The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.
A vascular malformation of developmental origin characterized pathologically by ectasia of superficial dermal capillaries, and clinically by persistent macular erythema. In the past, port wine stains have frequently been termed capillary hemangiomas, which they are not; unfortunately this confusing practice persists: HEMANGIOMA, CAPILLARY is neoplastic, a port-wine stain is non-neoplastic. Port-wine stains vary in color from fairly pale pink to deep red or purple and in size from a few millimeters to many centimeters in diameter. The face is the most frequently affected site and they are most often unilateral. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 5th ed, p483)
A means of identifying the age of an animal or human through tooth examination.
Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)
PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
The movement of teeth into altered positions in relationship to the basal bone of the ALVEOLAR PROCESS and to adjoining and opposing teeth as a result of loss of approximating or opposing teeth, occlusal interferences, habits, inflammatory and dystrophic disease of the attaching and supporting structures of the teeth. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Resorption of calcified dental tissue, involving demineralization due to reversal of the cation exchange and lacunar resorption by osteoclasts. There are two types: external (as a result of tooth pathology) and internal (apparently initiated by a peculiar inflammatory hyperplasia of the pulp). (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p676)
An odontogenic fibroma in which cells have developed into cementoblasts and which consists largely of cementum.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Conditions in which a bifurcation or trifurcation of the molar tooth root becomes denuded as a result of periodontal disease. It may be followed by tooth mobility, temperature sensitivity, pain, and alveolar bone resorption.
A TEXTILE fiber obtained from the pappus (outside the SEEDS) of cotton plant (GOSSYPIUM). Inhalation of cotton fiber dust over a prolonged period can result in BYSSINOSIS.
Techniques for enhancing and directing cell growth to repopulate specific parts of the PERIODONTIUM that have been damaged by PERIODONTAL DISEASES; TOOTH DISEASES; or TRAUMA, or to correct TOOTH ABNORMALITIES. Repopulation and repair is achieved by guiding the progenitor cells to reproduce in the desired location by blocking contact with surrounding tissue by use of membranes composed of synthetic or natural material that may include growth inducing factors as well.
The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).
The loss of calcium salts from bones and teeth. Bacteria may be responsible for this occurrence in teeth. Old age may be a factor contributing to calcium loss, as is the presence of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Antigenic characteristics and DNA fingerprint patterns identified from blood stains. Their primary value is in criminal cases.
The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.
A suspension of metallic gold particles.
A wedge-shaped collar of epithelial cells which form the attachment of the gingiva to the tooth surface at the base of the gingival crevice.
A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.
Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.
A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.
An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.
Photography of objects viewed under a microscope using ordinary photographic methods.
The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.
A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.
Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)
The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
A benign central bone tumor, usually of the jaws (especially the mandible), composed of fibrous connective tissue within which bone is formed.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.
A mixed tumor of odontogenic origin, in which both the epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibit complete differentiation, resulting in the formation of tooth structures. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
A hereditary disorder characterized by HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA; RICKETS; OSTEOMALACIA; renal defects in phosphate reabsorption and vitamin D metabolism; and growth retardation. Autosomal and X-linked dominant and recessive variants have been reported.
Loss or destruction of periodontal tissue caused by periodontitis or other destructive periodontal diseases or by injury during instrumentation. Attachment refers to the periodontal ligament which attaches to the alveolar bone. It has been hypothesized that treatment of the underlying periodontal disease and the seeding of periodontal ligament cells enable the creating of new attachment.
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Measurement of tooth characteristics.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Neoplasms produced from tooth-forming tissues.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.
The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A versatile red dye used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc., and as tissue stain, vital stain, and counterstain with HEMATOXYLIN. It is also used in special culture media.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
Pathologic process consisting of a partial or complete disruption of the layers of a surgical wound.
A dye obtained from the heartwood of logwood (Haematoxylon campechianum Linn., Leguminosae) used as a stain in microscopy and in the manufacture of ink.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A tri-benzene-ammonium usually compounded with zinc chloride. It is used as a biological stain and for the dyeing and printing of textiles.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)
Asbestos, grunerite. A monoclinic amphibole form of asbestos having long fibers and a high iron content. It is used in insulation. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.
