Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Protein Kinase C beta: PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.PhosphoproteinsRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Phorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL which, in addition to being a potent skin tumor promoter, is also an effective activator of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C). Due to its activation of this enzyme, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate profoundly affects many different biological systems.DiglyceridesGene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 7: A 110-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that is activated in response to cellular stress and by GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS-mediated pathways.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesImmunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Pokeweed Mitogens: Proteins isolated from the roots of the pokeweed, Phytolacca americana, that agglutinate some erythrocytes, stimulate mitosis and antibody synthesis in lymphocytes, and induce activation of plasma cells.Phorbol Esters: Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.Staurosporine: An indolocarbazole that is a potent PROTEIN KINASE C inhibitor which enhances cAMP-mediated responses in human neuroblastoma cells. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;214(3):1114-20)Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Butadienes: Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.MaleimidesCell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.DNA-Activated Protein Kinase: A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Type II: A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase subtype primarily found in particulate subcellular fractions. They are tetrameric proteins that contain two catalytic subunits and two type II-specific regulatory subunits.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases: Highly conserved protein-serine threonine kinases that phosphorylate and activate a group of AGC protein kinases, especially in response to the production of the SECOND MESSENGERS, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,-biphosphate (PtdIns(3,4)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3).Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 188.8.131.52.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8: A c-jun amino-terminal kinase that is activated by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Several isoforms of the protein with molecular sizes of 43 and 48 KD exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 184.108.40.206.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 90-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are structurally distinguished from RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 70-KDA by their apparent molecular size and the fact they contain two functional kinase domains. Although considered RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, members of this family are activated via the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM and have been shown to act on a diverse array of substrates that are involved in cellular regulation such as RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 and CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf: A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Type C Phospholipases: A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 220.127.116.11), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.ChromonesNitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 1: A 195-kDa MAP kinase kinase kinase with broad specificity for MAP KINASE KINASES. It is found localized in the CYTOSKELETON and can activate a variety of MAP kinase-dependent pathways.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Carbazoles: Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.Phosphoserine: The phosphoric acid ester of serine.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 18.104.22.168.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)MAP Kinase Kinase 2: A 44 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.MAP Kinase Kinase 5: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 7.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.MorpholinesReceptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Diacylglycerol Kinase: An enzyme of the transferase class that uses ATP to catalyze the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to a phosphatidate. EC 22.214.171.124.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Nerve Tissue ProteinsActins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase: An enzyme that phosphorylates myosin light chains in the presence of ATP to yield myosin-light chain phosphate and ADP, and requires calcium and CALMODULIN. The 20-kDa light chain is phosphorylated more rapidly than any other acceptor, but light chains from other myosins and myosin itself can act as acceptors. The enzyme plays a central role in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
... enterocolitica promotes deactivation of macrophage mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 ... interferes with the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activities of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular ... Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogens (YpM) are superantigens, which are able to excessively activate T cells by binding ... Secretion is regulated in this fashion so that proteins are not expelled into the extracellular matrix and elicit an immune ...
Adenosine A2B receptor
"Role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase in adenosine A2B receptor ... This integral membrane protein stimulates adenylate cyclase activity in the presence of adenosine. This protein also interacts ... 2004). "Adenosine-activated mast cells induce IgE synthesis by B lymphocytes: an A2B-mediated process involving Th2 cytokines ... The adenosine A2B receptor, also known as ADORA2B, is a G-protein coupled adenosine receptor, and also denotes the human ...
... and is most closely related to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases). MAP kinases also known as extracellular signal- ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK6 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... "Entrez Gene: MAPK6 mitogen-activated protein kinase 6". MAP Kinase Resource . Boulton TG, Nye SH, Robbins DJ, et al. (1991). " ... signal-regulated kinase 3 by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway defines a novel paradigm of mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
... "p38alpha isoform Mxi2 binds to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase and regulates its ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinases activate the serine/threonine kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2". EMBO J. 16 (8): 1909-20. doi:10.1093/ ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal- ... Tournier C, Whitmarsh AJ, Cavanagh J, Barrett T, Davis RJ (July 1997). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an ...
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, a enciclopedia libre
... enterocolitica promotes deactivation of macrophage mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 ... Galyov EE, Håkansson S, Forsberg A, Wolf-Watz H (1993). "A secreted protein kinase of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an ... "En Ladant, Daniel; Alouf, Joseph E.; Popoff, Michel R. The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. Academic Press ... "Impact of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-derived mitogen (YPM) on the murine immune system". Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 529: 133-5. ...
... the protein kinase TAO2 and identification of its mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase ... a protein kinase that activates MEKs in stress-activated protein kinase cascades". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (44): 28625-32. doi: ... 2005). "LKB1 is a master kinase that activates 13 kinases of the AMPK subfamily, including MARK/PAR-1". EMBO J. 23 (4): 833-43 ... Serine/threonine-protein kinase TAO1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TAOK1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K7 gene. The protein encoded ... activated kinase (TAK1), a kinase mediator of TGF beta signal transduction". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (36): 22771-5. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... TAK1 is a central regulator of cell death and is activated through a diverse set of intra- and extracellular stimuli. TAK1 ... "Entrez Gene: MAP3K7 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7". Mochida Y, Takeda K, Saitoh M, Nishitoh H, Amagasa T, ...
Extracellular signal-regulated kinases
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) is also known as "extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2" (ERK2). Two similar (85% ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3) is also known as "extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1" (ERK1). Transgenic gene ... "MAP kinase-kinase", thus qualifying as a "MAP kinase kinase kinase". The MAP kinase-kinase, which activates ERK, was named " ... "extracellular signal-regulated kinases", is sometimes used as a synonym for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but has ...
"Inhibition of T cell signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase-targeted hematopoietic tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP)". J. ... "Direct suppression of TCR-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase by leukocyte protein tyrosine ... "Inhibition of T cell signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase-targeted hematopoietic tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP)". J. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling ...
... and Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 Mpk), and cAMP response element- ... levels of Ca2+ in the cellular cytosol to control the activity of Ca2+-cell signaling agents and for activating protein kinase ... binding protein (CREB) which when activated phosphorylate and thereby influence the activity of key proteins that govern cell ... G proteins types to which they link and activate, i.e. those containing the Gs alpha subunit, Gi alpha subunit, Gq alpha ...
Adenozinski A2B receptor
"Role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase in adenosine A2B receptor ... Adenozinski A2B receptor (ADORA2B) je G-protein spregnuti adenozinski receptor. Ovaj protein je kodiran humanim ADORA2B genom.[ ... signalni put G-protein spregnutog receptora. • aktivnost adenilat ciklaze. • JNK kaskada. • izlučivanje. ... aktivnost A2B adenouinskog receptora, G-protein spregnutog. • receptorska aktivnost. Celularna komponenta. • integralno sa ...
The activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades transduces various extracellular signals to the nucleus to ... a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase, functions as a shuttle protein". J Biol Chem. 276 (42): 39002-11. doi: ... a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase, functions as a shuttle protein". J. Biol. Chem. United States. 276 (42): ... Willoughby EA, Perkins GR, Collins MK, Whitmarsh AJ (2003). "The JNK-interacting protein-1 scaffold protein targets MAPK ...
... the protein kinase TAO2 and identification of its mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase ... protein kinases mediate signaling from carbachol to p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and ternary complex factors". J. Biol ... STE20-like kinase derived from prostatic carcinoma that activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase ... a protein kinase that activates MEKs in stress-activated protein kinase cascades". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (44): 28625-32. doi: ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 12 (MAP kinase 12), also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 6 (ERK6) or stress- ... Stress-activated protein kinases are one subclass of MAP kinases. The protein encoded by this gene functions as a signal ... of members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family is a major mechanism for transduction of extracellular signals. ... 2008). "Implication of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase isoforms (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) in CD4+ T-cell infection ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 13 (MAPK 13), also known as stress-activated protein kinase 4 (SAPK4), is an enzyme that in ... death and survival by regulating activity and subcellular localization of a p38delta-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 ... mitogen-activated protein kinase 13". Efimova T, Broome AM, Eckert RL (2004). "Protein kinase Cdelta regulates keratinocyte ... 2008). "Implication of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase isoforms (alpha, beta, gamma and delta) in CD4+ T-cell infection ...
Alcohol and cancer
... regulatory proteins and components of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling ... Rush University Medical Center Alcohol Activates Cellular Changes That Make Tumor Cells Spread 26 October 2009 Forsyth CB, Tang ... 2007). "Demonstration of ethanol-induced protein adducts in oral leukoplakia (pre-cancer) and cancer". Journal of Oral ... pharynx and esophagus activates the division of the stem cells located in deeper layers of the mucosa to replace the dead cells ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase
Ellis JG, Davila M, Chakrabarti R (Jan 2003). "Potential involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 in ... Signal transduction MAP kinase kinase MAP kinase kinase kinase MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase MAPK1 (ERK2) MAPK3 (ERK1) MAPK7 ... MAP Kinase Resource . Table of names for mitogen-activated kinases. MAPK cascade picture Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases at ... A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine ...
