The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Activities performed by humans.
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SQUID; CUTTLEFISH; OCTOPUS; and NAUTILUS. These marine animals are the most highly organized of all the mollusks.
Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).
A method for extinguishing anxiety by a saturation exposure to the feared stimulus situation or its substitute.
Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
Animals that have no spinal column.
An order of amoeboid EUKARYOTES characterized by reticulating pseudopods and a complex life cycle with an alternation of generations. Most are less than 1mm in size and found in marine or brackish water.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.
Compounds based on a 7-membered heterocyclic ring including an oxygen. They can be considered a medium ring ether. A natural source is the MONTANOA plant genus. Some dibenzo-dioxepins, called depsidones, are found in GARCINIA plants.
The largest of the medial nuclei of the thalamus. It makes extensive connections with most of the other thalamic nuclei.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
The tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.
A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The dimension of the physical universe which, at a given place, orders the sequence of events. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Reflex closure of the eyelid occurring as a result of classical conditioning.
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
An extinct genus of large mammals in the family Elephantidae that fed by grazing on low vegetation. Most died out at the end of the last ice age.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The physical measurements of a body.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Small solar system planetary bodies including asteroids. Most asteroids are found within the gap lying between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
The phenomenon of an organism's responding to all situations similar to one in which it has been conditioned.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Organisms that live in water.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Learning in which practice proceeds beyond the point where the act can just be performed with the required degree of excellence.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).
A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE.
A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
A behavior therapy technique in which deep muscle relaxation is used to inhibit the effects of graded anxiety-evoking stimuli.
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.
The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by complete loss of muscle strength.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Compounds that interact with and stimulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.
Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
A genus of the order Sirenia characterized by a notched tail, the presence of nasal bones and a long nasal cavity, and large columnar teeth lacking enamel. Dugongs inhabit the coastal waters of the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and the Malay Archipelago. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A type I G protein-coupled receptor mostly expressed post-synaptic pyramidal cells of the cortex and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.

Extinction of responding maintained by timeout from avoidance. (1/1603)

The resistance to extinction of lever pressing maintained by timeout from avoidance was examined. Rats were trained under a concurrent schedule in which responses on one lever postponed shock on a free-operant avoidance (Sidman) schedule (response-shock interval = 30 s) and responses on another lever produced 2 min of signaled timeout from avoidance on a variable-ratio 15 schedule. Following extended training (106 to 363 2-hr sessions), two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1 two different methods of extinction were compared. In one session, all shocks were omitted, and there was some weakening of avoidance but little change in timeout responding. In another session, responding on the timeout lever was ineffective, and under these conditions timeout responding showed rapid extinction. The within-session patterns produced by extinction manipulations were different than the effects of drugs such as morphine, which also reduces timeout responding. In Experiment 2 shock was omitted for many consecutive sessions. Response rates on the avoidance lever declined relatively rapidly, with noticeable reductions within 5 to 10 sessions. Extinction of the timeout lever response was much slower than extinction of avoidance in all 4 rats, and 2 rats continued responding at baseline levels for more than 20 extinction sessions. These results show that lever pressing maintained by negative reinforcement can be highly resistant to extinction. The persistence of responding on the timeout lever after avoidance extinction is not readily explained by current theories.  (+info)

Reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior by drug-associated discriminative stimuli after prolonged extinction in the rat. (2/1603)

Clinical observations suggest that stimuli associated with the availability or consumption of ethanol can evoke subjective feelings of craving and trigger episodes of relapse in abstinent alcoholics. To study the motivational significance of alcohol-related environmental cues experimentally, the effects of discriminative stimuli previously predictive of alcohol availability on the reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behavior were examined. Wistar rats were trained to lever-press for 10% (w/v) ethanol or water in the presence of distinct auditory cues. The rats were then subjected to an extinction phase where lever presses had no scheduled consequences. After extinction, the animals were exposed to the respective auditory cues without the availability of ethanol or water. Neither the ethanol (SA+) nor water-associated (SA-) auditory cue increased responding over extinction levels. In contrast, subsequent presentation of an olfactory cue associated with ethanol (SO+), but not a water-associated (SO-) cue significantly reinstated lever pressing behavior in the absence of the primary reinforcer. Moreover, responding elicited by the concurrent presentation of the SO+ and SA+ was selectively attenuated by the opiate antagonist naltrexone (0.25 mg/kg; s.c.). The results suggest that ethanol-associated cues can reinstate extinguished ethanol-seeking behavior in rats, but that the efficacy of these stimuli may be modality-specific. In addition, the present procedures may be useful for studying neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol-seeking behavior and relapse.  (+info)

