The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.
The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.
General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.
The bones of the upper and lower LEG. They include the PELVIC BONES.
Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.
Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.
An alternative to amputation in patients with neoplasms, ischemia, fractures, and other limb-threatening conditions. Generally, sophisticated surgical procedures such as vascular surgery and reconstruction are used to salvage diseased limbs.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS of an upper extremity vein (e.g., AXILLARY VEIN; SUBCLAVIAN VEIN; and JUGULAR VEINS). It is associated with mechanical factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Primary) secondary to other anatomic factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Secondary). Symptoms may include sudden onset of pain, warmth, redness, blueness, and swelling in the arm.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.
Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.
Neoplasm drug therapy involving an extracorporeal circuit with temporary exclusion of the tumor-bearing area from the general circulation during which high concentrations of the drug are perfused to the isolated part.
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.
Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.
General or unspecified injuries to the hand.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.
The anterior and posterior arteries created at the bifurcation of the popliteal artery. The anterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle and lies along the tibia at the distal part of the leg to surface superficially anterior to the ankle joint. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg, ankle, and foot. The posterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, lies behind the tibia in the lower part of its course, and is found situated between the medial malleolus and the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg and foot.
Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Manner or style of walking.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the UPPER EXTREMITY.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".
Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.
Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A malignant tumor derived from primitive or embryonal lipoblastic cells. It may be composed of well-differentiated fat cells or may be dedifferentiated: myxoid (LIPOSARCOMA, MYXOID), round-celled, or pleomorphic, usually in association with a rich network of capillaries. Recurrences are common and dedifferentiated liposarcomas metastasize to the lungs or serosal surfaces. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
The position or attitude of the body.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material which has been transported from a distant vessel by the bloodstream. Removal of a clot at its original site is called THROMBECTOMY.
Endovascular procedure in which atheromatous plaque is excised by a cutting or rotating catheter. It differs from balloon and laser angioplasty procedures which enlarge vessels by dilation but frequently do not remove much plaque. If the plaque is removed by surgical excision under general anesthesia rather than by an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ENDARTERECTOMY.
The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.
A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)
Breaks in bones.
The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.
Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.
Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the LOWER EXTREMITY.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.
A competitive nine-member team sport including softball.
A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.
Layers of connective tissue of variable thickness. The superficial fascia is found immediately below the skin; the deep fascia invests MUSCLES, nerves, and other organs.
Difficulty in walking from place to place.
Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.
Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.
A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.
Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.
Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.
Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.
The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).
The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.
A congenital disorder that is characterized by a triad of capillary malformations (HEMANGIOMA), venous malformations (ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA), and soft tissue or bony hypertrophy of the limb. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the VG5Q gene which encodes a strong angiogenesis stimulator.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
A syndrome characterized by retropatellar or peripatellar PAIN resulting from physical and biochemical changes in the patellofemoral joint. The pain is most prominent when ascending or descending stairs, squatting, or sitting with flexed knees. There is a lack of consensus on the etiology and treatment. The syndrome is often confused with (or accompanied by) CHONDROMALACIA PATELLAE, the latter describing a pathological condition of the CARTILAGE and not a syndrome.
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A neurovascular syndrome associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the superior thoracic outlet. This may result from a variety of anomalies such as a CERVICAL RIB, anomalous fascial bands, and abnormalities of the origin or insertion of the anterior or medial scalene muscles. Clinical features may include pain in the shoulder and neck region which radiates into the arm, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles, PARESTHESIA, loss of sensation, reduction of arterial pulses in the affected extremity, ISCHEMIA, and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp214-5).
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
Strips of elastic material used to apply pressure to body parts to control EDEMA and aid circulation.
Loss of a limb or other bodily appendage by accidental injury.
A liposarcoma containing myxomatous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Wooden or metal staffs designed to aid a person in walking. (UMDNS,1999)
Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.
General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Performance of complex motor acts.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Radiographic study of the lymphatic system following injection of dye or contrast medium.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.
Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.
A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.
Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A malignant neoplasm arising from tenosynovial tissue of the joints and in synovial cells of tendons and bursae. The legs are the most common site, but the tumor can occur in the abdominal wall and other trunk muscles. There are two recognized types: the monophasic (characterized by sheaths of monotonous spindle cells) and the biphasic (characterized by slit-like spaces or clefts within the tumor, lined by cuboidal or tall columnar epithelial cells). These sarcomas occur most commonly in the second and fourth decades of life. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1363)
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
Gross hypo- or aplasia of one or more long bones of one or more limbs. The concept includes amelia, hemimelia, phocomelia, and sirenomelia.
Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.
Walking aids generally having two handgrips and four legs.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.
An acute, diffuse, and suppurative inflammation of loose connective tissue, particularly the deep subcutaneous tissues, and sometimes muscle, which is most commonly seen as a result of infection of a wound, ulcer, or other skin lesions.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
A weapon designed to explode when deployed. It frequently refers to a hollow case filled with EXPLOSIVE AGENTS.
A benign tumor composed, wholly or in part, of cells with the morphologic characteristics of HISTIOCYTES and with various fibroblastic components. Fibrous histiocytomas can occur anywhere in the body. When they occur in the skin, they are called dermatofibromas or sclerosing hemangiomas. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p1747)
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).
Lesion on the surface of the skin of the foot, usually accompanied by inflammation. The lesion may become infected or necrotic and is frequently associated with diabetes or leprosy.
Conditions in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the BLOOD CIRCULATION and function of tissue within that space. Some of the causes of increased pressure are TRAUMA, tight dressings, HEMORRHAGE, and exercise. Sequelae include nerve compression (NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES); PARALYSIS; and ISCHEMIC CONTRACTURE.
Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.
Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).
Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
A peripheral arterial disease that is characterized by the triad of ERYTHEMA, burning PAIN, and increased SKIN TEMPERATURE of the extremities (or red, painful extremities). Erythromelalgia may be classified as primary or idiopathic, familial or non-familial. Secondary erythromelalgia is associated with other diseases, the most common being MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Common occlusive arterial disease which is caused by ATHEROSCLEROSIS. It is characterized by lesions in the innermost layer (ARTERIAL INTIMA) of arteries including the AORTA and its branches to the extremities. Risk factors include smoking, HYPERLIPIDEMIA, and HYPERTENSION.
A non-atherosclerotic, inflammatory thrombotic disease that commonly involves small and medium-sized arteries or veins in the extremities. It is characterized by occlusive THROMBOSIS and FIBROSIS in the vascular wall leading to digital and limb ISCHEMIA and ulcerations. Thromboangiitis obliterans is highly associated with tobacco smoking.
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
Any method of measuring the amount of work done by an organism, usually during PHYSICAL EXERTION. Ergometry also includes measures of power. Some instruments used in these determinations include the hand crank and the bicycle ergometer.
The most commonly diagnosed soft tissue sarcoma. It is a neoplasm with a fibrohistiocytic appearance found chiefly in later adult life, with peak incidence in the 7th decade.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Skin diseases affecting or involving the cutaneous blood vessels and generally manifested as inflammation, swelling, erythema, or necrosis in the affected area.
General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/3268)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (2/3268)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Regulation of neurotrophin-3 expression by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions: the role of Wnt factors. (3/3268)

Neurotrophins regulate survival, axonal growth, and target innervation of sensory and other neurons. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is expressed specifically in cells adjacent to extending axons of dorsal root ganglia neurons, and its absence results in loss of most of these neurons before their axons reach their targets. However, axons are not required for NT-3 expression in limbs; instead, local signals from ectoderm induce NT-3 expression in adjacent mesenchyme. Wnt factors expressed in limb ectoderm induce NT-3 in the underlying mesenchyme. Thus, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mediated by Wnt factors control NT-3 expression and may regulate axonal growth and guidance.  (+info)

Fibrocartilage in tendons and ligaments--an adaptation to compressive load. (4/3268)

Where tendons and ligaments are subject to compression, they are frequently fibrocartilaginous. This occurs at 2 principal sites: where tendons (and sometimes ligaments) wrap around bony or fibrous pulleys, and in the region where they attach to bone, i.e. at their entheses. Wrap-around tendons are most characteristic of the limbs and are commonly wider at their point of bony contact so that the pressure is reduced. The most fibrocartilaginous tendons are heavily loaded and permanently bent around their pulleys. There is often pronounced interweaving of collagen fibres that prevents the tendons from splaying apart under compression. The fibrocartilage can be located within fascicles, or in endo- or epitenon (where it may protect blood vessels from compression or allow fascicles to slide). Fibrocartilage cells are commonly packed with intermediate filaments which could be involved in transducing mechanical load. The ECM often contains aggrecan which allows the tendon to imbibe water and withstand compression. Type II collagen may also be present, particularly in tendons that are heavily loaded. Fibrocartilage is a dynamic tissue that disappears when the tendons are rerouted surgically and can be maintained in vitro when discs of tendon are compressed. Finite element analyses provide a good correlation between its distribution and levels of compressive stress, but at some locations fibrocartilage is a sign of pathology. Enthesis fibrocartilage is most typical of tendons or ligaments that attach to the epiphyses of long bones where it may also be accompanied by sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilages. It is characteristic of sites where the angle of attachment changes throughout the range of joint movement and it reduces wear and tear by dissipating stress concentration at the bony interface. There is a good correlation between the distribution of fibrocartilage within an enthesis and the levels of compressive stress. The complex interlocking between calcified fibrocartilage and bone contributes to the mechanical strength of the enthesis and cartilage-like molecules (e.g. aggrecan and type II collagen) in the ECM contribute to its ability to withstand compression. Pathological changes are common and are known as enthesopathies.  (+info)

gas2 is a multifunctional gene involved in the regulation of apoptosis and chondrogenesis in the developing mouse limb. (5/3268)

