that the classifier performs no better than chance.

ROC curves are widely used in healthcare to evaluate diagnostic tests, predictive models, and screening tools for various medical conditions, helping clinicians make informed decisions about patient care based on the balance between sensitivity and specificity.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Blood proteins, also known as serum proteins, are a group of complex molecules present in the blood that are essential for various physiological functions. These proteins include albumin, globulins (alpha, beta, and gamma), and fibrinogen. They play crucial roles in maintaining oncotic pressure, transporting hormones, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals, providing immune defense, and contributing to blood clotting.

Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood, accounting for about 60% of the total protein mass. It functions as a transporter of various substances, such as hormones, fatty acids, and drugs, and helps maintain oncotic pressure, which is essential for fluid balance between the blood vessels and surrounding tissues.

Globulins are divided into three main categories: alpha, beta, and gamma globulins. Alpha and beta globulins consist of transport proteins like lipoproteins, hormone-binding proteins, and enzymes. Gamma globulins, also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies, are essential for the immune system's defense against pathogens.

Fibrinogen is a protein involved in blood clotting. When an injury occurs, fibrinogen is converted into fibrin, which forms a mesh to trap platelets and form a clot, preventing excessive bleeding.

Abnormal levels of these proteins can indicate various medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease, malnutrition, infections, inflammation, or autoimmune disorders. Blood protein levels are typically measured through laboratory tests like serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) and immunoelectrophoresis (IEP).

A plant root is not a medical term per se, but it is a term from botany, which is the study of plants. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you.

Plant roots are the underground organs of a plant that typically grow downward into the soil. They serve several important functions, including:

1. Anchorage: Roots help to stabilize the plant and keep it upright in the ground.
2. Absorption: Roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, which are essential for the plant's growth and development.
3. Conduction: Roots conduct water and nutrients up to the above-ground parts of the plant, such as the stem and leaves.
4. Vegetative reproduction: Some plants can reproduce vegetatively through their roots, producing new plants from root fragments or specialized structures called rhizomes or tubers.

Roots are composed of several different tissues, including the epidermis, cortex, endodermis, and vascular tissue. The epidermis is the outermost layer of the root, which secretes a waxy substance called suberin that helps to prevent water loss. The cortex is the middle layer of the root, which contains cells that store carbohydrates and other nutrients. The endodermis is a thin layer of cells that surrounds the vascular tissue and regulates the movement of water and solutes into and out of the root. The vascular tissue consists of xylem and phloem, which transport water and nutrients throughout the plant.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Ascitic fluid is defined as the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the two layers of the peritoneum, a serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. This buildup of fluid, also known as ascites, can be caused by various medical conditions such as liver cirrhosis, cancer, heart failure, or infection. The fluid itself is typically straw-colored and clear, but it may also contain cells, proteins, and other substances depending on the underlying cause. Analysis of ascitic fluid can help doctors diagnose and manage the underlying condition causing the accumulation of fluid.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Acetic acid is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH. It is a colorless liquid with a pungent, vinegar-like smell and is the main component of vinegar. In medical terms, acetic acid is used as a topical antiseptic and antibacterial agent, particularly for the treatment of ear infections, external genital warts, and nail fungus. It can also be used as a preservative and solvent in some pharmaceutical preparations.

Pericardial effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space, which is the potential space between the two layers of the pericardium - the fibrous and serous layers. The pericardium is a sac that surrounds the heart to provide protection and lubrication for the heart's movement during each heartbeat. Normally, there is only a small amount of fluid (5-15 mL) in this space to ensure smooth motion of the heart. However, when an excessive amount of fluid accumulates, it can cause increased pressure on the heart, leading to various complications such as decreased cardiac output and even cardiac tamponade, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Pericardial effusion may result from several causes, including infections (viral, bacterial, or fungal), inflammatory conditions (such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or cancer), trauma, heart surgery, kidney failure, or iatrogenic causes. The symptoms of pericardial effusion can vary depending on the rate and amount of fluid accumulation. Slowly developing effusions may not cause any symptoms, while rapid accumulations can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, palpitations, or even hypotension (low blood pressure). Diagnosis is usually confirmed through imaging techniques such as echocardiography, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the effusion, ranging from close monitoring to drainage procedures or medications to address the root cause.