Side effects of extinction: prevalence of bursting and aggression during the treatment of self-injurious behavior. (3/1603)

Findings from basic and applied research suggest that treatment with operant extinction may produce adverse side effects; two of these commonly noted are an increase in the frequency of the target response (extinction burst) and an increase in aggression (extinction-induced aggression). Although extinction is often used to treat problem behavior in clinical settings, few applied studies have examined the prevalence of these side effects or their possible attenuation with other operant procedures. An analysis of 41 data sets for individuals who received treatment for self-injurious behavior indicated that extinction bursts or increases in aggression occurred in nearly one half of the cases. The prevalence of bursting and aggression was substantially lower when extinction was implemented as part of a treatment package rather than as the sole intervention.  (+info)

Clarifying an ambiguous functional analysis with matched and mismatched extinction procedures. (4/1603)

Results of functional analysis were ambiguous in suggesting that self-injurious behavior (SIB) was maintained by escape, sensory reinforcement, or both. To help clarify these results, we compared escape extinction, sensory extinction, and the combined treatments. Sensory extinction proved to be a necessary and sufficient treatment, whereas escape extinction failed to decrease SIB. These analyses helped to clarify the function of SIB and to identify an effective and efficient treatment.  (+info)

Dopamine fluctuations in the nucleus accumbens during maintenance, extinction, and reinstatement of intravenous D-amphetamine self-administration. (5/1603)

Moment-to-moment fluctuations of nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) were determined in rats self-administering or passively receiving "yoked" intravenous infusions of D-amphetamine. The initial lever presses of each session caused elevations in DA concentration, usually to an initial peak that was not maintained throughout the rest of the session. As the initial ("loading") injections were metabolized, DA levels dropped toward baseline but were sustained at elevated plateaus by subsequent lever pressing that was spaced throughout the remainder of the 3 hr sessions. During this period, DA levels fluctuated phasically, time-locked to the cycle of periodic lever pressing. Consistent with the known pharmacological actions and dynamics of amphetamine, peak DA elevations were seen approximately 10-15 min after each injection, and the mean DA level was at a low point in the phasic cycle at the time of each new lever press. During extinction periods when saline was substituted for amphetamine, DA levels dropped steadily toward baseline levels despite a dramatic increase in (now-unrewarded) lever pressing. Noncontingent injections during extinction reinstated lever-pressing behavior and increased nucleus accumbens DA concentrations. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that under the conditions of this experiment-during periods of amphetamine intoxication in well-trained animals-the timing of amphetamine self-administration comes primarily under the control of extracellular DA concentrations. The probability of lever pressing during the maintenance phase is highest when DA concentrations fall near a characteristic trigger point, a trigger point that is significantly elevated above baseline, and falls as DA concentrations fall below or increase above that trigger point.  (+info)

Effects of reinforcement magnitude on spontaneous recovery. (6/1603)

Extinction of operant behavior has been associated with a number of undesirable effects. One such effect is the temporary reappearance of behavior after responding appears to be completely extinguished, known as spontaneous recovery. In this report, the occurrence of spontaneous recovery and its attenuation with large amounts of reinforcement were examined during the treatment of disruption.  (+info)

Caffeine, acting on adenosine A(1) receptors, prevents the extinction of cocaine-seeking behavior in mice. (7/1603)