The growth-arrest-specific 2 (gas2) gene was initially identified on account of its high level of expression in murine fibroblasts under growth arrest conditions, followed by downregulation upon reentry into the cell cycle (Schneider et al., Cell 54, 787-793, 1988). In this study, the expression patterns of the gas2 gene and the Gas2 peptide were established in the developing limbs of 11.5- to 14. 5-day mouse embryos. It was found that gas2 was expressed in the interdigital tissues, the chondrogenic regions, and the myogenic regions. Low-density limb culture and Brdu incorporation assays revealed that gas2 might play an important role in regulating chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, it might play a similar role during limb myogenesis. In addition to chondrogenesis and myogeneis, gas2 is involved in the execution of the apoptotic program in hindlimb interdigital tissues-by acting as a death substrate for caspase enzymes. TUNEL analysis demonstrated that the interdigital tissues underwent apoptosis between 13.5 and 15.5 days. Exactly at these time points, the C-terminal domain of the Gas2 peptide was cleaved as revealed by Western blot analysis. Moreover, pro-caspase-3 (an enzyme that can process Gas2) was cleaved into its active form in the interdigital tissues. The addition of zVAD-fmk, a caspase enzyme inhibitor, to 12.5-day-old hindlimbs maintained in organ culture revealed that the treatment inhibited interdigital cell death. This inhibition correlated with the absence of the Gas2 peptide and pro-caspase-3 cleavage. The data suggest that Gas2 might be involved in the execution of the apoptotic process.  (+info)

Conservation of the expression and function of apterous orthologs in Drosophila and mammals. (6/3268)

The Drosophila apterous (ap) gene encodes a protein of the LIM-homeodomain family. Many transcription factors of this class have been conserved during evolution; however, the functional significance of their structural conservation is generally not known. ap is best known for its fundamental role as a dorsal selector gene required for patterning and growth of the wing, but it also has other important functions required for neuronal fasciculation, fertility, and normal viability. We isolated mouse (mLhx2) and human (hLhx2) ap orthologs, and we used transgenic animals and rescue assays to investigate the conservation of the Ap protein during evolution. We found that the human protein LHX2 is able to regulate correctly ap target genes in the fly, causes the same phenotypes as Ap when ectopically produced, and most importantly rescues ap mutant phenotypes as efficiently as the fly protein. In addition, we found striking similarities in the expression patterns of the Drosophila and murine genes. Both mLhx2 and ap are expressed in the respective nerve cords, eyes, olfactory organs, brain, and limbs. These results demonstrate the conservation of Ap protein function across phyla and argue that aspects of its expression pattern have also been conserved from a common ancestor of insects and vertebrates.  (+info)

Respecified larval proleg and body wall muscles circulate hemolymph in developing wings of Manduca sexta pupae. (7/3268)

Most larval external muscles in Manduca sexta degenerate at pupation, with the exception of the accessory planta retractor muscles (APRMs) in proleg-bearing abdominal segment 3 and their homologs in non-proleg-bearing abdominal segment 2. In pupae, these APRMs exhibit a rhythmic 'pupal motor pattern' in which all four muscles contract synchronously at approximately 4 s intervals for long bouts, without externally visible movements. On the basis of indirect evidence, it was proposed previously that APRM contractions during the pupal motor pattern circulate hemolymph in the developing wings and legs. This hypothesis was tested in the present study by making simultaneous electromyographic recordings of APRM activity and contact thermographic recordings of hemolymph flow in pupal wings. APRM contractions and hemolymph flow were strictly correlated during the pupal motor pattern. The proposed circulatory mechanism was further supported by the findings that unilateral ablation of APRMs or mechanical uncoupling of the wings from the abdomen essentially abolished wing hemolymph flow on the manipulated side of the body. Rhythmic contractions of intersegmental muscles, which sometimes accompany the pupal motor pattern, had a negligible effect on hemolymph flow. The conversion of larval proleg and body wall muscles to a circulatory function in pupae represents a particularly dramatic example of functional respecification during metamorphosis.  (+info)

Chick Barx2b, a marker for myogenic cells also expressed in branchial arches and neural structures. (8/3268)

We have isolated a new chicken gene, cBarx2b, which is related to mBarx2 in sequence, although the expression patterns of the two genes are quite different from one another. The cBarx2b gene is expressed in craniofacial structures, regions of the neural tube, and muscle groups in the limb, neck and cloaca. Perturbation of anterior muscle pattern by application of Sonic Hedgehog protein results in a posteriorization of cBarx2b expression.  (+info)

DURING vertebrate limb development, positional information must be specified along three distinct axes. Although much progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular interactions involved in anterior-posterior and proximal-distal limb patterning, less is known about dorsal-ventral patterning1-3. The genes Wnt-7a and Lmx-1, which are expressed in dorsal limb ectoderm and mesqderm, respectively, are thought to be important regulators of dorsal limb differentiation4-6. Whether a complementary set of molecules controls ventral limb development has not been clear. Here we report that Engrailed-1, a homeodomain-containing transcription factor expressed in embryonic ventral limb ectoderm7-8, is essential for ventral limb patterning. Loss of Engrailed-1 function in mice results in dorsal transformations of ventral paw structures, and in subtle alterations along the proximal-distal limb axis. Engrailed-1 seems to act in part by repressing dorsal differentiation induced by Wnt-7a, and is essential
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trophic effect of transferrin on amphibian limb regeneration blastemas. AU - Mescher, Anthony. AU - Munaim, S. I.. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. UR - UR - M3 - Article. VL - 230. SP - 485. EP - 490. JO - Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Comparative Experimental Biology. JF - Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Comparative Experimental Biology. SN - 0022-104X. IS - 3. ER - ...
A method and apparatus for anchoring suture to bone includes an anchor formed by twisting a wire to provide a loop with two legs extending distally from the twist. Each leg bends outwardly through 180 to define respective knee segments between inner and outer leg segments, the outer leg segments terminating in sharp points for penetrating a bone tunnel wall. The outer leg segments are initially parallel and define an anchor width smaller than the bone tunnel diameter, thereby permitting the anchor to be inserted into and removed from the tunnel. The anchor is deployed with an insertion tool arranged to deformably pivot the outer leg segments about the knee segments, thereby causing the pointed ends to penetrate the tunnel wall in response to applied withdrawal forces. The anchor wire may be assembled on an anchor sleeve through which the loop projects proximally while the outer leg segments reside in wire relief recesses defined in the sleeve periphery. The insertion tool selectively forces the sleeve
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential expression of the frizzled family involved in Wnt signaling during chick limb development.. AU - Nohno, T.. AU - Kawakami, Y.. AU - Wada, N.. AU - Komaguchi, C.. AU - Nishimatsu, S.. PY - 1999/7. Y1 - 1999/7. N2 - Members of the frizzled (Fz) family are involved in Wnt signaling during embryogenesis in the vertebrate. We identified chicken cognates of Fz-2, Fz-3, Fz-4, Fz-6 and Fz-8, and examined spatial and temporal expression patterns in the chick embryos by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Fz-4 is intensely expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge and distal mesenchyme of the limb bud at stages 20 to 27. The transcripts are confined to the posterior-distal end of the digit-forming region at stages 25 to 27. Fz-2 is weakly expressed in the proximal limb mesenchyme at stages 25 to 27, while Fz-3 and Fz-6 expressions are uniform in the limb bud at these stages. Fz-2 is also expressed in the dermatomyotome. No expression signal for Fz-8 is detectable in the embryo ...
To investigate whether the uniqueness of proximal and distal limb regenerates could be attributed simply to differing blastemal growth characteristics, their increase in volume, cell number and cell-cycle times were determined. With respect to these parameters proximal and distal blastemas were identical and, furthermore, no evidence could be found for the existence of separate growth zones such as an apical proliferation centre or a progress zone within the blastema. It was therefore concluded that level-specific properties of the blastemal cells play the major role in determining the structure of the regenerate, not their growth characteristics. The only discernible difference was in the cell number within the two types of blastema at the onset of cartilage redifferentiation- proximal regenerates had 60 % more cells. Thus it seems that the larger the pattern to be regenerated (the more proximal the amputation plane), the larger the primordium within which that pattern first appears. These two ...
Subdividing cell populations in the developing limbs of Drosophila: do wing veins and leg segments define units of growth control?
An extraction device comprising a sheath, distal legs that project from the sheath, and actuating means for retracting the legs into the sheath and deploying the distal legs from the sheath. The distal legs are formed to have a parabolic curved shape, such that the distal legs automatically deploy radially outward and away from each other when deployed outside the sheath with the actuating means. As such, a plunger is not required to operate the legs. When retracted into the sheath with the actuating means, the distal legs elastically deform, collapsing radially toward each other to acquire a mid-deployed position in which the legs define a basket. The legs can be further retracted into the sheath, providing a stowed position in which the legs are substantially parallel to each other. Each of the distal legs has a concave cross-section that contributes greater strength to the legs, such that they maintain their form and alignment and provide greater grasping strength and expansion force than extraction
Major advances in the genetics of vertebrate limb development have been obtained in recent years. However, the nature of the signals which trigger differentiation of the mesoderm to form the limb skeleton remains elusive. Previously, we have obtained evidence for a role of TGFbeta2 in digit formation. Here, we show that activins A and B and/or AB are also signals involved in digit skeletogenesis. activin betaA gene expression correlates with the initiation of digit chondrogenesis while activin betaB is expressed coincidently with the formation of the last phalanx of each digit. Exogenous administration of activins A, B or AB into the interdigital regions induces the formation of extra digits. follistatin, a natural antagonist of activins, is expressed, under the control of activin, peripherally to the digit chondrogenic aggregates marking the prospective tendinous blastemas. Exogenous application of follistatin blocks physiological and activin-induced digit formation. Evidence for a close ...
Homeobox-containing genes are thought to be involved in the regulation of pattern formation and specification of positional information during vertebrate limb development. Because of its accessibility to microsurgical manipulation, the developing chick limb bud provides a powerful system for investi …
A device compressing a flexible elongate member having proximal and distal extremities and having a plurality of circumferentially spaced-apart elements having a characteristic disposed in the distal
Manson, J.M. and Smith, C.C. (1977) Influence of Cyclophosphamide and 4-Ketocyclophosphamide on Mouse Limb Development. Teratology, 15, 291-299.
The development of a vertebrate embryo is a complex process marked by several morphogenetic events, which create a highly reproducible pattern. The vertebrate limb has emerged as a model for studying pattern formation in the embryo mainly because limb manipulations do not affect embryo survival. Within the developing limb, experimental manipulation of the embryo resulted in the identification of the classical signaling centers known as the Zone of Polarizing Activity (ZPA) and the Apical Ectodermal Ridge (AER). The molecular signals required for function of the ZPA and AER have been identified. They are Sonic hedgehog (Shh) from the ZPA and Fibroblast Growth Factors (Fgfs) from the AER. The functions of each of these molecules are now beginning to be understood. Analysis of Shh and hedgehog (Hh) signaling target genes has shown that Hh activation in the limb bud mesoderm is required for normal limb development. It has been stated that Hh signaling in the limb bud ectoderm cannot occur because ...
Although, the requirement for multiple inputs into gene regulation is typical in transcriptional regulation, for most cases where multiple positive inputs are required, the underlying mechanism is not well understood (reviewed by Arnosti, 2003; Barolo and Posakony, 2002; Guss et al., 2001; Mann and Carroll, 2002; Merika and Thanos, 2001). By contrast, there are many examples of genes that integrate both positive and negative inputs to be activated in a spatially or temporally restricted manner(Arnosti, 2003). The enhancers mediating this control can be thought of as `logic integrators that are active only in the presence of the correct activators and in the absence of repressors (Istrail and Davidson,2005). We suggest that such a mechanism can account for why Dpp and Wg are both required for the activation of Dll and dacduring leg development. Although both pathways are required for activating these genes, our finding that Dpp functions by repressing a repressor creates a situation in which ...
