A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.
Compounds that inhibit the enzyme activity or activation of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
The residual framework structure of the CELL NUCLEUS that maintains many of the overall architectural features of the cell nucleus including the nuclear lamina with NUCLEAR PORE complex structures, residual CELL NUCLEOLI and an extensive fibrogranular structure in the nuclear interior. (Advan. Enzyme Regul. 2002; 42:39-52)
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
A transmembrane domain-containing matrix metalloproteinase. It is synthesized as an inactive zymogen that is activated by the action of PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES such as FURIN. Matrix metalloproteinase 14 plays a direct role in the cleavage of proteins in the pericellular environment. In addition, it can function indirectly by enzymatically activating the proprotein form of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 15.
A family of secreted protease inhibitory proteins that regulates the activity of SECRETED MATRIX METALLOENDOPEPTIDASES. They play an important role in modulating the proteolysis of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, most notably during tissue remodeling and inflammatory processes.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a N-glycosylated protein, molecular weight 28 kD, produced by a vast range of cell types and found in a variety of tissues and body fluids. It has been shown to suppress metastasis and inhibit tumor invasion in vitro.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
A member of the family of TISSUE INHIBITOR OF METALLOPROTEINASES. It is a 21-kDa nonglycosylated protein found in tissue fluid and is secreted as a complex with progelatinase A by human fibroblast and uncomplexed from alveolar macrophages. An overexpression of TIMP-2 has been shown to inhibit invasive and metastatic activity of tumor cells and decrease tumor growth in vivo.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the degradation of gelatin by acting on the peptide bonds. EC 3.4.24.-.
The smallest member of the MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It plays a role in tumor progression.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of a variety of tissues and organs. Several versican isoforms exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the versican MESSENGER RNA.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.
Matrix metalloproteinases that are associated with the CELL MEMBRANE, either through transmembrane domains or GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL ANCHORS. Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases may act within the pericellular environment to influence the process of CELL MIGRATION.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan found in a variety of tissues including CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; SKELETAL MUSCLE; CARTILAGE; BONE; and TENDONS. The protein contains two glycosaminoglycan chains and is similar in structure to DECORIN.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A family of related, adhesive glycoproteins which are synthesized, secreted, and incorporated into the extracellular matrix of a variety of cells, including alpha granules of platelets following thrombin activation and endothelial cells. They interact with a number of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS and anticoagulant factors. Five distinct forms have been identified, thrombospondin 1, -2, -3, -4, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). They are involved in cell adhesion, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE growth, and tissue repair.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase which is highly expressed by MACROPHAGES where it may play a role in INFLAMMATION and WOUND HEALING.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Non-collagenous, calcium-binding glycoprotein of developing bone. It links collagen to mineral in the bone matrix. In the synonym SPARC glycoprotein, the acronym stands for Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A subclass of matrix metalloproteinases that are secreted into the pericellular space.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
A fibrillar collagen consisting of three identical alpha1(III) chains that is widely distributed in many tissues containing COLLAGEN TYPE I. It is particularly abundant in BLOOD VESSELS and may play a role in tissues with elastic characteristics.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that may play a role in matrix degradation during WOUND HEALING. It is expressed at high levels by KERATINOCYTES, suggesting its role in keratinocyte migration.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.
Dystrophin-associated proteins that play role in the formation of a transmembrane link between laminin-2 and DYSTROPHIN. Both the alpha and the beta subtypes of dystroglycan originate via POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of a single precursor protein.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A family of secreted multidomain proteins that were originally identified by their association with the latent form of TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTORS. They interact with a variety of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and may play a role in the regulation of TGB-beta bioavailability.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.
A member of the family of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases. Mutations of the gene for TIMP3 PROTEIN causes Sorsby fundus dystrophy.
A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.
A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
An enzyme oxidizing peptidyl-lysyl-peptide in the presence of water & molecular oxygen to yield peptidyl-allysyl-peptide plus ammonia & hydrogen peroxide. EC
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.
The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A BRAIN-specific hyalectin that may play a role in terminally differentiating NEURONS. It is found highly overexpressed in primary BRAIN TUMORS and in experimental models of GLIOMA.
A proteolytic enzyme that converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN where the preferential cleavage is between ARGININE and VALINE. It was isolated originally from human URINE, but is found in most tissues of most VERTEBRATES.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is believed to play a role in EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX remodeling and cell fate determination during normal and pathological processes. Matrix metalloproteinase 11 was originally isolated in primary BREAST NEOPLASMS and may be involved in the process of tumorigenesis.
Spindle-shaped cells with characteristic CONTRACTILE PROTEINS and structures that contribute to the WOUND HEALING process. They occur in GRANULATION TISSUE and also in pathological processes such as FIBROSIS.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.
A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.
Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of cells that react with or bind to laminin whose function allows the binding of epithelial cells to the basement membrane. The molecular weight of this high-affinity receptor is 67 kD.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
A porelike structure surrounding the entire circumference of the anterior chamber through which aqueous humor circulates to the canal of Schlemm.
APOPTOSIS triggered by loss of contact with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An extracellular matrix glycoprotein from platelets and a variety of normal and transformed cells of both mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Thrombospondin-1 is believed to play a role in cell migration and proliferation, during embryogenesis and wound repair. Also, it has been studied for its use as a potential regulator of tumor growth and metastasis.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.

Polarized distribution of Bcr-Abl in migrating myeloid cells and co-localization of Bcr-Abl and its target proteins. (1/9343)

Bcr-Abl plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia. Although a large number of substrates and interacting proteins of Bcr-Abl have been identified, it remains unclear whether Bcr-Abl assembles multi-protein complexes and if it does where these complexes are within cells. We have investigated the localization of Bcr-Abl in 32D myeloid cells attached to the extracellular matrix. We have found that Bcr-Abl displays a polarized distribution, colocalizing with a subset of filamentous actin at trailing portions of migrating 32D cells, and localizes on the cortical F-actin and on vesicle-like structures in resting 32D cells. Deletion of the actin binding domain of Bcr-Abl (Bcr-AbI-AD) dramatically enhances the localization of Bcr-Abl on the vesicle-like structures. These distinct localization patterns of Bcr-Abl and Bcr-Abl-AD enabled us to examine the localization of Bcr-Abl substrate and interacting proteins in relation to Bcr-Abl. We found that a subset of biochemically defined target proteins of Bcr-Abl redistributed and co-localized with Bcr-Abl on F-actin and on vesicle-like structures. The co-localization of signaling proteins with Bcr-Abl at its sites of localization supports the idea that Bcr-Abl forms a multi-protein signaling complex, while the polarized distribution and vesicle-like localization of Bcr-Abl may play a role in leukemogenesis.  (+info)

Role of alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. (2/9343)

Interaction between integrin alphavbeta3 and extracellular matrix is crucial for endothelial cells sprouting from capillaries and for angiogenesis. Furthermore, integrin-mediated outside-in signals co-operate with growth factor receptors to promote cell proliferation and motility. To determine a potential regulation of angiogenic inducer receptors by the integrin system, we investigated the interaction between alphavbeta3 integrin and tyrosine kinase vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in human endothelial cells. We report that tyrosine-phosphorylated VEGFR-2 co-immunoprecipitated with beta3 integrin subunit, but not with beta1 or beta5, from cells stimulated with VEGF-A165. VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and mitogenicity induced by VEGF-A165 were enhanced in cells plated on the alphavbeta3 ligand, vitronectin, compared with cells plated on the alpha5beta1 ligand, fibronectin or the alpha2beta1 ligand, collagen. BV4 anti-beta3 integrin mAb, which does not interfere with endothelial cell adhesion to vitronectin, reduced (i) the tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2; (ii) the activation of downstream transductor phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase; and (iii) biological effects triggered by VEGF-A165. These results indicate a new role for alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of an in vitro angiogenic program in endothelial cells. Besides being the most important survival system for nascent vessels by regulating cell adhesion to matrix, alphavbeta3 integrin participates in the full activation of VEGFR-2 triggered by VEGF-A, which is an important angiogenic inducer in tumors, inflammation and tissue regeneration.  (+info)

Inhibition of transforming growth factor beta production by nitric oxide-treated chondrocytes: implications for matrix synthesis. (3/9343)

OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide (NO) is generated copiously by articular chondrocytes activated by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). If NO production is blocked, much of the IL-1beta inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis is prevented. We tested the hypothesis that this inhibitory effect of NO on proteoglycan synthesis is secondary to changes in chondrocyte transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta). METHODS: Monolayer, primary cultures of lapine articular chondrocytes and cartilage slices were studied. NO production was determined as nitrite accumulation in the medium. TGFbeta bioactivity in chondrocyte- and cartilage-conditioned medium (CM) was measured with the mink lung epithelial cell bioassay. Proteoglycan synthesis was measured as the incorporation of 35S-sodium sulfate into macromolecules separated from unincorporated label by gel filtration on PD-10 columns. RESULTS: IL-1beta increased active TGFbeta in chondrocyte CM by 12 hours; by 24 hours, significant increases in both active and latent TGFbeta were detectable. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMA) potentiated the increase in total TGFbeta without affecting the early TGFbeta activation. IL-1beta stimulated a NO-independent, transient increase in TGFbeta3 at 24 hours; however, TGFbeta1 was not changed. When NO synthesis was inhibited with L-NMA, IL-1beta increased CM concentrations of TGFbeta1 from 24-72 hours of culture. L-arginine (10 mM) reversed the inhibitory effect of L-NMA on NO production and blocked the increases in TGFbeta1. Anti-TGFbeta1 antibody prevented the restoration of proteoglycan synthesis by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta + L-NMA, confirming that NO inhibition of TGFbeta1 in IL-1beta-treated chondrocytes effected, in part, the decreased proteoglycan synthesis. Furthermore, the increase in TGFbeta and proteoglycan synthesis seen with L-NMA was reversed by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamide. Similar results were seen with cartilage slices in organ culture. The autocrine increase in CM TGFbeta1 levels following prior exposure to TGFbeta1 was also blocked by NO. CONCLUSION: NO can modulate proteoglycan synthesis indirectly by decreasing the production of TGFbeta1 by chondrocytes exposed to IL-1beta. It prevents autocrine-stimulated increases in TGFbeta1, thus potentially diminishing the anabolic effects of this cytokine in chondrocytes.  (+info)

Role of thrombin receptor in breast cancer invasiveness. (4/9343)

Invasion, the ability of an epithelial cancer cell to detach from and move through a basement membrane, is a central process in tumour metastasis. Two components of invasion are proteolysis of extracellular matrix and cellular movement through it. A potential promoter of these two processes is thrombin, the serine proteinase derived from the ubiquitous plasma protein prothrombin. Thrombin promotes the invasion of MDA-MB231 breast tumour cells (a highly aggressive cell line) in an in vitro assay. Invasion by MDA-MB436 and MCF-7 cells, less aggressive cell lines, is not promoted by thrombin. Thrombin, added to the cells, is a stimulator of cellular movement; fibroblast-conditioned medium is the chemotaxin. Thrombin-promoted invasion is inhibited by hirudin. Stimulation of invasion is a receptor-mediated process that is mimicked by a thrombin receptor-activating peptide. Thrombin has no effect on chemotaxis in vitro. Thrombin receptor is detectable on the surface of MDA-MB231 cells, but not on the other two cell lines. Introduction of oestrogen receptors into MDA-MB231 cells by transfection with pHEO had no effect on thrombin receptor expression, in the presence or absence of oestradiol. This paper demonstrates that thrombin increases invasion by the aggressive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231 by a thrombin receptor-dependent mechanism.  (+info)

Extracellular matrix remodelling in the endometrium and its possible relevance to the pathogenesis of endometriosis. (5/9343)

Essential features of endometrial physiology involve the extracellular matrix (ECM). In the pathogenesis of endometriosis, interactions of endometriosis cells with ECM can be postulated. Two systems of secreted proteases in the endometrium, the plasmin(ogen) activator/inhibitor and the matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors were examined in cell cultures of uterine endometrial cells from women with and without endometriosis. Soluble urokinase receptor secretion is increased, and mRNA transcription of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) is upregulated by progestin in endometriosis. These findings are compatible with an altered ECM turnover in the endometrium of these patients that may explain a higher invasive potential of retrogradely menstruated endometrial fragments.  (+info)

Mechanisms and mediators in coal dust induced toxicity: a review. (6/9343)

Chronic inhalation of coal dust can cause several lung disorders, including simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), chronic bronchitis, lung function loss, and emphysema. This review focuses on the cellular actions and interactions of key inflammatory cells and target cells in coal dust toxicity and related lung disorders, i.e. macrophages and neutrophils, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. Factors released from or affecting these cells are outlined in separate sections, i.e. (1) reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related antioxidant protection mechanisms, and (2) cytokines, growth factors and related proteins. Furthermore, (3) components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), including the modifying role of ROS, cytokines, proteases and antiproteases are discussed in relation to tissue damage and remodelling in the respiratory tract. It is recognised that inhaled coal dust particles are important non-cellular and cellular sources of ROS in the lung, and may be significantly involved in the damage of lung target cells as well as important macromolecules including alpha-1-antitrypsin and DNA. In vitro and in vivo studies with coal dusts showed the up-regulation of important leukocyte recruiting factors, e.g. Leukotriene-B4 (LTB4), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF alpha), as well as the neutrophil adhesion factor Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Coal dust particles are also known to stimulate the (macrophage) production of various factors with potential capacity to modulate lung cells and/or extracellular matrix, including O2-., H2O2, and NO, fibroblast chemoattractants (e.g. Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF beta), PDGF, and fibronectin) and a number of factors that have been shown to stimulate and/or inhibit fibroblast growth or collagen production such as (TNF alpha, TGF beta, PDGF, Insulin Like Growth Factor, and Prostaglandin-E2). Further studies are needed to clarify the in vivo kinetics and relative impact of these factors.  (+info)

Matrix valency regulates integrin-mediated lymphoid adhesion via Syk kinase. (7/9343)

Lymphocytes accumulate within the extracellular matrix (ECM) of tumor, wound, or inflammatory tissues. These tissues are largely comprised of polymerized adhesion proteins such as fibrin and fibronectin or their fragments. Nonactivated lymphoid cells attach preferentially to polymerized ECM proteins yet are unable to attach to monomeric forms or fragments of these proteins without previous activation. This adhesion event depends on the appropriate spacing of integrin adhesion sites. Adhesion of nonactivated lymphoid cells to polymeric ECM components results in activation of the antigen receptor-associated Syk kinase that accumulates in adhesion-promoting podosomes. In fact, activation of Syk by antigen or agonists, as well as expression of an activated Syk mutant in lymphoid cells, facilitates their adhesion to monomeric ECM proteins or their fragments. These results reveal a cooperative interaction between signals emanating from integrins and antigen receptors that can serve to regulate stable lymphoid cell adhesion and retention within a remodeling ECM.  (+info)

alphaSU2, an epithelial integrin that binds laminin in the sea urchin embryo. (8/9343)

At gastrulation in the sea urchin embryo dramatic cell adhesion changes contribute to primary mesenchyme cell ingression movements and to cell rearrangements during archenteron invagination. At ingression, quantitative adhesion assays demonstrated previously that primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) change their affinity for neighboring cells, for a fibronectin-like substrate, and for the hyaline layer. To investigate the molecular basis for these and other differential cell affinities at gastrulation, we have identified an integrin that appears to be responsible for specific alterations in cell-substrate adhesion to laminin. During early cleavage stages blastomeres adhere poorly to laminin substrates. Around hatching there is a large increase in the ability of blastomeres to bind to laminin and this increase correlates temporally with the expression of an integrin on the basal surface all blastomeres. PMCs, after undergoing their epithelial-mesenchymal transition, have a strongly reduced affinity for laminin relative to ectoderm cells and, correspondingly, do not stain for the presence of the integrin. We identified the alpha integrin cDNA from Lytechinus variegatus by RT-PCR. Overlapping clones were obtained from a midgastrula cDNA library to provide a complete sequence for the integrin. The composite cDNA encoded a protein that was most similar to the alpha5 subgroup of vertebrate integrins, but there was not a definitive vertebrate integrin homolog. Northern blots and Western immunoblots showed that the sea urchin integrin, which we have named alphaSU2, is present in eggs and during all stages of development. Immunolocalization with specific polyclonal antibodies showed that alphaSU2 first appears on the basal cell surface of epithelia at the midblastula stage, at a time correlating with the increase in adhesive affinity for laminin. The protein remains at high levels on the basal surface of ectoderm cells but is temporarily reduced or eliminated from endoderm cells during their convergent-extension movements. To confirm integrin binding specificity, alphaSU2 was transfected into an alpha-integrin-deficient CHO cell line. alphaSU2-expressing CHO cells bound well to isolated sea urchin basal lamina and to purified laminin. The transfected cells bound weakly or not at all to fibronectin, type I collagen, and type IV collagen. This is consistent with the hypothesis that alphaSU2 integrin functions by binding epithelial cells to laminin in the basal lamina. In vivo, modulation of alphaSU2 integrin expression correlates with critical adhesive changes during cleavage and gastrulation. Thus, this protein appears to be an important contributor to the morphogenetic rearrangements that characterize gastrulation in the sea urchin embryo.  (+info)

Fibrosis can occur in response to a variety of stimuli, including inflammation, infection, injury, or chronic stress. It is a natural healing process that helps to restore tissue function and structure after damage or trauma. However, excessive fibrosis can lead to the loss of tissue function and organ dysfunction.

There are many different types of fibrosis, including:

* Cardiac fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the heart muscle or walls, leading to decreased heart function and potentially life-threatening complications.
* Pulmonary fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the lungs, leading to decreased lung function and difficulty breathing.
* Hepatic fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the liver, leading to decreased liver function and potentially life-threatening complications.
* Neurofibromatosis: a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of benign tumors (neurofibromas) made up of fibrous connective tissue.
* Desmoid tumors: rare, slow-growing tumors that are made up of fibrous connective tissue and can occur in various parts of the body.

Fibrosis can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including:

* Biopsy: the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope.
* Imaging tests: such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to visualize the accumulation of scar tissue.
* Blood tests: to assess liver function or detect specific proteins or enzymes that are elevated in response to fibrosis.