Drug-naive DBA/2 mice were trained to self-administer cocaine (40 microgram/kg/infusion) i.v. by nose poking. The number of nose-poke responses was higher in mice receiving response-contingent injections of cocaine (active group) than in yoked controls or in animals receiving response-contingent saline injections. Twenty-four hours after the training session (cocaine or saline self-administration), mice were injected i.p. with saline, cocaine, caffeine, 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentyl xanthine (DPCPX), 8-cyclopentyl theophylline (8-CPT), 5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2, 4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine (SCH 58261), or 9-chloro-2(2-furyl)[1,2, 4]triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-amine (CGS 15943) and placed again in exactly the same operant boxes as during the training session but without response-contingent i.v. infusions. Saline injection elicited similar responding in animals from the active group and from the yoked control group. A low dose of cocaine (5 mg/kg) or caffeine (3 mg/kg), but not higher doses, produced greater responding in the active group than in the yoked control group during a single extinction trial. The adenosine A(1)-receptor antagonists DPCPX and 8-CPT and the nonselective antagonist CGS 15943 partially reproduced the effect of a low dose of caffeine on the cocaine-associated behavior in a dose-dependent manner and did not alter the nose-poke activity of yoked control mice in the extinction experiment. In contrast, the adenosine A(2A) antagonist SCH 58261, in doses above 1 mg/kg, reduced nose-poke activity equally in active and yoked control animals. This confirms that a drug from a different pharmacological class (adenosine-receptor antagonist) can induce behavior changes similar to the effects of the original self-administered drug (indirect dopamine-receptor agonist). The data also suggest that the effects of caffeine on cocaine-seeking behavior might be related to interaction with adenosine A(1) receptors, but not A(2A) receptors.  (+info)

Impaired eye-blink conditioning in waggler, a mutant mouse with cerebellar BDNF deficiency. (8/1603)

In addition to their trophic functions, neurotrophins are also implicated in synaptic modulation and learning and memory. Although gene knockout techniques have been used widely in studying the roles of neurotrophins at molecular and cellular levels, behavioral studies using neurotrophin knockouts are limited by the early-onset lethality and various sensory deficits associated with the gene knockout mice. In the present study, we found that in a spontaneous mutant mouse, waggler, the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was selectively absent in the cerebellar granule cells. The cytoarchitecture of the waggler cerebellum appeared to be normal at the light microscope level. The mutant mice exhibited no sensory deficits to auditory stimuli or heat-induced pain. However, they were massively impaired in classic eye-blink conditioning. These results suggest that BDNF may have a role in normal cerebellar neuronal function, which, in turn, is essential for classic eye-blink conditioning.  (+info)