This kinase is specifically activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MAP2K5/MEK5). It is involved in the ... and G protein-coupled receptors. In response to extracellular signals, this kinase translocates to the cell nucleus, where it ... "Identification of substrates and regulators of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK5 using chimeric protein kinases". J. ... "Characterization of the mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation sites on the connexin-43 gap junction protein". J. ...
... "p38α Isoform Mxi2 Binds to Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1 and 2 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Regulates Its ... protein tyrosine kinase activity. • nucleotide binding. • MAP kinase kinase activity. • protein kinase activity. • protein ... MAP2K1 is also known as MEK1 (see Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase). MEK1 is a meiotic chromosome-axis-associated kinase ... "Entrez Gene: MAP2K1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1".. *^ a b Goldfarb T, Lichten M (2010). "Frequent and efficient ...
Mitogenom-aktivirana proteinska kinaza 1 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
... p38alpha isoform Mxi2 binds to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase and regulates its ... 1997). „Mitogen-activated protein kinases activate the serine/threonine kinases Mnk1 and Mnk2". EMBO J. ENGLAND. 16 (8): 1909- ... 1997). „Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S ... 1999). „Inhibition of T cell signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase-targeted hematopoietic tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP ...
MAPK14, la enciclopedia libre
de 2003). «p38alpha isoform Mxi2 binds to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase and ... Cell type-specific inhibition of the ETS transcription factor ER81 by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase ... de 2000). «Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase». J ... de 1997). «Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 is an activator of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase». Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ...
Leukemia inhibitory factor receptor
... factor-stimulated neuronal gene expression by protein phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 through mitogen-activated protein kinase- ... "Stimulation of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor degradation by extracellular signal-regulated kinase". The Journal of ... receptor by mitogen-activated protein kinase and the regulation of LIF receptor function by heterologous receptor activation". ... "A functional role of the membrane-proximal extracellular domains of the signal transducer gp130 in heterodimerization with the ...
Formyl peptide receptor
In the next step mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases) are activated. (Also known as extracellular signal-regulated ... DAG in turn is an inducer of protein kinase C (PKC). Activation of the regulatory small GTPase, RAS. The active RAS can in turn ... kinases - ERKs or MAP/ERK kinase (MEK)). As a result of the last step, ERK1 and ERK2 are activated. The phosphorylated forms of ... Rivière S, Challet L, Fluegge D, Spehr M, Rodriguez I (May 2009). "Formyl peptide receptor-like proteins are a novel family of ...
... c-Jun N-terminal kinase kinase 2 (JNK kinase 2, JNKK2) Stress-activated / extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase ... This protein is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase family. The MKK7 protein exists as six different ... "Activation of stress-activated protein kinases/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinases (SAPKs/JNKs) by a novel mitogen-activated ... signaling pathway. In collaboration with another mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase MKK4, MKK7 work as crucial transducers ...
... mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt) phospholipase C γ protein kinase C (PKC) Signal ... lacks kinase domain), and erbB-4. All four contain an extracellular ligand binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and an ... "Transgenic MUC1 interacts with epidermal growth factor receptor and correlates with mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ... Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2, also known as CD340 (cluster of differentiation 340), proto-oncogene Neu, Erbb2 ( ...
One very important group of protein kinases are the MAP kinases (acronym from: "mitogen-activated protein kinases"). Important ... allowing a highly varied response to the extracellular signal. Trans-autophosphorylation (phosphorylation by the other kinase ... typically activated by mitogenic signals, and the stress-activated protein kinases JNK and p38. While MAP kinases are serine/ ... The Protein Kinase Ontology (ProKinO): A unified protein kinase resource The literature-curated human signaling network, the ...
"Inhibition of T cell signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase-targeted hematopoietic tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP)". J. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal- ... and cell cycle progression in response to a variety of extracellular signals. This kinase is activated by upstream kinases, ... the kinases that phosphorylate and activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (32): 23933-9. PMID ...
MAP kinase)- activated protein kinase. MAP kinases are also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an ... a novel mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase, is targeted by three MAP kinase pathways". Mol. Cell. ... "Identification of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase-3, a novel substrate of CSBP p38 MAP kinase ... "Entrez Gene: MAPKAPK3 mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3". Tanoue T, Maeda R, Adachi M, Nishida E ( ...
... including members of the mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. The activity of this protein has been implicated ... "Identification of an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) docking site in ribosomal S6 kinase, a sequence critical for ... Deak M, Clifton AD, Lucocq LM, Alessi DR (August 1998). "Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK1) is directly ... isoforms with mitogen-activated protein kinases". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (47): 29773-9. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
"The neuropeptide substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase resulting in IL-6 expression independently from NF- ... Amino acid residues that are responsible for the binding of SP and its antagonists are present in the extracellular loops and ... Because these regions are related to complexed signal transduction pathways mediated by cytokines, it has been proposed that ... "Metalloproteinases and transforming growth factor-alpha mediate substance P-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation ...
Platelet-derived growth factor
However, comparing the signaling pathways between them reveals that the PI3K pathway is exclusively activated by PDGF, with EGF ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... "Embryonic mesoderm cells spread in response to platelet-derived growth factor and signaling by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase". ... PDGF is a potent mitogen for cells of mesenchymal origin, including fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and glial cells. In ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (EC 126.96.36.199). *Extracellular signal-regulated *MAPK1. *MAPK3 ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • cyclin-dependent protein serine/ ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 188.8.131.52). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene ...
... mitogen-activated protein kinase) kinase pathway and the phosphorylation of Lck (lymphocyte-activated protein tyrosine kinase) ... kinases of the Src family including Lck and Fyn are activated, and subsequently activates PI3K and MAPK signaling pathway. ... extracellular region. • extracellular space. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • nuclear speck. Biological process. • negative regulation ... mitogen-activated protein kinase) kinase pathway and the phosphorylation of Lck (lymphocyte-activated protein tyrosine kinase) ...
kinase binding. • mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase binding. • guanylate kinase activity. • protein binding. • protein ... negative regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling. • negative regulation of ... extracellular exosome. • Golgi apparatus. • lateral plasma membrane. • intercalated disc. • neuromuscular junction. • myelin ... SAP97 is a mammalian MAGUK-family member protein that is similar to the Drosophila protein Dlg1 (the protein is alternatively ...
Hepatocyte growth factor
... factor depends on heparan sulfate proteoglycans and sustained phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases p42/44". The ... positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of protein phosphorylation. • cytokine-mediated ... phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity. Cellular component. • membrane. • extracellular region. • platelet ... protein heterodimerization activity. • growth factor activity. • serine-type endopeptidase activity. • protein tyrosine kinase ...
... and/or 271 by Mitogen-activated protein kinases, S6 kinase, protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C, Cdc2, and/or a Ca2+/ ... extracellular region. • extracellular space. • nuclear envelope. • nucleoplasm. • secretory granule lumen. • ficolin-1-rich ... cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. • interleukin-18-mediated signaling pathway. • long-chain fatty acid biosynthetic process ... This chemotactic factor stimulation concurrently causes the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) which in ...
... cyclin-dependent kinases, and other cell cycle proteins. The phases follow one another in strict order and there are " ... Chan GK, Yen TJ (2003). "The mitotic checkpoint: a signaling pathway that allows a single unattached kinetochore to inhibit ... the motor activates, using energy from ATP to "crawl" up the tube toward the originating centrosome. This motor activity, ... where outward forces must be produced to round up against surrounding cells and/or the extracellular matrix. Generation of ...
Glikoprotein 130 - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
... and gp130-mediated stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Evidence for participation of multiple signaling pathways ... A functional role of the membrane-proximal extracellular domains of the signal transducer gp130 in heterodimerization with the ... Mijelin protein nula • Osteonektin • Protein C • Protein S • Proteoglikan • Serum amiloid P komponenta • Sialoglikoprotein ( ... 2000). „Interleukin-6 activates phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, which inhibits apoptosis in human prostate cancer cell lines.". ...
... binding protein through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling ... proteins interacting with the subunit indicated that the N-terminus seemed to be extracellular, while the C-terminus seemed to ... and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Messages are translated on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) and ... CaMKII activates the Ras proteins, which go on to activate p42/44 MAPK, which drives AMPAR insertion directly into the ...