There is currently no cure for fibrosis, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the condition. These may include:

* Medications: such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, or chemotherapy to reduce inflammation and slow down the growth of scar tissue.
* Lifestyle modifications: such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy diet to improve overall health and reduce the progression of fibrosis.
* Surgery: in some cases, surgical removal of the affected tissue or organ may be necessary.

It is important to note that fibrosis can progress over time, leading to further scarring and potentially life-threatening complications. Regular monitoring and follow-up with a healthcare professional are crucial to managing the condition and detecting any changes or progression early on.

1. Tumor size and location: Larger tumors that have spread to nearby tissues or organs are generally considered more invasive than smaller tumors that are confined to the original site.
2. Cellular growth patterns: The way in which cancer cells grow and divide can also contribute to the overall invasiveness of a neoplasm. For example, cells that grow in a disorganized or chaotic manner may be more likely to invade surrounding tissues.
3. Mitotic index: The mitotic index is a measure of how quickly the cancer cells are dividing. A higher mitotic index is generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.
4. Necrosis: Necrosis, or the death of cells, can be an indication of the level of invasiveness of a neoplasm. The presence of significant necrosis in a tumor is often a sign that the cancer has invaded surrounding tissues and organs.
5. Lymphovascular invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded lymphatic vessels or blood vessels are considered more invasive than those that have not.
6. Perineural invasion: Cancer cells that have invaded nerve fibers are also considered more invasive.
7. Histological grade: The histological grade of a neoplasm is a measure of how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Higher-grade cancers are generally considered more aggressive and invasive than lower-grade cancers.
8. Immunohistochemical markers: Certain immunohistochemical markers, such as Ki-67, can be used to evaluate the proliferative activity of cancer cells. Higher levels of these markers are generally associated with more aggressive and invasive cancers.

Overall, the degree of neoplasm invasiveness is an important factor in determining the likelihood of the cancer spreading to other parts of the body (metastasizing) and in determining the appropriate treatment strategy for the patient.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Pathologic neovascularization can be seen in a variety of conditions, including cancer, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration. In cancer, for example, the formation of new blood vessels can help the tumor grow and spread to other parts of the body. In diabetic retinopathy, the growth of new blood vessels in the retina can cause vision loss and other complications.

There are several different types of pathologic neovascularization, including:

* Angiosarcoma: a type of cancer that arises from the cells lining blood vessels
* Hemangiomas: benign tumors that are composed of blood vessels
* Cavernous malformations: abnormal collections of blood vessels in the brain or other parts of the body
* Pyogenic granulomas: inflammatory lesions that can form in response to trauma or infection.

The diagnosis of pathologic neovascularization is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include medications, surgery, or radiation therapy.

In summary, pathologic neovascularization is a process that occurs in response to injury or disease, and it can lead to serious complications. It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of this condition and its various forms in order to provide appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

During ventricular remodeling, the heart muscle becomes thicker and less flexible, leading to a decrease in the heart's ability to fill with blood and pump it out to the body. This can lead to shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet.

Ventricular remodeling is a natural response to injury, but it can also be exacerbated by factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity. Treatment for ventricular remodeling typically involves medications and lifestyle changes, such as exercise and a healthy diet, to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the condition. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue.

The process of ventricular remodeling is complex and involves multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms. It is thought to be driven by a variety of factors, including changes in gene expression, inflammation, and the activity of various signaling pathways.

Overall, ventricular remodeling is an important condition that can have significant consequences for patients with heart disease. Understanding its causes and mechanisms is crucial for developing effective treatments and improving outcomes for those affected by this condition.

Neoplastic metastasis can occur in any type of cancer but are more common in solid tumors such as carcinomas (breast, lung, colon). It is important for cancer diagnosis and prognosis because metastasis indicates that the cancer has spread beyond its original site and may be more difficult to treat.

Metastases can appear at any distant location but commonly found sites include the liver, lungs, bones, brain, and lymph nodes. The presence of metastases indicates a higher stage of cancer which is associated with lower survival rates compared to localized cancer.

Keloids can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Trauma or injury to the skin, such as cuts, burns, or bites
* Surgery or other medical procedures
* Piercings or tattoos
* Skin conditions like acne or chickenpox

Keloids can appear in different shapes and sizes, and may be:

* Red or purple in color
* Raised and irregularly shaped
* Soft and rubbery to the touch
* Itchy or painful

There is no cure for keloids, but there are several treatment options available, including:

* Steroid injections to reduce inflammation and flatten the scar tissue
* Silicone gel or sheeting to help flatten and soften the scar
* Surgery to remove the keloid and repair the underlying tissue
* Laser therapy to reduce the size and color of the keloid

It's important to note that while these treatments can help improve the appearance of keloids, they may not completely eliminate them. In some cases, keloids may return after treatment.

Cicatrix is a term used to describe the scar tissue that forms after an injury or surgery. It is made up of collagen fibers and other cells, and its formation is a natural part of the healing process. The cicatrix can be either hypertrophic (raised) or atrophic (depressed), depending on the severity of the original wound.

The cicatrix serves several important functions in the healing process, including:

1. Protection: The cicatrix helps to protect the underlying tissue from further injury and provides a barrier against infection.
2. Strength: The collagen fibers in the cicatrix give the scar tissue strength and flexibility, allowing it to withstand stress and strain.
3. Support: The cicatrix provides support to the surrounding tissue, helping to maintain the shape of the affected area.
4. Cosmetic appearance: The appearance of the cicatrix can affect the cosmetic outcome of a wound or surgical incision. Hypertrophic scars are typically red and raised, while atrophic scars are depressed and may be less noticeable.

While the formation of cicatrix is a normal part of the healing process, there are some conditions that can affect its development or appearance. For example, keloid scars are raised, thick scars that can form as a result of an overactive immune response to injury. Acne scars can also be difficult to treat and may leave a lasting impression on the skin.

In conclusion, cicatrix is an important part of the healing process after an injury or surgery. It provides protection, strength, support, and can affect the cosmetic appearance of the affected area. Understanding the formation and functions of cicatrix can help medical professionals to better manage wound healing and improve patient outcomes.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

The exact cause of osteoarthritis is not known, but it is thought to be due to a combination of factors such as genetics, wear and tear on joints over time, and injuries or trauma to the joint. Osteoarthritis can affect any joint in the body, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine.

The symptoms of osteoarthritis can vary depending on the severity of the condition and which joint is affected. Common symptoms include:

* Pain or tenderness in the joint
* Stiffness, especially after periods of rest or inactivity
* Limited mobility or loss of flexibility
* Grating or crackling sensations when the joint is moved
* Swelling or redness in the affected joint
* Muscle weakness or wasting

There is no cure for osteoarthritis, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include:

* Pain relief medications such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and strength
* Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular exercise, and avoiding activities that exacerbate the condition
* Bracing or orthotics to support the affected joint
* Corticosteroid injections or hyaluronic acid injections to reduce inflammation and improve joint function
* Joint replacement surgery in severe cases where other treatments have failed.

Early diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and improve quality of life for individuals with this condition.

There are several types of pulmonary fibrosis, including:

1. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF): This is the most common and severe form of the disease, with no known cause or risk factors. It is characterized by a rapid decline in lung function and poor prognosis.
2. Connective tissue disease-associated pulmonary fibrosis: This type is associated with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma.
3. Drug-induced pulmonary fibrosis: Certain medications, such as amiodarone and nitrofurantoin, can cause lung damage and scarring.
4. Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis: Exposure to high doses of radiation, especially in childhood, can increase the risk of developing pulmonary fibrosis later in life.
5. Environmental exposures: Exposure to pollutants such as silica, asbestos, and coal dust can increase the risk of developing pulmonary fibrosis.

Symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis include shortness of breath, coughing, and fatigue. The disease can be diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as chest X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as lung biopsy.

Treatment options for pulmonary fibrosis are limited and vary depending on the underlying cause of the disease. Medications such as pirfenidone and nintedanib can help slow the progression of the disease, while lung transplantation may be an option for advanced cases.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

The exact cause of fibrosarcoma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur during a person's lifetime. Some risk factors for developing fibrosarcoma include previous radiation exposure, chronic inflammation, and certain inherited conditions such as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).

The symptoms of fibrosarcoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. In some cases, there may be no symptoms until the tumor has grown to a significant size. Common symptoms include pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected limb. If the tumor is near a nerve, it can also cause numbness or tingling sensations in the affected area.

Diagnosis of fibrosarcoma typically involves a combination of imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans, as well as a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for fibrosarcoma may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, depending on the size and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health.

Prognosis for fibrosarcoma is generally good if the tumor is caught early and treated aggressively. However, if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body (metastasized), the prognosis is generally poorer. In some cases, the cancer can recur after treatment, so it is important for patients to follow their doctor's recommendations for regular check-ups and follow-up testing.

Overall, fibrosarcoma is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that can be challenging to diagnose and treat. However, with early detection and appropriate treatment, many people with this condition can achieve long-term survival and a good quality of life.

