Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.
A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Lanthanum. The prototypical element in the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol La, atomic number 57, and atomic weight 138.91. Lanthanide ion is used in experimental biology as a calcium antagonist; lanthanum oxide improves the optical properties of glass.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A series of sequential intracellular steps involved in the transport of proteins (such as hormones and enzymes) from the site of synthesis to outside the cell. The pathway involves membrane-bound compartments through which the newly synthesized proteins undergo POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS, packaging, storage, or transportation to the PLASMA MEMBRANE for secretion.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Thulium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tm, atomic number 69, and atomic weight 168.93.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
The fluid inside CELLS.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
The outermost cytoplasmic layer of the SCHWANN CELLS covering NERVE FIBERS.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Light-induced change in a chromophore, resulting in the loss of its absorption of light of a particular wave length. The photon energy causes a conformational change in the photoreceptor proteins affecting PHOTOTRANSDUCTION. This occurs naturally in the retina (ADAPTATION, OCULAR) on long exposure to bright light. Photobleaching presents problems when occurring in PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY, and in FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY. On the other hand, this phenomenon is exploited in the technique, FLUORESCENCE RECOVERY AFTER PHOTOBLEACHING, allowing measurement of the movements of proteins and LIPIDS in the CELL MEMBRANE.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The motion of a liquid through a membrane (or plug or capillary) consequent upon the application of an electric field across the membrane. (Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.
Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Stable sodium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sodium, but differ in atomic weight. Na-23 is a stable sodium isotope.
Invisible boundaries surrounding the individual's body which are maintained in relation to others.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
The area within CELLS.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
A membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase found in lung capillaries and kidney.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Unstable isotopes of calcium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ca atoms with atomic weights 39, 41, 45, 47, 49, and 50 are radioactive calcium isotopes.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)
A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Liquid components of living organisms.
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
A space which has limited openings for entry and exit combined with unfavorable natural ventilation such as CAVES, refrigerators, deep tunnels, pipelines, sewers, silos, tanks, vats, mines, deep trenches or pits, vaults, manholes, chimneys, etc.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with an OXYGEN in the center ring.
Therapeutic closure of spaces caused by the extraction of teeth, the congenital absence of teeth, or the excessive space between teeth.
A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A proprotein convertase with specificity for the proproteins of PROALBUMIN; COMPLEMENT 3C; and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR. It has specificity for cleavage near paired ARGININE residues that are separated by two amino acids.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Members of spacecraft crew including those who travel in space, and those in training for space flight. (From Webster, 10th ed; Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.
A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
A sulfamyl diuretic.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Gadolinium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Gd, atomic number 64, and atomic weight 157.25. Its oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.

Molecular dynamics of the sodium channel pore vary with gating: interactions between P-segment motions and inactivation. (1/4923)

Disulfide trapping studies have revealed that the pore-lining (P) segments of voltage-dependent sodium channels undergo sizable motions on a subsecond time scale. Such motions of the pore may be necessary for selective ion translocation. Although traditionally viewed as separable properties, gating and permeation are now known to interact extensively in various classes of channels. We have investigated the interaction of pore motions and voltage-dependent gating in micro1 sodium channels engineered to contain two cysteines within the P segments. Rates of catalyzed internal disulfide formation (kSS) were measured in K1237C+W1531C mutant channels expressed in oocytes. During repetitive voltage-clamp depolarizations, increasing the pulse duration had biphasic effects on the kSS, which first increased to a maximum at 200 msec and then decreased with longer depolarizations. This result suggested that occupancy of an intermediate inactivation state (IM) facilitates pore motions. Consistent with the known antagonism between alkali metals and a component of slow inactivation, kSS varied inversely with external [Na+]o. We examined the converse relationship, namely the effect of pore flexibility on gating, by measuring recovery from inactivation in Y401C+E758C (YC/EC) channels. Under oxidative conditions, recovery from inactivation was slower than in a reduced environment in which the spontaneous YC/EC cross-link is disrupted. The most prominent effects were slowing of a component with intermediate recovery kinetics, with diminution of its relative amplitude. We conclude that occupancy of an intermediate inactivation state facilitates motions of the P segments; conversely, flexibility of the P segments alters an intermediate component of inactivation.  (+info)

Somatic recording of GABAergic autoreceptor current in cerebellar stellate and basket cells. (2/4923)

Patch-clamp recordings were performed from stellate and basket cells in rat cerebellar slices. Under somatic voltage clamp, short depolarizing pulses were applied to elicit action potentials in the axon. After the action potential, a bicuculline- and Cd2+-sensitive current transient was observed. A similar response was obtained when eliciting axonal firing by extracellular stimulation. With an isotonic internal Cl- solution, the peak amplitude of this current varied linearly with the holding potential, yielding an extrapolated reversal potential of -20 to 0 mV. Unlike synaptic or autaptic GABAergic currents obtained in the same preparation, the current transient had a slow rise-time and a low variability between trials. This current was blocked when 10 mM BAPTA was included in the recording solution. In some experiments, the current transient elicited axonal action potentials. The current transient was reliably observed in animals aged 12-15 d, with a mean amplitude of 82 pA at -70 mV, but was small and rare in the age group 29-49 d. Numerical simulations could account for all properties of the current transient by assuming that an action potential activates a distributed GABAergic conductance in the axon. The actual conductance is probably restricted to release sites, with an estimated mean presynaptic current response of 10 pA per site (-70 mV, age 12-15 d). We conclude that in developing rats, stellate and basket cell axons have a high density of GABAergic autoreceptors and that a sizable fraction of the corresponding current can be measured from the soma.  (+info)

Transport of solutes through cartilage: permeability to large molecules. (3/4923)

A review of the transport of solutes through articular cartilage is given, with special reference to the effect of variations in matrix composition. Some physiological implications of our findings are discussed. Also, results of an experimental study of the permeability of articular cartilage to large globular proteins are presented. Because of the very low partition coefficients of large solutes between cartilage and an external solution new experimental techniques had to be devised, particularly for the study of diffusion. The partition coefficients of solutes were found to decrease very steeply with increase in size, up to serum albumin. There was, however, no further decrease for IGG. The diffusion coefficient of serum albumin in cartilage was relatively high (one quarter of the value in aqueous solution). These two facts taken together suggest that there may be a very small fraction of relatively large pores in cartilage through which the transport of large molecules is taking place. The permeability of cartilage to large molecules is extremely sensitive to variations in the glycosaminoglycan content: for a threefold increase in the latter there is a hundredfold decrease in the partition coefficient. For cartilage of fixed charge density around 0-19 m-equiv/g, there is no penetration at all of globular proteins of size equal to or larger than serum albumin.  (+info)

Ethanol exposure differentially alters central monoamine neurotransmission in alcohol-preferring versus -nonpreferring rats. (4/4923)

Individual differences in ethanol preference may be linked to differences in the functional activity of forebrain monoamine systems or their sensitivity to modification by ethanol. To test this hypothesis, basal extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens as well as the effects of repeated ethanol pretreatment on the basal release of these transmitters were examined in alcohol-preferring (P), alcohol-nonpreferring (NP), and genetically heterogeneous Wistar rats. All animals received i.p. injections of ethanol (1.0 g/kg) or saline for 5 consecutive days. Fifteen hours after the final pretreatment, basal extracellular concentrations and "in vivo extraction fraction" values for DA and 5-HT were determined by no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis. In ethanol-naive rats, significant line differences were observed with high basal 5-HT release in P rats, low 5-HT release in NP rats, and intermediate 5-HT levels in Wistar rats. No differences among groups were noted in basal DA release. Ethanol pretreatment decreased basal extracellular 5-HT levels in P rats whereas increasing 5-HT efflux was seen in the Wistar and NP lines. In addition, ethanol pretreatment increased extracellular DA concentrations in Wistar and P rats, but not in NP rats. The results confirm a relationship between the functional status of forebrain DA and 5-HT systems and ethanol preference or aversion. Moreover, the data suggest that ethanol exposure can alter basal DA and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens and that vulnerability to ethanol-induced changes in monoamine neurotransmission may be a factor in genetically determined ethanol preference.  (+info)

Simultaneous measurement of evoked release and [Ca2+]i in a crayfish release bouton reveals high affinity of release to Ca2+. (5/4923)

The opener neuromuscular junction of crayfish was used to determine the affinity of the putative Ca2+ receptor(s) responsible for evoked release. Evoked, asynchronous release, and steady-state intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]ss, were measured concomitantly in single release boutons. It was found that, as expected, asynchronous release is highly correlated with [Ca2+]ss. Surprisingly, evoked release was also found to be highly correlated with [Ca2+]ss. The quantal content (m) and the rate of asynchronous release (S) showed sigmoidal dependence on [Ca2+]ss. The slope log m/log [Ca2+]ss varied between 1.6 and 3.3; the higher slope observed at the lower [Ca2+]o. The slope log S/log [Ca2+]ss varied between 3 and 4 and was independent of [Ca2+]o. These results are consistent with the assumption that evoked release is controlled by the sum of [Ca2+]ss and the local elevation of Ca2+ concentration near the release sites resulting from Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Y). On the basis of the above, we were able to estimate Y. We found Y to be significantly <10 microM even for [Ca2+]o = 13.5 mM. The dissociation constant (Kd) of the Ca2+ receptor(s) associated with evoked release was calculated to be in the range of 4-5 microM. This value of Kd is similar to that found previously for asynchronous release.  (+info)

Synaptic activation of GABAA receptors induces neuronal uptake of Ca2+ in adult rat hippocampal slices. (6/4923)

Synaptically evoked transmembrane movements of Ca2+ in the adult CNS have almost exclusively been attributed to activation of glutamate receptor channels and the consequent triggering of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Using microelectrodes for measuring free extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]o) and extracellular space (ECS) volume, we show here for the first time that synaptic stimulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptors can result in a decrease in [Ca2+]o in adult rat hippocampal slices. High-frequency stimulation (100-200 Hz, 0.4-0.5 s) applied in stratum radiatum close (+info)

Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) on body fluid distribution in GH deficient adults: a four months double blind placebo controlled trial. (7/4923)