A type of asbestos that occurs in nature as the dihydrate of magnesium silicate. It exists in two forms: antigorite, a plated variety, and chrysotile, a fibrous variety. The latter makes up 95% of all asbestos products. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p.893)
A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A lavender, acid-resistant asbestos.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Tunable liquid lasers with organic compounds (i.e., dye) which have a strong absorption band, used as the active medium. During emission, the dye has to be optically excited by another light source (e.g., another laser or flash lamp). The range of the emission wavelength may be anywhere from the ultraviolet to the near infrared (i.e., from 180 to 1100nm). These lasers are operated in continuous wave and pulsed modes. (UMDNS, 2005)
A class of asbestos that includes silicates of magnesium, iron, calcium, and sodium. The fibers are generally brittle and cannot be spun, but are more resistant to chemicals and heat than ASBESTOS, SERPENTINE. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
A superorder of marine CRUSTACEA, free swimming in the larval state, but permanently fixed as adults. There are some 800 described species, grouped in several genera, and comprising of two major orders of barnacles: stalked (Pedunculata) and sessile (Sessilia).
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.
Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
When viewed under light microscopy, a specific type of cementum (Acellular Extrinsic Fibers Cementum - AEFC) surrounding the ... On present teeth, classical histological methods are often used and require decalcification of the dental tissue and staining ... Grue H, Jensen B (1979). "Review of the formation of incremental lines in tooth cementum of terrestrial mammals". Danish Rev ... This technic also suffers from the fact that the physiological and structural biological background of cementum is not well ...
... the first cementum to be formed during tooth development is acellular extrinsic fiber cementum.[4][5] The acellular layer of ... The exposure of the deeper dentin can lead to problems such as extrinsic staining and dentinal hypersensitivity.[2] ... Two kinds of cementum are formed: acellular and cellular, and fibers can be intrinsic or extrinsic, resulting in four possible ... Sharpey fibers are part of the principal collagenous fibers of the periodontal ligament embedded in the cementum and alveolar ...
This type of cementum forms around the fiber bundles of the periodontal ligaments. The cementoblasts forming cellular cementum ... The child's supervising adults may need reassurance that it is only an extrinsic stain on a child's newly erupted teeth. ... Acellular cementum contains a secreted matrix of proteins and fibers. As mineralization takes place, the cementoblasts move ... Similar to the formation of primary cementum, collagen fibers are created on the surface nearest the tooth, and they remain ...
Long term use of chlorhexidine, a mouthwash, may encourage extrinsic stain formation near the gingiva on teeth. This is usually ... Cementum[edit]. Main article: Cementum. Cementum is a specialized bone like substance covering the root of a tooth.[14] It is ... The groups of fibers are named alveolar crest, horizontal, oblique, periapical, and interradicular fibers.[34] The nerve supply ... Of these, cementum is the only one that is a part of a tooth. Periodontal ligaments connect the alveolar bone to the cementum. ...
Extrinsic staining of the teeth are usually due to the deposition of secondary mineralized plaque.. Chromogenic bacteria are ... In periodontal surgery, to favor a "reattachment" collagen fibers on a cementum surface, one must remove the surface of any ... It is easy Carbon fiber is also effective to scatter collapsed fiber, measures such solidify fibers together was necessary.. ... Fibers for holding the carbon material is made of cotton plain unstained, is suitable strike string having a diameter of about ...
When viewed under light microscopy, a specific type of cementum (Acellular Extrinsic Fibers Cementum - AEFC) surrounding the ... On present teeth, classical histological methods are often used and require decalcification of the dental tissue and staining ... Grue H, Jensen B (1979). "Review of the formation of incremental lines in tooth cementum of terrestrial mammals". Danish Rev ... This technic also suffers from the fact that the physiological and structural biological background of cementum is not well ...
... the first cementum to be formed during tooth development is acellular extrinsic fiber cementum.[4][5] The acellular layer of ... The exposure of the deeper dentin can lead to problems such as extrinsic staining and dentinal hypersensitivity.[2] ... Two kinds of cementum are formed: acellular and cellular, and fibers can be intrinsic or extrinsic, resulting in four possible ... Sharpey fibers are part of the principal collagenous fibers of the periodontal ligament embedded in the cementum and alveolar ...