There are several types of diabetic nephropathy, including:

1. Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis: This is the most common type of diabetic nephropathy and is characterized by an overgrowth of cells in the mesangium, a part of the glomerulus (the blood-filtering unit of the kidney).
2. Segmental sclerosis: This type of diabetic nephropathy involves the hardening of some parts of the glomeruli, leading to decreased kidney function.
3. Fibrotic glomerulopathy: This is a rare form of diabetic nephropathy that is characterized by the accumulation of fibrotic tissue in the glomeruli.
4. Membranous nephropathy: This type of diabetic nephropathy involves the deposition of immune complexes (antigen-antibody complexes) in the glomeruli, leading to inflammation and damage to the kidneys.
5. Minimal change disease: This is a rare form of diabetic nephropathy that is characterized by minimal changes in the glomeruli, but with significant loss of kidney function.

The symptoms of diabetic nephropathy can be non-specific and may include proteinuria (excess protein in the urine), hematuria (blood in the urine), and decreased kidney function. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans.

Treatment for diabetic nephropathy typically involves managing blood sugar levels through lifestyle changes (such as diet and exercise) and medication, as well as controlling high blood pressure and other underlying conditions. In severe cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary. Early detection and management of diabetic nephropathy can help slow the progression of the disease and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

There are several types of hypertrophy, including:

1. Muscle hypertrophy: The enlargement of muscle fibers due to increased protein synthesis and cell growth, often seen in individuals who engage in resistance training exercises.
2. Cardiac hypertrophy: The enlargement of the heart due to an increase in cardiac workload, often seen in individuals with high blood pressure or other cardiovascular conditions.
3. Adipose tissue hypertrophy: The excessive growth of fat cells, often seen in individuals who are obese or have insulin resistance.
4. Neurological hypertrophy: The enlargement of neural structures such as brain or spinal cord due to an increase in the number of neurons or glial cells, often seen in individuals with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's.
5. Hepatic hypertrophy: The enlargement of the liver due to an increase in the number of liver cells, often seen in individuals with liver disease or cirrhosis.
6. Renal hypertrophy: The enlargement of the kidneys due to an increase in blood flow and filtration, often seen in individuals with kidney disease or hypertension.
7. Ovarian hypertrophy: The enlargement of the ovaries due to an increase in the number of follicles or hormonal imbalances, often seen in individuals with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Hypertrophy can be diagnosed through various medical tests such as imaging studies (e.g., CT scans, MRI), biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options for hypertrophy depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery.

In conclusion, hypertrophy is a growth or enlargement of cells, tissues, or organs in response to an excessive stimulus. It can occur in various parts of the body, including the brain, liver, kidneys, heart, muscles, and ovaries. Understanding the underlying causes and diagnosis of hypertrophy is crucial for effective treatment and management of related health conditions.

There are several types of melanoma, including:

1. Superficial spreading melanoma: This is the most common type of melanoma, accounting for about 70% of cases. It usually appears as a flat or slightly raised discolored patch on the skin.
2. Nodular melanoma: This type of melanoma is more aggressive and accounts for about 15% of cases. It typically appears as a raised bump on the skin, often with a darker color.
3. Acral lentiginous melanoma: This type of melanoma affects the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, or nail beds and accounts for about 5% of cases.
4. Lentigo maligna melanoma: This type of melanoma usually affects the face and is more common in older adults.

The risk factors for developing melanoma include:

1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure from the sun or tanning beds
2. Fair skin, light hair, and light eyes
3. A history of sunburns
4. Weakened immune system
5. Family history of melanoma

The symptoms of melanoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Common symptoms include:

1. Changes in the size, shape, or color of a mole
2. A new mole or growth on the skin
3. A spot or sore that bleeds or crusts over
4. Itching or pain on the skin
5. Redness or swelling around a mole

If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy will be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment options for melanoma depend on the stage and location of the cancer and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these. Early detection and treatment are key to successful outcomes in melanoma cases.

In conclusion, melanoma is a type of skin cancer that can be deadly if not detected early. It is important to practice sun safety, perform regular self-exams, and seek medical attention if any suspicious changes are noticed on the skin. By being aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and treatment options for melanoma, individuals can take steps to protect themselves from this potentially deadly disease.

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

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The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including excessive alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and certain medications. It can also be a complication of other diseases such as hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease.

The symptoms of liver cirrhosis can vary depending on the severity of the disease, but may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal swelling, and pain in the upper right side of the abdomen. As the disease progresses, it can lead to complications such as esophageal varices, ascites, and liver failure, which can be life-threatening.

There is no cure for liver cirrhosis, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include medications to control swelling and pain, dietary changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary if the disease has caused significant damage and there is no other option to save the patient's life.

In conclusion, liver cirrhosis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can cause significant damage to the liver and lead to complications such as liver failure. It is important for individuals to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of the disease in order to seek medical attention if they suspect they may have liver cirrhosis. With proper treatment and management, it is possible to slow the progression of the disease and improve the patient's quality of life.

Symptoms of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration may include:

* Back pain
* Neck pain
* Stiffness in the back and neck
* Limited range of motion
* Muscle spasms
* Tingling or numbness in the arms or legs

Treatment for Intervertebral Disc Degeneration can vary depending on the severity of the condition and may include:

* Conservative treatments such as physical therapy, pain medication, and lifestyle changes
* Injections of corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid to reduce inflammation and relieve pain
* Surgery to remove the damaged disc and fuse the adjacent vertebrae together.

It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage the condition and prevent further damage.

The symptoms of Marfan syndrome can vary widely among individuals with the condition, but typically include:

1. Tall stature (often over 6 feet 5 inches)
2. Long limbs and fingers
3. Curvature of the spine (scoliosis)
4. Flexible joints
5. Eye problems, such as nearsightedness, glaucoma, and detached retinas
6. Heart problems, such as mitral valve prolapse and aortic dilatation
7. Blood vessel problems, such as aneurysms and dissections
8. Lung problems, such as pneumothorax (collapsed lung)
9. Other skeletal problems, such as pectus excavatum (a depression in the chest wall) and clubfoot

Marfan syndrome is usually diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, family history, and genetic testing. Treatment for the condition typically involves managing its various symptoms and complications, such as with medication, surgery, or lifestyle modifications. Individuals with Marfan syndrome may also need to avoid activities that could exacerbate their condition, such as contact sports or heavy lifting.

While there is currently no cure for Marfan syndrome, early diagnosis and appropriate management can help individuals with the condition live long and relatively healthy lives. With proper care and attention, many people with Marfan syndrome are able to lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.

Airway remodeling is a complex process that involves changes in the structure and function of the airways, as well as an immune response. It is characterized by the following features:

* Airway wall thickening and inflammation
* Increased mucus production
* Narrowing of the airway lumina due to smooth muscle hypertrophy and fibrosis
* Increased airway resistance and decreased lung function.

Airway remodeling is a hallmark of asthma and COPD, and it can lead to exacerbations and poor disease control if left untreated. The exact mechanisms driving airway remodeling are not fully understood, but it is believed that a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to its development.

There are several techniques used to assess airway remodeling in patients with respiratory diseases, including:

* Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) - This technique allows for the measurement of airway wall thickness and luminal area.
* Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - MRI can provide information on airway size and shape, as well as tissue composition.
* Bronchoscopy with biopsy - This procedure allows for the examination of airway tissue and the assessment of inflammation and fibrosis.

There are several treatments available for airway remodeling in patients with respiratory diseases, including:

* Medications such as bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and anti-inflammatory drugs
* Pulmonary rehabilitation - This includes exercises and education to help improve lung function and overall health.
* Lung transplantation - In severe cases of airway remodeling that do not respond to other treatments, lung transplantation may be considered.

It is important for patients with respiratory diseases to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their condition and adjust their treatment plan as needed. With appropriate management, many patients with airway remodeling can experience improved lung function and quality of life.

There are two main types of systemic scleroderma: diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (DCSS) and limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (LCSS). DCSS is characterized by skin thickening and scar formation over the trunk, arms, and legs, while LCSS is characterized by skin tightening and patches of scaly skin on the hands and face.

The symptoms of systemic scleroderma can include:

* Skin hardening and tightening
* Fatigue
* Joint pain and stiffness
* Muscle weakness
* Swallowing difficulties
* Heartburn and acid reflux
* Shortness of breath
* Raynaud's phenomenon (pale or blue-colored fingers and toes in response to cold temperatures or stress)

The exact cause of systemic scleroderma is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment options for systemic scleroderma include medications to manage symptoms such as pain, stiffness, and swallowing difficulties, as well as physical therapy and lifestyle modifications to improve quality of life.

In summary, systemic scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects multiple systems in the body, causing skin hardening and thickening, fatigue, joint pain, and other symptoms. While there is no cure for systemic scleroderma, treatment options are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

There are different types of hyperplasia, depending on the location and cause of the condition. Some examples include:

1. Benign hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is non-cancerous and does not spread to other parts of the body. It can occur in various tissues and organs, such as the uterus (fibroids), breast tissue (fibrocystic changes), or prostate gland (benign prostatic hyperplasia).
2. Malignant hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is cancerous and can invade nearby tissues and organs, leading to serious health problems. Examples include skin cancer, breast cancer, and colon cancer.
3. Hyperplastic polyps: These are abnormal growths that occur in the gastrointestinal tract and can be precancerous.
4. Adenomatous hyperplasia: This type of hyperplasia is characterized by an increase in the number of glandular cells in a specific organ, such as the colon or breast. It can be a precursor to cancer.