Berti-Bock G, Vial F, Premuda L, Rullière R (November 1979). "[Exudates, transudates and the Rivalta reaction (1895). Current ... inexpensive method that can be used in resource-limited settings to differentiate a transudate from an exudate. It is a simple ... If the drop precipitates, the test is positive, indicating an exudate. Using a pH 4.0 acetic acid solution, 8 types of proteins ... was originally developed by the Italian researcher Rivalta around 1900 and was used to differentiate transudates and exudates ...
It is not clear if there is a distinction in the difference of transudates and exudates in plants. Plant exudates include saps ... They have a low protein content in comparison to exudates. Medical distinction between transudates and exudates is through the ... There is an important distinction between transudates and exudates. Transudates are caused by disturbances of hydrostatic or ... Plant seeds exudate a variety of molecules into the spermosphere, and roots exudate into the rhizosphere, these exudates ...
... the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates". Annals of Internal Medicine. 77 (4): 507-513. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-77- ...
Joseph J, Badrinath P, Basran GS, Sahn SA (November 2001). "Is the pleural fluid transudate or exudate? A revisit of the ... can help in the distinction between exudates (actively secreted fluid, e.g., due to inflammation) or transudates (passively ... the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates". Ann. Intern. Med. 77 (4): 507-13. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-77-4-507. PMID ... 3 the upper limit of the normal laboratory value for serum LDH indicates an exudate, while a ratio of less indicates a ...
There is an important distinction between transudates and exudates. Transudates are caused by disturbances of hydrostatic or ... Levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or a Rivalta test can be used to distinguish transudate from exudate.[citation needed] ... Light R, Macgregor M, Luchsinger P, Ball W (1972). "Pleural effusions: the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates". ... "Efficacy of CT in diagnosis of transudates and exudates in patients with pleural effusion". Diagnostic and Interventional ...
Joseph J, Badrinath P, Basran GS, Sahn SA (November 2001). "Is the pleural fluid transudate or exudate? A revisit of the ... Light R, Macgregor M, Luchsinger P, Ball W (1972). "Pleural effusions: the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates". ... the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates". Ann Intern Med. 77 (4): 507-13. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-77-4-507. PMID ... "Efficacy of CT in diagnosis of transudates and exudates in patients with pleural effusion". Diagnostic and Interventional ...
Syndrome-Transudate or Exudate?: Systematic Review of the Literature". Medicine. 94 (49): e2114. doi:10.1097/MD. ... Treatment of Meigs syndrome consists of thoracentesis and paracentesis to drain off the excess fluid (exudate), and unilateral ... exudate pleural effusion, congestive heart failure, metastatic tumors to the peritoneal surfaces, collagen-vascular disease, ...
First the fluid is either transudate or exudate. An exudate is defined as pleural fluid to serum total protein ratio of more ... An exudate is defined as pleural fluid that filters from the circulatory system into lesions or areas of inflammation. Its ... Exudate hemorrhage Infection Inflammation Malignancy Iatrogenic Connective tissue disease Endocrine disorders Lymphatic ... disorders vs Constrictive pericarditis Transudate Congestive heart failure Nephrotic syndrome Hypoalbuminemia Cirrhosis ...
2013). "Efficacy of CT in diagnosis of transudates and exudates in patients with pleural effusion". Diagnostic and ...
The serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) is probably a better discriminant than older measures (transudate versus exudate) for ... confirmed with the fluid wave/thrill test Ascitic fluid can accumulate as a transudate or an exudate. Amounts of up to 35 ... "The serum-ascites albumin gradient is superior to the exudate-transudate concept in the differential diagnosis of ascites". Ann ... while exudates are actively secreted fluid due to inflammation or malignancy. As a result, exudates are high in protein and ...
The SAAG may be a better discriminant than the older method of classifying ascites fluid as a transudate versus exudate. The ...