Goggin JM, Hoskinson JJ, Carpenter JW, et al. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1997;38:211-220. To assess the role of scintigraphic evaluation of distal limb perfusion,
Our data confirm that the timing mechanism does not rely on the integration of FGF signaling over time (Fig. 4), something that was previously suggested by the inability of excess FGF to activate Hoxa13 prematurely (Fig. 3) (Vargesson et al., 2001). Importantly, this does not mean that FGF signaling is not necessary for Hoxa13 expression during normal limb development. Indeed, we show that FGF signaling is needed to keep RA signaling away from the distal region, but that its role is merely permissive and not instructive: if RA signaling is artificially blocked from the distal region, the timing mechanism can proceed in the absence of FGF signaling (Fig. 4).. The alternative mechanism that we explored concerns chromatin state. It has been proposed that regulation of HoxD expression differs considerably between the limb [two transcriptional waves dependent on the interaction of Hox loci with distinct topological domains (Andrey et al., 2013; Montavon et al., 2011)] and the tail bud [strict ...
The upper and lower limbs (including the shoulder and pelvic girdles) begin development in the 4th week of gestation. Their embryological development is of great clinical and anatomical importance.
Our group focuses on the study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling limb development and fin regeneration. We are trying to understand how the main signalling centre in limb development, the Apical Ectodermal Ridge (AER), is established and maintained through development and how different molecules, namely those related to stemness, are involved in these processes. Also, we have developed a line of research directed to depict how ion dynamics can control limb development, digit differentiation and fin regeneration. In these studies we use the chicken and zebrafish embryos as well as adult zebrafish as animal models.. ...
The present invention relates to a steerable catheter (21) comprising a flexible elongate tubular member (22) having proximal (23) and distal (24) extremities, a handle (27) secured to the proximal extremity (23), said tubular member (22) having a lumen (31-37) extending therethrough, a mandrel (41,42,43) slidably mounted in the lumen (31-37) and extending into the distal extremity (24) and means (56) extending through the tubular member (22) for causing a bending of the distal extremity (24) with respect to the mandrel (41,42,43) disposed therein.
A large-diameter expandable sheath for use in introducing a catheter or other medical instrument into a vessel in the body of a patient. The expandable sheath comprises an elongate sheath tube formed of a flexible material which has proximal and distal extremities and a passage extending therethrough of a maximum predetermined diameter. The distal extremity of the elongate sheath tube is folded longitudinally to a smaller folded diameter. The sheath tube may be self-expanding or may be reinforced with a self-expanding wire or expandable stents. A backflow adapter is secured to the proximal extremity of the elongate sheath tube. The backflow adapter has a central opening therein in registration with the passage in the sheath tube. A normally closed primary valve is disposed in the central opening of the backflow adapter and is movable to an open position. A normally open secondary valve, movable to a closed position, may be configured in the backflow adapter proximal the sheath tube and distal the
The mapping and/or ablation catheter for use in ablating the tissue in the wall forming a chamber in the heart comprising a flexible elongate tubular member having proximal and distal extremities, end cap formed of a conductive material mounted on the distal extremity of the flexible elongate tubular member, a fixation means carried by the end cap for engaging the wall of the heart and for retaining the end cap in a predetermined position on the wall of the heart during beating of the heart, said fixation means being movable between tissue engaging and disengaging positions. The means carried by the proximal extremity of the flexible elongate tubular member for moving the fixation means between the engaging and disengaging positions.
2017, Northcentral University, Murats review: Lasix 100 mg, 40 mg. Trusted online Lasix... On examination, her temperature is F (C), her respiratory rate is breaths/min, and rhonchi are noted in both lung fields. When VZV vasculopathydevelops months after zoster, antiviral treatment is often effective. Findings on plain film (such as the colon cutoff sign; enhance-ment of perirenal fat caused by retroperitoneal inflammation that creates a halo aroundthe left kidney; or an abnormal duodenal loop) can suggest the diagnosis of pancreatitisbut do not reveal its cause. A ratio of pleural lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to serum LDHgreater than C. Definitive diagnosis depends on radiographic detection of a mass lesion; treat-ment with drainage may be indicated. As the patient sits in the clinic chair, her distal extremities are seen to be a deep red, andthe skin of the distal extremities is smooth and thin, without hair. Structurally, however, plexiform bone resembles highly oriented cancellous bone. ...
Apparatus for cleaning a vessel having a stenosis therein comprising first and second balloon catheters. Balloons are disposed on opposite sides of the stenosis in the vessel and form a closed chamber in the vessel. A therapeutic catheter having a distal extremity is disposed in the chamber. Irrigation liquid is supplied to the chamber and liquid is aspirated from the chamber to form an aspirate. The distal extremity of the therapeutic catheter is moved to cause the material forming the stenosis to be removed from the wall of the vessel and to be broken into particles which are removed with the aspirate.
Lau K, Tao H, Liu H, Wen J, Sturgeon K, Sorfazlian N, Lazic S, Burrows JT, Wong MD, Li D, Deimling S, Ciruna B, Scott I, Simmons C, Henkelman RM, Williams T, Hadjantonakis AK, Fernandez-Gonzalez R, Sun Y, Hopyan S. Anisotropic stress orients remodelling of mammalian limb bud ectoderm. Nat Cell Biol. 2015 May; 17(5):569-79 ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
There is no obvious morphological counterpart of the autopod (wrist/ankle and digits) in living fishes. Comparative molecular data may provide insight into understanding both the homology of elements and the evolutionary developmental mechanisms behind the fin to limb transition. In mouse limbs the autopod is built by a late phase of Hoxd and Hoxa gene expression, orchestrated by a set of enhancers located at the 5 end of each cluster. Despite a detailed mechanistic understanding of mouse limb development, interpretation of Hox expression patterns and their regulation in fish has spawned multiple hypotheses as to the origin and function of autopod enhancers throughout evolution. Using phylogenetic footprinting, epigenetic profiling, and transgenic reporters, we have identified and functionally characterized hoxD and hoxA enhancers in the genomes of zebrafish and the spotted gar, Lepisosteus oculatus, a fish lacking the whole genome duplication of teleosts. Gar and zebrafish autopod ...
Since I still dont understand your point, let me just say this: When scientists interpret the pentadactyl limb as homologous across tetrapods, they assume that changing the basic structure of the limb bones is more difficult than simply altering their relative proportions. Some scientists may also surmise that a creator is free to modify his (its) designs to maximise their usefulness, so wed expect substantially different limb structures across creatures in different environments. This evidence is indeed entangled in background assumptions. Yet look where this leads: given the above, the pentadactyl limb suggests a common ancestor for tetrapods under evolutionary theory. The theory then predicts that other measures of relatedness will group tetrapods together relative to other creatures. So look at the pentadactyl limb as a prediction, with subsequent analyses verifying that prediction. Now its true that you cant use the same evidence to generate and test a hypothesis, so under this ...
tuning would apply to more complex future models. In terms of the physiological simplifications, the interactions among F-V and F-L effects are potentially confounding given that large length changes reduce the optimal V/Vmax for producing power [43]. However, recent work demonstrates that muscle contractions beginning at longer starting lengths (stretched slightly beyond optimal length) enable the muscle to reach the plateau of the F-L curve at the time of maximum muscle activation [22]. Thus, at the time point of peak activation and muscle power, F-L effects would not influence maximum muscle power for the current model. Indeed, our in silico-robotic experiments, which do include F-L effects, match well with our simple model predictions (figure 6).. Secondly, experiments were performed in still water without translational motion of the foot. In a simple rower (figure 2d), oar blades would have an aft-directed rotational and translational component as they rotate about their base. Therefore, in ...
Distal Tibia, Proximal and Distal Radius, Carpus and Tarsus partial arthrodesis, Pelvis, Femur, Tibia, Pelvis Distal Extremity, Humerus, Radius/ ...
Published in Nature Communications, the study paves the way to research into the function of this pathway in vertebrate development and its possible involvement in human congenital diseases.
Fearful frustrated parents deliver their ill appearing 17-year-old daughter to your office for evaluation of persistent painful papules and plaques associated with high fever, sore throat, and arthralgias (fig1, 2, 3). The eruption first appeared on the distal extremities 3 days ago and has now disseminated to the proximal extremities and trunk. She was sent home from the local emergency room yesterday with instructions to take plenty of fluids and ibuprofen ...
Introduction:Acute discoloration and paresthesia of a distal extremity is concerning for an ischemic event or a manifestation of underlying systemic disease. Achenbach syndrome is an infrequent, but benign etiology of an acute blue finger that needs to be recognized clinically. We present a case to increase awareness. Case:A 57-year-old Caucasian female presented to rheumatology clinic for bruising digits.
An endocardial catheter for mapping and/or ablation for use in a chamber of a heart defined by a wall comprising a flexible elongate tubular member having proximal and distal extremities. A basket ass
(2001) BMP controls proximodistal outgrowth, prescritpion induction of the apical ectodermal ridge, and dorsoventral patterning in the vertebrate limb. Titrate with 0.
Where two or more injections are required at once, these should ideally be given in different limbs. Where this is not possible, injections in the same limb should be given 2.5cm apart. ...
Kid-sized for shredding singletrack, the Boys Hotrock 24 XC comes equipped with everything your little ripper needs to start riding with the big kids. It features a lightweight, yet durable, A1 Premium aluminium frame thats designed to take a hit while they find their legs on the pump track, while chatter and bumps are handled by the coil-sprung SR Suntour forks 50mm of travel. Then there are a whole host of other components that are plenty tough enough to stand up to your little one, so you can rest assured that youll be spending more time riding with your kid then waiting in line at the repair counter.
The purpose of this study was to examine how the limb segment inertial parameters vary across the decades from the 1920s to the 1970s. Sixty-six males participated in this study, ranging in age from 20 to 79 years ...
Even if you feed your dog properly, treat it well, make sure it is active, and demonstrate great prudence, it can still get sick or wounded. You will mostly find out about that only after you realize that your dog is behaving abnormally. Injuries could be anywhere in the body, but most often the limbs are involved ...