The symptoms of hyperplasia depend on the location and severity of the condition. In general, they may include:

* Enlargement or swelling of the affected tissue or organ
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Abnormal bleeding or discharge
* Changes in bowel or bladder habits
* Unexplained weight loss or gain

Hyperplasia is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include medication, surgery, or other interventions.

There are several types of gliomas, including:

1. Astrocytoma: This is the most common type of glioma, accounting for about 50% of all cases. It arises from the star-shaped cells called astrocytes that provide support and nutrients to the brain's nerve cells.
2. Oligodendroglioma: This type of glioma originates from the oligodendrocytes, which are responsible for producing the fatty substance called myelin that insulates the nerve fibers.
3. Glioblastoma (GBM): This is the most aggressive and malignant type of glioma, accounting for about 70% of all cases. It is fast-growing and often spreads to other parts of the brain.
4. Brain stem glioma: This type of glioma arises in the brain stem, which is responsible for controlling many of the body's vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure.

The symptoms of glioma depend on the location and size of the tumor. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the arms or legs, and changes in personality, memory, or speech.

Gliomas are diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and tissue biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for glioma depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery is often the first line of treatment to remove as much of the tumor as possible, followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells.

The prognosis for glioma patients varies depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is better for patients with slow-growing, low-grade tumors, while those with fast-growing, high-grade tumors have a poorer prognosis. Overall, the 5-year survival rate for glioma patients is around 30-40%.

There are several subtypes of chondrosarcoma, including:

1. Grade 1 (low-grade) chondrosarcoma: This is a slow-growing tumor that is less likely to spread to other parts of the body.
2. Grade 2 (intermediate-grade) chondrosarcoma: This type of tumor grows more quickly than grade 1 and may be more likely to spread.
3. Grade 3 (high-grade) chondrosarcoma: This is an aggressive tumor that can grow quickly and spread to other parts of the body.

The symptoms of chondrosarcoma can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but may include pain in the affected area, swelling, and limited mobility. Treatment for chondrosarcoma typically involves surgery to remove the tumor, followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. The prognosis for chondrosarcoma varies depending on the grade of the tumor and the effectiveness of treatment.


* American Cancer Society. (2020). Chondrosarcoma. Retrieved from
* Mayo Clinic. (2020). Chondrosarcoma. Retrieved from
* National Cancer Institute. (2020). Chondrosarcoma. Retrieved from

Arteriosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the arteries of the heart, brain, and legs. It is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide and is often associated with aging and other factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and smoking.

There are several types of arteriosclerosis, including:

1. Atherosclerosis: This is the most common type of arteriosclerosis and occurs when plaque builds up inside the arteries.
2. Arteriolosclerosis: This type affects the small arteries in the body and can cause decreased blood flow to organs such as the kidneys and brain.
3. Medial sclerosis: This type affects the middle layer of the artery wall and can cause stiffness and narrowing of the arteries.
4. Intimal sclerosis: This type occurs when plaque builds up inside the innermost layer of the artery wall, causing it to become thick and less flexible.

Symptoms of arteriosclerosis can include chest pain, shortness of breath, leg pain or cramping during exercise, and numbness or weakness in the limbs. Treatment for arteriosclerosis may include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medications to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to open up or bypass blocked arteries.