Epiregulin - ويكيبيديا، الموسوعة الحرة
positive regulation of protein kinase activity. • ERBB2 signaling pathway. • regulation of cell motility. • epidermal growth ... luteinizing hormone signaling pathway. • positive regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • تمايز ... "Epiregulin is a potent vascular smooth muscle cell-derived mitogen induced by angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and thrombin.". ... extracellular space. • clathrin-coated vesicle membrane. العمليات الحيوية. • ...
Buhl AM, Osawa S, Johnson GL (1995). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase activation requires two signal inputs from the human ... extracellular exosome. • cytosol. Biological process. • cellular response to catecholamine stimulus. • G-protein coupled ... phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • retina development in camera-type eye. • Ras protein ... protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase activity. • GTPase binding. • G-protein ...
... a hyaluronan-binding protein that regulates ras signaling, correlates with overexpression of mitogen-activated protein kinase ... It forms links with several protein kinases associated with cell locomotion, for example, extracellular signal-regulated ... MAP kinase (MAPK), pp60(c-src), and the downstream targets of Rho kinase (ROK). RHAMM can also cooperate with CD44 to ... a b c d Wayne D. Comper, Extracellular Matrix Volume 2 Molecular Components and Interactions, 1996, Harwood Academic Publishers ...
... mitogen-activated-protein kinase-activating protein kinase) has a preference for Ser40, but also phosphorylates Ser19 about ... extracellular regulated kinases 1&2), and increases the enzyme activity to a lesser extent than for Ser40 phosphorylation.[ ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Adrenergics • Dopaminergics • Melatonergics • Serotonergics • Monoamine reuptake ... "Phosphorylation and activation of human tyrosine hydroxylase in vitro by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and MAP-kinase- ...
mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase binding. • protein binding. • thioesterase binding. • protein kinase binding. • ... a Rho family GTPase-activating protein that interacts with signaling adapters Gab1 and Gab2". The Journal of Biological ... extracellular exosome. • filopodium. • plasma membrane. • spindle. • apical part of cell. • secretory granule. • neuronal cell ... Activated Cdc42 activates by conformational changes p21-activated kinases PAK1 and PAK2, which in turn initiate actin ...
"Serine 25 of oncoprotein 18 is a major cytosolic target for the mitogen-activated protein kinase". The Journal of Biological ... Its phosphorylation and gene expression are regulated throughout development and in response to extracellular signals ... of stathmin is cell cycle dependent and controlled by the cell's protein kinases in response to specific cell signals. ... Identification of four sites phosphorylated in intact cells and in vitro by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and p34cdc2". ...
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
... mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signal transduction ... extracellular region. • extracellular space. Biological process. • positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • ... positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. • positive regulation of protein binding. • cellular response ... G-CSF regulates them using Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and Ras/ ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (EC 184.108.40.206). *Extracellular signal-regulated *MAPK1. *MAPK3 ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 220.127.116.11). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... protein kinase activity. • PDZ domain binding. • SH3 domain binding. • scaffold protein binding. • metal ion binding. • kinase ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • ATP binding. • Rho GTPase binding. ...
G protein-coupled receptor
... c-SRC-which may activate ERK1/2, or other mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling through, for example, ... In the phosphatidylinositol signal pathway, the extracellular signal molecule binds with the G-protein receptor (Gq) on the ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was ... The ERK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase, a key signal transduction mediator downstream of receptor activation in many ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways includes three pathways: the classical MAPK/ERK pathway, p38 MAPK ... extracellular exosome. • apical plasma membrane. Biological process. • stem cell proliferation. • xenobiotic transport. • G2/M ... For example, miR-27a up-regulates P-gp expression by suppressing Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP); alternatively, miR- ... The protein belongs to the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (EC 18.104.22.168). *Extracellular signal-regulated *MAPK1. *MAPK3 ... Dephospho-(reductase kinase) kinase (EC 22.214.171.124). *AMP-activated protein kinase α *PRKAA1 ... Receptor protein serine/threonine kinase (EC 126.96.36.199). *Bone morphogenetic protein receptors *BMPR1 ... Myosin-heavy-chain kinase (EC 188.8.131.52). *Aurora kinase *Aurora A kinase ...
... link c-Src and G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 in a signaling unit that regulates p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase ... "Focal adhesion kinase enhances signaling through the Shc/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in anaplastic ... "Carbachol-stimulated transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase in T(84) cells is ... a receptor for activated C kinase and a homolog of the beta subunit of G proteins, inhibits activity of src tyrosine kinases ...
Cannabinoid receptor type 1
... and increases mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) concentration. Alternatively, in some rare cases CB1 receptor ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • cannabinoid signaling pathway. • retrograde trans-synaptic signaling by ... possessing seven transmembrane domains connected by three extracellular and three intracellular loops, an extracellular N- ... which are activated by cAMP-dependent interaction with such molecules as protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), Raf-1 ...
... activation of IP3 signaling and MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) such as ERK and JNK, bring about an increase in the ... Regulation of ion concentration in the extracellular space: Astrocytes express potassium channels at a high density. When ... In this chronic signaling pathway, p38 is activated as a result of IL-1β signaling, and there is a presence of chemokines that ... canonical signaling factors like Sonic hedgehog (SHH), Fibroblast growth factor (FGFs), WNTs and bone morphogenetic proteins ( ...
Интерлеукин 17A - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
... induced gene expression in articular chondrocytes is associated with activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF- ... A, Andoh; Shimada M; Bamba S (2002). „Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 participate in interleukin-17 plus tumor ... Expression of IL-17 in human memory CD45RO+ T lymphocytes and its regulation by protein kinase A pathway.". Cytokine. 11 (4): ... Rouvier E, Luciani MF, Mattei MG, Denizot F, Golstein P (1993). „CTLA-8, cloned from an activated T cell, bearing AU-rich ...
A novel interplay between Epac/Rap1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (MEK5...
A novel interplay between Epac/Rap1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (MEK5 ... A novel interplay between Epac/Rap1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (MEK5 ... A novel interplay between Epac/Rap1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (MEK5 ... A novel interplay between Epac/Rap1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (MEK5 ...
Mitogen-activated Protein/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Kinase (MEK) Inhibitors Restore Anoikis Sensitivity in Human...
... mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; mTOR, ... Mitogen-activated Protein/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Kinase (MEK) Inhibitors Restore Anoikis Sensitivity in Human ... Mitogen-activated Protein/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Kinase (MEK) Inhibitors Restore Anoikis Sensitivity in Human ... Mitogen-activated Protein/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Kinase (MEK) Inhibitors Restore Anoikis Sensitivity in Human ...
Role of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Cascade in Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone...
... mitogen-activated protein; MAPK, MAP kinase; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase; ... Retinoic acid induced mitogen-activated protein (MAP)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase-dependent MAP kinase ... Role of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Cascade in Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone- ... Role of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Cascade in Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone- ...
Mapk15 - Mitogen-activated protein kinase 15 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Mapk15 gene & protein
... and signaling. Prevents the relocation of the sugar-adding enzymes from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum, thereby ... protein trafficking/secretion and genome integrity, in a kinase activity-dependent manner (By similarity) (PubMed:25823377). ... Regulates DA transporter (DAT) activity and protein expression via activation of RhoA. In response to H(2)O(2) treatment ... Regulates primary cilium formation and the localization of ciliary proteins involved in cilium structure, transport, ...
Role of Crosstalk Between Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase/Mitogen-Activated Protein...
... and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) signaling pathways, plays a central ... Role of Crosstalk Between Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and Extracellular Signal-Regulated. Kinase/Mitogen-Activated Protein ... Role of Crosstalk Between Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase/Mitogen-Activated Protein ... Role of Crosstalk Between Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase/Mitogen-Activated Protein ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 15 - DrugBank
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 8. *MAP kinase 15. Gene Name. MAPK15. Organism. Humans. Amino acid sequence. ,lcl, ... lcl,BSEQ0051829,Mitogen-activated protein kinase 15 (MAPK15) ATGTGCACCGTAGTGGACCCTCGCATTGTCCGGAGATACCTACTCAGGCGGCAGCTCGGG ... a new member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. J Biol Chem. 2002 May 10;277(19):16733-43. Epub 2002 Mar 1. [ ... Activation of the Erk8 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase by RET/PTC3, a constitutively active form of the RET proto- ...
The Stress Kinase Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase (Mkk)7 Is a Negative Regulator of Antigen Receptor and Growth Factor...
... extracellular signal-regulated kinase; ES, embryonic stem; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase ... Activation of stress-activated protein kinases/c-Jun N-terminal protein kinases (SAPKs/JNKs) by a novel mitogen-activated ... The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases which transduce signals from the cell ... The Stress Kinase Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase (Mkk)7 Is a Negative Regulator of Antigen Receptor and Growth Factor ...
Differential Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in AGS Gastric Epithelial Cells by cag+ and cag− Helicobacter...