New Components of Drosophila Leg Development Identified through Genome Wide Association Studies. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Montgomery EA, Devaney KO, Giordano TJ, Weiss SW. Inflammatory myxohyaline tumor of distal extremities with virocyte or Reed-Sternberg-like cells: a distinctive lesion with features simulating inflammatory conditions, Hodgkins disease, and various sarcomas. Mod Pathol 1998 Apr;11(4):384-91 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rdh10 mutants deficient in limb field retinoic acid signaling exhibit normal limb patterning but display interdigital webbing. AU - Cunningham, Thomas J.. AU - Chatzi, Christina. AU - Sandell, Lisa L.. AU - Trainor, Paul A.. AU - Duester, Gregg. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2011/5. Y1 - 2011/5. N2 - Retinoic acid (RA) is purported to be required for expression of genes controlling proximodistal (Meis2) or anteroposterior (Shh) limb patterning. Embryos lacking RDH10, the primary enzyme synthesizing retinaldehyde during mouse development, survive until E14.5 with stunted forelimbs but apparently normal hindlimbs. Using embryos carrying the RARE-lacZ RA-reporter transgene, we show that endogenous RA activity in Rdh10trex/trex mutants is detected in neuroectoderm but not limbs during initiation and patterning. Treatment of Rdh10 mutants with 25 nM RA restores RARE-lacZ activity to limb mesoderm, validating RARE-lacZ and verifying that RA is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The expression of Fat-1 cadherin during chick limb development. AU - Terence , Smith. AU - Hateren, Nick Van AU - Tickle, Cheryll. AU - Wilson, Stuart PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - Cellular adhesion is fundamental to the behaviour of cell populations during embryonic development and serves to establish correct tissue pattern and architecture. The cadherin superfamily of cell adhesion proteins regulates cellular organization and additionally influences intracellular signalling cascades. Here we present for the first time a detailed account of chick Fat-1 gene expression during embryogenesis visualised by whole-mount in situ hybridisation. In part, we focus on the expression pattern in limb buds that has not been accurately documented. While Fat-1 is generally expressed in epithelial tissues and its Drosophila counterpart Fat-like regulates formation of ectodermally-derived organs, in limb buds we have found that chick Fat-1 is uniquely restricted to mesenchyme. This Fat-1 expression ...
An abundance of data across several vertebrate taxon groups (3, 11, 12) suggests that nerves may have a conserved evolutionary role that is essential to, or permissive for, limb regeneration. Despite the absence of innervation to the hind limb throughout the time of regeneration, the mouse model replaces the amputated digit tip with surprising fidelity in most tissue types. Our comprehensive examination at single-cell levels of primary hind limb tissues during normal maintenance, regeneration, and wound healing reveals that many presumed tissue stem/progenitor cells maintain clonal and differentiation capabilities in the absence of nerve supply.. In salamander embryos, removal of a large section of the neural tube leads to limb development without innervation. These limbs can be transplanted to the flank of a normal larva, where they can regenerate in the absence of nerve supply (33). This lack of nerve dependence is made possible by the substitution of nerve-derived factors from ectodermal ...
A new study has provided more insight into the effortless manner in which insects like mosquitoes and water striders are able to walk on water. The secret seems
Considerable evidence exists to support the hypothesis that mechanical forces have an essential role in healthy embryonic skeletal development. Clinical observations and experimental data indicate the importance of muscle contractions for limb development. However, the influence of these forces is seldom referred to in biological descriptions of bone development, and perhaps this is due to the fact that the hypothesis that mechanical forces are essential for normal embryonic skeletal development is difficult to test and elaborate experimentally in vivo, particularly in humans. Computational modeling has the potential to address this issue by simulating embryonic growth under a range of loading conditions but the potential of such models has yet to be fully exploited. In this article, we review the literature on mechanobiology of limb development in three main sections: (a) experimental alteration of the mechanical environment, (b) mechanical properties of embryonic tissues, and (c) the use of ...
Steerable balloon dilatation catheter assembly having dye injection and pressure measurement capabilities and comprising an elongate flexible tubular member having first and second lumens extending therethrough and a balloon carried by the distal portion of the tubular member and having its interior in communication with the second lumen. A guide wire extends through the first lumen and has a coil carried by the distal portion thereof and extending beyond the distal extremity of the tubular member. A device is coupled to the guide wire facilitating at least limited rotation of the distal extremity of the guide wire. A first fitting is coupled to the second lumen and is adapted to receive a liquid for inflating and deflating the balloon. A second fitting is in communication with the first lumen. The first lumen and the guide wire being sized so that dye injections and/or pressure measurements can be made through the second fitting.
Fig. (9) Reported sensations across all trials on all nerves. The low frequency pulse train resulted in the most non-paresthesia sensations with minimal discomfort. Some totals are over 100% since some subjects reported more than one descriptor per trial. Sensations that were reported fewer than three times are not included in this figure. ...
Objective: To evaluate the outcome of treatment of antebrachial and crural septic non-union fractures in dogs using circular external skeletal fixation (CESF), and to document the type and frequency of complications associated with this technique. Methods: The medical records of all dogs with infected antebrachial and crural non-union fractures treated using the methods of Ilizarov at the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. ...
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For any non-gliding animal, the distance of a leap depends on the direction and magnitude of its velocity vector at take-off. For a standing-start leap, the velocity achieved by the animal is limited by the amount of energy imparted to the body before take-off. This, in turn, is limited by the ability of the muscles to perform mechanical work on the body.. Specialized leapers demonstrate a number of adaptations that increase both the force applied to the substrate (e.g. the power-amplifying mechanisms of galagos [1], froghoppers [2], fleas [3] and locusts [4]), and the distance over which force is applied (e.g. the elongated distal leg segments of galagos [5] and frogs [6], the manipulation of the force-length characteristics of anuran leg muscle [7]). Adaptations such as these are synonymous with maximizing mechanical work and improving leap performance.. Behavioural strategies during the push-off and landing phases can significantly increase the mechanical work performed and lengthen the leap ...
The HoxD cluster is critical for vertebrate limb development. Enhancers located in both the telomeric and centromeric gene deserts flanking the cluster regulate the transcription of HoxD genes. In rare patients, duplications, balanced translocations or inversions misregulating HOXD genes are responsible for mesomelic dysplasia of the upper and lower limbs. By aCGH, whole-genome mate-pair sequencing, long-range PCR and fiber fluorescent in situ hybridization, we studied patients from two families displaying mesomelic dysplasia limited to the upper limbs. We identified microduplications including the HOXD cluster and showed that microduplications were in an inverted orientation and inserted between the HOXD cluster and the telomeric enhancers. Our results highlight the existence of an autosomal dominant condition consisting of isolated ulnar dysplasia caused by microduplications inserted between the HOXD cluster and the telomeric enhancers. The duplications likely disconnect the HOXD9 to HOXD11 genes from
The lab of Craig Crews, Ph.D., Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology at Yale is inviting applications for multiple postdoctoral positions. With an emphasis on regenerative medicine, the lab investigates the inductive role of the wound epidermis on cellular dedifferentiation during amphibian limb regeneration.. Our research has recently revealed key genes that are specifically expressed in the regenerating epidermis of the Mexican salamander (aka, the Axolotl). Several of these genes encode secreted or membrane-bound proteins that may play a role in inducing/maintaining the dedifferentiated state of the underlying mesenchyme during regeneration and thus may serve as a natural analogy for the induction of iPS cells. We are exploring the roles of these proteins using both cell culture-based assays and in vivo/transgenic expression analyses. These projects are partly supported by the NIH and the Ellison Medical Foundation.. A successful candidate should be self-motivated with a ...
We have recently identified Dlkl/FA1 as a novel surface marker for chondroprogenitor cells during embryonic chondrogenesis and demonstrated the Akt pathway-dependent inhibition of insulin induced in vitro chondrogenesis by Dlk1/FA1 [21, 22]. However, the mechanisms by which Dlk1 is regulated and its interaction with other signaling pathways during chondrogenic differentiation are not well known. In this study, we have identified Dlk1 as a novel downstream target of the TGF-β signaling pathway that mediates its function by promoting early chondrogenesis. Additionally, we observed altered Smad2 phosphorylation with Dlk1/FA1 overexpression suggesting that Dlk1/FA1 inhibits activation of TGF-β signaling pathway.. We used mouse embryonic limb bud culture as an in vitro system that spontaneously differentiates in culture without any exogenous chondrogenic inducers and recapitulates the sequential stages of chondrogenesis from condensing mesenchyme to matrix mineralization [24, 39, 40]. The ...
UBERON ,alt_id= ,comment=Editor notes - note the distinction between this and skeleton of limb ,created_by= ,def=Skeletal subdivision that is a segment of the limb skeleton. [VSAO:0005018, VSAO:NI] ,derives_from= ,develops_from= ,disjoint_from= ,has_quality= ,id=UBERON:0010712 ,is_a=UBERON:0010912 ,is_obsolete= ,located_in= ,name=limb skeleton subdivision ,namespace=FANTOM ,obo_creation_date= ,part_of=UBERON:0002101;;UBERON:0002091;;UBERON:0002101 ,preceded_by= ,property_value=IAO:0000412 ,subset= ,synonym= ,union_of= ,xref=VSAO:0005018 ...
Front legs do the split and go rigid - posted in Health and Genetics: 13 year old dog.. No previous health issures. In fact every morning hes out moving sheep around helping train the young dogs. The first time this happened was about 2 months ago. He stood up to look out the back door window and some how or other ended up on the floor. He was on his chest with his front legs straight out to the sides. Imagine doing a split. The odd thing was his lower legs was up off the floor. Alm...
Rostrum distinctly projecting anteroventrally in lateral view, but rounded in dorsal view; prodorsal ridges absent; interlamellar and exobothridial setae vestigial; sensilli with densely barbed clavate head and moderately long, narrow stalk; notogastral setae thin, smooth; setae much shorter than other notogastral setae. Surface of body and leg segments with thick cerotegument being very finely punctate on dorsal and ventral plates and having rather large granules on venter of pedotectum, on lateral part of prodorsum, and around leg acetabula. Rostrum rounded in dorsal view, but conspicuously projecting anteroventrally in lateral view ...
Question - I had a fracture at leg joint. I have severe pain. Kindly suggest. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Bone fracture, Ask an Orthopaedic Surgeon
The stomach is distended and filled with granular food material. On the lateral projections, the pylorus is dorsally displaced and the fundus is positioned ventrally. On the v/d projection, the fundus is on the right of midline. The distal extremity of the spleen is dorsally displaced, and the proximal extremity is ventrally displaced on the lateral projections. It is not visible in its normal position on the v/d projection.The small intestine is caudally displaced and gas filled. The portion of the thorax included is normal ...
Nvisions Trigon Osteotomy Wedge system, along with the entire foot and ankle line, is incorporating multiple technologies that I believe will be major factors in the future of reconstructive distal extremity surgery, said Dr. Kyle Vaughn, founder of Paradise Valley Foot and Ankle in Phoenix Ariz. The Trigon system, made from PEEK-OPTIMA HA Enhanced, enables a standard surgical technique that allows direct and exact placement of implant and screws without additional plating. Nvision collaborated with Invibio for the FDA 510(k) submission to obtain clearance for the new implant. PEEK-OPTIMA HA Enhanced provides a potential for earlier fusion/union for foot and ankle implants, a surgeons primary goal for fusion surgery. It does so because Hydroxyapatite (HA) is fully integrated within the matrix of Invibios PEEK-OPTIMA Natural. As it is integrated, not coated, the HA is available on all surfaces of a finished device. In combination with a modulus of elasticity closely matching that of actual ...
Hypoglossia and aglossia are rare congenital malformations, especially when found as isolated abnormalities. In view of their usual association with other anomalies of the face, oral cavity, and distal extremities, an accurate investigation is requir
Zone of polarizing activity cells form a subset of cells in the posterior mesenchyme of the limb bud. They are the main source of SHH signaling in the developing limb ...