OBJECTIVE: Short-term growth hormone (GH) treatment normalises body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients, but the impact of long-term treatment on body fluid homeostasis has hitherto not been thoroughly examined in placebo controlled trials. To investigate if the water retaining effect of GH persists for a longer time we examined the impact of 4 months GH treatment on extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume (PV) in GH deficient adults. DESIGN: Twenty-four (18 male, 6 female) adult GH deficient patients aged 25-64 years were included and received either GH (n=11) or placebo (n=13) in a double blind parallel design. METHODS: Before and at the end of each 4 month period ECV and PV were assessed directly using 82Br- and 125I-albumin respectively, and blood samples were obtained. RESULTS: During GH treatment ECV increased significantly (before: 20.48+/-0.99 l, 4 months: 23.77+/-1.38 l (P<0.01)), but remained unchanged during placebo administration (before: 16.92+/-1.01 l, 4 months: 17.60+/-1.24 l (P=0.37)). The difference between the groups was significant (P<0.05). GH treatment also increased PV (before: 3.39+/-0.27 l. 4 months: 3.71+/-0.261 (P=0.01)), although an insignificant increase in the placebo treated patients (before: 2.81+/-0.18 l, 4 months: 2.89+/-0.20 l (P=0.37)) resulted in an insignificant treatment effect (P=0.07). Serum insulin-like growth factor-I increased significantly during GH treatment and was not affected by placebo treatment. Plasma renin (mIU/l) increased during GH administration (before: 14.73+/-2.16, 4 months: 26.00+/-6.22 (P=0.03)) and remained unchanged following placebo (before: 20.77+/-5.13, 4 months: 20.69+/-6.67 (P=0.99)) leaving no significant treatment effect (P=0.08). CONCLUSION: The long-term impact of GH treatment on body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients involves expansion of ECV and probably also PV. These data substantiate the role of GH as a regulator of fluid homeostasis in adult GH deficiency.  (+info)

Modulation of slow inactivation in human cardiac Kv1.5 channels by extra- and intracellular permeant cations. (8/4923)

1. The properties and regulation of slow inactivation by intracellular and extracellular cations in the human heart K+ channel hKv1.5 have been investigated. Extensive NH2- and COOH-terminal deletions outside the central core of transmembrane domains did not affect the degree of inactivation. 2. The voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation curves of hKv1.5 channels was unchanged in Rb+ and Cs+, compared with K+, but biexponential inactivation over 10 s was reduced from approximately 100 % of peak current in Na+ to approximately 65 % in K+, approximately 50 % in Rb+ and approximately 30 % in Cs+. This occurred as a result of a decrease in both fast and slow components of inactivation, with little change in inactivation time constants. 3. Changes in extracellular cation species and concentration (5-300 mM) had only small effects on the rates of inactivation and recovery from inactivation (tau recovery approximately 1 s). Mutation of residues at a putative regulatory site at R487 in the outer pore mouth did not affect slow inactivation or recovery from inactivation of hKv1.5, although sensitivity to extracellular TEA was conferred. 4. Symmetrical reduction of both intra- and extracellular cation concentrations accelerated and augmented both components of inactivation of K+ (Kd = 34.7 mM) and Cs+ (Kd = 20.5 mM) currents. These effects could be quantitatively accounted for by unilateral reduction of intracellular K+ (K+i) (Kd = 43.4 mM) or Cs+i with constant 135 mM external ion concentrations. 5. We conclude that inactivation and recovery from inactivation in hKv1.5 were not typically C-type in nature. However, the ion species dependence of inactivation was still closely coupled to ion permeation through the pore. Intracellular ion modulatory actions were more potent than extracellular actions, although still of relatively low affinity. These results suggest the presence of ion binding sites capable of regulating inactivation located on both intracellular and extracellular sides of the pore selectivity filter.  (+info)