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Milieu intérieur Peckham M (2003). "Extracellular Matrix - 'Ground substance'". University of Leeds. {{cite journal}}: Cite ... is an amorphous gel-like substance in the extracellular space that contains all components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) ...
The most basic description of the plant extracellular matrix (ECM) is the cell wall, but it is actually the cell surface ... In mammalian animals, extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) modify the ECM to play significant roles in biological ... They are noted for having the ability to degrade extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagens, laminin, and proteoglycans. ... The important role of MMP function in the extracellular matrix modification and subsequent mammalian development and signaling ...
Kühn, Klaus (1997). "Extracellular matrix constituents as integrin ligands". In Elbe, Johannes A. (ed.). Integrin-ligand ... Laminins are a family of glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix of all animals. They are major components of the basal ... The trimeric proteins intersect to form a cross-like structure that can bind to other cell membrane and extracellular matrix ... M. A. Haralson; John R. Hassell (1995). Extracellular matrix: a practical approach. Ithaca, N.Y: IRL Press. ISBN 978-0-19- ...
... s are extracellular matrix glycoproteins. They are abundant in the extracellular matrix of developing vertebrate ... One mechanism to explain this may come from its ability to bind to the extracellular matrix glycoprotein fibronectin and block ...
... extracellular matrix glycoproteins. Vertebrate Emu proteins, which could interact with several different extracellular matrix ... Proteins known to contain an EMI domain include: Vertebrate Emilins, extracellular matrix glycoproteins. Vertebrate Multimerins ... The EMI domain is most often found at the N terminus of metazoan extracellular proteins that are forming or are compatible with ... a novel cysteine-rich domain of EMILINs and other extracellular proteins, interacts with the gC1q domains and participates in ...
Plasticity and the extracellular matrix. Archived 2007-12-03 at the Wayback Machine Hensch TK (2005). "Critical period ...
... extracellular Extracellular matrix; D. Furst, muscle; Joseph Bonventre, kidney and related subjects; P. Sutovsky, reproductive ...
Extracellular matrix proteins, Mollusc shells). ... This is the most acidic of all the molluscan shell matrix ... Isowa, Y; Sarashina, I; Setiamarga, DHE; Endo, K (2012). "A comparative study of the shell matrix protein aspein in pterioid ... Tsukamoto, D; Sarashina, I; Endo, K (2004). "Structure and expression of an unusually acidic matrix protein of pearl oyster ... Aspein is an unusually acidic bivalve shell matrix protein, which may have important roles in calcium carbonate ...
doi:10.1097/MBP.0000000000000183 Dietz, J (2007). "Arterial stiffness and extracellular matrix". Atherosclerosis, Large ...
Anatomy of corals Sarras, M. P.; Madden, M. E.; Zhang, X.; Gunwar, S.; Huff, J. K.; Hudson, B. G. (1991). "Extracellular matrix ... Mesoglea refers to the extracellular matrix found in cnidarians like coral or jellyfish that functions as a hydrostatic ... The most prominent of these are the basal lamina and the interstitial matrix. In order to differentiate the use of the word ... It is related to but distinct from mesohyl, which generally refers to extracellular material found in sponges. The mesoglea is ...
Extracellular Matrix Biomaterials for Soft Tissue Repair. Clin Podiatr Med Surg 26 (2009) 507-523 Article Valentin JE, Badylak ... gTissue is a type of living Tissue (biology), hence an ensemble of cells and extracellular matrix that carry out a particular ... Extracellular matrix bioscaffolds for orthopaedic applications. A comparative histologic study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2006;88(12 ... For example, during tendon augmentation procedures, the collagen fiber architecture of the extracellular matrix can transition ...
"Signal transduction from the extracellular matrix". The Journal of Cell Biology. 120 (3): 577-85. doi:10.1083/jcb.120.3.577. ... Actin-adhesion links to the extracellular matrix". Nature Milestones. doi:10.1038/nrm2568. Burridge K, Feramisco JR; Feramisco ... "Tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and pp125FAK accompanies cell adhesion to extracellular matrix: a role in cytoskeletal ...
An extracellular matrix (ECM) is also present in metazoans. Its composition varies between cells, but collagens are the most ... Extracellular matrix Bacterial cell structure Plant cell Romaniuk JA, Cegelski L (October 2015). "Bacterial cell wall ... Frantz C, Stewart KM, Weaver VM (December 2010). "The extracellular matrix at a glance". Journal of Cell Science. 123 (Pt 24): ... Roberts K (October 1994). "The plant extracellular matrix: in a new expansive mood". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 6 (5): ...
Accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins then occurs due to insufficient degradation by matrix metalloproteinases. ... Mesangial cells are separated by intercellular spaces containing extracellular matrix called the mesangial matrix that is ... Mesangial matrix provides structural support for the mesangium. Mesangial matrix is composed of glomerular matrix proteins such ... Mason, R; Wahab, N (2003). "Extracellular Matrix Metabolism in Diabetic Nephropathy". Journal of the American Society of ...
As the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is important in the survival, proliferation, differentiation and migration of the ... Tibbitt, Mark W.; Anseth, Kristi S. (2009). "Hydrogels as extracellular matrix mimics for 3D cell culture". Biotechnology and ... Geckil, Hikmet; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Moon, SangJun; Demirci, Utkan (2010). "Engineering hydrogels as extracellular matrix ... Hydrogel from wood-based nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) is used as a matrix for 3D cell culture. As plant based material, it ...
Bou-Gharios G, Ponticos M, Rajkumar V, Abraham D (2004). "Extra-cellular matrix in vascular networks". Cell Proliferation. 37 ( ...
... scaffolds are used in bone tissue engineering to mimic the natural extracellular matrix of the bones. The bone tissue ... Mo XM, Xu CY, Kotaki M, Ramakrishna S (May 2004). "Electrospun P(LLA-CL) nanofiber: a biomimetic extracellular matrix for ... In tissue engineering, a highly porous artificial extracellular matrix is needed to support and guide cell growth and tissue ... An electrospun nanofiber network resembles the extracellular matrix (ECM) well. This resemblance is a major advantage of ...
Papilin is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000100767 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ...
Weber KT, Swamynathan SK, Guntaka RV, Sun Y (1999). "Angiotensin II and extracellular matrix homeostasis". The International ... Marked upregulation of genes encoding extracellular matrix components". Circulation Research. 75 (1): 23-32. doi:10.1161/01.res ... compensate with a number of structural alterations including hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and increase of extracellular matrix ...
... mineralized tissues and extracellular matrix biology; biomaterials, nanobiotechnology and tissue engineering; and population ...
This work focused on the importance of the extracellular matrix and the ability of cultures in artificial 3D matrices to ... As the natural Extracellular matrix (ECM) is important in the survival, proliferation, differentiation and migration of the ... Geckil H, Xu F, Zhang X, Moon S, Demirci U (April 2010). "Engineering hydrogels as extracellular matrix mimics". Nanomedicine. ... Prestwich GD (August 2007). "Simplifying the extracellular matrix for 3-D cell culture and tissue engineering: a pragmatic ...
Sonbol, Hala Salim (2018). "Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Human Disease". Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure. 6 (3 ... alterations to the extracellular matrix) of the trabecular meshwork, which leads to increased resistance to aqueous humour ...
"The extracellular matrix phenome across species". Matrix Biology Plus. 8: 100039. doi:10.1016/j.mbplus.2020.100039. PMC 7852310 ... where he leads the Laboratory of Extracellular Matrix Regeneration. His research focuses on the remodeling of the extracellular ... In collaboration with Alexandra Naba, he defined the proteins outside of cells forming the extracellular matrix, the so-called ... He coined the term matreotype that is the extracellular matrix composition caused or associated by a cellular or physiological ...
... alterations are noted in the extracellular matrix and in the protein content of the basement membrane. The extracellular matrix ... Elastin is the key protein of the extracellular matrix and is the main component of the elastic fibres. Elastin gives the ...
They were looking for the invertebrate homologue of the extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-C to learn more about its ... The extracellular domain of the molecule can undergo dimerisation. The extracellular C terminal domain is composed of a linker ... TCAPs from the extracellular domain of a teneurin molecule can form an intercellular adhesive complex when bound to the ... The dimerisation of the extracellular domains of teneurin molecules can lead to the proteolytic cleavage of the ICD. A weak ...
... critical to the stability of muscle fiber membranes and to the linking of the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. ...
... extra-cellular polymers, nectar, root exudates and leachates, dissolved organic matter, extra-cellular matrix, mucilage). The ...
In particular, abnormal interactions between epithelial cells and the extracellular matrix are associated with the over- ...
It may also mediate the attachment of hematopoietic stem cells to bone marrow extracellular matrix or directly to stromal cells ...
Each domain helps the head to bind to a different component of the extracellular matrix. These are as follows: YadA-like head ... Function: The function of this protein domain is to bind to the extracellular matrix of the host, most notably fibronectin, ... The head domain, once assembled, then adheres to an element of the host extracellular matrix, for example, collagen, ... in the intestine by using its head to bind to proteins found in the extracellular matrix such as collagen, laminin, and ...
Brain Extracellular Matrix in Health and Disease. Elsevier. 2014-10-30. ISBN 9780444634948. Hall, Tim (2013-09-17). PACES for ...
... has been speculated that the domain may have ancestrally acted as a spacer to push the receptor beyond the extracellular matrix ... e.g. repeat 6 of the ligand binding domain (N-terminal, extracellular fluid) is deleted. Class 4 mutations inhibit the ... "Structure of the LDL receptor extracellular domain at endosomal pH". Science. 298 (5602): 2353-8. Bibcode:2002Sci...298.2353R. ...
Mary Cynthia (Cindy) Farach-Carson is an American biochemist, known for her work in extracellular matrix, perlecan, tissue ... Farach-Carson serves on the editorial boards of Biomolecules and Matrix Biology. She serves as Senior Scientist and on the ... 3], Biomolecules Editorial Board [4], Matrix Biology Editorial Board [5], CTBP Senior Scientists Bronner, Felix; Farach-Carson ... "Interactions between the bone matrix proteins osteopontin and bone sialoprotein and the osteoclast integrin alpha v beta 3 ...
... a major component of the extracellular matrix in bacterial biofilms, contributing to biofilm stability. To this date, the ...
Cabello FC, Godfrey HP, Newman SA (August 2007). "Hidden in plain sight: Borrelia burgdorferi and the extracellular matrix". ... and hiding in the extracellular matrix, which may interfere with the function of immune factors. In the brain, B. burgdorferi ...
... and the extracellular matrix, and provides an important structural support in muscle. Synemin is an intermediate filament (IF) ... especially between the contractile myofibrils and extracellular matrix. Synemin contributes to linkage between costameres and ...
Aberrant steroid hormone-dependent regulation of neuronal calcium influx via extracellular matrix proteins and membrane ...
Hernandez MR, Igoe F, Neufeld AH (1986). "Extracellular matrix of the human optic nerve head". Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102 (2): 139- ...
This N-terminal domain enables it to become cross-linked to extracellular matrix proteins by transglutaminase. This domain ... and these together can anchor the whole molecule to extracellular matrix proteins, such as laminin, fibronectin, beta- ...
... a component of the extracellular matrix Search for "pnn" on Wikipedia. All pages with titles containing pnns All pages with ...
... s are type of extracellular matrix protein, which, together with ameloblastins, enamelins and tuftelins, direct the ... mineralization of enamel to form a highly organized matrix of rods, interrod crystal and proteins. Although the precise role of ...
... amphiphiles with the ability to self-assemble into nanoscale filaments that mimic components of the extracellular matrix. ... "Bone regeneration mediated by biomimetic mineralization of a nanofiber matrix". Biomaterials. 31 (23): 6004-12. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Similar things happen in other brain areas: an initial synaptic matrix is generated as a result of genetically determined ... or implanted inside the brains of animals for extracellular recordings, which can detect action potentials generated by ... Experience, however, is required to refine the matrix of synaptic connections, which in its developed form contains far more ...