Differentiating Exudate From Transudate. Laboratory evaluation of patients with a pleural effusion is directed at first ... An exudate tends to suggest a local process adjacent to or involving the pleura, whereas a transudate suggests a systemic ... The distinction between transudate and exudate is generally made by measurement of serum and pleural fluid lactate ... The distinction between transudate and exudate is generally made by measurement of serum and pleural fluid lactate ...
Followings are the differences between transudate and exudate : What makes up an exudate in the blood?. An exudate is a cloudy ... Whats the difference between transudate and exudate serous fluid?. Classifying a serous fluid as transudate or exudate can ... What type of exudate indicates infection?. Exudate viscosity Normal exudate is thin and watery. Thick, sticky exudate indicates ... Is serous fluid transudate or exudate?. Serous: a transudate with mainly edema fluid and few cells. Serosanguinous: an effusion ...
... purulent exudate,fibrinous exudate,serous exudate. How to tell the difference between transudate and exudate ... Transudate vs Exudate. Transudate is fluid that leaks out of blood vessels into a body cavity or nearby tissues, due to an ... Lights criteria 1) can be used to determine if the fluid is an exudate versus transudate. To be an exudate, the effusion must ... Seropurulent exudate- thin, watery, cloudy and yellow to tan in color.. Purulent exudate - a thick and opaque exudate that is ...
Berti-Bock G, Vial F, Premuda L, Rullière R (November 1979). "[Exudates, transudates and the Rivalta reaction (1895). Current ... inexpensive method that can be used in resource-limited settings to differentiate a transudate from an exudate. It is a simple ... If the drop precipitates, the test is positive, indicating an exudate. Using a pH 4.0 acetic acid solution, 8 types of proteins ... was originally developed by the Italian researcher Rivalta around 1900 and was used to differentiate transudates and exudates ...
The first step in the evaluation of patients with pleural effusion is to determine whether the effusion is a transudate or an ... exudate. An exudative effusion is diagnosed if the patient meets Lights criteria. The serum to pleural fluid protein or ... step in the evaluation of patients with pleural effusion is to determine whether the effusion is a transudate or an exudate. An ... to pleural fluid protein or albumin gradients may help better categorize the occasional transudate misidentified as an exudate ...
Difference Between Exudate and Transudate. • (1). * Difference Between PCOS and Endometriosis. • (0) ...
In the past, ascites was classified as being a transudate or an exudate. In transudative ascites, fluid was said to cross the ... The serum-ascites albumin gradient is superior to the exudate-transudate concept in the differential diagnosis of ascites. Ann ...
In the past, ascites was classified as being a transudate or an exudate. In transudative ascites, fluid was said to cross the ... The serum-ascites albumin gradient is superior to the exudate-transudate concept in the differential diagnosis of ascites. Ann ...
Pleural effusions: the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates. Ann Intern Med 1972; 77:507-13. ... 18 Non-malignant effusions were classified as exudates or transudates by Lights criteria.19 This study was approved by the ... there was no statistical difference in fibulin-3 levels dependent upon a benign effusion being an exudate or transudate (figure ... eight had transudate effusions and seven with equivocal or unknown effusion biochemistry); and 36 people who presented with ...
How is pleural fluid used to differentiate transudates from exudates in the evaluation of pleural effusion (fluid on the lungs ... Which factors may lead to misclassification of transudates and exudates in the evaluation of pleural effusion (fluid on the ... Pleural effusions: the diagnostic separation of transudates and exudates. Ann Intern Med. 1972 Oct. 77(4):507-13. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Can pleural fluid cholesterol levels be used to differentiate exudates from transudates in the evaluation of pleural effusion ( ...
transudates, urine likely anechoic; hemorrhage, exudates likely echogenic), cytology is necessary for diagnosis. Be aware that ...
Transudates have low protein content material and specific gravity,whereas exudates have excessive protein content material and ...
They have multiple causes and are usually classified as transudates or exudates. Detection is by physical examination,... read ...
