Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Neoplasms, Plasma Cell: Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Palatal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.Cystadenoma: A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adenoma, Oxyphilic: A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Histiocytic Disorders, Malignant: Distinctive neoplastic disorders of histiocytes. Included are malignant neoplasms of MACROPHAGES and DENDRITIC CELLS.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Neoplasms: A family of mesenchymal tumors composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular epithelioid cells. These cells do not have a normal anatomic homolog. (From Fletcher CDM, et. al., World Health Organization Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Tumors of Soft Tissue and Bone, 2002).Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Histiocytic Sarcoma: Malignant neoplasms composed of MACROPHAGES or DENDRITIC CELLS. Most histiocytic sarcomas present as localized tumor masses without a leukemic phase. Though the biological behavior of these neoplasms resemble lymphomas, their cell lineage is histiocytic not lymphoid.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Myofibroma: A benign tumor that consists chiefly of fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE, with variable numbers of MUSCLE CELLS forming portions of the neoplasm (From Stedman's, 27th ed).Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Germinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the GONADS; MEDIASTINUM; or pineal region. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3)Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.APUD Cells: Cells with the capacity to take up and decarboxylate the amine precursors DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE or 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN. This is a property of endocrine cells of neural and non-neural origin. APUDOMA is a general term collectively applied to tumors associated with APUD cells.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Seminoma: A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Lymphoma, T-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.S100 Proteins: A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Mediastinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Neoplasms, Basal Cell: Neoplasms composed of cells from the deepest layer of the epidermis. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the stratum basale.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Wheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Seminiferous Epithelium: The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Dysgerminoma: A malignant ovarian neoplasm, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. It is the counterpart of the classical seminoma of the testis, to which it is both grossly and histologically identical. Dysgerminomas comprise 16% of all germ cell tumors but are rare before the age of 10, although nearly 50% occur before the age of 20. They are generally considered of low-grade malignancy but may spread if the tumor extends through its capsule and involves lymph nodes or blood vessels. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1646)Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Parotid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Endodermal Sinus Tumor: An unusual and aggressive tumor of germ-cell origin that reproduces the extraembryonic structures of the early embryo. It is the most common malignant germ cell tumor found in children. It is characterized by a labyrinthine glandular pattern of flat epithelial cells and rounded papillary processes with a central capillary (Schiller-Duval body). The tumor is rarely bilateral. Before the use of combination chemotherapy, the tumor was almost invariably fatal. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1189)Gametogenesis: The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue: Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Appendiceal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.Oogonia: Euploid female germ cells of an early stage of OOGENESIS, derived from primordial germ cells during ovarian differentiation. Oogonia undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to haploid OOCYTESAdenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Cystadenoma, Mucinous: A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal: Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Carcinoma, Papillary: A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Adenocarcinoma, Papillary: An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Thymus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 6, Group A, Member 1: An orphan nuclear receptor expressed mainly in the GERM CELLS of GONADS. It functions as a transcription factor that binds to a direct repeat of the sequence AGGTCA and may play a role in the regulation of EMBRYOGENESIS and germ cell differentiation.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Abdominal NeoplasmsNeoplasms, Complex and Mixed: Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Neoplasms, Muscle Tissue: Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous: A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage: Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.Splenic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.Sweat Gland NeoplasmsMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Mediastinum: A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.Duodenal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Neoplasms, Squamous Cell: Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Cystadenocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mediastinoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the anterior superior mediastinum of the thorax.Retroperitoneal NeoplasmsHeart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Cystadenoma, Serous: A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)Tongue Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Maxillary Neoplasms: Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pleural Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the thin serous membrane that envelopes the lungs and lines the thoracic cavity. Pleural neoplasms are exceedingly rare and are usually not diagnosed until they are advanced because in the early stages they produce no symptoms.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Anal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the anal gland.Thoracic NeoplasmsProto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue: Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Gallbladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gallbladder.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Peritoneal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.Choriocarcinoma: A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Neuroendocrine Tumors: Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Mesonephroma: A rare tumor of the female genital tract, most often the ovary, formerly considered to be derived from mesonephric rests. Two varieties are recognized: (1) clear cell carcinoma, so called because of its histologic resemblance to renal cell carcinoma, and now considered to be of muellerian duct derivation and (2) an embryonal tumor (called also ENDODERMAL SINUS TUMOR and yolk sac tumor), occurring chiefly in children. The latter variety may also arise in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ileal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer in the ILEUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Cerebellar Neoplasms: Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)Digestive System Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