Remember • Operant conditioning extinction differs from classical conditioning extinction • Responds decreases to near zero for both • Operant conditioning: - Transient increase - Extinction induced aggression Partial Reinforcement Extinction Effect: PREE • Extinction occurs at different rates depending on the schedule: - Continuous reinforcement: FAST extinction - Partial reinforcement schedules: SLOWER extinction - Variable schedules show slower extinction than fixed (rate or time) schedules. • PREE used to describe greater persistence in instrumental responding during extinction after partial (or intermittent) reinforcement training - Faster extinction after continuous reinforcement training. • Partial reinforcement schedules show RESISTANCE TO EXTINCTION Other Extinction Effects • magnitude reinforcement extinction effect - Less persistence of instrumental behavior in extinction following training with a large reinforcer - More persistance of responding with a small or moderate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of linalool on extinction of mouse operant behaviour. T2 - Behavioural Pharmacology. AU - Shaw, D. AU - Norwood, Kelly. AU - Kennedy, Paul J.. AU - Leslie, J.C.. N1 - This paper is dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague, David Shaw (1970-2017).. PY - 2020/2/1. Y1 - 2020/2/1. N2 - Linalool is an enanitomer monoterpene compound identified as the pharmacologically active constituent in a number of essential oils and has been reported to display anxiolytic properties in humans and in animal models and to exert both GABAergic and glutamatergic effects. In Experiment 1 linalool (100, 200, and 300, i.p.) had no significant effects compared with saline in an activity tracker with C57BL/6j mice. Experiment 2 assessed the effects on operant extinction with mice of chlordiazepoxide at a dose (15 mg/kg, i.p.) previously shown to facilitate extinction, and the same doses of linalool, compared with saline. Linalool had a dose-related facilitatory effect on extinction. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lateral hypothalamus is required for context-induced reinstatement of extinguished reward seeking. AU - Marchant, N. J.. AU - Hamlin, A.S.. AU - McNally, G. P.. N1 - Imported on 12 Apr 2017 - DigiTool details were: month (773h) = Feb 2009; Journal title (773t) = Journal of Neuroscience. ISSNs: 0270-6474; PY - 2009/2. Y1 - 2009/2. N2 - We studied the role of lateral hypothalamus (LH) in context-induced reinstatement (renewal) of reward seeking. Rats were trained to respond for 4% (v/v) alcoholic beer or 10% (w/v) sucrose reward in one context (Context A) before extinction training in a second context (Context B). On test, rats were returned to the training context, A (ABA), or the extinction context, B (ABB). Return to the training context (ABA) produced robust reinstatement. Reversible inactivation of LH via baclofen/muscimol infusion prevented context-induced reinstatement of beer and sucrose seeking. This prevention was specific to bilateral infusions into LH. We then used the ...
Our results show that activation of noradrenergic β-receptors in IL during fear extinction is necessary for later retrieval of extinction. A β-receptor-mediated signaling cascade increases intrinsic excitability of IL pyramidal neurons and stabilizes extinction in IL. Thus, fear-induced activation of β-receptors engages cellular processes that enhance extinction learning.. It has been previously shown that lesions of the locus ceruleus, which deprive the entire cortex of NE, impair extinction (Mason and Fibiger, 1979; McCormick and Thompson, 1982), but these effects were never localized. Our findings indicate that the IL is a key site for noradrenergic modulation of extinction. The idea that NE facilitates consolidation of extinction was recently suggested by Berlau and McGaugh (2006), who showed that posttraining infusions of NE into the amygdala facilitated extinction of contextual fear in a β-receptor-dependent manner (Berlau and McGaugh, 2006). Infusion of propranolol alone, however, had ...
Extinction of conditioned fear forms a new memory in the infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex that is critical for subsequent retrieval of the extinction memory. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie this extinction-related plasticity could help in the treatment of anxiety disorders. By infusing BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) into the infralimbic cortex, Peters et al. caused the extinction of conditioned fear, even without an extinction trial. In fact, BDNF infusion seemed to act as if an extinction training session had been given. Thus, the hippocampus is a likely source of the BDNF input to the infralimbic cortex, and individual differences in extinction memory may reflect variations in hippocampal BDNF content.. J. Peters, L. M. Dieppa-Perea, L. M. Melendez, G. J. Quirk, Induction of fear extinction with hippocampal-infralimbic BDNF. Science 328, 1288-1290 (2010). [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...
The prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are thought to play opposing roles in drug-seeking behaviour. Specifically, the PL promotes drug-seeking whereas the IL is necessary for the inhibition of drug-seeking during extinction. We studied the roles of the PL, IL and dorsal peduncular PFC (DP) in the expression of context-induced reinstatement, reacquisition and extinction of alcoholic beer-seeking. In context-induced reinstatement (renewal), animals were trained to nosepoke for alcoholic beer (context A), extinguished (context B) and then tested in context A and B. In reacquisition, animals received the same instrumental training and extinction without any contextual manipulation. On test, alcoholic beer was again available and responding was compared with naive controls. Just prior to the test, rats received bilateral infusion of baclofen/muscimol into the PL, IL or DP. Reversible inactivation of the PL attenuated ABA renewal but augmented reacquisition. ...