The results of the comparison will show whether your pleural fluid is transudate or exudate:. *Transudate is a watery fluid ... For example, exudate from an infection may have signs of pus, bacteria, or fungus. Exudate from cancer usually has cancer cells ... Exudate is a cloudy fluid that has high amounts of protein. It can be caused by conditions that involve inflammation, ... A chest injury may cause exudate that includes blood.. To help find the specific cause of your pleural effusion, your provider ...
Asymptomatic bilateral transudates require no treatment. Symptomatic transudates and most exudates require thoracentesis, chest ... Lights criteria correctly identify almost all exudates but misidentify about 20% of transudates as exudates. If transudative ... They have multiple causes and are usually classified as transudates or exudates. Detection is by physical examination, chest x- ... They have multiple causes and are usually classified as transudates or exudates. Detection is by physical examination,... read ...
In order to differentiate between transudate and exudate condition, albumin levels will be analysed for both serum albumin and ... The difference will be evaluated (serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG)) to determine the occurance of transudate or exudates ... Exudates: Injury or inflammation of the pleurae that causes excess amount of fluid inside pleural space. Exudates effusion ... Exudates: Injury or inflammation of the peritoneum that causes excess amount of fluid inside abdominal space such as ...
Exudates. ...related topic "...Unlike a transudate, which is merely edema from lymphatic congestion, exudates contain dead ... Mucosa covered with mucopurulent exudate; Extensive ulcerations beneath the exudate; In order to confirm the diagnosis, testing ...
Characteristics of Transudates and Exudate Characteristics of Transudates and Exudate ). Pure transudates are rare, because ... Mixed inflammatory cells increase in number as a transudate becomes modified and are present in large numbers in an exudate. ... Transudates attract activated macrophages with varying numbers of nondegenerate neutrophils. The lymphocytes that may also be ... They are of limited value, because they usually sample only the surface inflammatory exudate and rarely include cells from ...
C-Reactive Protein, Pleural Effusion, Exudates, Transudates, Leukocytes Abstract. Background and Objectives: Exudative pleural ...
Exudates and Transudates (1963-2016). Nipples (1963-2016). See Also. Nipple Aspirate Fluid. Public MeSH Note. 2017. History ...
Diagnostic utility of Costas criteria in separation of exudates from transudates. Source: Eur Respir J 2002; 20: Suppl. 38, ...
What is the difference between exudate and transudate *Exudate is fluid from the circulatory system usually RBC, platelets, ...
An exudate is a fluid emitted by an organism through pores or a wound a process known as exuding or exudation.1 Exudate is ... Exudates vs. transudates. There is an important distinction between transudates and exudates. Transudates are caused by ... Plant exudates. Plant exudates include saps, gums, latex, and resin. Sometimes nectar is considered an exudate.[12] Plant seeds ... They have a low protein content in comparison to exudates. Medical distinction between transudates and exudates is through the ...
To discriminate true transudates from pseudo-exudates, measurement of the pleural protein gradient or the pleural fluid albumin ... In this review, the differential diagnostic aspects of transudate versus exudate are further elaborated, and the role of ... ANALYSIS OF AN EXUDATE. In the case of a proven exudate with non-conclusive cytology after (repeated) thoracocenthesis, an ... If the protein level is ,35 g·L−1, the effusion is most likely an exudate [2]. In borderline exudates (protein level ,25 but , ...
Dive into the research topics of Comparative morphological study of the epicardial ventricular lymphatics in the dog before and after ligature of the superficial veins. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Most effusions were exudates (79.0%). The most common cause of exudative pleural effusion was tuberculosis (41.1%), whereas the ... whereas the most common cause of pleural transudate was cardiac failure. Histological examination and culture of pleural biopsy ... Causes of pleural exudates in a region with a high incidence of tuberculosis. Respirology, 2000, 5:33-38. ... The most frequent cause of pleural exudates was tuberculosis, followed by pneumonic and malignancy causes, particularly lung ...
Furthermore, because the tooth is open to the oral cavity, transudates and exudates from the inflamed pulpal tissue drain ...