Our incredible Giant Spyder is now actor powered. Measuring 9 across, standing actor fits perfectly within the rear abdomen of the Spyder allowing them to drive the character and chase patrons without the need of a track. All movements are actor controlled/powered, so no need for air or electricity. This actor operated prop is the economy version with front leg articulation only. ...
My 9 month puppy went down a step, and I think he has a sprain in his left front leg, it happened this morning. He - Answered by a verified Dog Specialist
S1P1, a high affinity G-protein coupled receptor for bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), regulates various cellular functions. However, little is known about the physiological roles of S1P1. To improve our understanding of the function of S1P1 in vivo, we investigated the role of S1P1 during limb development, S1P1 expression in the adult tissues, and S1P1 function in adult vasculature and angiogenesis. ^ During limb development, S1P1 is expressed in the vasculature and in mesenchymal tissues in the remodeling areas. S1P1 −/− limbs are hypervascularized and cartilage condensation was absent in the digit areas. The expression of VEGF and HIF-1α are highly elevated in S1P 1 −/− limbs. Endothelium specific S1P1 −/− limbs also exhibit same phenotype. These results indicate that impaired vascular function in S1P1 −/− limbs generates tissue hypoxia, resulting in abnormal limb development. ^ In normal adult tissues, S1P1 is ubiquitously expressed in various cell types, including
When a dog loses a limb, each of his other limbs has to carry more of his weight. The burden increases the most for the remaining leg on the same end of the dog as the amputated limb. Dogs carry about 60% of their weight on their front end. If you could compel a dog to stand with each foot on a separate scale, youd find each front limb holding up about 30% of their body weight apiece, and each hind leg holding up about 20% of their body weight. So, do the math: If one front limb is removed, the remaining front leg has to hold up a whopping 60% of the dogs body weight by itself! If a hind leg is removed, the remaining hind limb will need to carry about 40% of the dogs weight. This underscores the need to keep the dogs weight under strict control; you dont want any of the limbs to carry any more weight than they must. These dogs should always be kept thin.. Carrying an increased percentage of the dogs weight as he ambulates is not the only increased burden for his remaining limbs. A single ...
Kelley B. Vlahos: Oh, yeah. I mean, as a mother, this is a particular difficult story for me to do because every time that I went to do research, Googling birth defects Falluja I would indiscriminately get photographs of these babies that were born and were talking everything from congenital heart defects to what you would call skeletal malformations which could be pieces of the skull missing, missing eyes, missing limbs, additional limbs where there shouldnt be limbs, babies who are just lying there lifeless and limp because their heads are three, four times the size they should be. Things that you dont even want to see or ever hope to see, that will give you nightmares at night. And there are pictures and pictures and examples upon examples on the internet that, you know, I think most of us would probably -- not ignore, but never see unless we were investigating it ourselves. And this is sad because the evidence is there and we have basically, like you said earlier, have decided that the ...
J:89327 Yoshida CA, Yamamoto H, Fujita T, Furuichi T, Ito K, Inoue K, Yamana K, Zanma A, Takada K, Ito Y, Komori T, Runx2 and Runx3 are essential for chondrocyte maturation, and Runx2 regulates limb growth through induction of Indian hedgehog. Genes Dev. 2004 Apr 15;18(8):952-63 ...
The answer is probably yes. There is a recent article in a medical journal* summarizing several studies addressing this question (a meta-analysis). This has been a source of arguments as to whether progesterone helps prevent miscarriage early on in pregnancy and many studies have said that it does. Unless you are on an unusually high dose it would be fine to continue. The only adverse effect of progesterone that I know of is extremely rare and that is an effect on limb growth. The best thing would be to ask your obstetrician what he or she recommends.. *Fertility and Sterility Volume107, Issue 2, Pages 430-438. ...
Investigators at Burnham Institute for Medical Research and the University of Connecticut Health Center have gained new understanding of the role hyaluronic acid plays in skeletal growth, chondrocyte maturation and joint formation in developing limbs.
Recently, together with my colleague Dr Jennifer Clack, (Coates and Clack,1990) I reported the discovery of polydactylous, Devonian tetrapod limbs: the forelimb of Acanthostega(Jarvik, 1952), and...
From the MS, We replaced a limb-specific transcriptional enhancer of the mouse Prx1 locus with the orthologous sequence from a bat. Prx1 expression directed by the bat enhancer results in elevated transcript levels in developing forelimb bones and forelimbs that are significantly longer than controls ...
Hospital bills are too high, and insurance doesnt cover enough. Turns out, thats a crisis for hospitals too: more and more of us arent paying those bills, because we cant. So, theyre getting creative about collecting - and offering discounts. Which raises questions about why the bills are so high to begin with. Photo courtesy James Crannell We start with Chicago woodworker James Crannell, who - and theres no non-scary way to say this - stuck his finger in a table saw. Even more scary: He didnt have insurance.
in bed. The neurological examination highlighted: plegia of the left lower limb . The bending of the leg on the thigh on the ... difficulties to stand up, severe pain (legs), plegia (left lower limb), dorsiflexion (foot), Hypotonia (left lower limb), distal .... ...
Hello and thanks for reading, Well, I found a soft lump near the arm pit of my 5 (almost 6) year old female GSD this weekend. She seems very healthy
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
Following a spate of patient deaths in clinical trials testing modified T cells for the treatment of cancer, researchers work to reduce the treatments toxicity without sacrificing efficacy.. 0 Comments. ...
by Deborah Scarlett Summary: This study reports a psychophysical comparison of four ergonomic mouse-type devices to the standard mouse. It was hypothesized that muscle activity transferred from the distal to proximal limbs for some of the ergonomic mice may result… ...
Extremities[edit]. A projectional radiograph of an extremity confers an effective dose of approximately 0.001 mSv, comparable ... Generally speaking, high contrast is necessary for body parts in which bony anatomy is of clinical interest (extremities, bony ... Cheema, Jugesh I.; Grissom, Leslie E.; Harcke, H. Theodore (2003). "Radiographic Characteristics of Lower-Extremity Bowing in ...
For the axial skeleton and extremities, CT is often used to image complex fractures, especially ones around joints, because of ...
Limb prostheses include both upper- and lower-extremity prostheses. Upper-extremity prostheses are used at varying levels of ... Upper extremity modern history[edit]. In 2005, DARPA started the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program.[36][37][38][39][40][41] ... Lower extremity prostheses are often categorized by the level of amputation or after the name of a surgeon:[11][12] ... Lower extremity prosthetics describe artificially replaced limbs located at the hip level or lower. In the prosthetics industry ...
She took a master's degree in creative writing from San Francisco State University, and wrote Extremities (1978), her first ... Collections Armantrout, Rae (1978). Extremities. The Figures. - (1979). The invention of hunger. Tuumba. - (1985). Precedence. ...
"Extremities". May 19, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2018 - via Amazon. "Girlhood". May 19, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2018 - via ...
Bruford Levin Upper Extremities[editovat , editovat zdroj]. *Bruford Levin Upper Extremities (1998) ... Bruford Levin Upper Extremities, Gong, National Health, Steve Howe, Gordian Knot, Annette Peacock. ...
... cold extremities; decreased consciousness); tachypnea (pneumonia, heart failure); abdominal manifestations (distension, ...
"Overview:Extremities". Allmovie. Retrieved July 23, 2010. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Deming, Mark. "Overview:F/X ...
"VAIN EXTREMITIES". Retrieved 22 February 2020. artist's website v t e. ...
"Continental extremities". Geoscience Australia. Retrieved 2 April 2021. "Parks and Reserves-Australia's National Landscapes". ...
"Phallumegaly - Lorenzo von Matterhorn". Extremities Quarterly. Retrieved August 13, 2017. How I Met Your Mother - "The Playbook ...
... with the lower extremities involved most commonly, followed by the upper extremities, and then the trunk and face. The lower ... In the majority of cases, both the vivid red marking and the difference in circumference of the extremities regress ... Hence, the erythema may be worsened by cooling, physical activity, or crying.CMTC frequently involves the extremities, ... extremities; macrocephaly) • Glaucoma • Cutaneous atrophy • Neurological anomalies • Vascular anomalies (nevus flammeus /Sturge ...
Cilia whitish at extremities. Hindwings ochreous, fuscous towards outer margin, with patches of pink on vein 1 and at anal ...
The Extremities. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 417. ISBN 0-8385-2210-6.. ...
As a result, the alignment and rotation of all major joints in the affected extremity is common, as are extrinsic and intrinsic ... ISBN 0-7216-7752-5. Walzer J, Pappas AM (1995). Upper Extremity Injuries in the Athlete. Edinburgh, UK: Churchill Livingstone. ... Pettrone FA (1986). American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Symposium on Upper Extremity Injuries in Athletes. St. Louis, ... ISBN 0-7817-5074-1. Simon RR, Sherman SC, Koenigsknecht SJ (2006). Emergency Orthopedics: The Extremities. McGraw-Hill ...
in the six extremities; indicating chesed, gevurah, tiferet, netzach, hod and yesod בִּזְמַן/בַּזְּמַן הַזֶּה, בזה״ז (biz'man/ ...
2013: Between Extremities, Pace Gallery, New York. 2014: Piper & Clarke. Stained Glass: Art or Anti-Art, The Verey Gallery and ... Brian Clarke: Between Extremities. With contributions by Martin Harrison and Robert C. Morgan. PACE Gallery, New York, 2013. ... ISBN 1-891475-22-3. Brian Clarke, Between Extremities, Pace Gallery, New York Fraser Jenkins, David; Harrison, Martin; Meredith ...
Diagnosis: Lepra(例布羅). Symptoms: Extremities were paralyzed. Muscles and Joints; Bleeding and Pustulating. Coughing was severe ...
The extremities are brown too. The lateral margins and the flat base are white. They are living in warm tropical and ...
Radiography of the Upper Extremities. CE4RT, 2015, p. 99. McKenzie, C., Lissenden, H. Boxing Fitness. Bloomsbury, 2013. ISBN ...
These symptoms are often symmetric and affect the lower extremities more frequently than the upper extremities. Symptoms may ... In 1903 H. Batty Shaw reported that in three cases the pain was so severe, and that the affected extremities are so useless, ... Mitchell, Silas Weir (July 1878). "On a rare vasomotor neurosis of the extremities and on maladies with which it may be ... Shaw, HB (21 March 1903). "The Morbid Anatomy of Erythromelalgia Based Upon the Examination of the Amputated Extremities of ...
Wieseltier, Leon (8 August 2004). "The Extremities of Nicholson Baker". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 30 ...
ISBN 0-300-06292-3. Underwood M (1789). Debility of the lower extremities. In: A treatise on the dieases [sic] of children, ... "a debility of the lower extremities". The first medical report on poliomyelitis was by Jakob Heine, in 1840; he called the ... Give oxygen through the lower extremities, by positive electricity. Frequent baths using almond meal, or oxidising the water. ... disease Lähmungszustände der unteren Extremitäten ("Paralysis of the lower Extremities"). Karl Oskar Medin was the first to ...