Extracellular DNA acts as a functional extracellular matrix component in the biofilms of several bacterial species. It may act ... Relic DNA dynamics Extracellular DNA, sometimes called relic DNA, is DNA from dead microbes. Naked extracellular DNA (eDNA), ... Tani K, Nasu M (2010). "Roles of Extracellular DNA in Bacterial Ecosystems". In Kikuchi Y, Rykova EY (eds.). Extracellular ... "DNA builds and strengthens the extracellular matrix in Myxococcus xanthus biofilms by interacting with exopolysaccharides". ...
AP-1 activity is induced by numerous extracellular matrix and genotoxic agents, suggesting involvement in programmed cell death ... "Papillomavirus E2 protein induces expression of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/ ... Therefore, activity of AP-1 subunits in response to extracellular signals may be modified under conditions where the balance of ...
... along with acting as extracellular matrix for cell growth and proliferation. Immobilisation of specific ligands onto cryogels ... The hepatocytes then contract the gel by their attachment to the collagen matrix, reducing the volume of the suspension and ... with patient blood or plasma flow through an artificial matrix housing hepatocytes. Plasma is often separated from the ...
... is a putative cell surface coreceptor for growth factors, extracellular matrix proteins, proteases and anti- ...
... extracellular matrix protein - eye proteins fab immunoglobulin - facilitated diffusion - factor VIII - FADH - FADH2 - Fat - ...
"Three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering made by processing complex extracts of natural extracellular matrices"; " ... "Three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering made by processing complex extracts of natural extracellular matrices", ...
Extracellular enzymes are released into the culture medium, and are much simpler to separate. Enzymes must maintain their ... The complex is introduced into a support matrix for which the ligand has high binding affinity, and the enzyme is immobilized ... The procedures for enzyme recovery depend on the source organism, and whether enzymes are intracellular or extracellular. ...
Extracellular matrix proteins, Glycoproteins). ... "Matrix metalloproteinases cleave at two distinct sites on human ... Matrix. 11 (5): 339-46. doi:10.1016/s0934-8832(11)80205-2. PMID 1725805. Rhodes C, Savagner P, Line S, Sasaki M, Chirigos M, ...
... unbranched polysaccharide found covalently attached to various proteins at the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix, ...
... and alternative extracellular protein export. TMEM125 was identified as a tetraspanin cell adhesion molecule enriched in ... EMBL-EBI SAPS Homo sapiens matrix for TMEM125 https://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/seqstats/saps/ CFSSP http://www.biogem.org/tool/chou- ...
AGING MUSCULOSKELETAL AND SKIN EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PA-03-167. NIA ... Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix, may, in and of itself, help prevent apoptosis. The extracellular matrix may have an ... extracellular matrix and how those changes in extracellular matrix composition and organization contribute to the altered ... largely of extracellular matrix. The structural support these tissues give to the body depends on the matrix composition and ...
Type IV collagen is a major component of the basement membrane and interacts with numerous other basement membrane proteins. Many of these interactions are poorly characterized. Type IV collagen is abundantly post-translationally modified with 3-hydroxyproline (3-Hyp), but 3-Hyps biochemical role in type IV collagens interactions with other proteins is not well established. In this work, we present binding data consistent with a major role of 3-Hyp in interactions of collagen IV with glycoprotein VI and nidogens 1 and 2 ...
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex of self assembled macromolecules. It is composed predominantly of collagens, non- ... Cartilage and bone extracellular matrix Chiara Gentili et al. Curr Pharm Des. 2009. ... Extracellular matrix structure. Theocharis AD, Skandalis SS, Gialeli C, Karamanos NK. Theocharis AD, et al. Adv Drug Deliv Rev ... The role of the extracellular matrix in skeletal development. Velleman SG. Velleman SG. Poult Sci. 2000 Jul;79(7):985-9. doi: ...
The extracellular matrix (ECM) of cartilage consists of a fibrous collagen network, which is pre-stressed by the osmotic ... Interactions of Cartilage Extracellular Matrix Macromolecules Ferenc Horkay. J Polym Sci B Polym Phys. 2012. . ... The extracellular matrix (ECM) of cartilage consists of a fibrous collagen network, which is pre-stressed by the osmotic ... Molecular adhesion between cartilage extracellular matrix macromolecules. Rojas FP, Batista MA, Lindburg CA, Dean D, Grodzinsky ...
Extracellular Matrix and Immune Niches in Human Disease 2022 - A Special Issue published by Hindawi ... The complexity of the extracellular matrix is not only reflected in the distribution of extracellular matrix proteins ... Immune cell-matrix interaction in inflammatory diseases. * Therapeutic strategies that modulate the extracellular matrix and ... Extracellular matrix (ECM) has a broad impact on the basic function of immune cells: affecting cell survival, growth and ...
Engineered Extracellular Matrix Models to Study Tumor Heterogeneity ... Biomedical Engineering Scientific Interest Group: Engineered Extracellular Matrix Models to Study Tumor Heterogeneity ...
Find products for Extracellular matrix Pre-coated Plates. ... Extracellular Matrix Molecules. Coat your own plates with R&D ... Extracellular Matrix-Associated Molecules. Basement Membrane Extracts. An alternative approach to promote cell adhesion. ... Extracellular Matrix Pre-coated Plates. Kits are available containing 96-well microplates pre-coated with Fibronectin (Catalog ... Figure 1. R&D Systems Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Protein Coated Plate assay template (left). As indicated by text in wells, ...
Mechanobiology of Cells and Extracellular Matrices. Add to your list(s) Download to your calendar using vCal ...
EMMPRIN is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion molecules and has a role in the activation of several matrix ... EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) is a novel marker of poor outcome in serous ovarian carcinoma Clin Exp ... EMMPRIN is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion molecules and has a role in the activation of several matrix ...
Although several decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) sheets or patches have been commercialized for use in the clinic, ... leaving behind only the extracellular matrix of the tissue. We evaluate variability between animal sources, methods to reduce ... Manufacturing considerations for producing and assessing decellularized extracellular matrix hydrogels.. Manufacturing ... only one injectable decellularized ECM hydrogel, a decellularized myocardial matrix, has reached clinical trials. Consequently ...
... September 12 ... Functional ultrasound imaging for assessment of extracellular matrix scaffolds used for liver organoid formation, Biomaterials ...
... is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that associates with fibrillin-1 containing microfibrils. Various factors prompted ... LTBP2 mutations cause Weill-Marchesani and Weill-Marchesani-like syndrome and affect disruptions in the extracellular matrix ... LTBP2 mutations cause Weill-Marchesani and Weill-Marchesani-like syndrome and affect disruptions in the extracellular matrix ... Latent transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-binding protein 2 (LTBP2) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that associates ...
One substrate upon which rapid growth occurs in defined medium is a cell-free extract of extracellular matrix (ECM) that ... Identification of Molecules in Leech Extracellular Matrix that Promote Neurite Outgrowth *Masuda-Nakagawa, L. ... One substrate upon which rapid growth occurs in defined medium is a cell-free extract of extracellular matrix (ECM) that ...
R. H. Goldbrunner, J. J. Bernstein and J. C. Tonn, "Cell-Extracellular Matrix Interaction in Glioma Invasion," Acta Neurochir ( ... S. Yoshida and H. Takahashi, "Expression of Extracellular Matrix Molecules in Brain Metastasis," Journal of Surgical Oncology, ... The high expression of EGFR and MT1-MMP indicates that an extracellular matrix remodeling may be playing an important role in ... The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship of CD133 and other remodeling factors such as matrix ...
... it is still unknown how the extracellular matrix contributes to tissue regeneration and how changes in the extracellular matrix ... Physicochemical properties of extracellular matrix: Key to function, Clue to mechanism. Wyss EventLecture *Facebook ... In this talk, Varghese will discuss efforts to delineate the role of the extracellular matrix on cellular responses relevant to ... It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the extracellular environment normally maintains tissue homeostasis, but when ...
Rat pancreatic stellate cells secrete matrix metalloproteinases: implications for extracellular matrix turnover ... Rat pancreatic stellate cells secrete matrix metalloproteinases: implications for extracellular matrix turnover ... Extracellular matrix degradation and the role of hepatic stellate cells. Semin Liver Dis2001;21:373-84. ... Implication: The role of pancreatic stellate cells in extracellular matrix formation and fibrogenesis may be related to their ...
Macrophage Deposition of Cholesterol into the Extracellular Matrix. Thursday, September 15, 2016. - Poster Session II ... in which macrophages deposit excess cholesterol into the extracellular matrix where it can accumulate unless mobilized by HDL. ... in ApoA-I mobilization of cholesterol deposited into the extracellular matrix by cholesterol-enriched macrophages. We have also ... Extracellular cholesterol deposited by cholesterol-enriched macrophages was detected with a monoclonal antibody. Conclusions: ...
In vitro, the results revealed that FGF21 administration alleviated apoptosis, senescence, and extracellular matrix (ECM) ... Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) alleviates senescence, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix degradation in osteoarthritis ...
... is a major repressor of extracellular matrix (ECM) and focal adhesion genes. ... The extracellular matrix (ECM) and focal adhesion gene signature is overrepresented upon MITF depletion and in MITFlow human ... MITF binds and represses genes of extracellular matrix (ECM) and focal adhesion genes.. (a) Volcano plot showing 2136 DEGs with ... Differentially expressed extracellular matrix (ECM) genes in MITF knockdown, knockout, overexpression cell lines vs. respective ...
Jabłońska-Trypuć A, Matejczyk M and Rosochacki S: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), the main extracellular matrix (ECM) enzymes ... Zhou ZQ, Chen Y, Chai M, Tao R, Lei YH, Jia YQ, Shu J, Ren J, Li G, Wei WX, Wei WX, et al: Adipose extracellular matrix ... Adipose extracellular matrix promotes skin wound healing by inducing the differentiation of adipose‑derived stem cells into ... b P,0.05 vs. the previous time point; CK19, cytokeratin 19; ADSCs, adipose-derived stem cells; ECM, extracellular matrix. ...
Effect of MeCP2 on TGF-β1-induced Extracellular Matrix Production in Nasal Polyp-derived Fibroblasts. Mar 10, 2021 ...
Hypohalous Acids Contribute to Renal Extracellular Matrix Damage in Experimental Diabetes Kyle L. Brown; Kyle L. Brown ... Cross-linking of the extracellular matrix by the maillard reaction in aging and diabetes: an update on "a puzzle nearing ... Site-specific AGE modifications in the extracellular matrix: a role for glyoxal in protein damage in diabetes ... We demonstrate that hypohalous acid-derived modifications of renal tissues and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are ...
Skeletal muscle extracellular matrix - what do we know about its composition, regulation, and physiological roles? A narrative ... Role of extracellular matrix in adaptation of tendon and skeletal muscle to mechanical loading. ... Role of the extracellular matrix in muscle injuries: histoarchitectural considerations for muscle injuries. ... MMP inhibition as a potential method to augment the healing of skeletalmuscle and tendon extracellular matrix. ...
Collagen and Endothelial Cell Coculture Improves β-Cell Functionality and Rescues Pancreatic Extracellular Matrix ... Collagen and Endothelial Cell Coculture Improves β-Cell Functionality and Rescues Pancreatic Extracellular Matrix. Collagen and ... Impact statement Expression analysis identifies hypoxia-induced pathological changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis ... Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are known to impact numerous reparative functions in the body. Assessing how endogenously ...
Extracellular matrix (ECM) serves as a structural scaffold and a reservoir for biologically active molecules (Hynes, 2009). ... The journey of membrane-embedded or secreted proteins such as cell adhesion molecules, growth factors and extracellular matrix ... Cartilage matrix is progressively lost in feelgood mutants. Cartilage matrix is continuously turned over during development and ... The feelgood mutation in zebrafish dysregulates COPII-dependent secretion of select extracellular matrix proteins in skeletal ...
The cells were adhered and grown on the gold surface of the sensor pre-coated with adsorbed layer of extracellular matrix ... Adhesion of eukaryotic cell lines on the gold surface modified with extracellular matrix proteins monitored by the ... Adhesion of eukaryotic cell lines on the gold surface modified with extracellular matrix proteins monitored by the ...