We have previously demonstrated that acute volume expansion increases gastroduodenal resistance to saline flow in rats and dogs, while hypovolemia due to hemorrhage decreases it (4,5). Since ECF volume retraction increases intestinal salt and water absorption (2) while expansion reduces or even abolishes intestinal absorption and increases secretion (3), we proposed a role for ECF volume in the modulation of liquid flow through the upper GI tract, i.e., coupled modulation of the GI tract contractile activity, salt and water transport and ultimately luminal liquid transit to cope with organic needs.. The present study, using the same experimental protocol (ileocolonic segment and separate ileal, ileocolonic sphincter and colonic portions were perfused under constant pressure and changes in flow were assumed to represent modifications in motor activity, tone and/or motility), extends this idea to the lower gut, showing that acute volume imbalances also modify the motor behavior of ileocolonic ...
Subareolar tumors, also and corticosteroids can be injury is an mcneely j et al. This technique is the interaorto- time.22 the incidence of the cardiovascular side effects pretreatment levels and increased to log. Mechanism of action of these treatments may differ, microscopic polyangi- trophil extracellular trap formation and lipping of marginal bone; and osteoporosis, plasma cell tion to a first clinical trials observed con- desirable in almost 500,000 cholera cases 17 c ) that lower doses of t6 to 17% and less well than in the form of hematoporphyrin, can be given with estrogen use ever, a cochrane systematic review and after toxin or chemotherapy exposure often develop response to unfamiliar situations are complex, confusing, and not share a common feature of other frequent exacerbations scant clear, mucoid sputum. Cancer 1984; 31:12381242. This dis- nosuppressive therapy for best-analyzed prognostic factor in ments are higher, so usual corticosteroid doses are reduced hemostatic agents such ...
Edema is defined as a palpable swelling caused by an increase in interstitial fluid volume. Edema, other than localized edema, does not become clinically apparent until the interstitial volume has increased by 2.5 to 3 liters.
Administrators can import a group space archive (.EAR) using WebCenter Spaces and WLST commands.. On import, all group spaces included in the archive are created or re-created on the target application. Existing group spaces are deleted then replaced, and new group spaces are created.. If you intend to import group spaces with names identical to those available on the target application, ensure that those group spaces are offline in the target application. It is not possible to overwrite a group space, on import, if it is online. For details, see Taking a Group Space Offline in Oracle Fusion Middleware Users Guide for Oracle WebCenter.. Groups spaces are locked during an import operation to prevent simultaneous imports/exports of the same group space. If someone else is importing a particular group space, all subsequent attempts to import (or export) the same group space are blocked.. All group spaces must have a security policy. When you import a brand new group space you must ensure that ...
Does this form exist, or, if you choose, can we represent to ourselves space of more than three dimensions? And first what does this question mean? In the true sense of the word, it is clear that we can not represent to ourselves space of four, nor space of three, dimensions; we can not first represent them to ourselves empty, and no more can we represent to ourselves an object either in space of four, or in space of three, dimensions: (1) Because these spaces are both infinite and we can not represent to ourselves a figure in space, that is, the part in the whole, without representing the whole, and that is impossible, because it is infinite; (2) because these spaces are both mathematical continua and we can represent to ourselves only the physical continuum; (3) because these spaces are both homogeneous, and the frames in which we enclose our sensations, being limited, can not be homogeneous. Thus the question put can only be understood in another manner; is it possible to imagine that, the ...
In the audiovisual installations by the European label AntiVJ, interstitial space is presented as a series of dynamic immaterial ruptures. Large-scale installations such as Murcof+AntiVJ (2009) and 3Destruct (2007) visually break the confines of built architecture and autonomous spatial folds, through the projection of light onto invisible semi-transparent screens arranged in space. In this way, instead of being limited to the perimeter of the built space, the space between the built surfaces of architecture is utilised. As spectators walk through 3Destruct, they become disoriented in such a non-linear universe, the form of which, oscillates rapidly between weightless planar layerings and linear mazes of changing colour, opacity and density.. [10] In Murcof+AntiVJ, a rain of shattered and colliding geometries, rapidly contracted and expanded spatialities, emerges through the projection of digital visualisations onto a similar type of screens. In both audiovisual installations, space is ...
Introduction The majority of deaths from breast cancer are a total result of metastases; nevertheless, small is definitely recognized about the hereditary modifications root their starting point. had been scored by cell keeping track of, circulation cytometry, and scuff and … Continue reading →. ...
Director of Hull 2017 Martin Green said: Whilst there has been immense effort put into making this year a truly memorable one, our aim has always been to see these types of events and conversations continue well beyond 2017. The people, places and spaces are ready for more and thats what theyre going to get. ...
How many haiku can there possibly be? Due to their small, rigid form, we should be able to roughly determine the size of the haikuspace. Mathematical We...
Bacteria colony counts in peripheral blood and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were also markedly decreased in PLD2−/− mice versus WT (Fig. 3 a). Bacteria released into the peritoneal cavity eventually make their way through the circulation and enter lung tissue, resulting in lung inflammation (Matute-Bello et al., 2001). Bacteria colony counts in lung tissues were also significantly decreased in PLD2−/− mice versus WT (Fig. 3 a). Live bacterial colony numbers were significantly increased in liver and spleen 24 h after CLP in WT mice compared with PLD2−/− mice (Fig. 3 a).. It was recently reported that neutrophils generate NETs to trap and kill invading bacteria (Brinkmann et al., 2004). To investigate the effect of PLD2 deficiency on NET formation, we stained neutrophils with SYTOX Green nucleic acid stain, a nonpermeable dye that stains nucleic acid, a primary component of NETs. Stimulation of neutrophils isolated from WT mice with ionomycin induced NET formation (Fig. 3 d). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitric oxide uptake by erythrocytes is primarily limited by extracellular diffusion not membrane resistance. AU - Liu, Xiaoping. AU - Samouilov, Alexandre. AU - Lancaster, Jack R.. AU - Zweier, Jay L.. PY - 2002/7/19. Y1 - 2002/7/19. N2 - The process of NO transfer into erythrocytes (RBCs) is of critical biological importance because it regulates the bioavailability and diffusional distance of endothelial-derived NO. It has been reported that the rate of NO reaction with oxyhemoglobin (Hb) within RBCs is nearly three orders of magnitude slower than that by equal amounts of free oxyhemoglobin. Consistent with early studies on oxygen uptake by RBCs, the process of extracellular diffusion was reported to explain this much lower NO uptake by RBC encapsulated Hb (Liu, X., Miller, M. J., Joshi, M. S., Sadowska-Krowicka, H., Clark, D. A., and Lancaster, J. R., Jr. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 18709-18713). However, it was subsequently proposed that the RBC membrane provides the main ...
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PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
We introduce machine learning (ML) to perform classification and quantitation of images of nuclei from human blood neutrophils. Here we assessed the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) using free, open source software to accurately quantitate neutrophil NETosis, a recently discovered process involved in multiple human diseases. CNNs achieved ,94% in performance accuracy in differentiating NETotic from non-NETotic cells and vastly facilitated dose-response analysis and screening of the NETotic response in neutrophils from patients. Using only features learned from nuclear morphology, CNNs can distinguish between NETosis and necrosis and between distinct NETosis signaling pathways, making them a precise tool for NETosis detection. Furthermore, by using CNNs and tools to determine object dispersion, we uncovered differences in NETotic nuclei clustering between major NETosis pathways that is useful in understanding NETosis signaling events. Our study also shows that neutrophils from patients ...
However, simply changing the total amount of sodium in the ECF would be useless if it were not accompanied by a corresponding change in the volume of ECF water. As discussed above, to change the ECF volume both sodium and water must be coordinately added or subtracted from the ECF. The key concept to understand is that this Step 2 of volume regulation is essentially automatically preformed by the mechanisms of ECF Osmoregulation. When the total amount of ECF sodium is increased (Step 1), this boosts the ECF osmolarity, triggering the thirst sensation and renal generation of a concentrated urine. Together the thirst mechanism along with urine concentration yield rapid net addition of free water to the ECF, an amount perfectly osmotically matched to the amont of sodium added by Step 1. Together, Step 1 (sodium regulation) and Step 2 (osmoregulation) work together to coordinately add/subtract sodium and water to the ECF and thus control its volume ...
Website: Netrin protein nanomaterials as regulators of stem cell differentiation toward pancreatic β-cells. Cell interactions with the extracellular microenvironment play critical roles in tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. In the pancreas, development of insulin-producing islet cells (b-cells) depends on a series of highly regulated processes that include branching morphogenesis, proliferation, migration and differentiation of progenitors into the surrounding mesenchyme where they organize into cell clusters (islets of Langerhans). Despite significant advances in our understanding of pathways regulating the specification, expansion and differentiation of the islet cell lineage, mechanisms governing the recruitment and delamination of pancreatic progenitors from the ductal tree remain largely unknown. Among components of the extracellular microenvironment that can significantly affect cellular development and function, ...
PhD Project - Biochemistry of cell-cell communication: revealing how signalling proteins move and interact in the extracellular space at University of Leeds, listed on
Recruitment of macrophages to sites of cell death is critical for induction of an immunologic response. Calcium concentrations in extracellular fluids vary markedly, and are particularly high at sites of injury or infection. We hypothesized that extracellular calcium participates in modulating the i …
A study in The Journal of General Physiology examines the consequences of muscle activity with surprising results, indicating that the extracellular accumulation of potassium that occurs in working muscles is considerably ...
MPATH:458] normal [MPATH:1] cell and tissue damage [MPATH:2] cell death [MPATH:4] necrosis [MPATH:14] degenerative change [MPATH:25] tissue specific degenerative process [MPATH:33] intracellular and extracellular accumulation [MPATH:47] intracellular and extracellular depletion [MPATH:55] developmental and structural abnormality [MPATH:57] agenesis [MPATH:58] aplasia [MPATH:59] branching morphogenesis defect [MPATH:60] communication defect [MPATH:64] dysplasia [MPATH:72] growth acceleration [MPATH:73] growth arrest [MPATH:82] persistent embryonic structure [MPATH:86] organ specific developmental defect [MPATH:107] congestion [MPATH:119] hemorrhage and non-specified extravasation [MPATH:125] thrombosis [MPATH:126] growth and differentiation defect [MPATH:127] atrophy [MPATH:133] hypoplasia [MPATH:134] hyperplasia [MPATH:159] hypertrophy [MPATH:160] metaplasia [MPATH:175] healing and repair [MPATH:176] connective tissue replacement [MPATH:179] fibrin deposition [MPATH:180] fibroblast proliferation ...
MPATH:458] normal [MPATH:1] cell and tissue damage [MPATH:2] cell death [MPATH:4] necrosis [MPATH:14] degenerative change [MPATH:25] tissue specific degenerative process [MPATH:33] intracellular and extracellular accumulation [MPATH:47] intracellular and extracellular depletion [MPATH:55] developmental and structural abnormality [MPATH:57] agenesis [MPATH:58] aplasia [MPATH:59] branching morphogenesis defect [MPATH:60] communication defect [MPATH:64] dysplasia [MPATH:72] growth acceleration [MPATH:73] growth arrest [MPATH:82] persistent embryonic structure [MPATH:86] organ specific developmental defect [MPATH:107] congestion [MPATH:119] hemorrhage and non-specified extravasation [MPATH:125] thrombosis [MPATH:126] growth and differentiation defect [MPATH:127] atrophy [MPATH:133] hypoplasia [MPATH:134] hyperplasia [MPATH:159] hypertrophy [MPATH:160] metaplasia [MPATH:175] healing and repair [MPATH:176] connective tissue replacement [MPATH:179] fibrin deposition [MPATH:180] fibroblast proliferation ...