... mitogen-activated protein; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinases; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinases; MEKK1, MAP kinase kinase ... Coordinate regulation of IκB kinases by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 and NF-κB-inducing kinase. Mol. Cell. ... The aim of this study was to determine whether Helicobacter pylori activates mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in gastric ... the MAP kinase family members MAP kinase kinase kinase (MEKK1) and NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) can each directly activate the I ...
Proximal Tubular Toxicity of Ochratoxin A Is Amplified by Simultaneous Inhibition of the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases...
... mitogen-activated protein kinase; ERK1/2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2; p38, extracellular-regulated protein ... As we have shown previously, OTA activates mitogen-activated protein kinases [extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 ( ... Johnson GL and Lapadat R (2002) Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediated by ERK, JNK and p38 protein kinases. Science ... Constitutively active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase MEK1 disrupts morphogenesis and induces an invasive phenotype in ...
Homo sapiens mitogen-activated protein kinase 15 (MAPK15), mRNA - Nucleotide - NCBI
Regulation of human mitogen-activated protein kinase 15 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 7/8) and its functions: A recent ... mitogen-activated protein kinase 15 [Guide to Pharmacology] mitogen-activated protein kinase 15. Guide to Pharmacology ... Homo sapiens mitogen-activated protein kinase 15 (MAPK15), mRNA Homo sapiens mitogen-activated protein kinase 15 (MAPK15), mRNA ... Regulation of human mitogen-activated protein kinase 15 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 7/8) and its functions: A recent ...
Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 integrin subunit. - Semantic...
... is dependent on phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase. Activation of MAP kinase by alpha6beta1 requires both Ras and protein kinase C ... alpha6B cytoplasmic domain variants of the alpha6beta1 integrin differentially activate p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein ( ... Both the alpha6Abeta1 and alpha6Bbeta1 integrins were capable of activating the p70 ribosomal S6 kinase and this activation, ... Our findings demonstrate that the alpha6beta1 integrin can activate MAP kinase, that this activation is regulated by the ...
Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase 1 (MAP Kinase 1 or MAPK 1 or Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase 2 or ERK-2 or Protein...
MAP Kinase 1 or MAPK 1 or Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase 2 or ERK-2 or Protein Tyrosine Kinase ERK2 or EC 184.108.40.206) - ... Global Markets Directs, Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase 1 (MAP... ... 46 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase 1 ( ... Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase 1 (MAP Kinase 1 or MAPK 1 or Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase 2 or ERK-2 or Protein ...
July 2011 - Volume 28 - Issue 7 : European Journal of Anaesthesiology (EJA)
The Role of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Activation in Determining Cellular Outcomes in Polyamine Analogue-treated Human...
Pedram A., Razandi M., Levin E. R. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase/Jun kinase cross-talk underlies vascular ... This study reveals that DENSPM potently activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in melanoma cells and ... influences of mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways on cell survival. Biochem. J., 333: 291-300, 1998. ... c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; MDL-72527, N1-methyl-N2-(2,3-butadienyl)butane-1,4-diamine; ...
Extracellular signal-regulated kinases - Wikipedia
Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) is also known as "extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2" (ERK2). Two similar (85% ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MAPK3) is also known as "extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1" (ERK1). Transgenic gene ... "MAP kinase-kinase", thus qualifying as a "MAP kinase kinase kinase". The MAP kinase-kinase, which activates ERK, was named " ... "extracellular signal-regulated kinases", is sometimes used as a synonym for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but has ...
MAP kinase phosphatases
Mitogen-activated protein MAP kinases are key signal-transducing enzymes that are activated by a wide range of extracellular ... Mitogen-activated protein MAP kinases are key signal-transducing enzymes that are activated by a wide range of extracellular ... MAP kinase phosphatases Genome Biol. 2002 Jun 26;3(7):REVIEWS3009. doi: 10.1186/gb-2002-3-7-reviews3009. Epub 2002 Jun 26. ... Although regulation of MAP kinases by a phosphorylation cascade has long been recognized as significant, their inactivation ...
Frontiers | Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Mediates Morphine Induced-Delayed Hyperalgesia | Neuroscience
The i.t injection of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor blocked morphine-induced analgesia, without ... Intrathecal (i.t.) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) antisense to cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) attenuated morphine- ... Intrathecal (i.t.) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) antisense to cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) attenuated morphine- ... The i.t injection of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor blocked morphine-induced analgesia, without ...
Distinct Signaling Profiles of β1 and β2 Adrenergic Receptor Ligands toward Adenylyl Cyclase and Mitogen-Activated Protein...
... signaling pathway, were shown to be partial agonists when tested on the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity ( ... Distinct Signaling Profiles of β1 and β2 Adrenergic Receptor Ligands toward Adenylyl Cyclase and Mitogen-Activated Protein ... Distinct Signaling Profiles of β1 and β2 Adrenergic Receptor Ligands toward Adenylyl Cyclase and Mitogen-Activated Protein ... Distinct Signaling Profiles of β1 and β2 Adrenergic Receptor Ligands toward Adenylyl Cyclase and Mitogen-Activated Protein ...
Distinct Signaling Profiles of β1 and β2 Adrenergic Receptor Ligands toward Adenylyl Cyclase and Mitogen-Activated Protein...
... extracellular signal-regulated kinase; HRP, horseradish peroxidase; HEK, human embryonic kidney; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline ... Distinct Signaling Profiles of β1 and β2 Adrenergic Receptor Ligands toward Adenylyl Cyclase and Mitogen-Activated Protein ... Distinct Signaling Profiles of β1 and β2 Adrenergic Receptor Ligands toward Adenylyl Cyclase and Mitogen-Activated Protein ... Distinct Signaling Profiles of β1 and β2 Adrenergic Receptor Ligands toward Adenylyl Cyclase and Mitogen-Activated Protein ...
Sorafenib inhibits growth and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in malignant peripheral nerve sheath cells | Molecular...
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent proliferation is mediated through the protein kinase A/B-Raf pathway in human ... Sorafenib inhibits growth and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in malignant peripheral nerve sheath cells. Grazia ... Sorafenib inhibits growth and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in malignant peripheral nerve sheath cells ... Sorafenib inhibits growth and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in malignant peripheral nerve sheath cells ...
Bone morphogenetic protein 7 enhances the osteogenic differentiation of human dermal-derived CD105+ fibroblast cells through...
... mitogen-activated protein kinase; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase; p-, phosphorylated. ... BMPs signal via the p38 class of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and the activity of p38 MAPK is regulated by BMP ... and p38/mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling in CD105+ hDDFCs. The small interfering RNA‑mediated knockdown of Smad4 or ... 9743), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK; 1:2,000; cat. no. 4696), phosphorylated (p)-ERK (1:1,000; cat. no. 9101), c- ...
Novel Functions for mda-7/IL-24 and IL-24 delE5: Regulation of Differentiation of Acute Myeloid Leukemic Cells | Molecular...
Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway was required for their ... The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK) inhibitors U0126 and PD98059, and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) ... TPA activates PKC, and it has been reported that PKC can activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK; ref. 16). To ... Activation of protein kinase C relays distinct signaling pathways in the same cell type: differentiation and caspase-mediated ...
Recombinant Human MAPK7 293 Cell Lysate MAPK7-4490HCL - Creative BioMart
Antigen standard for mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 (MAPK7), transcript variant 2 is a lysate prepared from HEK293T cells ... big MAP kinase 1; extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5; extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5; ERK4;. ... MAPK7; mitogen-activated protein kinase 7; PRKM7; BMK1; BMK1 kinase; ERK5; extracellular signal regulated kinase 5; BMK-1; ERK- ... ATP binding; MAP kinase activity; nucleotide binding; protein binding; protein serine/threonine kinase activity;. ...
Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 5 is Required for Low-Concentration H2O2-Induced Angiogenesis of Human Umbilical Vein...
"Big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 signaling pathway is essential for tumor- ... "Mitogen-activated protein kinases and reactive oxygen species: how can ROS activate MAPK pathways?" Journal of Signal ... Among various ROS downstream signaling molecules, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) have a crucial role . The MAPK ... "Big mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (BMK1) is a redox-sensitive kinase," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 271, no. 28, ...
A3 adenosine receptors and mitogen-activated protein kinases in lung injury following in vivo reperfusion | Springer for...
... the signaling pathway that mediates this protection remains unclear. Adenosine... ... the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), the c-Jun amino-terminal protein kinases (JNKs) and the p38 kinases. MAPKs ... Stimulation of the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases and c-jun N-terminal kinases are activated by ischemia/ ... Schulte G, Fredholm BB: Signalling from adenosine receptors to mitogen activated protein kinases. Cell Signal 2003, 15: 813-827 ...