Infusing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) into the infralimbic (IL) prefrontal cortex is capable of inducing extinction. Little is known, however, about the circuits mediating BDNF effects on extinction or the extent to which extinction requires BDNF in IL. Using local pharmacological infusion of BDNF protein, or an antibody against BDNF, we found that BDNF in the IL, but not prelimbic (PL) prefrontal cortex, is both necessary and sufficient for fear extinction. Furthermore, we report that BDNF in IL can induce extinction of older fear memories (14 days) as well as recent fear memories (1 day). Using immunocytochemistry, we show that BDNF is increased in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), but not IL or PL, following extinction training. Finally, we observed that infusing BDNF into the vHPC increased the firing rate of IL, but not PL neurons in fear conditioned rats. These findings indicate that an extinction-induced increase in BDNF within the vHPC enhances excitability in IL targets, ...
We examined the role of PKA in extinction of context-evoked fear using two distinct yet complementary transgenic approaches that allowed us to reduce PKA activity selectively in forebrain neurons. Both approaches revealed a facilitative effect of PKA inhibition on the development of extinction. Such an effect was observed both across extinction sessions with daily brief exposures (3 min) to the conditioning context in the absence of shock (Fig. 1A), as well as within extinction sessions during daily long exposures (24 min) to the context in the absence of shock (Fig. 2, 5B). These findings suggest that PKA inhibition affects both the short-term development of extinction within a session as well as the retention of extinction across sessions, depending on the duration of the extinction session. Spontaneous recovery was observed in both cases, either the next day, which occurred with long extinction sessions (Figs. 2, 5B), or 21 d later, which occurred with short extinction sessions (Fig. 1B). Our ...
Extinctions are caused by environmental and ecological change but are recognized and measured in the fossil record by the disappearance of clades or lineages. If the ecological preferences of lineages or taxa are weakly congruent with their phylogenetic relationships, even large ecological perturbations are unlikely to drive major clades extinct because the factors that eliminate some species are unlikely to affect close relatives with different ecological preferences. In contrast, if phylogenetic relatedness and ecological preferences are congruent, then ecological perturbations can more easily cause extinctions of large clades. In order to quantify this effect, we used a computer model to simulate the diversification and extinction of clades based on ecological criteria. By varying the parameters of the model, we explored (1) the relationship between the extinction probability for a clade of a given size (number of terminals) and the overall intensity of extinction (the proportion of the ...
Extinction of Pavlovian conditioning is a complex process that involves brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the amygdala and the locus coeruleus. In particular, noradrenaline (NA) coming from the locus coeruleus has been recently shown to play a different role in two subregions of the mPFC, the prelimbic (PL) and the infralimbic (IL) regions. How these regions interact in conditioning and subsequent extinction is an open issue. We studied these processes using two approaches: computational modelling and NA manipulation in a conditioned place preference paradigm (CPP) in mice. In the computational model, NA in PL and IL causes inputs arriving to these regions to be amplified, thus allowing them to modulate learning processes in amygdala. The model reproduces results from studies involving depletion of NA from PL, IL, or both in CPP. In addition, we simulated new experiments of NA manipulations in mPFC, making predictions on the possible results. We searched the parameters ...
Life on Earth has endured five major mass extinctions, known as the Big Five. We know about these past events thanks to fossils: During mass extinctions, many species evident in the rock record disappeared from Earth relatively quickly. Today, human alteration of the environment is driving what scientists call the sixth great extinction, but according to new research, the current extinction differs from the Big Five in a key way: Much of the life facing extermination today will likely not be preserved as fossils. This means that, to future paleontologists looking at the rock record from today, the sixth extinction might not appear to have been such a major event.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Noise-induced switching and extinction in systems with delay. AU - Schwartz, Ira B.. AU - Billings, Lora. AU - Carr, Thomas W.. AU - Dykman, M. I.. PY - 2015/1/26. Y1 - 2015/1/26. N2 - We consider the rates of noise-induced switching between the stable states of dissipative dynamical systems with delay and also the rates of noise-induced extinction, where such systems model population dynamics. We study a class of systems where the evolution depends on the dynamical variables at a preceding time with a fixed time delay, which we call hard delay. For weak noise, the rates of interattractor switching and extinction are exponentially small. Finding these rates to logarithmic accuracy is reduced to variational problems. The solutions of the variational problems give the most probable paths followed in switching or extinction. We show that the equations for the most probable paths are acausal and formulate the appropriate boundary conditions. Explicit results are obtained for small ...
There seems to have been a surge in ultraviolet radiation during the Permian extinction 252 million years ago, and it might have left plants infertile rather than kill them
Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of aerosol optical depths (AODs) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to heavily underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the models low bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AOD and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same ...
The extinction of one carnivore species can trigger the demise of fellow predators, conservation biologists at the University of Exeter have confirmed.