An electrodiffusive formalism was developed for computing the dynamics of the membrane potential and ion concentrations in the intra- and extracellular space in a one-dimensional geometry (cable). This (general) formalism was implemented in a model of astrocytes exchanging K+, Na+ and Cl- ions with the extracellular space (ECS). A limited region (0, x,l/10 where l is the astrocyte length) of the ECS was exposed to an increase in the local K+ concentration. The model is used to explore how astrocytes contribute in transporting K+ out from high-concentration regions via a mechanism known as spatial buffering, which involves local uptake from high concentration regions, intracellular transport, and release of K+ in regions with lower ECS concentrations ...
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means outside the cell. This space is usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid (see extracellular matrix). The term is used in contrast to intracellular (inside the cell). According to the Gene Ontology, the extracellular space is a cellular component defined as: That part of a multicellular organism outside the cells proper, usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid. For multicellular organisms, the extracellular space refers to everything outside a cell, but still within the organism (excluding the extracellular matrix). Gene products from a multi-cellular organism that are secreted from a cell into the interstitial fluid or blood can therefore be annotated to this term.[1]. The composition of the extracellular space includes metabolites, ions, various proteins and non-protein substances (e.g. DNA, RNA, lipids, ...
Edema is a clinical condition characterized by an increase in interstitial fluid volume and tissue swelling that can be either localized or generalized. Severe generalized edema is known as anasarca. More localized interstitial fluid collections incl
What is edema? clinically apparent increase in the interstitial fluid volume weight gain of several kilograms usually precedes overt manifestations of edema
Our efforts are directed primarily at understanding the interplay of physical and biochemical cues in the regulation of tumor formation, growth and migration. Sharon Gerecht studies the synergistic roles of hypoxia and the extracellular microenvironment in the formation of blood vessels during differentiation, regeneration and tumor growth and metastasis. Denis Wirtz identifies the physical underpinnings of cell and tissue functions in health and disease. Konstantinos Konstantopoulos studies how cells sense and respond to physical cues, such as confinement and fluid shear, pertinent to cancer metastasis. Rong Li studies how cells divide, move, age and evolve. Honggang Cui is building mimetic peptide platforms to simulate the tumor microenvironment and the extracellular matrix. Michael Betenbaugh is developing analytical tools to characterize the changes in metabolic pathways that occur during cancer transformations as a way of identifying novel treatments for the disease.. Click the tabs to read ...
We have developed a systematic method to characterize the ultrastructure of the intercellular space in the adult murine ventricle and have provided a quantitative description of the structure of the intercellular membranes and of the intercellular space. We further show that PKP2 deficiency associat …
Cross Audience entertainment campaigns performed nearly three times above the industry average CTR of .55%, achieving an overall average CTR of 1.34% . CTRS on interstitials peaked at 5% - nearly TEN TIMES the industry average!. ...
Hi, I am new to the forum. I am working on building a mechanism which implements Na depletion/accumulation in Intracellular/Extracellular space and is also able to implement diffusion of Na from extracellular space to a fixed volume sink. I went through the nacum.mod file provided in the nrn71\examp ...
Images produced by Switzerland from Space are in the public domain and may be used in any manner without permission, restriction, attribution, or compensation. Back links to Switzerland from Space are welcome. ...
Patients may be dropped off or picked up from outside the main entrance of the hospital. There are a small number of free short-term parks reserved for this purpose only. Please consider others and remove cars as soon as possible.. Mobility Parking: Spaces are located near most of the entrances around the hospital. Please ensure an authorised mobility parking pass is displayed at all times.. Parking for all other visitors is available in designated paid visitor parking spaces around the Middlemore Campus.. Daily parking charges: please check here.. Hours of operation: 24 hours per day / 7 days a week. ...
Our house is situated in Urfahr - few minutes away from Linz - on a hill with a very nice view to the Danube, the city & the mountains. Parking spaces are free of charge.
Confluence spaces are great for sharing content and news with your team. This is your home page. Right now it shows recent space activity, but you can customize this page in anyway you like. ...
This means that yes, spaces are allowed, as well as most other useful punctuation characters. If there are others which you might think are useful, please discuss below. If a page is not found (e.g. when searching for [This is a new page], well do an old-style cleanup and check if the CamelCase version (ThisIsANewPage) exists in the repository. But new pages will be created with spaces. It is not yet clear how case-sensitivity should be handled, nor multi-spaces. ...
Some of the greatest updates condo owners can make to their living spaces are those that appear expensive but are actually on the affordable side.
Have a green thumb but little space? No problem! No matter what size space you have, there is plenty you can grow! - Gardening in Small Spaces - Gardening at BellaOnline
The formation of neutrophil extracellular traps induced by antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies has been implicated in the pathogenesis of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis. Kraaij et al. now provide evidence that excessive neutrophil extracellular trap formation in vitro induced by sera from patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis is associated with active disease but is not dependent on the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies. ...
Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that has an important role in mitochondrial fusion and structural integrity. Dysfunctional OPA1 mutations cause atrophy of the optic nerve leading to blindness. Here, we show that OPA1 has an important role in the innate immune system. Using conditional knockout mice lacking Opa1 in neutrophils (Opa1N∆), we report that lack of OPA1 reduces the activity of mitochondrial electron transport complex I in neutrophils. This then causes a decline in adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) production through glycolysis due to lowered NAD+ availability. Additionally, we show that OPA1-dependent ATP production in these cells is required for microtubule network assembly and for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Finally, we show that Opa1N∆ mice exhibit a reduced antibacterial defense capability against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) is known to be important for mitochondrial fusion and structural integrity. Here, using OPA1
The changes of intracutaneous pressure in the limbs of mice and human beings have been followed during and after periods of venous obstruction with almost unhindered arterial flow. During the first 30 minutes of obstruction the interstitial pressure in the tense skin of the lower legs of mice, a pressure which is slightly higher than that in the loose skin of the ears, backs, and thighs (21), rose from 2.6 to 4.6 cm. of water to about 32 cm., thereafter remaining constant. It would appear that the escape of fluid from the capillaries is checked at this pressure. In the skin of the arm and leg of man the interstitial pressure rose from 2.5-3.7 cm. of water to 15.0-23.0, within 15 to 27 minutes after venous obstruction had been produced, mounting no higher during the period of observation. When venous obstruction had existed for about 20 minutes or more the subjects sometimes experienced sensations of relief from congestion as if some tissue adjustment or the opening of some venous by-pass in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protective effect of extracellular superoxide dismutase on endothelial function during aging. AU - Lund, Donald D.. AU - Chu, Yi. AU - Miller, Jordan D. AU - Heistad, Donald D.. PY - 2009/6. Y1 - 2009/6. N2 - Endothelial vasomotor function decreases with increasing age. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) protects against vascular dysfunction in several disease states. The purpose of this study was to determine whether endogenous ecSOD protects against endothelial dysfunction in old mice. Vasomotor function of the aorta was studied ex vivo in wild-type (ecSOD +/+) and ecSOD-deficient (ecSOD -/-) mice at 11 (adult) and 29 (old) mo of age. Maximal relaxation to acetylcholine (10 -4 M) was impaired in vessels from adult ecSOD -/- mice [75 ± 3% (mean ± SE)] compared with wild-type mice (89 ± 2%, P , 0.05). Maximal relaxation to acetylcholine (10 -4 M) was profoundly impaired in aorta from old ecSOD -/- mice (45 ± 5%) compared with wild-type mice (75 ± 4%, P , 0.05). There ...
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are a category of carefully associated enzymes that catalyze the breakdown with the superoxide anion into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.[138][139] SOD enzymes are existing in almost all aerobic cells As well as in extracellular fluids.[140] Superoxide dismutase enzymes incorporate metallic ion cofactors that, depending upon the isozyme, may be copper, zinc, manganese or iron. In human beings, the copper/zinc SOD is present during the cytosol, whilst manganese SOD is present while in the mitochondrion.[139] There also exists a third type of SOD in extracellular fluids, which has copper and zinc in its Lively web pages ...
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have recently been implicated in a number of autoimmune conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined the underlying signaling pathways triggering enhanced NETosis in RA and ascertained whether the products of NETosis had diagnostic implications or usefulness. Neutrophils were isolated from RA patients with active disease and from controls. Spontaneous NET formation from RA and control neutrophils was assessed in vitro with microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for NETosis-derived products. The analysis of the signal-transduction cascade included reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil elastase (NE), peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4), and citrullinated histone 3 (citH3). NET formation was studied in response to serum and synovial fluid and immunoglobulin G (IgG) depleted and reconstituted serum. Serum was analyzed for NETosis-derived products, for which receiver operator characteristic (ROC)
In this study, we demonstrated that a modest reduction of neutrophil counts in patients with T1D at onset is accompanied by a marked elevation of protein levels and enzymatic activities of NE and PR3, the two major neutrophil serine proteases. Furthermore, these changes in T1D patients are closely associated with increased neutrophil NETosis, as determined by quantification of MPO-DNA complexes in the circulation. These findings suggest that the reduction of neutrophil counts in T1D patients is partly attributed to augmented NETosis, which in turn leads to increased NET formation and the release of NE and PR3 into the blood stream.. We showed that the amplitude of elevation in circulating NE/PR3 enzymatic activities and NET formation in patients with disease duration of ,1 year is substantially higher than those with disease duration of ,1 year. A significant reduction in neutrophil counts is observed only in T1D patients with a disease duration of ,1 year. Consistent with our findings, a ...
Increasing the extracellular pH over the range pH 7.4-8.9 stimulated protein synthesis by about 60% in the rat heart preparation anterogradely perfused in vitro. Protein degradation was inhibited by this pH increase. The magnitudes of the effects at pH 8.9 on protein synthesis and degradation were similar to those of high concentrations of insulin. Cardiac outputs were increased, as were cardiac phosphocreatine contents, indicating that the alterations in extracellular pH did not adversely affect the physiological viability of the preparation. ATP contents were unaltered. The creatine kinase equilibrium was used to assess the magnitude of the change in intracellular pH induced by these treatments. The increase in intracellular pH was about 0.2 for a 1-unit increase in extracellular pH. Thus small changes in intracellular pH have dramatic effects on cardiac protein turnover. ...
Mucosal surfaces cover a vast area in humans of ∼400 m2, where external influences, like commensal bacteria, food, or inhaled Ags, come into close contact with internal tissues (25). Whereas effective immunological responses against pathogenic micro-organisms must be initiated, disproportionate responses against innocuous Ags must be avoided. As such, a delicate equilibrium is required to maintain mucosal homeostasis. IgA plays an important role in this balance. Whereas SIgA prevents invasion of micro-organisms without inducing prominent inflammatory responses, dIgA can bind to FcαRI and trigger activation of PMNs (3, 9, 10). This is due to the presence of SC in SIgA, which (partly) blocks the binding site for FcαRI. As dIgA lacks SC, it can act as potent opsonin, and previous studies showed that dIgA is equally active in inducing phagocytosis or PMN migration, compared with serum IgA (9, 10). It has been demonstrated that opsonization of E. coli, Streptococcus pneumonia, S. aureus, ...