Pleural Effusions: the Diagnostic Separation of Transudates and Exudates. Ann Intern Med (1972) 77(4):507-13. doi:10.7326/0003- ...
  • What is difference between transudate and exudate? (peel520.net)
  • What's the difference between transudate and exudate serous fluid? (peel520.net)
  • Laboratory evaluation of patients with a pleural effusion is directed at first determining if the effusion is an exudate or a transudate. (medscape.com)
  • Exudates are the result of either increased vascular permeability secondary to inflammation or vessel injury/leakage (hemorrhagic effusion, chylous effusion). (peel520.net)
  • An imbalance between the hydrostatic and oncotic pressure within the capillaries causes a transudate effusion. (healthjade.com)
  • The first step in the evaluation of patients with pleural effusion is to determine whether the effusion is a transudate or an exudate. (nih.gov)
  • 35 g·L −1 , the effusion is most likely an exudate [ 2 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • In the past, it has been stated that a malignant pleural effusion can also occur as a transudate [ 7 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Pleural effusion CFC appeared to be adherent cells and resembled mouse peritoneal exudate colony forming cells in terms of growth requirement, having a long lag period before proliferation and sensitivity to ionizing irradiation. (wustl.edu)
  • in differentiating exudates and transudates, samples of concurrently obtained pleural effusion and arterial blood were examined in 109 cases of pleural effusion by 1) (pH, PCO₂. (solunum.org.tr)
  • The distinction between transudate and exudate is generally made by measurement of serum and pleural fluid lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and protein concentrations. (medscape.com)
  • Transudate" is fluid buildup caused by systemic conditions that alter the pressure in blood vessels, causing fluid to leave the vascular system. (peel520.net)
  • Exudate" is fluid buildup caused by tissue leakage due to inflammation or local cellular damage. (peel520.net)
  • Is serous fluid transudate or exudate? (peel520.net)
  • Serous: a transudate with mainly edema fluid and few cells. (peel520.net)
  • A type of exudate that forms as a clear, thin, watery fluid with relatively low protein content, usually observed in acute or mild inflammation. (peel520.net)
  • Exudates refer to any fluid exuded out of the tissues. (peel520.net)
  • Acute and chronic exudate Acute wound fluid supports the stimulation of fibroblasts and the production of endothelial cells because it is rich in leukocytes and essential nutrients. (peel520.net)
  • Classifying a serous fluid as transudate or exudate can provide a valuable initial diagnostic step and aid diagnosis of underlying cause. (peel520.net)
  • An exudate is a cloudy fluid that seeps out of blood vessels to surrounding tissues as a result of inflammation and injury. (peel520.net)
  • When does pleural fluid become an exudate test? (peel520.net)
  • If the pleural fluid protein is between 25 and 35 g/L: the pleural fluid is an exudate if pleural fluid LDH greater than 66% of the upper limit of normal of the serum LDH method. (peel520.net)
  • Exudate is fluid that leaks out of blood vessels into a body cavity or nearby tissues as a result of injury or inflammation. (healthjade.com)
  • Transudate is fluid that leaks out of blood vessels into a body cavity or nearby tissues, due to an imbalance between the pressure within blood vessels (which drives fluid out) and the amount of protein in blood (which keeps fluid in). (healthjade.com)
  • Transudate is a clear fluid with low protein concentration and a limited number of white blood cells. (healthjade.com)
  • Light's criteria 1) can be used to determine if the fluid is an exudate versus transudate. (healthjade.com)
  • For example, fluid accumulations due to congestive heart failure and liver failure (cirrhosis) are typically lower in protein content and are called transudates whereas fluid accumulations due to cancer and tuberculosis are typically higher in protein content and are called exudates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The serum to pleural fluid protein or albumin gradients may help better categorize the occasional transudate misidentified as an exudate by these criteria. (nih.gov)
  • An exudate is a fluid emitted by an organism through pores or a wound, a process known as exuding or exudation . (atozwiki.com)