This type of cementum forms around the fiber bundles of the periodontal ligaments. The cementoblasts forming cellular cementum ... The childs supervising adults may need reassurance that it is only an extrinsic stain on a childs newly erupted teeth. ... Acellular cementum contains a secreted matrix of proteins and fibers. As mineralization takes place, the cementoblasts move ... Similar to the formation of primary cementum, collagen fibers are created on the surface nearest the tooth, and they remain ...
11], demonstrated expression of OPN to be more in acellular afibrillar and acellular extrinsic fiber cementum fiber cementum ... There was mild to moderate staining of cemental matrix and moderate staining in the periodontal tissue. Staining of periodontal ... Ideally the regenerated cementum should closely resemble the acellular extrinsic fiber cementum, because it contributes to the ... Both are phosphorylated and sulfated glycoproteins that are prominently expressed in acellular extrinsic fiber cementum and ...
... including differences between acellular cementum and cellular cementum, and between cementum and bone. Biomineralization is ... With loss of TNAP in the Alpl null mouse, acellular cementum was inhibited, while cellular cementum production increased, ... Loss of NPP1 in the Enpp1 null mouse increased acellular cementum, with little effect on cellular cementum. Developmental ... In contrast, NPP1 was detected in cementoblasts after acellular cementum formation, and at low levels around cellular cementum ...
Composition of cementum. What is sharpys fiber. What is lines of Ritzius. Ameloblast, cementoblast, odontoblast. Process of ... H/E에서 어떻게 stain 되는지, Serous acinai는 왜 basophilic하게 stain되는지, secrete하는 molecule이 뭐가 다른지 기본적인 것들을 되게 자세히 물어 보셨어요. 그리고 나머지 ... Tongue의 layer이야기 하면서 skeletal muscle layer에서 intrinsic/extrinsic muscle들 얘기 했구요. mucosa의 lamina propria 에서 papillae쪽으로 넘어가서 4 ... 6. 이 fiber 사이사이에 보이는 cell들이 뭐냐 -fibroblast 라고 말했는데 틀렸대요 cyte래요... 7. fibrocyte의 역할이 뭐냐? - 대답 못했는데 collagen fiber synthesis네요. 8
Long term use of chlorhexidine, a mouthwash, may encourage extrinsic stain formation near the gingiva on teeth. This is usually ... Cementum[edit]. Main article: Cementum. Cementum is a specialized bone like substance covering the root of a tooth.[14] It is ... The groups of fibers are named alveolar crest, horizontal, oblique, periapical, and interradicular fibers.[34] The nerve supply ... Of these, cementum is the only one that is a part of a tooth. Periodontal ligaments connect the alveolar bone to the cementum. ...
... acellular extrinsic fiber cementum, CIFC = cellular intrinsic fiber cementum, H&E, TB and AB-NFR: different tissue stains. ... principal fibers. of the PDL. embedded within cementum (extrinsic fibers may be called Sharpeys fibers. , the same as bone ... Cellular cementum. contains intrinsic fibers and possibly extrinsic fibers. Intrinsic collagen fibers. are secreted by ... based on the amount of extrinsic collagen fibers present. Cementum that does not contain extrinsic collagen fibers (closer to ...
reticular fs immature connective tissue fibers, staining with silver, forming the reticular framework of lymphoid and myeloid ... 2. terminal portions of principal fibers that insert into the cementum of a tooth. ... extrinsic muscle. one that originates in another part than that of its insertion, e.g. those originating outside the eye, which ... type II muscle fiber deficiency. a relative deficiency of type II muscle fibers, with a predominance of type I fibers. An ...
Stain extrinsic Refers to tooth stain located on the outside of the tooth surface originating from external substances such as ... The fibers which suspend the tooth in the boney socket. The periodontal ligament is attached at one end to the cementum, and at ... Cementum Located at the root of the tooth, cementum serves as the anchor point for the ligaments that join the tooth to the ... Stain intrinsic Refers to tooth stain originating from the ingestion of certain materials or chemical substances during tooth ...