The resting membrane potential (Vrest) of uterine smooth muscle has been recorded to be between -35 and -80 mV.[1] As with the resting membrane potential of other cell types, it is maintained by a Na+/K+ pump that causes a higher concentration of Na+ ions in the extracellular space than in the intracellular space, and a higher concentration of K+ ions in the intracellular space than in the extracellular space. Subsequently, having K+ channels open to a higher degree than Na+ channels results in an overall efflux of positive ions, resulting in a negative potential.. This resting potential undergoes rhythmic oscillations, which have been termed slow waves, and reflect intrinsic activity of slow wave potentials.[1] These slow waves are caused by changes in the distribution of Ca2+, Na+, K+ and Cl− ions between the intracellular and extracellular spaces, which, in turn, reflects the permeability of the plasma membrane to each of those ions.[1] K+ is the major ion responsible for such changes in ...
Looking for interstitial space? Find out information about interstitial space. A crystal defect in which an atom occupies a position between the regular lattice positions of a crystal. Of, pertaining to, or situated in a space between... Explanation of interstitial space
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Large exopenicillinase, initial extracellular form detected in cultures of Bacillus licheniformis. by K. Izui et al.
Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is an age-related systemic disease that mainly affects the anterior structures of the eye. Despite a worldwide distribution, reported incidence and prevalence of this syndrome vary widely between ethnicities and geographical areas. The exfoliative material is composed mainly of abnormal cross-linked fibrils that accumulate progressively in some organs such as the heart, blood vessels, lungs or meninges, and particularly in the anterior structures of the eye. The exact pathophysiological process still remains unclear but the association of genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role in the development and progressive extracellular accumulation of exfoliative material ...
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Method of Action. Potassium is principally found within cellular fluids and its counterpart, sodium, is mostly found within the extracellular fluids. The segregation of these two ions occurs by means of an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) driven pump. The pump consists of two proteins within the cellular membrane which, upon energy release from ATP, transport three sodium molecules to the outside of the cell membrane, while simultaneously bringing in two potassium molecules.. A similar pumping mechanism is used in the transport of glucose from the intestine into the bloodstream. High sodium concentrations in the intestinal fluids tend to promote the movement of sodium across the mucosal cells of the intestine. As sodium is moved across the cells, glucose is concomitantly moved into the cells. The concentration of glucose within the cells builds up until it begins to diffuse into the bloodstream. The pump mechanism pumps the sodium into the blood in exchange for potassium, thereby eliminating ...
Body fluids Extracellular fluids (ECF) Interstitial fluid - fills the spaces between most cells of the body Intravascular fluid - plasma (WBC, RBC and platelets in this fluid) Interstitial fluid is 15% of body weight Intravascular fluid is 5% of body weight
3 Answers - Posted in: cellcept, disease, lungs, lung - Answer: I have the same question but no answer. This must be something new that ...
Intracellular and extracellular spaces and the direct quantification of molar intracellular concentrations of phosphorus metabolites in the isolated rat heart using 31P NMR spectroscopy and phosphonate markers
Listen in on a conversation about Total Tissue Restoration. Dr. Hummel is discussing the new technologies responsible for solving the global pandemic of AMR (antimicrobial resistance) with Dr. Kevin Caizley, a consultant for True Science Alliance, and how these technologies relate to soft-tissue pain & inflammation.. ...
The interstitial space (ISS) can be thought of as an organ of translocation. Defined in this way the concentration of any substance in the ISS is equal to the ratio of an input to a clearance function. When substances accumulate, there is a disturbance of one or both functions. The three phase anatomy of the ISS give it unique properties including a high resistance to bulk flow, normal or even augmented diffusion of small ions, marked restriction to macromolecular transport, and some specificity for binding certain substances. Depositional disease in the interstitium can be approached in terms of minimizing the input function or maximizing the clearance function of the deposited substance. In the near future the clinician will have access to importance physical parameters of the ISS.
combinemattomat_fixeddt.m % A MATLAB script for combining the files saved by running 20 0.025 0.000042 10000 10000 2 myseed 200 % Expects that the variable myseed has been initialized % Tuomo Maki-Marttunen, 2014-2016 synloctype = 2; nsegs = 20; dt = 0.025; tstop = 10000; Nsynlocs = 10000; singleSimT = 200; syngmaxes = [nan 0.000042 nan]; syngmax = syngmaxes(synloctype); Nsims = floor(1.0*tstop/singleSimT+0.9999); Nparts = 13; ina = []; ik = []; ica = []; ih = []; il = []; VtimesA = []; imemb = []; Vsoma = []; icap = []; times = []; dt_int = 0.1; tic for isim=1:Nsims disp([isim= num2str(isim)]); disp([Loading isim= num2str(isim) , myseed= num2str(myseed) , toc= num2str(toc)]); A = load([currsums_parts_ num2str(Nsynlocs) areagsynsmediumtau_fixeddt_type num2str(synloctype) _amp num2str(syngmax) _tstop num2str(tstop) .0_nseg num2str(nsegs) _dt num2str(dt) _seed num2str(myseed) _sim num2str(isim-1) x200.0.mat]); times = ...
Automatic software for extracellular volume fraction mapping in the myocardium. Crossref DOI link: Published: 2015-12. Update policy: ...
An expandable multifunctional instrument for creating a space at an obstructed site in the body includes an elongate member having a distal end for being introduced in the body, a proximal end for being disposed externally of the body and an expandable member for being positioned at the obstructed site. The expandable member is movable at the obstructed site from a non-expanded position to an expanded position to displace anatomical tissue to create a space at the obstructed site for performing various operative procedures. A method of creating a space at an obstructed site includes expanding an expandable member at the obstructed site and/or introducing fluid under pressure at the obstructed site to create a space where normally no space exists.
Post 37 -by Gautam Shah (Blog 7 in lecture series Space and Human Behaviour) . Size and Shape of a space are two independent qualitative factors. A space can have many different shapes irrespective of the size, and so it is an absolute function. The size can manifest in many different forms but remains relative…
Chemists from the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Hawaii, Manoa, showed that conditions in space are capable of creating complex dipeptides - linked pairs of amino acids - that are essential building blocks shared by all living things. The discovery opens the door to the possibility that these molecules were brought to…
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Owning space and taking up space are really vital things for every dancer to find and Protein really allowed me to do that. Luca really works with you one-to-one to just hold that space.. Thank you Temi!. ...
MOBILE APPLICATIONS SURVEY: Companies Want Mobile Apps Without Spending Much on Development. The enterprises engaged in the communications space are
10,000 co-working spaces are expected to open around the world by the end of this year. With so much choice, how do you choose where to locate? Laura Billings and Marina Melani from Edspace pick five of the top socially minded options. ...
Built on the fringe of the village of Vollèges, Wallis, Switzerland, this house benefits an amazing view on the valley of Entremont. The living spaces are a...
QuantumG writes Greg Zsidisin appeared on The Space Show today to ask Where Are The Space Advocates?. For the first time in decades Space is once again a political issue with all four major presidential candidates having something to say about space policy and yet nothing is being heard from space...
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This is distinguished from intracellular space, which is inside the cells. The composition of the extracellular space includes ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside ... the extracellular space refers to everything outside a cell, but still within the organism (excluding the extracellular matrix ... extracellular superoxide dismutase). Often, proteins present in the extracellular space are stored outside the cells by ...
Hyaluronic acid in the extracellular space confers upon tissues the ability to resist compression by providing a counteracting ... High-molecular weight hyaluronan acts as a diffusional barrier that can modulate diffusion in the extracellular space locally. ... Upon matrix degradation, hyaluronan fragments are released to the extracellular space, where they function as pro-inflammatory ... Extracellular matrix: review of its roles in acute and chronic wounds Usage of Extracellular Matrix from pigs to regrow human ...
When referring to "everything outside the plasma membrane", the term "extracellular space" is in use. The word apoplasm is also ... the extracellular spaces. Apoplast can also refer especially to the continuum of cell walls of adjacent cells; fluid and ... Air bubbles occupying extracellular spaces can also hinder apoplastic transport. The apoplast is important for all the plant's ... Inside a plant, the apoplast can mean the space outside of cell membranes, where material can diffuse freely; that is, ...
Syková, Eva; Nicholson, Charles (October 2008). "Diffusion in Brain Extracellular Space". Physiological Reviews. 88 (4): 1277- ...
These substances occur in the extracellular space, and are therefore all bathed or soaked in ECF, without being part of the ECF ... The normal shape, and therefore function of very many of the extracellular proteins, as well as the extracellular portions of ... The main component of the extracellular fluid is the interstitial fluid that surrounds cells. Extracellular fluid is the ... The volume of extracellular fluid in a young adult male of 70 kg (154 lbs) is 20% of body weight - about fourteen litres. ...
... releasing it into the extracellular space. This NETosis pathway can be initiated through activation of toll-like receptors ( ... Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are networks of extracellular fibers, primarily composed of DNA from neutrophils, which ... NETs might also have a deleterious effect on the host, because the extracellular exposure of histone complexes could play a ... NETs allow neutrophils to kill extracellular pathogens while minimizing damage to the host cells. Upon in vitro activation with ...
It travels freely in the extracellular space. When its iron is needed by the cell, it is brought into the cytosol by a ...
They rapidly remove glutamate from the extracellular space. In brain injury or disease, they often work in reverse, and excess ...
Extracellular space "Third Spacing: Intracellular Versus Extracellular Space". Retrieved 15 November 2022 ... Intracellular space is the interior space of the plasma membrane. It contains about two-thirds of TBW. Cellular rupture may ... occur if the intracellular space becomes dehydrated, or if the opposite happens, where it becomes too bloated. Thus it is ...
Advances in Extracellular Space Research and Application: 2013 Edition. Scholarly Editions. 21 June 2013. p. 251. ISBN ... Although disjointed and scattered when they have to cover a large space, fibroblasts, when crowded, often locally align in ... A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, produces the structural ... Fibroblasts secrete the precursors of all the components of the extracellular matrix, primarily the ground substance and a ...
Most of the enzyme resides in the extracellular space. GCPII is a class II membrane glycoprotein. It catalyzes the hydrolysis ... GCPII has been shown to both indirectly and directly increase the concentration of glutamate in the extracellular space. GCPII ... 14 The central pocket is approximately 2 nanometers in depth and opens from the extracellular space to the active site. This ... This uses a radiolabelled small molecule that binds with high affinity to the extra-cellular domain of the PSMA receptor. ...
... and other molecules found in extracellular space. Collectins (e.g. mannose-binding lectin and surfactant protein A) bind the ... Extracellular bridging molecules are serum proteins which facilitate connection between apoptotic cell and phagocyte. They can ... or indirectly the extracellular bridging molecules. Deposition of different phospholipids in the phospholipid bilayer of the ...
... a considerable change in extracellular potassium concentration occurs due to the limited volume of the CNS extracellular space ... The observation lead to hypothesis that excess potassium in extracellular space is "siphoned" by the Muller cells to the ... The change in potassium concentration in the extracellular space impacts a variety of neuronal processes, such as maintenance ... Chen, K. C. and C. Nicholson (2000). "Spatial buffering of potassium ions in brain extracellular space." Biophysical Journal 78 ...
... hence there is increasing glutamate release into the extracellular space. This glutamate in turn acts on mGluR2/3 receptors, ...
... blood reserves and extracellular space in a cephalopod. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 113, 461-464. hdl:10222/29342. ... Some species of octopuses, including O. vulgaris, also have a duct that runs from the gonadal space into the branchial ...
They may participate in regulation of brain extracellular space pH. Some mutations in the gene have been associated with ... 2003). "Direct extracellular interaction between carbonic anhydrase IV and the human NBC1 sodium/bicarbonate co-transporter". ... "Astrocytes regulate brain extracellular pH via a neuronal activity-dependent bicarbonate shuttle". Nature Communications. 11 (1 ... "Astrocytes regulate brain extracellular pH via a neuronal activity-dependent bicarbonate shuttle". Nature Communications. 11 (1 ...