  • The majority of SCSTs (60-95%) are at stage I at the time of diagnosis. (bccancer.bc.ca)
  • Although ovarian malignancies in children are rare (representing only 0.2% of all ovarian neoplasms), their recognition and diagnosis are vital because they can be fulminant if treated inadequately. (glowm.com)
  • on account of their frequency, its diagnosis should be made ​​only after the exclusion of the most common paratesticular neoplasm. (wcrj.net)
  • Although uncommon, these tumors have been recorded as the main urogenital site of sarcomas in the elderly, whereas primary sarcoma of the testis is a rare entity in which a diagnosis is made only after the exclusion of the more common paratesticular neoplasm 4 , 5 , 6 . (wcrj.net)
  • 4 ] Cytological evaluation is also superior to frozen sections in the diagnosis of select types of ovarian neoplasms,[ 5 ] but in general frozen section diagnosis is reported to be more accurate and sensitive than that of cytological smears alone, and the latter should play mostly a very useful complementary role. (cytojournal.com)
  • If histologic and immunohistochemical features are not sufficient to reach the diagnosis, ultrastructural studies can be performed, where the tumor cells should demonstrate intercellular junctions, interdigitating cell processes, and intermediate filaments (10 nm) of vimentin. (estodobueno.com)
  • Imaging of the head and neck has developed significantly with the advent of CT and MR. These modalities greatly compliment the physical and endoscopic examinations by revealing possible blind areas, such as subtle extension of neoplasms from the lower face and/or salivary glands to deep spaces, nonpalpable adenopathy, bone marrow invasion, and distant metastasis. (ucsd.edu)
  • Pathologic samples (Figure 3) showed polygonal pleomorphic poorly differentiated myxoid cytoplasm with apoptosis and fibrous bands interwoven between tumor cells with extensive hyalinization positive for keratin, vimentin and p63. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The characteristic feature of this highly lethal malignancy is the distinctive light microscopic appearance of its extremely large cells, which are bizarre and highly pleomorphic, and which often contain more than one huge, misshapen, pleomorphic nucleus ("syncytia"), which result from cell fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The staging system for non-epithelial ovarian cancers is generally the same as that used for epithelial ovarian cancer as defined by the Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO). (bccancer.bc.ca)
  • Endometrial curettage is recommended to rule out concomitant uterine cancers in patient with granulosa cell tumor. (bccancer.bc.ca)
  • Cancers are a large family of diseases that involve abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. (mdpi.com)
  • Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. (mdpi.com)
  • In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers. (mdpi.com)
  • For several decades, primary lung cancers were consistently dichotomously classified for treatment and research purposes into small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) and non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs), based on an oversimplified approach that is now clearly outmoded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malignant neoplasms developing in general urinary tract are commonly referred to as urogenital system cancers. (acanadianhealthcaremall.com)
  • 2 ] Peritoneal washing was subsequently added to the ovarian staging system of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) in 1975. (cytojournal.com)
  • Coexistence of endocrine and exocrine tumors of the pancreas with nesidioblastosis is of particular interest because of the direct implication as to the origin and histogenesis of pancreatic endocrine cells and the relationship between endocrine and exocrine cells. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Although cyclinA2 is a sensitive marker of seminomas and embryonal carcinomas (98%), its specificity is lower if focal and weak staining of nongerm cell tumors is considered positive. (stanford.edu)
  • Although myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are defined by cytopenias, dysplastic morphology of blood and marrow cells, and clonal hematopoiesis, most individuals who acquire clonal hematopoiesis during aging will never develop MDS. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The functional analysis of missense mutations can be complicated by the presence in the cell of the endogenous protein. (jove.com)
  • One advantage of this procedure is that the acute silencing of BRCA1 and simultaneous replacement allow the cells to grow without secondary mutations or adaptations that might arise over time to compensate for the loss of BRCA1 function. (jove.com)
  • Recent genetic analyses of large populations have revealed that somatic mutations in hematopoietic cells leading to clonal expansion are commonly acquired during human aging. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Therefore, acquisition of somatic mutations that drive clonal expansion in the absence of cytopenias and dysplastic hematopoiesis can be considered clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), analogous to monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, which are precursor states for hematologic neoplasms but are usually benign and do not progress. (bloodjournal.org)
  • At the same time, recent large-scale sequencing studies have also revealed that acquisition of clonally restricted somatic mutations in MDS-associated genes in hematopoietic cells is not limited to individuals with MDS or related myeloid neoplasms. (bloodjournal.org)
  • En base a estos hallazgos se realizó una revisión de tumores de similares características en la literatura, llegando finalmente al diagnóstico de AML cuya localización paratesticular sólo ha sido descrita en muy pocos casos hasta la fecha. (bvsalud.org)
  • Since this work is the last of a list of papers based on B16 melanoma cell lines, studies on the role of the Cav-1 gene on metastasis formation in this system deserve a closer examination. (aspeneducationgroup.com)
  • The present paper aims to review the DSNs from the view of niche inhabitants, either extrinsic, such as cells of the myeloid lineage, or intrinsic, such as endothelial cells, perivascular cells and spindle-shaped stromal cells, e.g., telocytes. (rjme.ro)
  • A total of nine patients have been described with female tract tumors and associated Proteus syndrome, which includes bilateral ovarian cystadenomas and other benign masses. (hindawi.com)
  • 23 Stage III Extrapelvic Disease Stage IIIA: Microscopic disease of upper abdomen Stage IIIB: Upper abdominal involvement, but less than 2 cm in size Stage IIIC: Lymph node involvement, inguinal included. (docplayer.net)
  • In morphologically ambiguous cases, we recommend an immunopanel of a-inhibin, calretinin and FOXL2, plus mutational analysis for FOXL2 (402C-G), to confirm granulosa cell tumor of adult type. (bccancer.bc.ca)
  • While the axial plane is familiar to most who do CT, the coronal plane is extremely beneficial with MR, as it provides a vertical perspective from as far as the skull base to as low as the thoracic inlet. (ucsd.edu)
  • Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS), a 2-stage hepatectomy procedure, has revolutionized the surgical management of large hepatic tumors with insufficient future liver remnant (FLR) at presentation. (readbyqxmd.com)