PP2 reversed the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), but not p38 mitogen-activated protein ... Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a critical role in intracellular signal transduction and consist of ... extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase ... 1999) Mitogen-activated protein kinase: conservation of a three-kinase module from yeast to human. Physiol Rev 79:143-180. ...
Internet Scientific Publications
... extracellular signal related protein kinase; c-Jun amino-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase; and p38. ... Roles of protein kinase B and mitogen-activated protein kinases. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:26357-26364.. 57. Reinehr R, Becker S, ... Interestingly, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor inhibited the upregulation of TfR and increased cell ... Proliferation in response to hydrogen peroxide may be due to the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). HeLa ...
High-frequency low-level diode laser irradiation promotes proliferation and migration of primary cultured human gingival...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase activation of cultured human dental pulp cells ... Stress-activated protein kinases/c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK remained un-phosphorylated. The results show that high- ... Further, phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways after irradiation was investigated by Western ... Further, the low-level diode laser irradiation induced phosphorylation of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase ( ...
TAK1-Mediated Serine/Threonine Phosphorylation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor via p38/Extracellular Signal-Regulated...
The kinase TAK1, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), has been widely accepted as a key kinase activating ... Mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways activated by stress and inflammation. Physiol. Rev. 81: ... which trigger signaling waves to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt (22, 23). In addition, c-Cbl and Cbl-b, E3 ... The kinase TAK1 can activate the NIK-IκB as well as the MAP kinase cascade in the IL-1 signalling pathway. Nature 398:252-256. ...
Phase II Efficacy and Pharmacogenomic Study of Selumetinib (AZD6244; ARRY-142886) in Iodine-131 Refractory Papillary Thyroid...
... a potent inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 1/2 kinases: mechanism of ... Activation of RAF/MEK/ERK [mitogen-activated protein (MAP)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK; MEK)] signaling is ... Mutations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway involving the genes RET, BRAF, NTRK, and RAS have ... Secondary analyses suggest that future studies of selumetinib and other mitogen-activated protein (MAP)/extracellular signal- ...
PathwayPathwaysPhosphorylationCascadesRegulationSerineEpidermal growth fERKsCell proliferationStimuliERK5RegulatesInsulinEnzymesReactive oxygenDifferentiationSurvivalERK2TargetsEpithelialMKK4Modulate2002ActivityMolecularConstitutivelyBRAFDistinctNeuronalNucleotideAmino-terminalReceptor tyrosin10.1186
- Mitogen-activated Protein/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Kinase (MEK) Inhibitors Restore Anoikis Sensitivity in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines with a Constitutively Activated Extracellular- regulated Kinase (ERK) Pathway 1 This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Cancer Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan. (aacrjournals.org)
- These results indicate that the MKK7-regulated stress signaling pathway can function as negative regulator of cell growth in multiple hematopoietic lineages. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway was required for their induction. (aacrjournals.org)
- Although activation of A 3 adenosine receptors attenuates reperfusion lung injury and associated apoptosis, the signaling pathway that mediates this protection remains unclear. (springer.com)
- Cells deficient in TAK1, IKKβ, or p65 are sensitive to TNF-α-induced apoptosis, indicating that the TAK1-NF-κB signaling pathway functions as a survival signal ( 4 , 18 , 26 , 36 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Our findings point to the potential blockade of the Src/ERK signaling pathway in spinal microglia as a new therapeutic strategy for pain caused by nerve injury. (jneurosci.org)
- For example, YopN and TyeA are positioned as a plug on the apparatus so only their conformational change, induced by their interaction with certain host cell membrane proteins, will cause the unblocking of the secretory pathway. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, increased PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) pathway activity has been demonstrated, through the loss of activity of the tumor suppressor gene, PTEN [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Genetic studies of Caenorhabditis elegans have demonstrated that the PKB signal transduction pathway inhibits the activity of the Forkhead transcription factor, daf-16 , a gene that regulates longevity ( 55 ). (asm.org)
- MicroRNA-590-5p functions as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer conferring inhibitory effects on cell migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition by downregulating the Wnt-ß-catenin signaling pathway. (abcam.com)
- Tumor-suppressive effects of microRNA-181d-5p on non-small-cell lung cancer through the CDKN3-mediated Akt signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. (abcam.com)
- We first elucidate that GBT stimulates the apoptotic signaling pathway and suppresses the proliferation of A431 cells via regulating MAPKs signaling pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
- Taken together, these findings suggest that deregulation of the EGF receptor signaling pathway may lead to enhanced COX-2 expression in cervical cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- The possibility that this reflects activation of the EGFR signaling pathway is suggested by results in cultured cervical cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) activates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway through the engagement of the proapoptotic death receptor 4 (DR4, TNFRSF10A, TRAILR-1), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. (aacrjournals.org)
- BRAF is a component of the RAS-rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (RAF)-mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. (spandidos-publications.com)
- One of the best studied signalling routes is the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction pathway which plays a crucial role in many aspects of immune mediated inflammatory responses. (ebscohost.com)
- Here, our current understanding of the MAP kinase pathway is reviewed, as well as recent advances in the design of novel agents that are able to modulate the activity of these signalling cascades. (ebscohost.com)
- Cites a study published in the October 2001 issue of the journal 'Nature Neuroscience,' on how neurotrophins use the extracellular signal-related protein kinase 5 pathway to mediate a retrograde survival response. (ebscohost.com)
- Cell signal transduction through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. (ebscohost.com)
- Presents a series of articles about cell signal transduction through mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. (ebscohost.com)
- Presents a conserved tyrosine kinase-activated signal transduction pathway that comprises the plasma membrane-bound protein Ras and the protein kinases Raf, MAP-kinase and MAP kinase. (ebscohost.com)
- Regulated AP-1 transcriptional activity, a target of the JNK signal transduction pathway, was also selectively blocked in MKK4 (−/−) cells. (pnas.org)
- These data establish that MKK4 is a JNK activator in vivo and demonstrate that MKK4 is an essential component of the JNK signal transduction pathway. (pnas.org)
- Furthermore, dominant-negative MKK4 acts as a specific inhibitor of the JNK signal transduction pathway ( 19 - 22 ). (pnas.org)
- These data indicate a central role for the MAP kinase kinase MKK4 in the JNK signal transduction pathway ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- Specifically, mitochondrial-targeted peptides such as elamipretide have the potential to mitigate mitochondrial dysfunction and aberrant inflammatory response through activation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like family receptors, such as the pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway inhibition, and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). (mdpi.com)
- The genomic pathway involving the binding to the cognate intracellular receptor proteins [estrogen receptor (ER)α or -β] and, thus, leading to gene transcription ( 5 ) has been implicated into the promotion of neuronal survival by estrogens ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
- In addition, some of the scaffold proteins are able to allosterically activate the associated kinase or, alternatively, they may restrict the activation of the signalling pathway to a specific subcellular compartment [ 3 ]. (biochemj.org)
- Extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway. (proteopedia.org)
- The PathDetect in vivo signal transduction pathway trans-reportings. (bio-medicine.org)
- Stratagenes PathDetect in vivo signal transduction pathway reporting systems are used to study activation of specific signaling pathways by uncharacterized gene products, extracellular stimuli, or drug candidates. (bio-medicine.org)
- 1 The fusion trans-activator plasmids express pathway-specific trans-activator proteins that consist of the yeast GAL4 DNA binding domain and the activation domains of various transcription factors. (bio-medicine.org)
- Here, we describe a single microtiter-based format that simultaneously quantifies protein kinase activities in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway (Akt), nuclear factor-κB pathway (IKK), and three core mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways (ERK, JNK1, MK2). (mcponline.org)
- The use of wortmannin indicated a dependence on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. (mcponline.org)
- The PI3K pathway that is stimulated by a wide range of tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors is the major activator of Akt signaling via stimulation of PDK1 that phosphorylates and activates Akt. (mcponline.org)
- In summary, A 1 receptor-regulator of G protein signaling-K ATP signaling, arachidonic acid cascade, nitric oxide system, markers of neuronal damage, mitochondrial damage-related molecules, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB pathway are associated with the mechanisms of PF preconditioning. (aspetjournals.org)
- The thyroid hormone (TH) signaling pathway is complex and highly regulated by the expression of specific transporters of TH and multiple isoforms of the receptors of this hormone (TRs) present in several cells and by the interactions that occur between them ( 3 , 4 ). (scielo.br)
- Neuroprotection against 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells by 5,7-Dihydroxychromone: Activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway. (cancerindex.org)
- The aim of this study was to prove the neuroprotective effect of 5,7-Dihydroxychromone (DHC) through the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. (cancerindex.org)