Regeneration with new cellular cementum, bone, and periodontal ligament with functional fiber orientation was observed on the ... These samples were sectioned, stained, and examined histomorphometrically. Seventy-two FDBA and 21 DFDBA samples were examined ... Host-specific intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors accounting for this variability remain to be investigated.. ...
Any of the cells trapped within cementum that maintain cementum as a living calcified tissue by their metabolic activity. ... extrinsic muscle. Abbreviation: EM. The muscles outside an organ that control its position, such as the EM of the eye or tongue ... Muscle fibers that can conduct axon potentials along their cell membranes. Almost all skeletal muscle in humans is twitch ... 1. . An erythrocyte with a dark rounded central area surrounded by a lightly stained clear ring, which in turn is surrounded by ...
Horizontal fibers extend at right angles to the long axis of the tooth between the cementum and alveolar bone. These fibers ... Erosion refers to the loss of tooth structures such as enamel via acidic substances, often extrinsic sources such as carbonated ... Microscopically, the mucous acini have a pale appearance compared to the darker-staining granules of the serous acini. ... The ends of these fibers, referred to as Sharpeys fibers, terminate in either cementum or alveolar bone. The matrix of the PDL ...
fibers are collagen fibers projecting from cementum and attached to. alveolar bone that form the bulk of the periodontal ... 5. Haematoxylin is a ____, basic dye? Stains what kind of stuctures?. 6. Eosin is a ___, acidic dye? Stains what kind of ... If there is irritation, excessive distension or extrinsic/intrinsic neural control. what can happen in intestines?. 28. When we ... The metaplasia of Barret show distinct ___ vacuoles stained pale blue in. the shape of a ___ goblet?. 54. Low grade dysplasia ...
These data further support the hypothesis of a complex origin and fate of cementum-forming cells, as previously suggested by ... Is the tumor intrinsic or extrinsic in origin to the salivary gland? The epinephrine instillation resulted in significant ... Radiative losses due to pulse interactions in birefringent nonlinear optical fibers. We explored whether analogous mutations in ... and the induction of apoptosis under radiosensitising conditions was determined by Annexin V staining and caspase 3 cleavage. ...
The effect of an oxygenating agent on chlorhexidine-induced extrinsic tooth staining: a systematic review. Transvaginal pulsed ... Dyract and TPH composite resin were evaluated for the amount of microleakage in enamel and cementum. Eleven patients had ... containing abundant elastin fibers. ...
Even thickness of cementum-like layer with extrinsic fibers similar to Sharpeys fibers (original magnification ×200). (d) ... Larger magnification for the homogenous cementum-like tissue stained with Van Geison and Stevenels blue (original ... Even thickness of cementum-like layer with extrinsic fibers similar to Sharpeys fibers (original magnification ×200). (d) ... These investigators have shown new cementum, greater cellularity, and sparse extrinsic Sharpeys fibers upon implantation of ...
Brazil nuts are the most abundant natural source of selenium, unsaturated fatty acids, fibers, and polyphenols. OBJECTIVE: The ... Evaluations of colonic immunofluorescence staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and myenteric ganglia area were ... It is characterized by gum inflammation, periodontal ligament degeneration, dental cementum and alveolar bone loss. Studies ... of cell death induced by S1 in K562 cells involves cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and the activation of both extrinsic and ...
... regarding collagen fiber formation. They found an age-related decrease in the amount of collagenous fiber production, but could ... Finally, the specimens were stained with toluidine blue (Figure 1).. Figure 1 Histological sample of the buccal periodontal ... ligament at the appropriate height ensuring that the grid neither overlapped the alveolar bone nor the root cementum (Figure 2 ... and differentiation capacity of aged human periodontal ligament stem cells and rejuvenation by exposure to the young extrinsic ...
tongue - extrinsic Genioglossus hypoglossal nerve protraction, tongue - extrinsic Styloglossus hypoglossal nerve elevation and ... The areolar tissue comprises collagen fibers and elastic fibers which contain several cells which are trapped within the tissue ... Tooth enamel is white initially but is susceptible to stains from coffee and cigarette usage. A tooth sits in a specialized ... The tooth is held in location by a periodontal ligament, with the assistance of cementum. ...