... M. Kato, F. ... Extracellular matrix profile of lung in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Source: Annual Congress 2011 - Bronchoalveolar lavage ... Treprostinil effectively inhibits PDGF and TGF-ß1 induced extracellular matrix composition by IPF fibroblasts. Source: ... Tranilast inhibits pulmonary fibrosis by suppressing TGFbeta-mediated extracellular matrix protein production. Eur Respir J ...
It has recently become clear that both extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins and various cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) can ... Extracellular matrix molecules and cell adhesion molecules induce neurites through different mechanisms. J L Bixby, J L Bixby ... It has recently become clear that both extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins and various cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) can ... J L Bixby, P Jhabvala; Extracellular matrix molecules and cell adhesion molecules induce neurites through different mechanisms ...
  • The complexity of the extracellular matrix is not only reflected in the distribution of extracellular matrix proteins throughout different tissues and organs, but also during different physiological and pathological processes. (hindawi.com)
  • R&D Systems offers a range of aseptically prepared microplates pre-coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins for culturing adherent cell lines and quantifying cell adhesion. (rndsystems.com)
  • We demonstrate that hypohalous acid-derived modifications of renal tissues and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are significantly elevated in experimental diabetic nephropathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are known to impact numerous reparative functions in the body. (nmi.de)
  • The cells were adhered and grown on the gold surface of the sensor pre-coated with adsorbed layer of extracellular matrix proteins as vitronectin and laminin. (muni.cz)
  • Cartilage contains numerous noncollagenous proteins in its extracellular matrix, including proteoglycans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The extracellular matrix of articular cartilage contains a large variety of noncollagenous proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background: The over expression of fascin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), and ezrin proteins has been associated with poor prognosis in various carcinomas and sarcomas. (who.int)
  • Various cell types secrete different matrix molecules and the nature and the amount of these molecules change during developmental age. (nih.gov)
  • EMMPRIN is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion molecules and has a role in the activation of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). (nih.gov)
  • Extracellular matrix molecules and cell adhesion molecules induce neurites through different mechanisms. (rupress.org)
  • It has recently become clear that both extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins and various cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) can promote neurite outgrowth from primary neurons, though little is known of the intracellular mechanisms through which these signals are transduced. (rupress.org)
  • Some of the molecules represent degradation products of larger precursors that accumulate because of their interaction with other matrix components. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Clinicopathologic significance of fascin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and ezrin expressions in colorectal adenocarcinoma. (who.int)
  • The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex of self assembled macromolecules. (nih.gov)
  • Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a three-dimensional network entity composed of extracellular macromolecules. (bvsalud.org)
  • The heterogeneity of extracellular matrix (ECM) of breast cancer has remained largely unexplored and underestimated. (bvsalud.org)
  • Projects are encouraged that determine how cellular aging processes lead to altered matrix production and maintenance, and how aging-related altered matrix composition and organization affect the function of these tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Cartilage and bone are classified as connective tissues and are composed largely of extracellular matrix. (nih.gov)
  • The interaction of the epidermis and the muscle fibers with their associated connective tissue and, in particular, the extracellular matrix, is fundamental to the function of these tissues. (nih.gov)
  • In most of these tissues there is evidence of increased turnover of extracellular matrix with age as well as changes in composition of the matrix with age. (nih.gov)
  • Because these tissues depend on matrix for function and cell viability, these aging-associated changes in matrix are likely key to altered integrity and function of the musculoskeletal tissues and skin in the elderly. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, matrix influences on blood vessels and nerves in aging tissues of the musculoskeletal system and skin may be important to understand, as vascular and neural function change. (nih.gov)
  • We are soliciting applications from post-doctoral level scientists interested in developing and implementing novel MRI methods for studying water and ion transport mechanisms in extracellular matrix (ECM), tissue culture systems, or "engineered" tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Extracellular matrix (ECM) from decellularized tissues provide a physical scaffolding and offers crucial biochemical and biomechanical cues for cellular constituents. (nih.gov)
  • Turnover and degradation of normal and pathological matrices are dependent on the responses of the local cell to auto and paracrine anabolic and catabolic pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Although we have a certain understanding of the basic structure of the extracellular matrix and its physiological and pathological functions, there are still many important questions to be answered in this field. (hindawi.com)
  • Impact statement Expression analysis identifies hypoxia-induced pathological changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis as potential targets to support β-cell transplants by encapsulation in biomaterials for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. (nmi.de)
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are widely studied regarding their role in cell-to-cell communication and disease, as well as for applications as biomarkers or drug delivery vehicles. (nature.com)
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by many cell types in vitro and in vivo and are present in most body fluids. (nature.com)
  • Reciprocally, the matrix and the mechanical and biochemical processes it is subject to, affect the cells. (nih.gov)
  • In bone, as well as in cartilage, the ECM resident cells produce local factors, inflammatory mediators, and matrix-degrading enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • Extracellular matrix (ECM) has a broad impact on the basic function of immune cells: affecting cell survival, growth and differentiation, and determining cell shape and migration. (hindawi.com)
  • This Special Issue invites original research and review articles that further the understanding and clarify the related fundamental knowledge and underlying mechanism of the interplay between immune cells and their extracellular matrices, in order to explore new therapeutic strategies and improve clinical outcomes. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we evaluate different manufacturing parameters for making an injectable biomaterial derived from skeletal muscle from pigs that has been stripped of all cells, leaving behind only the extracellular matrix of the tissue. (ca.gov)
  • In the present study, it was hypothesized that adipose‑derived stem cells (ADSCs) could be induced by the adipose extracellular matrix (ECM) to differentiate into fibroblasts in order to promote skin wound healing. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • As previously reported, several immune cells, including T cells, may be associated with scar formation, and epidermal cells have a critical role in wound healing by regulating the extracellular matrix (ECM) ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Breast cancer cells interact with tumor-derived extracellular matrix in a molecular subtype-specific manner. (bvsalud.org)
  • The matrix is a mediator of signals for cell proliferation and differentiation, and for apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro, the results revealed that FGF21 administration alleviated apoptosis, senescence, and extracellular matrix (ECM) catabolism of the chondrocytes induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) by mediating autophagy flux. (sens.org)
  • It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the extracellular environment normally maintains tissue homeostasis, but when negatively perturbed, it may also contribute to disease progression and age-dependent pathologies. (harvard.edu)
  • Extracellular matrix in synovium development, homeostasis and arthritis disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • The National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) announces a workshop focusing on the role of the adipose tissue niche in the development, maintenance and remodeling of different adipose tissue depots in healthy individuals, and how the extracellular matrix and cellular components of the niche are modified during the develop of diabetes, in the overfed state, and following other metabolic stressors. (nih.gov)
  • R&D Systems Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Protein Coated Plate assay template (left). (rndsystems.com)
  • Latent transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-binding protein 2 (LTBP2) is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that associates with fibrillin-1 containing microfibrils. (nih.gov)
  • Cartilage ECM is composed mainly of two components defining its mechano-physical properties: the collagenous network, responsible for the tensile strength of the cartilage matrix, and the proteoglycans (mainly aggrecan), responsible for the osmotic swelling and the elastic properties of the cartilage tissue. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, dynamic changes in the extracellular matrix network are also one of the basic features of the tumor microenvironment. (hindawi.com)
  • However, it is still unknown how the extracellular matrix contributes to tissue regeneration and how changes in the extracellular matrix induces differential cellular responses in diseases. (harvard.edu)
  • In this talk, Varghese will discuss efforts to delineate the role of the extracellular matrix on cellular responses relevant to tissue repair, stem cell differentiation, and disease progression. (harvard.edu)
  • However, these 3-D cell constructs are limited in that they do not integrate extracellular components within the structure important for more reliable and accurate biological responses. (nih.gov)
  • More needs to be done to understand the changes that take place in extracellular matrix composition and structure with age, why those changes occur and the mechanisms by which they result in altered tissue function. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, changes in matrix composition with age could lead to altered local balances or effects of these factors. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, there is evidence that the extracellular matrix acts as a reservoir of humoral factors such as hormones and growth factors, and mediates cell interactions with these factors. (nih.gov)
  • Our previous research has identified a novel macrophage cholesterol processing pathway, in which macrophages deposit excess cholesterol into the extracellular matrix where it can accumulate unless mobilized by HDL. (nih.gov)
  • Its lectin-like properties suggest the possibility of interaction with other components of the extracellular matrix [ 3 ], though it has also been suggested that it is involved in intracellular trafficking during aggrecan synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Work in cancer shows that the matrix influences angiogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship of CD133 and other remodeling factors such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in the brain tumors. (scirp.org)
  • The NOTCH pathway may be also related to many remodeling factors such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in the brain tumors. (scirp.org)
  • Paradoxically, however, the matrix can become increasingly insoluble, less digestible and more cross- linked with age. (nih.gov)
  • The extracellular matrix is involved in normal tissue function on a number of levels, including regulation of cell fate, growth and function within the tissue. (nih.gov)
  • The extracellular matrix may have an influence on vascular function and neurological function, and the converse may also be true. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we examined the function of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in ApoA-I mobilization of cholesterol deposited into the extracellular matrix by cholesterol-enriched macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • The extracellular matrix (ECM) of cartilage consists of a fibrous collagen network, which is pre-stressed by the osmotic swelling pressure exerted by negatively charged proteoglycan aggregates embedded in the collagen network. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusions: Our findings show that extracellular cholesterol deposited by macrophages can be mobilized by both ApoA-I and 5A, but that mobilization depends on macrophage ABCA1. (nih.gov)