  • An exudate is any fluid that filters from the circulatory system into lesions or areas of inflammation . (atozwiki.com)
  • Medical distinction between transudates and exudates is through the measurement of the specific gravity of extracted fluid. (atozwiki.com)
  • In recent studies, measurement of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP) in pleural fluid and serum appeared to be promising in the diagnosis of transudates in patients with chronic heart failure. (ersjournals.com)
  • Do we need all three criteria for the diagnostic separation of pleural fluid into transudates and exudates? (medscirev.com)
  • The fluid that accumulates in this case is called a transudate . (labtestsonline.org.br)
  • Fluid accumulation may be caused by injury or inflammation of the peritoneum, in which case the fluid is called an exudate . (labtestsonline.org.br)
  • Doctors and laboratorians use an initial set of tests (cell count, protein or albumin and appearance of the fluid) to distinguish between transudates and exudates. (labtestsonline.org.br)
  • An imbalance between the pressure within blood vessels (which drives fluid out of the blood vessel) and the amount of protein in blood (which keeps fluid in the blood vessel) can result in accumulation of fluid (called a transudate ). (labtestsonline.org.br)
  • If the fluid is determined to be a transudate, then usually no more tests on the fluid are necessary. (labtestsonline.org.br)
  • Injury or inflammation of the pericardium may cause abnormal collection of fluid (called an exudate ). (labtestsonline.org.br)
  • Unlike pleural fluid, there are no well-defined criteria for distinction between transudates and exudates. (com.pk)
  • Most transudates result from systemic factors that alter pleural fluid formation or absorption. (manualofmedicine.com)
  • 11. A transudate in ASCITIC FLUID usually contains less than 2.5 g/dl o protein whereas an exudate contains more than 3g/dl. (t4tutorials.com)
  • Fluid may be transudate, exudate or bloody depending on the cause. (ptmasterguide.com)
  • According Light et al's criteria for pleural fluid, an exudate is considered if one of the following parameters are met: the total protein fluid-to-serum ratio is higher than 0.5, the LDH fluid-to-serum ratio is more than 0.6, or the LDH fluid level exceeds two thirds of upper limit of normal serum level. (medscape.com)
  • Exudate viscosity Normal exudate is thin and watery. (peel520.net)
  • Serous exudate - a clear, amber, thin and watery plasma. (healthjade.com)
  • Transudates are thin and watery and contain few cells or PROTEINS. (lookformedical.com)
  • The pleural effusions were classified as transudates or exudates according to these three methods. (solunum.org.tr)
  • Most effusions are categorized as transudates or exudates using criteria established by Light. (manualofmedicine.com)
  • Transudate: An imbalance pressure within blood vessels due to condition like liver diseases. (myhealth.gov.my)
  • Fibrinous inflammation is often difficult to resolve due to blood vessels growing into the exudate and filling space that was occupied by fibrin. (atozwiki.com)
  • Exudates are fluids, CELLS, or other cellular substances that are slowly discharged from BLOOD VESSELS usually from inflamed tissues. (lookformedical.com)
  • The Rivalta Test is a simple, inexpensive method that can be used in resource-limited settings to differentiate a transudate from an exudate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The test was originally developed by the Italian researcher Rivalta around 1900 and was used to differentiate transudates and exudates in human patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rivalta test may be used to differentiate an exudate from a transudate. (atozwiki.com)
  • In case of possible misclassification by the use of Light's criteria, measurement of pro-BNP level may appear to be a better tool to differentiate a transudate from a pseudo-exudate [ 3 - 6 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Excluding mixed and indeterminate cases, ultrasound characterized ascites correctly as exudate and transudate in 95% cases. (bvsalud.org)
  • CONCLUSION: Ultrasound has significant accuracy to distinguish transudate and exudate ascites and in suggesting the underlying cause. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fibrinous (serofibrinous): fibrin strands are derived from a protein-rich exudate. (peel520.net)
  • These need debriding to remove the abnormal matrix of fibrin, exudate, inflammatory cells and bacteria. (healthjade.com)