... supragingivaw cawcuwus and extrinsic staining". Internationaw Journaw of Dentaw Hygiene. 11 (1): 35-40. doi:10.1111/j.1601- ... Cementum. *Free gingivaw margin. *Gingiva. *Gingivaw fibers. *Gingivaw suwcus. *Junctionaw epidewium. *Mucogingivaw junction ... Extrinsic toof staining occurs when chworhexidine rinse has been used for 4 weeks or wonger.[17] ... Moudwashes containing chworhexidine which stain teef wess dan de cwassic sowution have been devewoped, many of which contain ...
A. Sharpeys fibers B. Intrinsic fibers C. Proteoglycans D. Phosphoproteins # Enterococcus fecalis in post treatment ... Which of the following substances play a major role in regulating cell to cell and cell- matrix interaction in cementum? ... a. Grams Staining. b. Cultivation of Viruses. c. Genetic transfer of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial population. d. ... It may be caused due to extrinsic factors such as acidic foods and beverages, medications ( Vitamin C and Hydrochloric acid ...
The removal of extrinsic stain should be the primary reason to polish the dentition. The time that is generally allotted for ... Periodontal procedures including surgery, subgingival placement of antibiotic fibers/strips, scaling and root planing, probing ... cementum d. Soft, spongy gingiva e. Composite resins, cements, and other nonmetallic materials f. Sulci 4. Armamentarium a. ... Stains incorporated within calculus or dental plaque can be removed with hand instruments and/or ultrasonic scalers. Extrinsic ...
J ProsthetDent 2003;90(5):417-9.Sulieman M. An overview of tooth discoloration:extrinsic, intrinsic and internalized stains. ... Alsorelevant is the occurrence in interdental papillae andpresence of oxytalan fibers and other histopathologicalsimilarities ... 16Fibroblastic proliferation, mineralized componentvarying from bone, cementum like material ordystrophic calcifications, few ... to smile.The color of tooth is influenced by a combination oftheir intrinsic color and the presence of any extrinsicstains. The ...
Picrosirius red staining showed loosely arranged fibers in the periodontal space and decreased cellular cementum with some root ... The establishment of root resorption is multifactorial, consisting of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which interact mutually ... Immunohistochemical staining showed less localization of matrix proteins such as Bsp, Dmp1, Pstn, and Ank in the cementum, ... Animals , Dental Cementum , Dental Pulp Cavity , Dentin , Hedgehogs , Mice , Molar , Osteocalcin , Periodontal Ligament , ...
coronal polishing - removal of plaque and extrinsic stains from the surfaces of the teeth that are above the gingiva ... Another method consists of inserting fibers impregnated with the antibiotic tetracycline into the gingival sulcus. If ... peridontium - tissues that surround and support the teeth; includes the gingiva, alveolar mucosa, cementum, periodontal ... intrinsic stains - stains that are within the enamel or dentin; cannot be removed by polishing ...
Extrinsic Tooth Staining, Intrinsic Tooth Staining, Ankylosis, Transposition, Hypodontia, Hyperdontia, 42 42 44 44 46 46 46 48 ... Posterior ankyloglossia is often more difficult to appreciate, being caused by short submucosal collagen fibers in the ... secondary to destruction of the precementum and exposure of the adjacent mineralized cementum to cementoclasts within the ... Scott Wietecha.) ■ Figure 1.19 Bismuth Staining The dorsal tongue exhibits black staining, which developed after the patient ...
Col III staining was not detectable at measurable levels against the background staining, and fibronectin staining remained at ... For fiber preparation, the PMMA was heated to 160° C. in a glass dishes until viscous melt was formed and the fibers were drawn ... The formation of new cementum on 5.5 mm-long (aRP-CEJ) root surface was also measured and the corresponding percent of NC at ... tissues and the activation of cell signaling mechanisms by extrinsic growth and differentiation factors and/or growth hormone, ...