The extremities often are cold and clammy and may exhibit some swelling (especially in warmer weather). The palms and soles ... 475). Philadelphia: WB Saunders ISBN 0-7216-9653-8 Creager, M.A. & Dzau, V.J. (2005). Vascular diseases of the extremities. In ... A medical emergency would ensue if the extremities experience prolonged periods of exposure to the cold, particularly in ... Acrocyanosis is persistent blue or cyanotic discoloration of the extremities, most commonly occurring in the hands, although it ...
The extremities are normally brown. The tail is unicoloured green and slightly flattened. P. barbouri inhabits the highlands of ...
A study of 1600 extremities". The Anatomical Record. 89 (4): 495-505. doi:10.1002/ar.1090890408. ISSN 1097-0185. Pirola, Elena ...
ISBN 978-0-300-01324-5. Underwood M (1789). "Debility of the lower extremities". A treatise on the diseases of children, with ... "a debility of the lower extremities". The work of physicians Jakob Heine in 1840 and Karl Oskar Medin in 1890 led to it being ... abdominal and extremity pain, fever, vomiting, lethargy, and irritability. About one to five in 1000 cases progress to ...
ISBN 978-0-521-00722-1. Miller, Nancy K.; Tougaw, Jason Daniel (2002). Extremities: trauma, testimony, and community. ...
Leach, "Fortune's Extremities", p. 112. Livy, i. 9. Plutarch, Numa, 20. Orosius, iv.12 § 2. Tim Cornell, E. Staveley, Cambridge ... Eleanor W. Leach, "Fortune's Extremities: Q. Lutatius Catulus and Largo Argentina Temple B: A Roman Consular and his Monument ...
ExtremitiesEdit. CT is often used to image complex fractures, especially ones around joints, because of its ability to ...
Extremities may refer to: Limb (anatomy), arms and legs, but extremities includes: Hand, a prehensile, multi-fingered organ ... external genitalia or antenna Extremities (play), a 1982 play by William Mastrosimone Extremities (film), a 1986 film based on ... the play Extreme (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Extremities. If an internal ...
... extremities.htm Extremities at IMDb Extremities at Rotten Tomatoes Extremities at AllMovie Extremities at the TCM Movie ... Extremities is a 1986 American thriller drama film directed by Robert M. Young and written by William Mastrosimone, based on ... Extremities was released to Blu-ray and DVD on May 19, 2015 as a Region 1 widescreen disc. ...
extremity (countable and uncountable, plural extremities or extremitys) (obsolete) *The most extreme or furthest point of ... extremity in The Century Dictionary, The Century Co., New York, 1911. *extremity in Websters Revised Unabridged Dictionary, G ... Her upper extremity strength appeared symmetric bilaterally and no drift in the left upper extremity was found. In the lower ... With this rub the spine, chest and extremities well; but not enough to blister. Rub the extremities until reaction takes place ...
Anatomy of the Extremities. Br Med J 1946; 2 doi: (Published 21 September 1946) Cite ...
Extremities Market size was valued at USD 4.9 billion in 2019 and is expected to reach US $ xx billion by 2026, at a CAGR of xx ... Global Trauma and Extremities Market3. Global Trauma & Extremities Market Key Players. • Stryker. • Dow DePuySynthes. • Smith ... Global Trauma and Extremities Market. By Rupali Dagade. See all Articles by Rupali DagadeGet Updates on AchievementGet Updates ... The Global Trauma & Extremities Market size was valued at USD 4.9 billion in 2019 and is expected to reach US $ xx billion by ...
In this infant, the feet and lower legs seem unusually puffy. Although edema in general has a long list of possible etiologies, it is helpful to begin by determining if the edema is generalized or localized. Edematous hands and feet in particular are known to be associated with Turners syndrome in infancy, so this diagnosis should be considered in girls with this finding. In this case, Turners syndrome was the underlying etiology.. ...
STAGE: MISS SARANDON IN EXTREMITIES. By FRANK RICH. DEC. 23, 1982. Continue reading the main story Share This Page Continue ... The rest of Extremities concerns the heroines decision to take the law into her own hands. Marjorie feels that theres no ... Extremities practically speeds along from one plot point to the next, and, the rapist excepted, gives us characters who are ... All of which is to say that Extremities, which opened at the Westside Arts last night, is not going to be everyones idea ...
Our trauma and extremities portfolio offers you market-leading implants for the treatment of long and small bone fractures, as ... Trauma & Extremities. Our trauma and extremities portfolio offers you market-leading implants for the treatment of long and ... We are dedicated to the continued development of small joint replacement in the upper extremity and foot and ankle. You can be ...
Building on the snotty cyber-punk vibes of his two releases for Not Not Fun, Extremities romps like the soundtrack to a bar ... Building on the snotty cyber-punk vibes of his two releases for Not Not Fun, Extremities romps like the soundtrack to a bar ... Building on the snotty cyber-punk vibes of his two releases for Not Not Fun, Extremities romps like the soundtrack to a bar ... Building on the snotty cyber-punk vibes of his two releases for Not Not Fun, Extremities romps like the soundtrack to a bar ...
Our trauma and extremities portfolio offers you market-leading implants for the treatment of long and small bone fractures, as ... Trauma & Extremities. Our trauma and extremities portfolio offers you market-leading implants for the treatment of long and ...
... 2001-01-2095. Significant attention in recent years has been given ... Citation: Abdel-Malek, K., Yang, J., Brand, R., and Tanbour, E., "Towards Understanding the Workspace of the Upper Extremities ...
... 751159. This paper presents the results of direct impact tests and ... Citation: Melvin, J., Stalnaker, R., Alem, N., Benson, J. et al., "Impact Response and Tolerance of the Lower Extremities," SAE ... The test results indicate that the unembalmed skeletal system of the lower extremities is capable of carrying significantly ... Biomechanics of Impact Injury and Injury Tolerances of the Extremities-PT-56 ...
"Extremities" can be seen at 8 p.m. Saturdays and 2:30 p.m. Sundays through Sept. 12, with an additional show at 7:30 p.m. ... In his play "Extremities," playwright William Mastrosimone is asking a difficult question: Can a woman who was sexually ... Inspired by a true story, "Extremities" is playing at the Sheldon Vexler Theatre under the able direction of Chelsea Dyan Fry. ... Extremities a tense tale. By Jasmina Wellinghoff - Special to the Express-News ...
Tessa E. Busch-Westbroek, Kamiel Delpeut, Ron Balm, Sicco A. Bus, Tim Schepers, Edgar J. Peters, Frank F. Smithuis, Mario Maas, Max Nieuwdorp ...
Extremity angiography is a test used to see the arteries in the hands, arms, feet, or legs. It is also called peripheral ... Angiography of the extremity; Peripheral angiography; Lower extremity angiogram; Peripheral angiogram; Arteriography of the ... Extremity angiography is a test used to see the arteries in the hands, arms, feet, or legs. It is also called peripheral ...
The Extremity Trauma and Amputation Center of Excellence (EACE) is the leading advocate for research and treatment of ... will lead efforts to enhance collaboration between the Department of Defense and the Department of Veterans Affairs extremity ... Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs patients with extremity trauma and amputation. Working with TRICARE, ... Extremities Loss. The Extremity Trauma and Amputation Center of Excellence (EACE) is the leading advocate for research and ...
Fehlings D, Rang M, Glazier J, Steele C. An evaluation of botulinum-A toxin injections to improve upper extremity function in ... Molenaers G, Fagard K, Van Campenhout A, Desloovere K. Botulinum toxin A treatment of the lower extremities in children with ... encoded search term (What are the patterns of spasticity in upper extremities?) and What are the patterns of spasticity in ... Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of upper extremity spasticity: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. ...
... By Robert Stone Last updated: 8 Oct 2018. ~ 3 min read ... Home » Library » Parenting » Extremities: The Pain and Promise of Divorce. .fn{margin:-2px 0 0 0;font-size:90%!important}.time- ... Stone, R. (2018). Extremities: The Pain and Promise of Divorce. Psych Central. Retrieved on September 20, 2019, from https:// ... .jpm-bottom{margin:0 0 0 20px}.jpmm{margin:-20px 0 0 55px; ...
Listen to Gaia by Extremities on Deezer. With music streaming on Deezer you can discover more than 53 million tracks, create ...
The emphasis of the book is on practical information applicable to the daily practice of lower extremity care. Topics covered ... CLINICAL BIOMECHANICS OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY is a comprehensive text addressing the principles of anatomic and biomechanical ... The emphasis of the book is on practical information applicable to the daily practice of lower extremity care. Topics covered ... CLINICAL BIOMECHANICS OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY is a comprehensive text addressing the principles of anatomic and biomechanical ...
The term extremity often refers to a human limb. ... An extremity x-ray is an image of the hands, wrist, feet, ankle ... The term "extremity" often refers to a human limb. X-rays are a form of radiation that passes through the body to form an image ... An extremity x-ray is an image of the hands, wrist, feet, ankle, leg, thigh, forearm humerus or upper arm, hip, shoulder or all ... Kim W. Imaging of extremity trauma. In: Torigian DA, Ramchandani P, eds. Radiology Secrets Plus. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...
Prognostic Values of Inflammatory and Redox Status Biomarkers on the Risk of Major Lower-Extremity Artery Disease in ...
The exploration of extremities is a current theme in science in general: witness the recent somewhat surprising discovery of ... jarring the regular order at the extremities, where yet-unsynthesized superheavy elements should be placed. Observing the ... Karol, P. (2016). Outer Limits: Pushing the Extremities. Chemistry International, 38(2), ii-ii. ... Karol, Paul J.. "Outer Limits: Pushing the Extremities" Chemistry International, vol. 38, no. 2, 2016, pp. ii-ii. https://doi. ...
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in the Treatment of Ischemic Lower-Extremity Ulcers in Patients With Diabetes: Results of the DAMO2 ... Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in the Treatment of Ischemic Lower-Extremity Ulcers in Patients With Diabetes: Results of the DAMO2 ... Prognostic Values of Inflammatory and Redox Status Biomarkers on the Risk of Major Lower-Extremity Artery Disease in ...
X-rays of the Extremities. Facebook Twitter Linkedin Pinterest Print. Orthopedics Diagnosis and Screening for Orthopaedic ... What happens during an X-ray of an extremity? An X-ray may be done on an outpatient basis or as part of your stay in a hospital ... Why might I need an extremity X-ray? X-rays of the arm, leg, hand, foot, ankle, shoulder, knee, hip or hand may be done to ... How do I get ready for an extremity X-ray? * Your healthcare provider will explain the procedure to you and ask if you have ...
... Sectional Anatomy of the structures of the Lower Extremities as ... CT, knee, MRI, imaging, anatomy, lower extremity, ankle, foot, hip, sectional anatomy ... If you know the author of Sectional Anatomy - Labeling Exercises of the Lower Extremities, please help us out by filling out ... These labeling exercises are to aid the viewer in learning the sectional anatomy of the structures of the lower extremities, to ...