- The Hippo/MST2 (mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 2) pathway is a signalling cascade evolutionarily conserved in its structure. (biochemsoctrans.org)
- Induction of Apoptosis in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma MCF-7 Cells by Prodelphinidin B-2 3,3'-di-O-gallate from Myrica Rubra Via Fas-mediated Pathway The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. (jove.com)
- We have highlighted the key role of PI3-kinase pathway in SCF antiapoptotic effects and in melanoma resistance to chemotherapy drugs. (unice.fr)
- This pathway involves the activation of B-Raf and MAP kinases/ ERKs and triggers transcription factor Egr-1. (unice.fr)
- The phosphorylated MAPKK then acts as a dual-specificity protein kinase to activate the third component of the pathway, i.e . (biomedcentral.com)
- GSK3β has now been shown to induce activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase MEKK1 and thereby to promote signaling by the stress-activated protein kinase pathway. (elsevier.com)
- The data showed that THC down-regulated Raf-1/mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)/ERK/RSK pathway leading to translocation of Bad to mitochondria. (aacrjournals.org)
- Furthermore, THC treatment decreased the Bad phosphorylation at Ser 112 but failed to alter the level of phospho-Bad on site Ser 136 that has been reported to be associated with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signal pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
- 1999) From HER2/Neu signal cascade to androgen receptor and its coactivators: a novel pathway by induction of androgen target genes through MAP kinase in prostate cancer cells. (springer.com)
- Studies of the similar gene in mouse suggested that this protein may interact with, and regulate the activity of numerous protein kinases of the JNK signaling pathway, and thus function as a scaffold protein in neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Phosphorylation-dependent scaffolding role of JSAP1/JIP3 in the ASK1-JNK signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
- We reported that the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 inhibited anchorage-independent growth of Ki- ras -transformed rat fibroblasts by simultaneously blocking both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-p70 S6K pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
- We discuss recent findings on the signaling pathways involved in artery-vein specification during zebrafish development and compare and contrast these results to those from mammalian systems. (ahajournals.org)
- These molecules participate in several different intracellular signaling pathways that control a spectrum of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, transformation, apoptosis, and stress responses 3 4 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Biochemical analyses have indicated that SAPK/JNKs and SAPK/JNK-regulated signaling pathways are involved in cell fate decisions resulting in apoptosis, oncogenic transformation, activation of T and B lymphocytes, induction of proinflammatory cytokines, regulation of proliferation and cell cycle arrest, and cardiovascular, renal, and hepatic stress responses 3 4 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We find that different strains of H. pylori vary in their ability to activate MAP kinase pathways in AGS gastric epithelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
- The differential activation of MAP kinase and other host cellular signaling pathways is a possible mechanism for strain-specific variations in the outcome of gastric H. pylori infection. (jimmunol.org)
- We now seek to understand the basis for this differential response and, in particular, to identify the signaling pathways that lead to or modulate apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Particularly striking in this respect are recent studies reporting that ligands can have opposite efficacies toward two different signaling pathways. (aspetjournals.org)
- Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are dimeric proteins that bind to type I and type II BMP receptors, transducing signals through small mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad)-dependent and -independent pathways to regulate the transcription of BMP target genes ( 8 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing vasculature, involves many cellular components and signaling pathways, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play an important role in this process [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Experiments using chemical inhibitors and small interfering RNA demonstrated that TNF-α-mediated phosphorylation of Thr-669 and Ser-1046/7 were differently regulated via TAK1-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and TAK1-p38 pathways, respectively. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), a proinflammatory and apoptosis-inducing cytokine, stimulates several intracellular signaling pathways, leading to the activation of transcription factors AP-1 and NF-κB ( 3 , 44 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- AP-1 is regulated by cascades of MAPKs, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 pathways ( 15 , 43 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In this study, comparative proteomic analysis was conducted to investigate the roles of specific proteins in the pathways regarding keratinocyte proliferation in cholesteatoma. (mdpi.com)
- The results of this study suggested that phosphorylated HSP27 is the end expression of two potential signal-transduction pathways, and together with PRDX2, they are very likely involved in the proliferation of keratinocytes in cholesteatoma. (mdpi.com)
- Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are serine/threonine kinases involved in signal transduction pathways that govern a wide range of physiological processes including differentiation, proliferation, gene expression, brain function, membrane transport and the organization of cytoskeletal and. (ebscohost.com)
- Histidine protein kinases and response regulators form the basis of phosphotransfer signal transduction pathways. (ebscohost.com)
- The signaling pathways that lead to MAP kinase activation are highly conserved and have been identified in many organisms, including yeast, worms, flies, and humans ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
- In addition to this classical effect promoted by estrogen response elements, ERs may also directly interact with several intracellular signaling pathways (cAMP response element-binding protein, mitogenactivated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, etc.) that affect the transcription of many other genes targeting neuroprotective actions in specific ways without interfering with the endocrine effects of the steroid ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
- A radicicol-related macrocyclic nonaketide compound, antibiotic LL-Z1640-2, inhibits the JNK/p38 pathways in signal-specific manner. (semanticscholar.org)
- Effects of pentachlorophenol and tetrachlorohydroquinone on mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in Jurkat T cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- Optimizing Transfection Conditions for Studying Signal Transduction Pathways ( Optimizing Transfection Conditi. (bio-medicine.org)
- Enhancer elements are the convergent points for many intracellular signal transduction pathways. (bio-medicine.org)
- This approach will require frequent temporal sampling of protein activity at critical nodes within parallel signaling pathways inside the cell in a quantitative manner to characterize the flow of information accurately. (mcponline.org)
- Initially, this type of data collection on protein functional status should focus on frequent sampling of a limited number of key molecules that sit at critical nodes in different signaling pathways ( Fig. 1 A ). (mcponline.org)
- A , generalized network diagram describing pathways activated downstream of TNF-α and insulin: activating interactions ( green arrows ), inhibitory interactions ( red arrows ), transcriptional interactions ( blue arrows ). (mcponline.org)
- This chapter reviews the various PRRs that recognize chlamydiae and the ensuing cellular signaling pathways that result in cytokine induction. (asmscience.org)
- Although cell lines and mouse macrophages provide clues about the specific use of receptors and signaling pathways, the results have to be confirmed with the cells that are infected in the natural host. (asmscience.org)
- Schematic representation of the recognition of chlamydiae by TLR and NOD signaling pathways. (asmscience.org)
- Akt overexpression is observed in various human cancers, and the Akt signaling pathways are now considered as realistic targets for cancer therapy (2). (mcponline.org)
- The growth of many breast tumors is stimulated by estradiol (E2), which activates a classic mechanism of regulation of gene expression and signal transduction pathways inducing cell proliferation. (greenmedinfo.com)
- What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? (cancerindex.org)
- In the present mini-review, we discuss our contribution highlighting the regulation of MST2 signalling by frequently observed oncogenic perturbations affecting mitogenic pathways. (biochemsoctrans.org)
- Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a stress-sensitive heterodimeric transcription factor in the regulation of the stress-responsive genes, has been shown to initiate the prosurvival signaling pathways ( 18 - 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- For instance, NF-κB activates many genes involved in inflammation, cell transformation, and antiapoptotic responses ( 24 , 25 ), suggesting that both prosurvival and antisurvival pathways can be induced by NF-κB activation. (aacrjournals.org)
- ROS-induced apoptosis implies direct toxic effects, as well as a function of ROS as signaling molecules which trigger the activation of prodeath pathways ( 38 ). (asm.org)
- We have been the first to describe the signaling pathways involved in the expression of fibronectin in melanomas. (unice.fr)
- These pathways, which are typically activated by intracellular or environmental cues, usually consist of three hierarchically organized protein kinases. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the current study, we investigated the effect of THC on the upstream and downstream events that modulate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) module of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways primarily in human Jurkat leukemia T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- However, no significant association of Bad translocation with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and protein kinase A signaling pathways was noted when treated cells were examined in relation to phosphorylation status of Bad by Western blot and localization of Bad to mitochondria by confocal analysis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Both lines of defense have been shown to be regulated by a number of signaling pathways, of which the p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), insulin signaling/DAF-2, and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/DBL-1 pathways are the most significant (see reference 30 for a recent review). (asm.org)