... preganglionic efferent fibers traveling in CN III activity to the ciliary ganglion, and then excitatory signals rove via terse ... sented as a thin out of the ordinary lumen with increase of the extrinsic diameter of the artery [5254] The Venc obligated to ... clasts close the gingival meeting resulting from periodontitis and also of cementum rubbing away appropriate to neck caries and ... Intraosseous needle again expendable unless the amniotic liquid is stained with ? ECG and transcutaneous oxygen saturation ...
  • Fibroblasts are involved developing the periodontal ligament which connect teeth to the alveolar bone through cementum. (
  • It is attached to the alveolar bone (C) by the fibers of the periodontal ligament and to the soft tissue of the gingiva by the gingival fibers (H) . (
  • The cementum is the part of the periodontium that attaches the teeth to the alveolar bone by anchoring the periodontal ligament . (
  • After the apposition of cementum in layers, the cementoblasts that do not become entrapped in cementum line up along the cemental surface along the length of the outer covering of the periodontal ligament. (
  • Sharpey fibers are part of the principal collagenous fibers of the periodontal ligament embedded in the cementum and alveolar bone to attach the tooth to the alveolus. (
  • [7] Cementum is avascular, receiving its nutrition through its own imbedded cells from the surrounding vascular periodontal ligament . (
  • Moderate staining was found in relation to periodontal ligament. (
  • In, the apical part of the diseased tooth, a strong staining for OPN was seen along the cementum surfaces adjacent to the periodontal ligament. (
  • The absence of staining for OPN in all areas of exposed cementum (absence of overlying periodontal ligament) in diseased teeth can affect the ability for regeneration and new connective tissue attachment onto the previously denuded root surface. (
  • Protein extracts of mature cementum promote cell attachment, migration and stimulate protein synthesis of gingival fibroblast and periodontal ligament cells [ 3 ]. (
  • One of the main functions of cementum is to anchor the principal collagen fibres of the periodontal ligament to the root surface. (
  • Regeneration of cementum on denuded root surface has been the subject of interest in the modern era of periodontal plastic surgery. (
  • Cementum is critical for anchoring the insertion of periodontal ligament fibers to the tooth root. (
  • The thin acellular cementum covers the cervical portion of the tooth root and is critical for anchoring the insertion of periodontal ligament (PDL) fibers. (
  • 36. ___ fibers are collagen fibers projecting from cementum and attached to alveolar bone that form the bulk of the periodontal ligament? (
  • It can be concluded that undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells were capable of differentiating to provide the 3 critical tissues required for periodontal tissue regeneration: cementum, bone, and periodontal ligament. (
  • however, the absence of periodontal ligament and connective tissue via cementum results in fundamental differences in the adaptation of the implant to occlusal forces. (
  • On present teeth, classical histological methods are often used and require decalcification of the dental tissue and staining protocol for collagen. (
  • Cementum approximately comprises of 50% hydroxyapatite and 50% organic matrix which consists of collagen and non-collagenous proteins. (
  • collagen f's ( collagenous f's ) the soft, flexible, white fibers that are the most characteristic constituent of all types of connective tissue, consisting of the protein collagen, and composed of bundles of fibrils that are in turn made up of smaller units ( microfibrils ) that show a characteristic crossbanding with a major periodicity of 65 nm. (
  • 33. ___ is composed of 70% hydroxyapatite and collagen fibers? (
  • TNAP was associated with earliest cementoblasts near forming acellular and cellular cementum. (
  • Thus again, cementum is more similar to alveolar bone, with its osteoblasts becoming entrapped osteocytes . (
  • cellular cementum occurs more frequently on the apical half. (
  • Several aspects of cementogenesis remain unclear, including differences between acellular cementum and cellular cementum, and between cementum and bone. (
  • With loss of TNAP in the Alpl null mouse, acellular cementum was inhibited, while cellular cementum production increased, albeit as hypomineralized cementoid. (
  • In contrast, NPP1 was detected in cementoblasts after acellular cementum formation, and at low levels around cellular cementum. (
  • Loss of NPP1 in the Enpp1 null mouse increased acellular cementum, with little effect on cellular cementum. (
  • Alterations in PP i have little effect on cellular cementum formation, though matrix mineralization is affected. (
  • Cementum can be categorized into two primary types: acellular cementum (or acellular extrinsic fiber cementum) and cellular cementum (or cellular intrinsic fiber cementum). (