Unlike conservation biology, which formed from an amalgam of ecological, environmental and evolutionary strands into a coherent field of research in the 1980s, the study of species losses has remained rather dispersed, despite some concerted efforts to banner it under extinction biology (e.g. [4]). Giving extinction a unifying framework is both intellectually appealing and practically useful. For instance, understanding its general mechanisms is essential for predicting the impact of future stressors, such as anthropogenic habitat loss, climate change, invasive species or exploitation [5,6], on threatened biota. Indeed, deriving generalizations (e.g. identifying functional and life-history traits that predispose species to extinction due to specific causes [7]) is critical in a crisis discipline where data are sparse, many uncertainties remain, and yet decisions are urgent [8].. Extinction biology is the science of developing theoretical, experimental and historical tests of the mechanisms ...
Dear all, I would like to know about extinction coefficients for equine seric Fab, F(ab)2. Did you find it before? How did you get it? Thank you in advance Susan ...
HENRIQUEZ, Carola and LISSI, Eduardo. EVALUATION OF THE EXTINCTION COEFFICIENT OF THE ABTS DERIVED RADICAL CATION. Bol. Soc. Chil. Quím. [online]. 2002, vol.47, n.4, pp.363-366. ISSN 0366-1644. The exact knowledge of the value of the extinction coefficient of the ABTS derived radical is necessary for its quantitative use in the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of pure compounds and/or complex mixtures. We have performed experiments in order to stablish its lower and upper limits of its value. The limits obtained, 1.0 x 104 M-1 cm-1 £ e 734 £ 1.6 x 104 M-1 cm-1 are fully compatible with previously reported data. However, the use of these values leads to large stoichiometric coefficients for the reaction of these radicals with simple substrates, such as monophenols or tryptophan.. Keywords : ABTS; extintion coefficient; antioxidants evaluation. ...
This Biology Factsheet summarises: • Human population and extinctions. • Factors that may decrease the chances of a species becoming extinct. • Reasons for trying to prevent extinction.
Its well known that Earths most severe mass extinction occurred about 250 million years ago. Whats not well known is the specific time when the extinctions occurred. A team of researchers from North America and China have ...
I was interviewed today by Peter Melton, on Extinction Radio, last Wednesday, and is also posted under Media. The entire show which also includes no less than Carolyn Baker, and Guy McPherson is shared here, and those with less time who might want to or need to hear my brief, can simply click to the queue…
Painstaking analyses of fossils from the Permian extinction, 252 million years ago, are providing startling new clues to the behavior of modern marine life and its future.
Up to 1 million plant and animal species are on the verge of extinction, with devastating implications for human survival, according to a United Nations report released Monday.
Theyve been branded as anarchists and fringe-dwellers, but do Extinction Rebellion protesters really warrant such drastic reactions?
Animal extinction. Climate change. Illegal wildlife traffic. The problems are overwhelming, the scale enormous. But the solutions can start with you. #StartWith1Thing.
A frightening vision of the apocalypse, The Extinction Parade #5 is a terrifying read that doesnt hold back on its shocks and scares. With vampires on o
A new study by paleoecologist Margaret Fraiser at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, offers an interesting new theory behind the cause of the Earths largest extinction: copious carbon-dioxide
A new study by paleoecologist Margaret Fraiser at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, offers an interesting new theory behind the cause of the Earths largest extinction: copious carbon-dioxide
Pulling Teeth Extinction lyrics & video : a pleasant surprise but still unexpected the decision is made not to reject it plans have to change but it seems for the better creati...
Extinction Fade To Brown by Tanya Anderson [Pdf] [ePub] Full Download Ebook. Quietly without most people noticing the population of giraffes in the wild has d
The book Imagining Extinction: The Cultural Meanings of Endangered Species, Ursula K. Heise is published by University of Chicago Press.
Behavioral persistence is required to reach a goal but may impede adaptations to changing environments. Given the well-documented effects of stress on learning and memory processes, we asked here whether stress affects the persistence of behavior. Participants were exposed to stress or a control con …
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
We all have read the unfortunate news about the prediction of human extinction by none other than Stephen Hawking. A trusted name in the scientific world. Extinction, how scary does it sound. Until a few years ago the word extinct was only used for animals species that we have lost. Which, by the way, are…
The International Whaling Commission (IWC) has taken up the cause of some of the worlds most critically endangered marine mammals by calling on governments to keep fishing nets out of their waters to prevent entanglement deaths.
Theres much evidence to sugges that the days of Macro Virus and Script Viruses are comming to an end. Happy? Well dont be, because whats developing instead is even worse... Behold the day of the…
emu, Fogel concluded.. Not everyone agrees that people forced the change in diet.. Large animals went extinct across the world between ...
The increase in population in England has made an impact on the environment. The rise from one million to more than fifty-one million in the past two millennia has resulted in the extinction of hundreds of native animals and plants ...
I thought that might be the case Wazza. FWIW, I think that most game in the burbs would be hunted to extinction in short order, once people got hungry enough. Its not something that I would rely on long term. I think of it more as a short-term emergency measure. Hunting in the burbs is illegal anyway, so that options off the table in any…[Read more]. ...