- IL-7 markedly increased the abundance of the histone acetyltransferase p300 by activating the STAT5 and PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathways and promoting the acetylation of histones at the Il9 promoter. (sciencemag.org)
- GnRHa also activated ERK kinase (mitogen-activated protein/ERK kinase) and resulted in an increase in phosphorylation of son of sevenless (Sos), and Shc. (aacrjournals.org)
- Once activated, SAPKs/JNKs regulate gene transcription via phosphorylation of transcription factors, including c-Jun, JunD, activating transcription factor (ATF)-2, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)4, or ELK-1 8 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- cag + isolates are more potent than cag − strains in inducing MAP kinase phosphorylation and gene products of the cag pathogenicity island are required for maximal MAP kinase activation. (jimmunol.org)
- Phosphorylation of a conserved integrin alpha 3 QPSXXE motif regulates signaling, motility, and cytoskeletal engagement. (semanticscholar.org)
- Onset of apoptosis was preceded by an intense phosphorylation of the MAPKs, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase, and p38 in both SK-MEL-28 and MALME-3M cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Phosphorylation of ERKs leads to the activation of their kinase activity. (wikipedia.org)
- Although regulation of MAP kinases by a phosphorylation cascade has long been recognized as significant, their inactivation through the action of specific phosphatases has been less studied. (nih.gov)
- We have recently reported that TAK1 regulates the transient phosphorylation and endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in a tyrosine kinase activity-independent manner. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The transcriptional activity of NF-κB is regulated by the IκB kinase (IKK)-mediated phosphorylation of IκBα and p65/RelA ( 10 , 11 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Nerve injury induced a striking increase in SFK phosphorylation in the ipsilateral dorsal horn, and SFKs were activated in hyperactive microglia but not in neurons or astrocytes. (jneurosci.org)
- In spite of persistent activation via phosphorylation, MAP kinase expression is upregulated 5-20-fold and this hyperexpression may be a critical element to initiation as well as the metastatic potential of various forms of human breast cancer. (jci.org)
- Phosphorylation inhibits the transcriptional activity of AFX and changes the steady-state localization of the protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. (asm.org)
- PKB-mediated phosphorylation of AFX, therefore, attenuates the import of the transcription factor, which shifts the localization of the protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and results in the inhibition of AFX transcriptional activity. (asm.org)
- Activation of PKB requires the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP 3 ) ( 15 ) and phosphorylation by an upstream kinase, PDK1 ( 2 , 69 , 72 ). (asm.org)
- Phosphorylation of these residues by PKB leads to both inhibition of the transcriptional activity of AFX and cytoplasmic retention and/or nuclear exclusion of the protein. (asm.org)
- Catalyzes the concomitant phosphorylation of a threonine and a tyrosine residue in a Thr-Glu-Tyr sequence located in MAP kinases. (hmdb.ca)
- No differences were observed in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 between the groups. (ahajournals.org)
- These enzymes are activated by dual phosphorylation on Thr and Tyr within the motif Thr-Xaa-Tyr located in kinase subdomain VIII ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
- This phosphorylation is mediated by a protein kinase cascade that is composed of a MAP kinase kinase kinase that phosphorylates and activates one or more MAP kinase kinases that, in turn, phosphorylates and activates each MAP kinase. (pnas.org)
- The JNKs are activated by phosphorylation on Thr and Tyr ( 5 ) by the dual specificity protein kinase MKK4 (also known as SEK1/JNKK), a member of the MAP kinase kinase group ( 14 - 16 ). (pnas.org)
- MKK4 is, in turn, activated by dual phosphorylation on Ser and Thr within kinase subdomain VIII by MAP kinase kinase kinases, including MEKK1 ( 17 , 18 ). (pnas.org)
- Using a phospho-Akt substrate antibody, the phosphorylation of actin on an Akt consensus site was detected upon growth factor stimulation, both in cellulo and in vitro , suggesting that actin is a substrate of Akt kinase activity. (mcponline.org)
- MC extracts or low concentrations of bovine serum albumin-derived AGEs (BSA-AGEs) stimulated proliferation, migration (using wound-healing assay) and tube formation (using Matrigel™-embedded 3D culture) of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) together with increases in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, the key angiogenic signaling cytoplasmic protein. (rsc.org)
- In particular, we review the role of RAS isoforms and PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt in the regulation of MST2 activity by phosphorylation. (biochemsoctrans.org)
- Using cell lines isolated from MCF+FIR populations, we found that the elevated NF-κB activity was correlated with enhanced clonogenic survival, and increased NF-κB subunit p65 levels were associated with a decrease in phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/ERK in all radioresistant MCF+FIR cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
- Further irradiation with 30 fractions of radiation also inhibited MEK/ERK phosphorylation in paired cell lines of MCF+FIR and parental MCF-7 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- However, major heterodimers of NF-κB p65 and p50, which are activated quickly following the phosphorylation and proteolysis of IκB ( 21 , 22 ), can function as pleiotropic gene regulators ( 23 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- At this point, activated MAPKs can modulate various cellular activities through activation of other protein kinases, or metabolic enzymes, or by phosphorylation of transcription factors and components of the cytoskeleton. (biomedcentral.com)
- Early, but not late, ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to wounding, LPA, and ATP was EGFR independent, but sensitive to the inhibitors of calcium influx, protein kinase C and Src kinase. (arvojournals.org)
- 2001) Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase is associated with poor response to anti-hormonal therapy and decreased patient survival in clinical breast cancer. (springer.com)
- These results identify Epac and Rap1 as inhibitory regulators of the angiogenic process, implicate Id1 and TSP1 as downstream mediators of Epac/Rap1, and highlight a novel interplay between pro- and antiangiogenic signaling cascades involving multiple cell types within the angiogenic microenvironment. (nih.gov)
- Developmental programs and environmental agents trigger distinct and evolutionarily conserved signal transduction cascades that relay signals mediating proliferation, survival, or death. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- These MAP kinase subfamilies form three parallel cascades that can be activated simultaneously or independently. (jimmunol.org)
- Low concentrations of ROS induce angiogenesis, but the signaling cascades linked to this outcome are unclear. (hindawi.com)
- 7 These signaling cascades play an important role in the initiation of cardiac hypertrophy and in the development of heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
- 9 The present study was therefore designed to elucidate and target the downstream signaling cascades in an attempt to inhibit the HGF/SF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
- Thus, Nef-mediated reactivation of HIV-1 in latent model cells occurs by signal transduction from Ras to mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
- In this study we examine the ability of H. pylori to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) 3 kinases, key elements in the regulation of cellular responses to external inflammatory and proliferative signals. (jimmunol.org)
- Regulation of human mitogen-activated protein kinase 15 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 7/8) and its functions: A recent update. (nih.gov)
- Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 integrin subunit. (semanticscholar.org)
- Signal transduction abnormalities in cancer mitogen-activated protein kinase regulation is altered in breast cancer. (jci.org)
- Coordination between TGF-ß cellular signaling and epigenetic regulation during epithelial to mesenchymal transition. (abcam.com)
- Increased understanding of signal transduction mechanisms and gene regulation involved in immune responses has created opportunities for the discovery of novel therapeutic compounds useful in treating inflammatory disorders. (ebscohost.com)
- Demonstrates the effect of either the down-regulation of beta6 expression or loss of the binding site on beta6 for extracellular signal-related kinase 2 on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) secretion. (ebscohost.com)
- Role of mitogen-activated protein kinase in the regulation of. (ebscohost.com)
- These MAP kinases phosphorylate distinct groups of substrates in vitro and have been implicated in the regulation of fundamental cellular processes ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
- Akt protein modulates the function of several downstream substrates involved in the regulation of cell survival, cell cycle progression, and cellular growth. (mcponline.org)
- Transcription of miRNAs usually involves RNA polymerase II (Pol II), meaning that miRNA genes share the transcriptional machinery of protein coding genes, including transcription factors, enhancers, and epigenetic regulation. (frontiersin.org)
- An emerging family of structurally distinct dual-specificity serine, threonine and tyrosine phosphatases that act on MAP kinases consists of ten members in mammals, and members have been found in animals, plants and yeast. (nih.gov)
- B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) has previously been identified as a candidate target gene in endometriosis. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Additionally, the present study team also detected that B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase ( BRAF ) was overexpressed in the eutopic endometrium of endometriosis ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- MK08_HUMAN ] Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, transformation and programmed cell death. (proteopedia.org)
- The serine/threonine kinase Akt is a key mediator of cell survival and cell growth that is activated by most growth factors, but its downstream signaling largely remains to be elucidated. (mcponline.org)
- The serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB 1 belongs to the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A/protein kinase G/protein kinase C (AGC) superfamily of protein kinases that share structural homology within their catalytic domain and have similar mechanisms of activation ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
Epidermal growth f1
- ERKs are known to activate many transcription factors, such as ELK1, and some downstream protein kinases. (wikipedia.org)
- It was found that Ras GTP-binding proteins are involved in the activation of ERKs. (wikipedia.org)
- Three main modules exist in mammals: the ERKs (extracellular-signal-regulated kinases), SAPKs [stress-activated protein kinases, also known as JNKs (c-Jun N-terminal kinases)] and p38. (biochemj.org)