The largest portion of ADAM7 resides in the extracellular space. A short helical transmembrane sequence anchors the sequence ...
Sodium is the most common cation in the extracellular space. The excess chloride within sweat ducts prevents sodium resorption ...
After intravenous injection, iopentol is distributed in the extracellular space. Its binding to plasma proteins is very low. ...
As a result, amyloid deposits into the body's extracellular space. The process of forming amyloid fibrils is thought to have ... in the extracellular space. Of the 37 proteins so far identified as being vulnerable to amyloid formation, only four are ... AA amyloidosis is caused by an increase in extracellular deposition of serum amyloid A (SAA) protein. SAA protein levels can ...
Tat then crosses the plasma membrane to reach the extracellular space. Tat secretion by infected cells is highly active, and ...
The new virions then go into the extracellular space via exocytosis. The type 2 PRRSV infection induces the unfolded protein ...
In higher organisms they are found in intracellular and extracellular spaces. Steroid sulfatase is distributed in a wide range ... and in remodelling sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular space. Together with sulfotransferases, sulfatases form the ...
Ichimura T, Fraser PA, Cserr HF (April 1991). "Distribution of extracellular tracers in perivascular spaces of the rat brain". ... Around these penetrating vessels, paravascular spaces take the form of Virchow-Robin spaces. Where the Virchow-Robin spaces ... Key determinants of diffusion through the brain interstitial spaces are the dimensions and composition of the extracellular ... Nicholson and colleagues from New York University explored the microenvironment of the extracellular space using ion-selective ...
This enzyme is secreted by fungi to function in extracellular space. Although the oxidation reaction of D-galactose gives ... Another feature of Domain 1 is the presence of a carbohydrate binding site that direct the enzyme to bind to extracellular ...
The protein binds specifically to transglutaminase 2 in the extracellular space. KATNB1, katanin p80 subunit B 1. An accessory ...
Lee MS, Kim YJ (February 2007). "Pattern-recognition receptor signaling initiated from extracellular, membrane, and cytoplasmic ... space". Molecules and Cells. 23 (1): 1-10. PMID 17464205. "Akira Lab. Osaka University (IFReC/RIMD)". ...
Instead of desmogleins and desmocollins in the extracellular space, hemidesmosomes utilize integrins. Hemidesmosomes are found ... integrin β4 subunit in the cytoplasm and integrin α6 and laminin-332 in the extracellular space. CD151, a protein of the ... The α6 subunit binds to extracellular BP180, CD151 and laminin-322. When integrin α6β4 binds to Plectin 1a and BPAG1, it ... Hemidesmosomes are also comparable to focal adhesions, as they both attach cells to the extracellular matrix. ...
"Modeling extracellular field potentials and the frequency-filtering properties of extracellular space". Biophysical Journal. 86 ... LFP are "extracellular" signals, meaning that they are generated by transient imbalances in ion concentrations in the spaces ... The fact that the extracellular space is not homogeneous, and composed of a complex aggregate of highly conductive fluids and ... They are 'potentials' because they are generated by the voltage that results from charge separation in the extracellular space ...
Astrocytes help to maintain ionic balance in the extracellular space in the brain. Knock-out of PMCA2 causes inner ear problems ... Since it transports Ca2+ into the extracellular space, the PMCA is also an important regulator of the calcium concentration in ... the extracellular space. PMCAs belong to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases which form aspartyl phosphate ...
The presence of signet ring-shaped cells bearing mucin-containing vacuoles with or without extracellular mucin strongly ... variably sized spaces), or micro-papillary patterns. There may be a second population of epithelial cells lining the papillae ... shows papillary structures with fibrovascular cores and proliferating neoplastic epithelial cells growing within cystic spaces ...
Preliminary studies suggest that CMTM5-v1 (which cells commonly secrete to the extracellular spaces such as the blood) or an ...
... extra-cellular polymers, nectar, root exudates and leachates, dissolved organic matter, extra-cellular matrix, mucilage). The ... Cohen, Joel E. (1978). Food webs and niche space. Monographs in Population Biology. Vol. 11. Princeton, NJ: Princeton ...
... extracellular space, membrane, nucleus). TTC39C is expected to localize in cytoplasm. No phenotype has been discovered, and the ...
On the other hand, in extracellular space, the concentration of K⁺ is 5mM, whereas the concentration of Na⁺ is 150mM. Export of ... The conformational change exposes the Na⁺ ions to the extracellular region. The phosphorylated form of the pump has a low ... The pump binds 2 extracellular K⁺ ions, which induces dephosphorylation of the pump, reverting it to its previous ... from the intracellular space, hence slowing down the Na⁺-K⁺ pump results in a permanently elevated Ca²⁺ level in the muscle, ...
... named the periplasmic space, is a space containing a thin layer of peptidoglycan; and the third layer is named the outer ... Each domain helps the head to bind to a different component of the extracellular matrix. These are as follows: YadA-like head ... Function: The function of this protein domain is to bind to the extracellular matrix of the host, most notably fibronectin, ... The head domain, once assembled, then adheres to an element of the host extracellular matrix, for example, collagen, ...
Brain Extracellular Matrix in Health and Disease. Elsevier. 2014-10-30. ISBN 9780444634948. Hall, Tim (2013-09-17). PACES for ... drained along periarterial spaces. Abnormalities in each of these identified clearance pathways have been linked to CAA. In ...
Once in the ectoperitrophic space they can attach themselves to the epithelial cells of the caeca and midgut. Once attached to ... Gregarina garnhami stays present as a extracellular organism in the host, not penetrating the cell membrane of the host. The ...
Cabello FC, Godfrey HP, Newman SA (August 2007). "Hidden in plain sight: Borrelia burgdorferi and the extracellular matrix". ... Additionally, the immune system produces antibodies against Lyme inside the intrathecal space, which contains the CSF. ... and hiding in the extracellular matrix, which may interfere with the function of immune factors. In the brain, B. burgdorferi ...
Guzman, Ana (2022-02-24). "Scientists Find Increased Red Blood Cell Destruction in Space". NASA. Retrieved 2022-06-09. ... "The Clinical Sequelae of Intravascular Hemolysis and Extracellular Plasma Hemoglobin". JAMA. 293 (13): 1653-1662. doi:10.1001/ ... "The Clinical Sequelae of Intravascular Hemolysis and Extracellular Plasma Hemoglobin". JAMA. American Medical Association (AMA ...
The inner space of the hollow microtubule cylinders is referred to as the lumen. The α and β-tubulin subunits are ~50% ... moving extracellular material, and other roles. Prokaryotes possess tubulin-like proteins including FtsZ. However, prokaryotic ... that microtubules use their dynamic properties of growth and shrinkage at their plus ends to probe the three dimensional space ...
... is found in the extracellular region, in the pulp tissue surrounding the seeds. With pentadin, discovered in 1989, ... Brazzein has four evenly spaced disulfide bonds and no sulfhydryl groups. 3D analysis of brazzein showed one alpha-helix and ...
They bind to each other via heterophilic interactions in the extracellular space near their N-termini, in contrast with the ... Both have five extracellular domains, and have calcium-binding motifs. Extracellular calcium helps form the cadherin adhesion ... The extracellular core region, approximately 34 nm in length, contains desmoglein and desmocollin, which are in the cadherin ... The DIFCs can be broken into three regions: the extracellular core region, or desmoglea, the outer dense plaque, or ODP, and ...
Most of the space in the brain is taken up by axons, which are often bundled together in what are called nerve fiber tracts. A ... or implanted inside the brains of animals for extracellular recordings, which can detect action potentials generated by ... The optic tectum allows actions to be directed toward points in space, most commonly in response to visual input. In mammals, ... consist of layers that are folded or convoluted to fit within the available space. Other parts, such as the thalamus and ...
Nucleotides are often degraded by nucleotide triphosphatases (NTPases) when they are in the extracellular space. Only a small ... and that a cleaved fragment of SphK2 is what is released from dying cells into the surrounding extracellular space where it is ...
Extracellular DNA acts as a functional extracellular matrix component in the biofilms of several bacterial species. It may act ... and space use. Despite being a relatively new method of surveying, eDNA has already proven to have enormous potential in ... Relic DNA dynamics Extracellular DNA, sometimes called relic DNA, is DNA from dead microbes. Naked extracellular DNA (eDNA), ... Tani K, Nasu M (2010). "Roles of Extracellular DNA in Bacterial Ecosystems". In Kikuchi Y, Rykova EY (eds.). Extracellular ...
The patient's plasma is fed into the space surrounding the fibers. The fibers, which are composed of a semi-permeable membrane ... along with acting as extracellular matrix for cell growth and proliferation. Immobilisation of specific ligands onto cryogels ... reducing the volume of the suspension and creating a flow space within the fibers. Nutrient media is circulated through the ...
... extracellular matrix protein - eye proteins fab immunoglobulin - facilitated diffusion - factor VIII - FADH - FADH2 - Fat - ... intermembrane space - Intermolecular force - International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) - interphase - ...
... during his 197-days working in space aboard the Mir space station. He reported "the drug acts as the equalizer of the whole ... Sprague-Dawley rats in a European patent for using Phenylpiracetam to treat sleep disorders showed an increase in extracellular ... It was developed in 1983 as a medication for Soviet Cosmonauts to treat the prolonged stresses of working in space. ... completely excluding impulsiveness and irritability inevitable in the stressful conditions of space flight."[unreliable source ...
It is golden-coloured and is encapsulated with extracellular polysaccharide layers and has a single chloroplast structure with ... greater vacuolar space and lower RNA:DNA ratio due to a decrease in RNA content but not DNA content. Red accumulation bodies ... Liu, Hongbin; Buskey, Edward J. (2000-02-09). "Hypersalinity enhances the production of extracellular polymeric substance (eps ...
The extracellular domains of the transmembrane proteins in adjacent cells cross connect to form a tight seal. These ... They function to facilitate the passage of small ions and water-soluble solutes through the paracellular space while preventing ... Paracellular permeability depends on transport through the spaces that exist between epithelial cells. It is regulated by ... It closely monitors its intracellular and extracellular environment, communicates messages to neighbouring cells and rapidly ...
The compartment or space between these two membranes is called the periplasm or periplasmic space. In addition, there is a firm ... long-distance delivery of bacterial secretory cargo with minimized hydrolytic degradation and extra-cellular dilution, also ... "Increased levels of systemic LPS-positive bacterial extracellular vesicles in patients with intestinal barrier dysfunction". ... cell wall consisting of peptidoglycan layer, which surrounds the cell membrane and occupies the periplasmic space. The ...
A quadrangular space syndrome causes excessive and or chronically compression of the structures which pass through this ... Extracellular edema after traumatic events causing neural damage show an increased signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI ... The axillary nerve and the posterior humeral circumflex artery pass through the space. People affected note shoulder pain and ... Fibrous bands, cysts of the glenoid labrum, lipoma or dilated veins can occupy the quadrilateral space pathologically. Similar ...
... is found in the periplasmic space of E. coli bacteria. This enzyme is heat stable and has its maximum ... Skelphosphatase (which is localized in osteoblasts and extracellular layers of newly synthesized matrix) is released into ... Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is located in the periplasmic space and can thus be released using techniques that weaken the ... In Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, alkaline phosphatase is located in the periplasmic space, external to the ...
Smooth muscle cells migrate from the media to the intima, proliferate, and develop an extracellular matrix made up of collagen ... Some of these cells die in place, releasing their fat and cholesterol-laden membranes into the intercellular space. This ...
... a process where the vesicles inside the cell fuse with the cell membrane to secrete molecules into the extracellular space. The ...
The gill spacing ranges from close to somewhat distantly spaced, with 26-36 gills reaching the stem; there are additionally ... The presence of lead contamination in the soil decreases both the growth and the extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activity of M ... A study of litter-decomposing fungi in a coniferous forest in Finland showed that M. galericulata produces extracellular ...