  • Fibrinous exudate is composed mainly of fibrinogen and fibrin . (atozwiki.com)
  • however, with certain diseases (e.g. exudate with fibrin formation), these fenestrae can become occluded, effectively forming a complete mediastinum. (dvm360.com)
  • Transudates are caused by disturbances of hydrostatic or colloid osmotic pressure , not by inflammation. (atozwiki.com)
  • The most important step in narrowing the differential diagnosis is to distinguish a transudate from an exudate. (ersjournals.com)
  • Types of Wound Exudate There are four types of wound drainage: serous, sanguineous, serosanguinous, and purulent. (peel520.net)
  • Sanguineous exudate - a fresh bleeding, seen in deep partial- and full-thickness wounds. (healthjade.com)
  • If these diseases have been ruled out or are very unlikely, the exudate is caused by malignant disease, tuberculosis or the exudate is idiopathic. (ersjournals.com)
  • Serosanguineous exudate - thin, watery and pale red to pink in color. (healthjade.com)
  • The differentiation of an exudate and transudate was corroborated by the unequivocal clinical diagnosis [ 57( 52%) exudates, 52(48%)transudates]. (solunum.org.tr)
  • 35 g·L −1 ) Light's criteria may misclassify transudates in up to 20% of cases, especially in patients with congestive heart failure who have been on diuretics. (ersjournals.com)
  • What is a serous exudate? (peel520.net)
  • What is the purpose of serous exudate? (peel520.net)
  • Serous exudate (sometimes classified as serous transudate ) is usually seen in mild inflammation, with relatively low protein. (atozwiki.com)
  • Exudate may ooze from cuts or from areas of infection or inflammation. (healthjade.com)
  • Exudates, transudates and the Rivalta reaction (1895). (wikipedia.org)
  • Transudates are characteristically clear, straw-colored, have a low protein concentration, and have few cells. (manualofmedicine.com)
  • Transudates are fluids that pass through a membrane or squeeze through tissue or into the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE of TISSUES. (lookformedical.com)
  • There is an important distinction between transudates and exudates. (atozwiki.com)
  • It is not clear if there is a distinction in the difference of transudates and exudates in plants. (atozwiki.com)
  • In the case of an exudate, and benign or non-conclusive cytology, infection, pulmonary embolism and abdominal disease should be considered. (ersjournals.com)
  • In the case of a proven exudate with non-conclusive cytology after (repeated) thoracocenthesis, an additional procedure to obtain pleural histology tissue is the next step. (ersjournals.com)
  • In this review, the differential diagnostic aspects of transudate versus exudate are further elaborated, and the role of thoracoscopy is compared to closed pleural biopsy and image guided biopsy. (ersjournals.com)
  • What type of exudate indicates infection? (peel520.net)
  • Thick, sticky exudate indicates high protein levels and can indicate infection. (peel520.net)
  • Exudate has a higher than normal protein content and may be cloudy due to increased numbers of white blood cells and is also called pus. (healthjade.com)
  • Seropurulent exudate - thin, watery, cloudy and yellow to tan in color. (healthjade.com)
  • This removes wound exudates, reduces build-up of inflammatory mediators, and increases the flow of nutrients to the wound thus promoting healing. (lookformedical.com)
  • Action Hydrolyzes hyaluronic acid to temporarily decrease viscosity of cellular cement and promote diffusion of injected fluids, localized transudates or exudates, thus facilitating their absorption. (medicscientist.com)
  • Purulent exudate - a thick and opaque exudate that is tan, yellow, green or brown in color. (healthjade.com)
  • Symptomatic transudates and most exudates require thoracentesis, chest tube drainage, and definitive pleural management (indwelling pleural catheter, talc pleurodesis, thoracic surgery, or a combination). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Purulent or suppurative exudate consists of plasma with both active and dead neutrophils , fibrinogen , and necrotic parenchymal cells . (atozwiki.com)
  • Exudate is made of cells, proteins, and solid materials. (healthjade.com)
  • Cells containing viral RNA were detected from 1 to 11 PID in exudate within bronchial and bronchiolar lumina and from 3 to 7 PID in alveolar exudates. (nebraska.edu)
  • 10. Exudate usually contains more than1000/ mm3 cells. (t4tutorials.com)