- Since MAP kinases regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, programmed death, stress, and inflammatory responses, activation of gastric epithelial cell MAP kinases by H. pylori cag + strains may be instrumental in inducing gastroduodenal inflammation, ulceration, and neoplasia. (jimmunol.org)
- Key cellular functions that are regulated at least in part by MAP kinase signaling include cell proliferation, cell survival, and cytokine production. (jimmunol.org)
- Suppression of cell death signaling due to detrimental alterations in DR4 involves a deregulated cell proliferation and predisposes to cancer ( 1 - 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- It is reasonable to speculate that CREB1 may activate the transcription of wtBRAF through directly binding to its promoter, increasing BRAF expression and regulating the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of endometriosis. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, two polyphenols contianed within extra-virgin olive oil, inhibit MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation. (greenmedinfo.com)
- Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol inhibit MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation interfering with ERK1/2 activation. (greenmedinfo.com)
- ERK MAP kinases are strongly activated by growth factors and phorbol ester, but weakly by inflammatory stimuli. (jimmunol.org)
- In contrast, JNK and p38 MAP kinases are stimulated by inflammatory cytokines and stress stimuli, but minimally by growth factors. (jimmunol.org)
- Mitogen-activated protein MAP kinases are key signal-transducing enzymes that are activated by a wide range of extracellular stimuli. (nih.gov)
- The PathDetect cis-reporting systems can also be used to evaluate the effects of extracellular stimuli or compounds of interest on each particular enhancer element. (bio-medicine.org)
- The activity level for the enzyme varies in response to growth-promoting stimuli and exhibits a high turnover rate in comparison to other mammalian proteins. (cancerindex.org)
- For example, activation of ERK1/2 by growth factors depends on the MAPKKK c-Raf, but other MAPKKKs may activate ERK1/2 in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. (genome.jp)
- A novel interplay between Epac/Rap1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (MEK5/ERK5) regulates thr. (nih.gov)
- A novel interplay between Epac/Rap1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (MEK5/ERK5) regulates thrombospondin to control angiogenesis. (nih.gov)
- For gain and loss of function studies, constitutively active MEK5 (CA-MEK5) and ERK5 shRNA lentiviruses were used to activate or knock down extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5). (hindawi.com)
- ERK5 in HUVECs was significantly activated by H 2 O 2 . (hindawi.com)
- Among them, ERK5, which is also known as big MAP kinase 1 (BMK1), is the most recently identified family member [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Regulates primary cilium formation and the localization of ciliary proteins involved in cilium structure, transport, and signaling. (uniprot.org)
- Regulates DA transporter (DAT) activity and protein expression via activation of RhoA. (uniprot.org)
- Moreover, we have shown that the matrix protein SPARC, which expression increases during melanocyte tumour development regulates the early stages of melanocyte transformation by repressing E-cadherine and triggering a mesenchyme-type transition that is that hallmark of an invasive potential. (unice.fr)
- Thus, sampling parallel nodes in the intracellular signaling network identified part of the molecular mechanism underlying the efficacy of insulin in the treatment of human sepsis. (mcponline.org)
- This transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily. (bloodjournal.org)
- Exposure of cells to insulin inhibited the activation of MEKK1 by GSK3β, and this inhibitory effect of insulin was abolished by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. (elsevier.com)
- Prevents the relocation of the sugar-adding enzymes from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum, thereby restricting the production of sugar-coated proteins. (uniprot.org)
- Hydrogen peroxide can act as an enzymatic substrate or activate or inhibit redox sensitive enzymes. (ispub.com)
- Three distinct groups of mammalian enzymes closely related to mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases have been identified: extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 MAP kinase, and c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- this mechanism appears to involve αvβ3 integrin or a truncated TRα TH receptor that does not have a DNA binding domain and remains in the cytoplasm, where it can associate with other proteins/enzymes ( 3 ). (scielo.br)
- Furthermore, the molecular effector associated with selective differentiation induction by mda-7 /IL-24 and IL-24 delE5 may be reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the source of ROS generation was nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. (aacrjournals.org)
- ROS (reactive oxygen species) are centrally involved in all wound healing processes as low concentrations of ROS generation are required to fight against invading microorganisms and cell surviving signaling [ 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
- 1,2,4,6,7 In addition, AT 1 Rs mediate many of their pathophysiological effects by stimulating reactive oxygen species generation via an reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide/reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent mechanism. (ahajournals.org)
- The results showed that formation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent activation of ERK and P38, but not Jun NH2-terminal kinase, are molecular events underpinning retinal microglial TNF-α release during AGA treatment. (diabetesjournals.org)
- 12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is a well-known agent that signals differentiation of myeloid precursors and myeloid leukemia cell lines ( 10, 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- In addition, BMP4 and the BMP2/7 heterodimer have been shown to induce the osteogenic differentiation of mouse skin-derived fibroblasts ( 12 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Previous studies have shown that OPN expression is regulated by various inducers at the transcriptional level (USF-1 is associated with differentiation 19 and AP-1 is involved in glucose signaling 20 ). (ahajournals.org)
- The 10-year survival rate is less than 15% ( 6, 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Protein kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, promotes cell survival in many different cell types ( 24 , 38 , 40 , 66 ). (asm.org)
- ROS are centrally involved in all wound healing processes as low concentrations of ROS generation are required for the fight against invading microorganisms and cell survival signaling. (mdpi.com)
- Functions as an anti-apoptotic protein and whose level seems to influence the beta-cell death or survival response. (proteopedia.org)
- Survival signaling by RAF occurs through largely unknown mechanisms. (asm.org)
- The differential proteins were detected by comparing the two-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE) maps of the epithelial tissues of 12 attic cholesteatomas with those of retroauricular skins. (mdpi.com)
- There were 14 upregulated proteins in the epithelial tissues of cholesteatoma in comparison with retroauricular skin. (mdpi.com)
- Also functions in a kinase activity-independent manner as a negative regulator of growth (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
- The activity, abundance, and localization of MAP kinase was investigated in normal and malignant neoplasia of the breast. (jci.org)
- In carcinoma of the breast, MAP kinase was heavily phosphorylated on tyrosyl residues and its activity elevated 5-10-fold over benign conditions, such as fibroadenoma and fibrocystic disease. (jci.org)
- 7-10 Furthermore, we have shown previously that estrogen downregulates the activity of the renin-angiotensin system in the vasculature of normotensive and of hypertensive rats. (ahajournals.org)
- Treatment with EGF markedly induced COX-2 protein, COX-2 mRNA, and stimulated COX-2 promoter activity. (aacrjournals.org)
- Moreover, overexpressing dominant-negative forms of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1, c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase, p38, and c-Jun blocked EGF-mediated induction of COX-2 promoter activity. (aacrjournals.org)
- Gray nodes highlight kinases that are measured by the high-throughput multiplex kinase activity assay. (mcponline.org)
- B , general schematic of the high-throughput multiplex kinase activity assay format. (mcponline.org)
- M.B. holds a Canada Research Chair in Signal Transduction and Molecular Pharmacology. (aspetjournals.org)
- Given the pathophysiological implications of angiogenesis, the molecular dissection of angiogenic signaling is clinically important. (ahajournals.org)
- In order to develop a molecular understanding of the complex pathophysiology underlying human diseases and utilize this information for prognosis and therapy, a systems-level, network-biology approach should be applied to the signaling networks governing the relevant cell responses ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
- By quantitatively exploring the functional response of the signaling network to distinct extracellular cues and correlating these molecular events with phenotypic responses, one can construct predictive models of cue-signal and signal-response relationships. (mcponline.org)
- Of eight breast cancer cell lines tested, U0126 inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two lines with constitutively activated ERK. (aacrjournals.org)
- Iavarone C, Acunzo M, Carlomagno F, Catania A, Melillo RM, Carlomagno SM, Santoro M, Chiariello M: Activation of the Erk8 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase by RET/PTC3, a constitutively active form of the RET proto-oncogene. (drugbank.ca)
- Taken together, the results suggest that binding of different ligands promote distinct conformational changes leading to specific signaling outcomes. (aspetjournals.org)
- It is noteworthy that the extended and cubic ternary complex models, which were developed to formalize ligand behaviors, included terms that qualified the affinity of the activated receptor for the G protein, opening the possibility that various ligands may stabilize different active conformations resulting in distinct signaling properties (for review, see Kenakin 2004 ). (aspetjournals.org)
- Differential activation of distinct mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. (ebscohost.com)
- WDR62 association with JNK2 requires both the JNK CD and ED domains, and the binding requisite is distinct from that of the previously described JNK2 association with JIP1 (JNK-interacting protein 1). (biochemj.org)
- Astrocytes produce an assortment of signals that promote neuronal maturation according to a precise developmental timeline. (sciencemag.org)
- Since ERK and cytochrome c are differentially involved in caspase signaling of oxidative injury that significantly contributes to neuronal damage in ischemia/reperfusion, we considered if DOR activation protects the ischemic brain by attenuating oxidative injury. (biomedcentral.com)