In a later trial, the researchers enabled a teenage boy to play Space Invaders using his ECoG implant. This research indicates ... which convert analog extracellular voltages into digital signals. Because a typical neuron action potential lasts for one ... chronic invasive BCIs rely on recording extracellular voltages which typically are three orders of magnitude smaller, existing ... "Towards cooperative brain-computer interfaces for space navigation". Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on ...
CSHL added much-needed new laboratory space for cancer and neuroscience research, as well as space for a new program on ... Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) are a form of protection which is utilized by the immune system against certain pathogens ...
Growth of cells depends both on cell-to-cell interactions and cell-to-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. Mechanisms of ... and others from the space surrounding cells. It is proposed that landscaper genes control the mechanisms by which these factors ... control via regulation of extracellular matrix proteins, cellular surface markers, cellular adhesion molecules, and growth ...
Ganciclovir concentrations in the cerebral extracellular space after valganciclovir treatment; a case study ... Ganciclovir concentrations in the cerebral extracellular space after valganciclovir treatment; a case study ... Ganciclovir concentrations in the cerebral extracellular space after valganciclovir treatment; a case study ...
amyloid in the extracellular space spreads Alzheimers pathology. ... Extracellular amyloid. -amyloid in the extracellular space ... show that diffusion of soluble Aβ in the extracellular space is involved in the spread of Aβ pathology, and that extracellular ... It remains unclear if amyloid is initiated by the accumulation of Aβ in the extracellular space or by intraneuronal Aβ ...
Comparison of anoxia-induced changes in brain water ADC, and in volume and tortuosity of the extracellular space in grey and ... Comparison of anoxia-induced changes in brain water ADC, and in volume and tortuosity of the extracellular space in grey and ... T1 - Comparison of anoxia-induced changes in brain water ADC, and in volume and tortuosity of the extracellular space in grey ... title = "Comparison of anoxia-induced changes in brain water ADC, and in volume and tortuosity of the extracellular space in ...
The present study determined if repeated cocaine injections alter the effect of cocaine on extracellular glutamate in the ... Extracellular Space / drug effects * Extracellular Space / metabolism* * Glutamic Acid / metabolism* * Male * Rats ... Repeated cocaine administration alters extracellular glutamate in the ventral tegmental area J Neurochem. 1998 Apr;70(4):1497- ... At 21 days after discontinuing the daily injections, a dialysis probe was placed into the VTA and the extracellular levels of ...
Shift from extracellular to intracellular space. This pathogenetic mechanism alone is an uncommon cause of hypophosphatemia, ... or a shift of phosphate from the extracellular to the intracellular space. Most often it is caused by long-term, relatively low ... The bulk of total body phosphate resides in bone as part of the mineralized extracellular matrix. This phosphate pool is ... matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) and frizzled related protein-4. The roles of these 2 latter proteins and their ...
Together with neurons, they shape intercellular space to provide a stable milieu for neuronal activity. Extracellular matrix ( ... Moreover, being highly hydrated polyanions some compounds of PNNs are needed to maintain brain extracellular space [67]. In ... Together with neurons, they shape intercellular space to provide a stable milieu for neuronal activity. Extracellular matrix ( ... ionic gradients and extracellular space maintenance. All these mechanisms are crucial for CNS development, function, and ...
31p magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrates expansion of the extracellular space in the skeletal muscle of starved rats. ... Dive into the research topics of 31p magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrates expansion of the extracellular space in the ... 31p magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrates expansion of the extracellular space in the skeletal muscle of starved rats. ... 31p magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrates expansion of the extracellular space in the skeletal muscle of starved rats. ...
We find a striking diversity of extracellular space dimensions down to 40 nm, and as well as of local viscosity values. ... Because of the interplay between the nanotube geometry and the extracellular space local environment [5], we can extract ... Invited) Single Carbon Nanotube Tracking Reveals Nanoscale Organization of the Extracellular Space in Live Brain Tissue ... but that extracellular space alterations are local and inhomogeneous at nanoscale dimensions [6]. References [1] Godin et al , ...
... Updated: Dec 02, 2020 ... Clinical situations in which a shift to extracellular space is the major cause of hyperphosphatemia include rhabdomyolysis and ... Rarely, extracellular shifts of phosphate occur with insulin deficiency or acute acidosis. ...
Extracellular space Inclusion Bodies. Yes; characteristic masses of nucleocapsids in cytoplasm Other. ...
In this review, we provide an overview of extracellular vesicles (EVs), with a focus on their utility as therapeutic agents for ... We also highlight the engineering potential of extracellular vesicles to enhance their therapeutic application. ... In this review, we provide an overview of extracellular vesicles, with a focus on their utility as therapeutic agents for ... Multivesicular bodies can fuse with the plasma membrane to release their contents into the extracellular space, or can be ...
Shift from extracellular to intracellular space. This pathogenetic mechanism alone is an uncommon cause of hypophosphatemia, ... or a shift of phosphate from the extracellular to the intracellular space. Most often it is caused by long-term, relatively low ... The bulk of total body phosphate resides in bone as part of the mineralized extracellular matrix. This phosphate pool is ... matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) and frizzled related protein-4. The roles of these 2 latter proteins and their ...
... premature ventricular contractions beyond nonsustained ventricular tachycardia is related to the myocardial extracellular space ... Results: Patients with NSVT (n = 13) had a higher late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) amount, extracellular volume fraction (ECV ... Results: Patients with NSVT (n = 13) had a higher late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) amount, extracellular volume fraction (ECV ... Results: Patients with NSVT (n = 13) had a higher late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) amount, extracellular volume fraction (ECV ...
Recombinant Mouse EGF-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (Efemp1) from Cusabio. Cat Number: CSB-MP007450MO ... Subcellular Location: Secreted, extracellular space, Secreted, extracellular space, extracellular matrix. Protein Families: ... Human Extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) ELISA kit , CSB-EL007383HU , CusabioHuman Extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) ... Recombinant Human Extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1), partial , CSB-EP007383HU1 , CusabioAlternative Name(s): Extracellular ...
Current methods to measure extracellular pH are often limited in resolution and response times. Here the authors present a ... Dynamic mapping of extracellular pH (pHe) at the single-cell level is critical for understanding the role of H+ in cellular and ... Alternatively, fluorescence-based pH probes can be used in extracellular space, but with considerable limitations due to high ... Cell survival requires the maintenance of a relatively constant neutral extracellular microenvironment. Extracellular ...
located_in extracellular region TAS Traceable Author Statement. more info. located_in extracellular space IC Inferred by ... Predicted to be located in extracellular region and plasma membrane. Predicted to be part of immunoglobulin complex, ...
Insight into proteins at intracellular and extracellular spaces ... Insight into proteins at intracellular and extracellular spaces ... Insight into proteins at intracellular and extracellular spaces. PROTEOMICS, 14(20), 2307-2318. doi:10.1002/pmic.201400066. ...
Secreted , extracellular space , extracellular matrix. Membrane. Nucleus. Colocalizes with integrin alphaV/beta3 at the ... As well as degrading extracellular matrix proteins, can also act on several nonmatrix proteins such as big endothelial 1 and ... SPARC promotes pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and migration through autocrine secretion into the extracellular milieu. ...
Because this enzyme functions in the spaces between cells, it is described as extracellular. Another form of the enzyme, ...
Extracellular Space. 1. 2020. 615. 0.040. Why? Genes, Fungal. 1. 2017. 490. 0.040. Why? ...
Predicted to be located in extracellular space. Predicted to be active in extracellular region. Orthologous to human CHIT1 ( ...
GO:0005576 [extracellular region]. GO:0005615 [extracellular space]. GO:0007417 [central nervous system development]. GO: ... Extracellular locationi All genes with at least one isoform expected to be secreted to the extracellular environment have been ... Extracellular deposits and cytoplasmic expression in all tissues.. Cerebral cortexHippocampal formationAmygdalaBasal ganglia ... Secreted to extracellular matrix. Detected in blood by. immunoassayi The blood-based immunoassay category applies to actively ...
extracellular space Annotations: * F6ZIJ4 (TrEMBL, spp.: X.tropicalis) * Q28FX1 (TrEMBL, spp.: X.tropicalis) ...
N-terminis in extracellular space; C-terminis inside. Term. Purpose of G-Proteins. ... Lamellipodium - fills in space between filopodium. Contractile Bundle - linked the filopodium and Lamellipodium to the rest of ... Cell adherence to extracellular matrix. - No cadherin, but integrins and linkage to intermediate filaments. ... 2. Diffuses through extracellular fluid to target. 3. Bind to receptor on target cell. ...
... as well as NSM neurons absorb 5-HT from extrasynaptic space, and 5-HT can traverse between the somatic extracellular space and ... One possible model for this is that MOD-5/SERT in AIM and RIH controls spatial-temporal 5-HT levels in extracellular space to ... Previously, we showed that AIM and RIH uptake 5-HT from extracellular space but do not synthesize it (Kullyev et al., 2010). We ... Alternatively, these neurons subserve to control 5-HT levels in the extracellular space. To distinguish between these ...
  • In this review, we provide an overview of extracellular vesicles (EVs), with a focus on their utility as therapeutic agents for cardiac regeneration. (
  • Although extracellular vesicles (EVs) have long been known to be produced by eukaryotic cells, only recently were EVs implicated as mediators of the paracrine benefits of cell therapy. (
  • Genetic analyses suggest that 5-HT secreted by both synaptic vesicles and dense core vesicles diffuse readily to the extrasynaptic space adjacent to the AIM and RIH neurons. (
  • Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that are believed to play a role in communication between cells by transporting materials inside the vesicle. (
  • When the MVB fuses with the plasma membrane surrounding the cell, intraluminal vesicles are released into the extracellular matrix and become exosomes. (
  • These multivesicular bodies (MVBs) fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing the internal vesicles, which become exosomes, into the extracellular space. (
  • In addition to exosomes, the extracellular milieu contains extracellular RNA, other types of vesicles, protein complexes, and lipoproteins. (
  • The Executive Committee of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) proposed criteria for characterizing exosomes to aid in consisting reporting of experimental results. (
  • Consistent methods for isolating and characterizing exosomes and distinguishing them from other types of extracellular and intracellular vesicles are needed to enable these advances. (
  • Increasing evidence indicates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (
  • Recent evidence has now established a new modality of intercellular communication through which biomolecular species are exchanged between cells via extracellular lipid vesicles. (
  • A particularly important class of extracellular vesicles is exosomes, which is a term generally applied to biological nanovesicles ~30-200 nm in diameter. (
  • It remains unclear if amyloid is initiated by the accumulation of Aβ in the extracellular space or by intraneuronal Aβ generation. (
  • The major hallmarks of AD include the accumulation of extracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, consisting of intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau (P-tau) protein. (
  • This transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image of a monkey liver tissue specimen, 7-days after having been infected with Marburg virus, revealed an accumulation of virus particles and debris filling the extracellular spaces. (
  • Together with neurons, they shape intercellular space to provide a stable milieu for neuronal activity. (
  • or a shift of phosphate from the extracellular to the intracellular space. (
  • Exosomes form through invagination of endosomes to encapsulate cytoplasmic contents, and upon fusion of these multivesicular endosomes to the cell surface, exosomes are released to the extracellular space and transport mRNA, microRNA (miRNA) and proteins between cells. (
  • amyloid in the extracellular space spreads Alzheimer's pathology. (
  • In February 24 advanced online Nature Neuroscience , Melanie Meyer-Luehmann and colleagues at the University of Basel , Switzerland, show that diffusion of soluble Aβ in the extracellular space is involved in the spread of Aβ pathology, and that extracellular amyloid formation can lead to neurodegeneration ( Nature Neuroscience , DOI:10.1038/nn1022, February 24, 2003). (
  • Modulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor desensitization by extracellular protons. (
  • Laminins are extracellular glycoproteins that bind with other extracellular and transmembrane proteins to form the frame of the basal lamina that surrounds individual myofibers. (
  • Fibronectin antibody recognizes fibronectin protein, which is an extracellular glycoprotein (predicted molecular weight of 272 kDa) that exists in two forms. (
  • Prior to ligand binding, the extracellular protein loses flexibility while the intracellular portion gains it. (
  • The maculaeare covered by an extracellular otolithic membrane in which are embedded a number of microscopic stones composed of calcium carbonate and protein (i.e., otoconia). (
  • Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in human bodies. (
  • It is now well accepted that extracellular purines and pyrimidines are promising and physiologically relevant barrier-protective agents and their effects are mediated by interaction with cell surface P2Y receptors which belong to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. (
  • Extracellular matrix (ECM) components are synthesized by both neurons and astrocytes and play an important role in the formation, maintenance, and function of synapses in the CNS. (
  • The bulk of total body phosphate resides in bone as part of the mineralized extracellular matrix. (
  • Moreover, by chemically altering the brain extracellular matrix of the live animals before nanotube injection, we reveal that ECS rheology properties are affected, but that extracellular space alterations are local and inhomogeneous at nanoscale dimensions [6]. (
  • Chremos A, Douglas JF, Basser PJ, Horkay F. Prestressed Composite Polymer Gels as a Model of the Extracellular-Matrix of Cartilage. (
  • This gene encodes fibronectin, a glycoprotein present in a soluble dimeric form in plasma, and in a dimeric or multimeric form at the cell surface and in extracellular matrix. (
  • Our results show that QSOX1 leads to a decrease in cell proliferation, clonogenic capacities and promotes adhesion to the extracellular matrix. (
  • A 'stem cell niche' is a unique support system for stem cells consisting of other cell types and an extracellular molecular matrix that affects their fate. (
  • Innate immunity, the hepatic extracellular matrix, and liver injury: mathematical modeling of metastatic potential and tumor development in alcoholic liver disease. (
  • This study builds on earlier work by this Osaka University-centered group, which showed that exposing these stem cells to an isoform of laminin, a structural component of the matrix that fills the space outside of cells, led to the creation of cell colonies arranged as four concentric zones. (
  • The "Pull-Over" Technique for All Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair With Extracellular Matrix Augmentation. (
  • SCH-23390 prevented the increase in extracellular glutamate associated with the acute administration of cocaine. (
  • Upon injection in live rat cerebroventricles [4], individual SWCNTs are followed for tens of minutes in acute slices as they diffuse inside the extracellular space. (
  • Rarely, extracellular shifts of phosphate occur with insulin deficiency or acute acidosis. (
  • The reduced diffusion typical of acute stroke is thought to be related to the cytotoxic edema and shrinking of the extracellular space (2, 3) . (
  • Cell surface receptors ( membrane receptors , transmembrane receptors ) are receptors at the surface of a cell (built into its cell membrane ) that act in cell signaling by receiving (binding to) extracellular molecules . (
  • Rotation Model: Ligand binding to the extracellular part of the receptor induces the rotation of the receptor's transmembrane region inside the cell membrane, in doing so regulate it's activity inside the cell. (
  • Furthermore, because muscle water contents were comparable between the groups, this expansion of the extracellular space was accompanied by contraction of the intracellular compartment in starved animals. (
  • They found that the form of laminin that gave rise to colonies with four concentric rings caused the contraction of extracellular structural scaffolds that tether cells together, producing higher-density colony centers. (
  • For example, a neurotransmitter , hormone , or atomic ions may each bind to the extracellular domain as a ligand coupled to receptor. (
  • These junctions control the amount of molecules being delivered between the cells: if there is an increased expression of gap junctions, more molecules can be delivered across the cell barrier, while tight junctions restrict the extracellular movement of molecules. (
  • What causes a shift from intracellular to extracellular space in the pathogenesis of hyperphosphatemia? (
  • Chloride is an extracellular fluid anion that plays an important role in maintaining normal acid-base balance and along with sodium maintains water balance and serum osmolality. (
  • Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. (
  • Disease entities of the middle ear include: tympanic membrane perforation, damage to or loss of one of the middle ear ossicles, otosclerosis, fluid or infection in the middle ear space, or malfunction of the Eustachian tube. (
  • During the first 24 hours after sustaining thermal injury, large volumes of crystalloids are infused to restore the depleted extracellular fluid volume. (
  • however, because the intracellular concentration of phosphate is greater than the extracellular concentration, phosphate entry into cells requires a facilitated transport process. (
  • Because this enzyme functions in the spaces between cells, it is described as extracellular. (
  • Extracellular signaling molecule: an extracellular signaling molecule is produced by one cell and is at least capable of traveling to neighboring cells. (
  • Stereocilia on the hair cells project into an extracellular gelatinous material called the cupula. (
  • While the bulk gel provides just the right amount of elasticity plus a relevant chemical signal to coax stem cells into proliferation and send them on their maturation path, the porogen gradually breaks down, leaving open spaces for the stem cells to expand into before they naturally migrate out of the gel structure altogether to form actual mineralized bone tissue. (
  • Endothelial cells (ECs), forming a semi-permeable barrier between the interior space of blood vessels and underlying tissues, control such diverse processes as vascular tone, homeostasis, adhesion of platelets, and leukocytes to the vascular wall and permeability of vascular wall for cells and fluids. (
  • To evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics and outcome of tumor cells spreading through air spaces in patients with adenocarcinoma of lung]. (
  • Summary: Researchers revealed that culturing human induced pluripotent stem cells with different isoforms of the extracellular component laminin led to the creation of cells specific to different parts of the eye, including retinal, corneal, and neural crest cells. (
  • Several sodium-coupled transport proteins have been identified that enable intracellular uptake of phosphate by taking advantage of the steep extracellular-to-intracellular sodium gradient. (
  • 1 . Halnes G, Mäki-Marttunen T, Keller D, Pettersen KH, Andreassen OA, Einevoll GT (2016) Effect of Ionic Diffusion on Extracellular Potentials in Neural Tissue. (
  • Clinical situations in which a shift to extracellular space is the major cause of hyperphosphatemia include rhabdomyolysis and tumor lysis. (
  • Integration of clinicopathological and mutational data offers insight into lung cancer with tumor spread through air spaces. (
  • Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]-absorbing neurons use serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) to uptake 5-HT from extracellular space but do not synthesize it. (
  • SERT is present not only in the presynaptic plasma membrane of 5-HT-producing neurons to reuptake 5-HT from the synaptic cleft, but also in a range of neurons that are capable of absorbing 5-HT from extrasynaptic space but do not synthesize it. (
  • Muscle water spaces were also measured using the chloride method and Nernst's equation. (
  • Chloride is the predominant anion that exists in the extracellular space. (
  • Dynamic mapping of extracellular pH (pHe) at the single-cell level is critical for understanding the role of H + in cellular and subcellular processes, with particular importance in cancer. (
  • The transitory pore is evidence that the laser is allowing for the movement of fatty acids, glycerol, and triglycerides to pass across the membrane and into extra-cellular space. (
  • Through vasodilation of nearby blood vessels and arteries, oxidization of the triglycerides and fatty acids occurs within the extra-cellular space. (
  • ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The gene quiescin/sulfhydryl oxidase 1, QSOX1, encodes an enzyme directed to the secretory pathway and excreted into the extracellular space. (
  • Because of the interplay between the nanotube geometry and the extracellular space local environment [5], we can extract information about the extracellular space dimension and local viscosity. (
  • If I wired up a system using resistors for electrodes (I used 10K or 100K resistors for extracellular type macroelectrodes) but keeping the geometry as close as possible to the real experimental situation, I could work out where the problem was coming from without messing with tissue or even with the bath. (
  • Consequently, the density and activity of SERT are important determinants of extracellular 5-HT concentration, the magnitude of 5-HT signals, and the number and duration of 5-HT receptors activated. (
  • A living cell has many different receptors on its surface by the activation of which information is transferred to the intracellular spaces. (
  • Upon activation of an extracellular domain by binding of the appropriate ligand, the pore becomes accessible to ions, which then diffuse. (
  • Predicted to be located in extracellular region and plasma membrane. (
  • infected bisecting proteins re-enter endosomal body chains to promote with the SAMM50 regulator and extracellular plasma metazoans to have with the TIMM22 superpathway. (
  • Among them, TWIK1-related alkalinization-activated K + channel 1 (TALK1), TWIK1-related alkalinization-activated K + channel 2 (TALK2), and TWIK1-related acid-sensitive K + channel 2 (TASK2) form a subfamily of structurally related K 2P channels stimulated by extracellular alkalosis. (
  • The magnitude of loss into the third space may require treatment of reduced volume or oncotic activity with an infusion of albumin. (
  • State-reinforced self-governance of community-managed open spaces in Chicago, IL and Louisville, KY. (
  • Recorded potentials in the extracellular space (ECS) of the brain is a standard measure of population activity in neural tissue. (
  • Wayne Kaufman of Phoenix Financial Services featured on CNN, with a prediction that more mergers and acquisitions activity within the media space could happen as the competition for content intensifies. (
  • A systemic injection of cocaine (15 mg/kg i.p.) elevated extracellular glutamate in the VTA of rats pretreated with daily cocaine but not in the daily saline-pretreated subjects. (
  • After 31 P MRS-visible water space markers which distribute in total body water (dimethyl methylphosphonate, DMMP) and extracellular water (phenylphosphonate, PPA) were infused intravenously, 31 P MRS spectra were obtained from the gastrocnemius muscle of male virus-free Wistar rats at baseline and after starvation or ad libitum feeding for 4 days. (
  • In vivo measurements of changes in DMMP relative to all of the MRS visible phosphates also demonstrated that the total water space was similar in control and starved rats. (
  • Comparison of anoxia-induced changes in brain water ADC, and in volume and tortuosity of the extracellular space in grey and white matter in the rat. (
  • Results: Patients with NSVT (n = 13) had a higher late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) amount, extracellular volume fraction (ECV), and prevalence of sarcomere mutations compared with patients without NSVT. (
  • Be isolated from extracellular fluids like cell culture medium or body fluids. (
  • By coupling the bulk gel with a small peptide derived from the extracellular environment of genuine stem cell niches, and mixing it with a tissue specific stem cell type as well as the porogen, the team can create a bone forming artificial niche. (
  • Positive psychological effects of space missions. (
  • Predicted to be active in extracellular region. (
  • The extracellular domain juts externally from the cell or organelle . (
  • The non-small cell lung cancer EGFR extracellular domain mutation, M277E, is oncogenic and drug-sensitive. (
  • Alternatively, fluorescence-based pH probes can be used in extracellular space, but with considerable limitations due to high background levels and rapid photobleaching 9 . (
  • By using biocompatible luminescent single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the near-IR emission [2,3], here we show an approach to directly observe local structures and rheology of the extracellular space in a brain tissue using super-resolution imaging. (
  • We find a striking diversity of extracellular space dimensions down to 40 nm, and as well as of local viscosity values. (
  • These parts start implemented for two normal models of identifying between two lots and mixing between a extracellular view Переход of subgroups. (
  • 0.001), and therefore the ratio of extracellular water to total water in the gastrocnemius. (
  • These phenomena can be studied simultaneously in a noninvasive fashion using in vivo 31 P MRS and MRS-visible water space markers. (