  • The thicker, bone-like, cellular cementum occupies the apical portion of the root and functions in post-eruption adjustment of tooth occlusion. (
  • Cementum on the root ends surrounds the apical foramen and may extend slightly onto the inner wall of the pulp canal. (
  • Cementoblasts form the cementum of a tooth. (
  • The cells of cementum are the entrapped cementoblasts, the cementocytes. (
  • These cementoblasts can form subsequent layers of cementum if the tooth is injured. (
  • Cementum is secreted by cells called cementoblasts within the root of the tooth and is thickest at the root apex. (
  • Unlike ameloblasts and odontoblasts , which leave no cellular bodies in their secreted products, during the later steps within the stage of apposition , many of the cementoblasts become entrapped by the cementum they produce, becoming cementocytes. (
  • These patterns were confirmed in human teeth, including widespread TNAP, and NPP1 restricted to cementoblasts lining acellular cementum. (
  • Bone sialoprotein and osteopontin are the two major non-collagenous proteins in cementum that appeared to have important roles in cementogenesis and regeneration. (
  • Because of the apposition of cementum over the dentin, the dentinocemental junction (DCJ) is formed. (
  • This interface is not as defined, either clinically or histologically, as that of the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ), given that cementum and dentin are of common embryological background, unlike that of enamel and dentin. (
  • The dentinocemental junction (DCJ) is a relatively smooth area in the permanent tooth, and attachment of cementum to the dentin is firm but not understood completely. (
  • Cementum is slightly softer than dentin and consists of about 45% to 50% inorganic material ( hydroxylapatite ) by weight and 50% to 55% organic matter and water by weight. (
  • The cementum is light yellow and slightly lighter in color than dentin . (
  • Difficult extrinsic stains can eventually penetrate into the dentin and become deeply ingrained within the teeth. (
  • Unlike those in bone, however, these canals in cementum do not contain nerves, nor do they radiate outward. (
  • There are intrinsic stains as well as extrinsic stains that must be considered. (
  • Intrinsic stains are those that develop inside of the teeth. (
  • Also excessive amounts of fluoride ingested into the body can result in intrinsic stains. (
  • On the other hand,the intrinsic stains are the type that can be found within the teeth which mean that it can be more difficult to remove. (
  • If the intrinsic stains are usually caused by different food particles, the extrinsic stains are those that are caused by aging, trauma and exposure of the teeth to harmful chemicals. (
  • In healthy root surface staining intensity was found to be mild to moderate in the cemental surface and matrix. (
  • Cementum was first described by Denton, as a calcified, avascular mesenchymal tissue that forms the outer covering of the anatomic root [ 2 ]. (
  • Cementum is a mineralized tissue layer covering the tooth root. (
  • Developmental patterns were recapitulated in a mouse model for acellular cementum regeneration, with early TNAP expression and later NPP1 expression. (
  • The cementum joins the enamel to form the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), which is referred to as the cervical line . (
  • [16] Extrinsic toof staining occurs when chworhexidine rinse has been used for 4 weeks or wonger. (
  • Today, more than ever before people of all ages are having to deal with tooth stains and as such teeth whitening whether done professionally or at home only continues to grow in popularity. (
  • It is important understand the different types of stains that can occur on typical otherwise healthy teeth. (
  • While years ago, intrinsic tooth staining was thought to be untreatable today these stains can be removed using certain types of teeth whitening technology. (
  • Conversely, extrinsic tooth staining is the kind that appears on the surface of the teeth as a direct result of consuming certain types of foods, dark-colored beverages or even using tobacco. (
  • Routine wear and tear of the teeth can ultimately produce extrinsic types of stains too. (
  • Conversely, more deeply rooted extrinsic stains that are stubborn and difficult to remove can be corrected but do require more involved procedures and treatment such as teeth bleaching [2]. (
  • As mentioned earlier, tooth staining is caused by a number of factors including age, eating habits, smoking habits, the use of drugs and exposure to certain chemicals as well as even teeth grinding. (
  • By means of teeth whitening in Walnut Creek , you could be able to have your teeth stains and all the other food debris removed from your teeth. (
  • There can be a lot of stains that your teeth could be able to encounter which can be further divided into intrinsic and extrinsic stains. (