Of the 405 injured occupants, 141 received their lower extremity injuries against the instrument panel.The occupants most ... Lower Extremity Injuries of Front Seat Occupants 680483. A study was made of 290 collisions containing 464 front seat car ... Citation: Nahum, A., Siegel, A., Hight, P., and Brooks, S., "Lower Extremity Injuries of Front Seat Occupants," SAE Technical ... It is significant that the number of lower extremity injuries drops steeply for vehicles from 1957 through 1967. ...
... of Review The purposes of this review are to define crush injury and crush syndrome and describe how it relates to extremity ... The purposes of this review are to define crush injury and crush syndrome and describe how it relates to extremity compartment ... Lollo L, Grabinsky A. Clinical and functional outcomes of acute lower extremity compartment syndrome at a Major Trauma Hospital ...
Medicare is denying 93970 when billed twice, once for bilateral upper extremity study and once for bilateral lower extremity. I ... it is appropriate to report two units of code 93971 when the study includes one upper extremity and one lower extremity. They ... once for the upper extremities and once for the lower extremities). we should append modifier 59, distinct procedural service, ... I guess technically doing both extremities on the left side is unilateral.. Just wanted to get some thoughts on this. Thanks! ...
... By mariasmith76 HERWriter Blogger Average Select rating. Poor. Fair. Average. ... Swollen extremities may occur more during summer and often are more prevalent at the end of the day. The swelling is usually ... This Reducing Swollen Extremities in Late Pregnancy page on EmpowHER Womens Health works best with javascript enabled in your ...
  • The Global Trauma & Extremities Market size was valued at USD 4.9 billion in 2019 and is expected to reach US $ xx billion by 2026, at a CAGR of xx% during a forecast period. (
  • Trauma & extremities are presenting many challenges in the recovery phase, both physical, emotional and lifestyle-related. (
  • A World Mental Health survey conducted by the World Health Organization found that at least more than 125,000 peoples from 26 different countries had experienced trauma & extremities. (
  • The report covers the current estimated and forecasted data for the Global Trauma & Extremities Market on a global and regional level. (
  • The report provides an in-depth analysis of the Global Trauma & Extremities Market for the period 2019 - 2026, wherein 2019 is the base year and the period from 2020 to 2026 is the forecast period. (
  • The Global Trauma & Extremities Market is segmented by Product Type, End-User and Region.The report provides qualitative and quantitative insights on the trauma and extremities industry trends and a detailed analysis of the market size and growth rate of all segments in the market. (
  • An increase in the number of hospitalized patients due to severe road accidents are pulling patients into trauma and extremities. (
  • Development in several types of closure devices, each with advanced working mechanism resulting in the largest share of this segment in the growth of global trauma and extremities market. (
  • Hospitals commended the largest market share of XX% in the global trauma & extremities market. (
  • A team of highly specialised physicians & surgeons at emergency and trauma care divisions are acting as driving factor of the global trauma and extremities market. (
  • Larger trauma & extremities systems use a team approach that involves specialists from throughout the hospital treatment. (
  • As a result, North America is expected to grow the global trauma and extremities market in the forecast period. (
  • Our trauma and extremities portfolio offers you market-leading implants for the treatment of long and small bone fractures, as well as extremity joint replacements. (
  • The Extremity Trauma and Amputation Center of Excellence (EACE) is the leading advocate for research and treatment of Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Veterans (VA) Affairs patients with extremity trauma and amputation. (
  • Working with TRICARE, the Military Health System, VA and other Centers of Excellence, the EACE leads efforts to enhance collaboration between the DoD and the VA extremity trauma and amputee care providers and conduct scientific research to minimize the effects of traumatic injuries and improve clinical outcomes. (
  • INTRODUCTION - Trauma to the extremities represents one of the most common injury patterns seen in emergency medical and surgical practice. (
  • Achieving the best outcome in patients with severe extremity injuries requires a multidisciplinary approach with oversight by the general or trauma surgeon and commitment from other specialists including orthopedic, vascular, and plastic surgeons as well as rehabilitation specialists. (
  • In contrast, most severe extremity injuries in civilians are due to blunt trauma, but approximately 12 percent of civilian extremity injures occur as a result of penetrating or combined mechanisms. (
  • In civilians with nonfatal trauma, upper and lower extremity injuries are the most common reason for hospitalization, with more than one-third of those hospitalized having serious or limb-threatening injuries [ 4-6 ]. (
  • Medical device giant Stryker is strengthening its presence in trauma and extremities surgeries with a cash deal to acquire Wright Medical for $4 billion. (
  • Stryker says Wright Medical will complement its trauma and extremities business, a big piece of its orthopedics segment. (
  • The orthopedics segment, which includes implants used in hip and knee replacements, as well those used in trauma and extremities surgeries, generated $4.9 billion in 2018 sales, according to Stryker's annual report . (
  • Trauma and extremities products accounted for nearly $1.6 billion of those sales. (
  • We are dedicated to the continued development of small joint replacement in the upper extremity and foot and ankle. (
  • These labeling exercises are to aid the viewer in learning the sectional anatomy of the structures of the lower extremities, to include the Hip, Knee, Ankle, and Foot. (
  • May 22, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- CrossRoads ® Extremity Systems , the Global Leader in Active Stabilization ™, offering innovative foot & ankle fixation implant systems and services, announced that the Company has received FDA clearance for the DynaFORCE ® Active Stabilization ™ MPJ Implant System. (
  • Stryker notes that Wright Medical is particularly strong in selling products used in both the upper extremities (the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and hand) as well as the lower extremities (foot and ankle). (
  • The Penn Lower Extremity Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Fellowship provides a very active and broad based program with exceptional experience in basic and advanced reconstruction of the foot, ankle and lower extremity with combined integration of training by Plastic Surgeons that uphold a prestigious international reputation in reconstructivemicrosugery. (
  • The global Lower Extremities market is valued at xx million US$ in 2018 and will reach xx million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of xx% during 2019-2025. (
  • Numbness and weakness may also develop in the limbs, extremities, shoulder, neck and chest. (
  • One of the most common symptoms of a transient ischemic attack is sudden numbness and weakness in the face, limbs and extremities, usually on only one side of the body. (
  • we are raising $5,000 for the Limbs For Life Foundation, a non-profit that buys limbs for amputees in need, so that Chris can get back to the Extremity Games and claim his 5th gold on behalf of the organization. (
  • its medial extremity occupies a lower level than the lateral. (
  • it is convex from before backward, concave from side to side, and occupies the anterior, lower, and posterior parts of the extremity. (
  • The test results indicate that the unembalmed skeletal system of the lower extremities is capable of carrying significantly greater loads than those determined in tests with embalmed subjects (the only similar data reported in the present literature). (
  • Impact Response and Tolerance of the Lower Extremities," SAE Technical Paper 751159, 1975, . (
  • CLINICAL BIOMECHANICS OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY is a comprehensive text addressing the principles of anatomic and biomechanical development and the clinical application of these principles to disease/disorder management. (
  • The emphasis of the book is on practical information applicable to the daily practice of lower extremity care. (
  • Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in the Treatment of Ischemic Lower-Extremity Ulcers in Patients With Diabetes: Results of the DAMO 2 CLES Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial. (
  • Sectional Anatomy of the structures of the Lower Extremities as viewed with CT and MR imaging. (
  • If you know the author of Sectional Anatomy - Labeling Exercises of the Lower Extremities , please help us out by filling out the form below and clicking Send. (
  • Of the 405 injured occupants, 141 received their lower extremity injuries against the instrument panel. (
  • It is significant that the number of lower extremity injuries drops steeply for vehicles from 1957 through 1967. (
  • If a patient comes to our facility and has a venous ultrasound done on both the left upper extremity and the left lower extremity should we still only use the 93971 code for unilateral? (
  • If a complete or limited bilateral study is done on both the upper and the lower extremities, the corresponding code can be reported once for each study performed (i.e., once for the upper extremities and once for the lower extremities). (
  • Medicare is denying 93970 when billed twice, once for bilateral upper extremity study and once for bilateral lower extremity. (
  • Medicare states that 93970 x 1 covers BOTH upper and lower extremities. (
  • According to Clinical Examples in Radiology (Winter 2008), it is appropriate to report two units of code 93971 when the study includes one upper extremity and one lower extremity. (
  • Perforations of the lower extremity of the bone were very common. (
  • The opening is dilated, terminating at its lower extremity in an oblique notch. (
  • They appear to articulate with the body at the lower extremity . (
  • At its origin then a glacier is snow-at its lower extremity it is ice. (
  • At the lower extremity the river widens to about a mile, and here there are a certain number of houses. (
  • Moreover, the lower extremity is terminated by four strong spurs. (
  • Fredericton is the principal Town, and situated within four miles of the lower extremity of the County. (
  • This consists of a strong pole in an inclined position, with its lower extremity frozen fast in the ice. (
  • The groove for the harpoon or spear-shaft is at the lower extremity and runs out entirely near the index finger. (
  • The ivory plug at its lower extremity is beveled to receive a notch in the end of the spear or harpoon shaft (Figs. 18-19). (
  • A lower extremity prosthetic device is provided which includes a modular foot with a heel section and an elongate midfoot section, the heel and midfoot sections being configured for detachable combination via a coupling joint. (
  • This invention relates generally to prosthetic devices, and more particularly to a prosthesis for use by lower extremity amputees. (
  • Since publication of the first edition, Lower Extremity Soft Tissue & Cutaneous Plastic Surgery has attracted wide acclaim for its superb illustrations, clear step-by-step approach, thoroughness and practicality. (
  • Lower extremity chronic venous disorders encompass an entire spectrum of morphologic and functional abnormalities of the venous system. (
  • An overview of the Clinical-Etiology-Anatomy-Pathophysiology (CEAP) classification of lower extremity chronic venous disorders will be presented here. (
  • An overview of the clinical evaluation and management of lower extremity chronic venous disease is presented elsewhere. (
  • See 'Overview and management of lower extremity chronic venous disease' . (
  • See 'Diagnostic evaluation of lower extremity chronic venous insufficiency' . (
  • Civilian - Civilian extremity injuries occur most often due to falls (representing 50 to 60 percent of lower extremity injuries and 30 percent of upper extremity injuries), industrial or work-related accidents (up to 20 percent of upper extremity injuries), and motor vehicle crashes [ 4 ]. (
  • Learn the advanced protocol of AMCT that includes chiropractic theory, analysis and advanced adjustment methodology of the upper and lower extremities. (
  • Through our online chiropractic seminar, get step-by-step instruction in the Basic Scan Protocol as well as the Advanced Upper and Lower Extremities of the Activator Method, the world's #1 instrument adjusting technique. (
  • Reix T, Sevestre H, Sevestre-Petri M et al (1998) Primary malignant tumors oft the venous system in the lower extremities. (
  • Rose SC, Zwiebel WJ, Nelson BD et al (1990) Symptomatic lower extremity deep venous thrombosis: accuracy, limitations and role of color duplex flow imaging in diagnosis. (
  • Sometimes lower extremity bracing, also known as orthoses, can help support your child's legs and feet so that standing and walking improve. (
  • Lower extremity bracing is available at all outpatient locations . (
  • Strength, posture, muscle tone, and balance are the most common issues that contribute to trouble with walking or standing, in which lower extremity bracing can help. (
  • Developed in conjunction with a health practitioner and professor of anatomy, Joints of the Lower Extremities Anatomical Chart is designed to provide anatomical layered views that allow practitioners to explain health conditions and injuries to their patients and clients. (
  • Developed in conjunction with a health practitioner and professor of anatomy, Joints of the Lower Extremities Anatomical Chart is designed to provide anatomical layered views that allow pr.Shipping may be from multiple locations in the US or from the UK, depending on stock availability. (
  • The major negative aspect of running is the high rat of injuries to the lower extremities. (
  • Overuse injuries of the lower extremities associated with marching, jogging and running: a review. (
  • The objectives of this study are to define, segment, and project the size of the Lower Extremities market based on company, product type, end user and key regions. (
  • The Lower Extremity Alignment Clinic is available to otherwise healthy children under the age of 10 with concerns for flat feet, bow legs, knock knees, in-toeing, and out-toeing . (
  • An X-ray exam of the lower extremities or hips may be recommended during the visit. (
  • The Lower Extremity Alignment Clinic is offered weekly at our Main Campus and Escondido locations by appointment only. (
  • The device for the ensheathing fixation of extremities, more particularly for the treatment of extremity fractures of the lower leg and thigh, is comprised of a shell-like member (10) of one shell portion or of two reciprocally tightenable L-shaped shell portions (20, 30) possessing an approximately. (
  • The relationship between mean rectified electromyogram signals (MREMG) from lower extremity medial and lateral rotator muscle groups and the torsional moment about the longitudinal axis of the lower leg was investigated in the laboratory and in snow skiing experiments. (
  • During snow skiing, torsion of the lower extremity resulted from the normal skiing process. (
  • Posture and body position control during skiing dominate the observed MREMG, thus masking contributions to MREMG from lower extremity torsion. (
  • Need to make a doctor appointment for Lower Extremity Pain this week? (
  • to investigate how the risk for lower extremity amputation has developed in Sweden during the last 10 years. (
  • to investigate the risk of lower extremity amputation in relation to socioeconomic status and diabetes. (
  • to compare the mortality risk between people who have or have not gone through lower extremity amputation. (
  • to investigate risk factors for lower extremity amputation among people with diabetes. (
  • However, at times, the injury to the extremity is so severe that primary amputation at the initial operation is required to save the patient's life. (
  • What are the patterns of spasticity in upper extremities? (
  • The responsiveness and correlation between Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motor Status Scale, and the Action Research Arm Test in chronic stroke with upper-extremity rehabilitation robotic training. (
  • At OHSU our specialists use the latest advancements in diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation to treat hand and upper extremity injuries and conditions. (
  • OHSU's team of doctors, surgeons and advanced practice providers are specialty trained to treat hand and upper extremity injuries and conditions, such as shoulder bone spurs, torn rotator cuffs, fractures, carpal tunnel, ganglion cysts, damaged cartilage, arthritis and more. (
  • Visit our Hand and Upper Extremity Treatments page for information about surgical and nonsurgical treatment options. (
  • Adam Mirarchi, M.D. earned his M.D. at Temple University, completed a residency at University Hospitals in Cleveland and completed a fellowship in Hand /Upper Extremity Surgery at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. (
  • He has advanced training in hand upper extremity surgery as well as microsurgery. (
  • His fellowship training involved principles of both plastics and orthopaedic surgery, offering him a unique viewpoint for upper extremity problems. (
  • Robert Orfaly, M.D. received his M.D. from McGill University, completed his residency at the University of British Columbia and completed fellowships in hand and upper extremity surgery and shoulder surgery. (
  • See the full hand and upper extremity team . (
  • Upper extremity amputations can include finger amputations, hand amputations, and arm amputations either below-elbow or above-elbow. (
  • Other limitations due to traumatic injury to the upper extremities include decreased strength, reduced range of motion or limited function due to tendon, muscle, nerve, or joint damage. (
  • An upper extremity injury presents a higher risk for secondary injuries to occur because decreased padding or scar tissue around the injury site may not tolerate usual bumping or minor impacts with objects such as farm machinery or tools. (
  • Most upper extremity injuries occur as a result of using machinery or tools. (
  • Ergonomics and upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. (
  • While comfort and productivity levels are important outcomes to consider, this chapter will focus upon the effect of workplace physical stressors (repetition, force, posture, and vibration) on the musculoskeletal system of the upper extremities. (
  • Therapy that incorporates active assistance of motor tasks is a common technique in upper extremity rehabilitation after stroke. (
  • The main outcome measures were range and speed of supported arm movement, range, straightness and smoothness of un-supported reaching, and the Rancho Los Amigos Functional Test of Upper Extremity Function. (
  • Management of Intolerance to Casting the Upper Extremities in Claustrophobic Patients," The Scientific World Journal , vol. 2014, Article ID 803047, 3 pages, 2014. (
  • Active Release Techniques® Upper Extremity Level 2 is designed to provide instruction in anatomy, palpation, and treatment of soft-tissue disorders and associated articulations. (
  • Certification in Upper Extremity Level 1 is a prerequisite for this course. (
  • Specialty trained, experienced surgeons and hand/ upper extremity therapists treat all aspects of the upper extremity from the shoulder to the hand. (
  • In addition degenerative and reconstructive shoulder and upper extremity disorders are addressed. (
  • In the Hand & Upper Extremity Center, the department's specialists see adult and pediatric cases. (
  • The department also works in conjunction with physical medicine specialists and therapists to treat injuries and chronic maladies of the nerves of the upper extremities, and with Medical College radiologists, especially in the evaluation of obscure wrist pain. (
  • Field virtual operators to predict the forces experienced on the data collection takes place at the actual workplace such operator's upper extremities. (
  • The upper extremity loads on equipment operators using scope of this paper was not to provide conclusive virtual operators and computer models of equipment and evidence or results of impact and benefits between work environment. (
  • joint forces and joint moments on the operator's upper extremities. (
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery. (
  • In his play "Extremities," playwright William Mastrosimone is asking a difficult question: Can a woman who was sexually assaulted but has no obvious injuries get a fair hearing in a court of law? (
  • Overcompensating with one extremity because of limited use of the injured extremity can cause secondary injuries such as sprain/strains to muscles or damage to the joints. (
  • As extremity injuries are evaluated, each of four functional components (nerves, vessels, bones, and soft tissues) must be considered individually and together. (
  • The management of minor extremity injuries, including isolated fracture management, is discussed elsewhere. (
  • ETIOLOGY - The etiology of extremity injuries ranges widely from falls and motor vehicle collisions to blast and fragmentation injuries. (
  • The nature and severity of extremity injuries differs between the military and civilian settings. (
  • Military extremity injuries are primarily due to penetrating or combined mechanisms, which are associated with high rates of open fracture and vascular injury [ 3 ]. (
  • Extremities is a 1986 American thriller drama film directed by Robert M. Young and written by William Mastrosimone, based on his 1982 off-Broadway play of the same name. (
  • Processes and Outcomes of Care for Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Extremities," Sarcoma , vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 19-26, 2002. (
  • In 86 primary soft tissue sarcoma of the extremities (RO-resected, T1/2 N0 M0), Mdm2 and p53 overexpression were investigated by immunohistochemistry. (
  • The purposes of this review are to define crush injury and crush syndrome and describe how it relates to extremity compartment syndrome. (
  • The initial management of severe extremity injury will be reviewed here. (
  • The world extremity reconstruction market is driven by increase in the number of joint disorders such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis coupled with increase in geriatric population and rapid rise in lifestyle-related disorders. (
  • Ideal as a base layer in colder climates, the Extremities Thinny Touch Glove combines modern technology compatibility with classic insulation. (
  • Keep your body temperature just right even in the cold outdoors with the warm and windproof beanie from Extremities. (
  • It can only be used to take images from the knee to toes and the elbow to fingertips but, since about 20 percent of all MRI scans are of extremities, the Extremity MRI fills a real need. (
  • Not only does the Extremity MRI produce exceptional images, it reduces the patient's anxiety, which means there is less need to medicate the patient. (
  • Some other types of doctors can also review extremity X-ray pictures for common problems, such as fractures or arthritis. (
  • Ultrasound Extremity non-vascular for lesion in axilla? (
  • He's at the hospital getting further testing, but he's moving all of his extremities," Kitchens said after practice. (
  • Extremities , which opened last night at the Main Street Playhouse , is a play that sheds a light on the perils of the crime of rape. (
  • Atherosclerosis of the extremities is a disease of the peripheral blood vessels that is characterized by narrowing and hardening of the arteries that supply the legs and feet. (
  • I have borrowed the title for this review from one of the books being reviewed because it captures something the two volumes have in common: they both come out of Canada's eastern "extremity"-Newfoundland and Nova Scotia respectively- and in their separate ways deal with extremes, both physical and psychological. (
  • But ''Extremities'' ultimately blurs the issues rather than illuminates them because the story is pure, contrived melodrama. (
  • I felt that yearning again when I read Extremities , a collection of short fiction by the ten Newfoundland writers who make up the Burning Rock writing collective (Killick Press). (
  • Extremities: Fiction from the Burning Rock. (
  • The inhabitants of the fishing village of Freeport, N.S., to whom the greater part of Rita Moir's Survival Gear is devoted, endure in an extreme environment, wrestling their living from the sea, and the writers of the Burning Rock Collective, as noted in the introduction to Extremities , "live in a bruised landscape which cultivates extreme people with extreme stories. (
  • Carotid and vascular extremity testing helps to identify peripheral vascular disease and guide your doctor in treatment. (
  • Lee Health provides the most up-to-date ultrasound equipment for carotid and vascular extremity testing. (
  • If you need to schedule carotid or extremity vascular testing, please call us at (239) 424-1499. (
  • Lymphedema is a chronic progressive swelling in subcutaneous tissues, typically in an extremity or the genitals, due to protein-rich accumulation of interstitial fluid from disruption of the lymphatic system. (
  • In cases of chronic pain, compared to the conventional radiofrequency thermo-coagulation, pulsed or pulse-dose radiofrequency is a promising technical modification for motor-sparing analgesia of the extremity nerves with a mixed sensorimotor function. (
  • I70.511 is a billable ICD code used to specify a diagnosis of atherosclerosis of nonautologous biological bypass graft(s) of the extremities with intermittent claudication, right leg. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the morphologic structure of the extremities of Turkish fetuses during the fetal period and to measure the morphometric values. (
  • 12 months ago we were finalising the range for this winter's extremities collection. (