  • Usually, extrinsic stains is a type of stains that can be found directly on the teeth surface and can be easily noticed. (
  • This type of stain is removed by the means of expert teeth whitening services which are well known by Walnut Creek dentists . (
  • The cementum is the surface layer of the tooth root, covering the dentine (which is labeled B ). Rather than being a passive entity like paint on a wall, cementum is a dynamic entity within the periodontium . (
  • 4 ], suggested the inability of the periodontium to regenerate without the presence of cementum. (
  • Located at the root of the tooth, cementum serves as the anchor point for the ligaments that join the tooth to the boney tooth socket. (
  • These studies suggest that early TNAP expression creates a low PP i environment promoting acellular cementum initiation, while later NPP1 expression increases PP i , restricting acellular cementum apposition. (
  • arcuate f's any of the bow-shaped fibers in the brain, such as those connecting adjacent gyri in the cerebral cortex, or the external or internal arcuate fibers of the medulla oblongata. (
  • It is formed continuously throughout life because a new layer of cementum is deposited to keep the attachment intact as the superficial layer of cementum ages. (
  • Dietary fiber is not to be confused with crude fiber , which is the term used in the USDA Handbook and other tables listing the composition of foods. (
  • When viewed under light microscopy, a specific type of cementum (Acellular Extrinsic Fibers Cementum - AEFC) surrounding the root appears as layers of alternating dark and light bands. (
  • Cementum [1] is a specialized calcified substance covering the root of a tooth . (
  • In diseased root surface there was absence of immunostaining for osteopontin (OPN) in exposed cementum. (
  • Cementum also has important adaptive and reparative functions, playing a crucial role to maintain the occlusal relationship and to protect the integrity of the root surface. (
  • The anatomic root is found below the CEJ and is covered with cementum . (
  • alpha f's motor and proprioceptive fibers of the A type having conduction velocities of 70 to 120 meters per second and ranging from 13 to 22 micrometers in diameter. (
  • The primary effects of dietary fiber are to increase the bulk of the stool and make it softer by taking up water as it passes through the colon, and to absorb organic wastes and toxins and carry them out of the intestinal tract. (
  • This incremental structure has been reported in the dental cementum of marine and terrestrial mammals. (
  • Segments that showed readable cementum layers are captured with a digital camera and readings are performed on selected segments. (
  • Since, this technique has a particular interest for physical and forensic anthropologists because counting cementum deposits would give a direct access to chronological age and some studies performed on cementum have shown a correlation reaching 0.98 between incremental lines in the cementum and known age at death. (
  • Nonetheless, studies performed on cementum annulation have shown a strong correlation between the deposits the known age-at-death and allow to estimate adult age-at-death with a better precision than classical dental and osseous methods. (
  • The Cementochronology working group is assembling and distributing experiences from its members in order to promote the study of cementum annulations, to explore cementum related issues and to improve a standardized protocol. (
  • dietary fiber that portion of ingested foodstuffs that cannot be broken down by intestinal enzymes and juices and, therefore, passes through the small intestine and colon undigested. (
  • crude fiber the fiber that remains after food is digested with alkali and acid, which destroys all soluble and some insoluble fiber. (
  • Crude fiber is mainly lignin and cellulose and is the residue remaining after a food has been subjected to a standardized treatment with dilute acid and alkali. (
  • The effect of an oxygenating agent on chlorhexidine-induced extrinsic tooth staining: a systematic review. (
  • This technic also suffers from the fact that the physiological and structural biological background of cementum is not well elucidated. (
  • Cementochronology is based on the assumption that dental cementum deposits reflect an annual rhythm and involves the counting of incremental lines in histological preparations. (
  • In some cases dental veneers may be required as a way to effectively eliminate intrinsic tooth staining [1]. (
  • Some extrinsic tooth staining is minor in nature and can easily be removed through routine brushing and dental cleanings. (
  • Stained sections were assessed using digital photomicroscope. (
  • Muscle, including skeletal and cardiac muscle in vertebrates, that is distinguished from smooth muscle by having transverse striations across the fibers. (