Social interaction is known to alter behavior and emotional responses to various events. It has been reported that when fear-conditioned animals are put in a fear extinction paradigm with non-fearful conspecifics (pair-exposure), freezing behavior decreases compared to a solitary situation. However, it remains unclear whether pair-exposure during fear extinction is persistently effective in reducing the freezing response. In this study, we examined whether the effect of pair-exposure could be persistently effective on cued and contextual fear extinction. The reduction of the fear compared to the solitary condition was transiently observed only in the cued fear extinction with no difference in the subsequent recall session. We also found that the correlation between corticosterone levels and freezing behavior during extinction was disrupted in the pair-exposure situation. These results suggest that pair-exposure reduces freezing behavior in cued fear extinction, although this fear response reduction is
Sex differences in learned fear expression and extinction involve the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We recently demonstrated that enhanced learned fear expression during auditory fear extinction and its recall is linked to persistent theta activation in the prelimbic (PL) but not infralimbic (IL) cortex of female rats. Emerging evidence indicates that gamma oscillations in mPFC are also implicated in the expression and extinction of learned fear. Therefore we re-examined our in vivo electrophysiology data and found that females showed persistent PL gamma activation during extinction and a failure of IL gamma activation during extinction recall. Altered prefrontal gamma oscillations thus accompany sex differences in learned fear expression and its extinction. These findings are relevant for understanding the neural basis of post-traumatic stress disorder, which is more prevalent in women and involves impaired extinction and mPFC dysfunction.. ...
Memories are not always worth keeping. People who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder, for example, wrestle to suppress thoughts and feelings that take a heavy emotional toll. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to purge bad memories, but as scientists begin to understand the biology behind memory extinction, there is a glimmer of hope that they might find a therapeutic approach that helps. In this weeks Nature Neuroscience online, researchers led by Li-Huei Tsai at MIT reveal one aspect of memory extinction that may be amenable to manipulation. They report that in mice, contextual fear extinction is impaired by Cdk5, a kinase best known for its role in the developing nervous system. Cdk5 has also been implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer disease and other neurodegenerative disorders (see ARF related news story).. Memory extinction is often measured in mice using a fear conditioning paradigm, where animals learn to associate a condition, such as a specific cage or environment, ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Functional deficit in hippocampal activity during fear extinction recall in the single prolonged-stress model of PTSD in male rats. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
ABSTRACT. The end-Permian extinction event is regarded as the most severe of the five major extinction events in the history of life. Recent work in the Karoo Basin of South Africa suggests that the extinctions at the Permo-Triassic boundary (PTB) may have been followed by a second pulse of extinctions, one that claimed the few species that crossed the PTB and thus survived the first extinction pulse. We report here a new specimen of the procolophonoid reptile, Sauropareion anoplus, which was known heretofore only from a single specimen from Lower Triassic strata of the Palingkloof Member, Balfour Formation. The new specimen comes from the lower part of the overlying Katberg Formation and serves as the last appearance datum for the stratigraphic range of S. anoplus. It indicates that S. anoplus survived the second pulse of PTB extinctions and reinforces the hypothesis that procolophonoid evolution was not seriously perturbed by extinctions that mark the beginning of the Triassic Period.. ...
The molecular mechanisms underlying drug extinction remain largely unknown, although a role for medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) glutamate neurons has been suggested. Considering that the mPFC sends glutamate efferents to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), we tested whether the VTA is involved in methamphetamine (METH) extinction via conditioned place preference (CPP). Among various METH-CPP stages, we found that the amount of phosphoGluR1/Ser845 increased in the VTA at behavioral extinction, but not the acquisition or withdrawal stage. Via surface biotinylation, we found that levels of membrane GluR1 were significantly increased during METH-CPP extinction, while no change was observed at the acquisition stage. Specifically, the number of dendritic spines in the VTA was increased at behavioral extinction, but not during acquisition. To validate the role of the mPFC in METH-CPP extinction, we lesioned the mPFC. Ibotenic acid lesioning of the mPFC did not affect METH-CPP acquisition,
It is generally believed that fear extinction is a form of new learning that inhibits rather than erases previously acquired fear memories. Although this view has gained much support from behavioural and electrophysiological studies, the hypothesis that extinction causes the partial erasure of fear …
The efficacy of many proposed kill mechanisms, such as synchronous sea surface and atmospheric temperature increase, rapid rise in pCO2, and flooding of shelf areas with anoxic and euxinic waters, depends on rate of change and on precisely when they occur relative to the onset of extinction (9, 34, 35). For example, it is crucial to know whether the ∼10 °C increase in sea surface temperature close to the extinction interval slightly predates or postdates the onset of the mass extinction (9, 33) (Fig. S1). More detailed study of the relationship between temperature increase and extinction is needed from less condensed sections than Meishan to evaluate whether temperature leads or lags the extinction and the relationship between temperature rise and changes in the carbonate carbon isotopic record. Using the maximum extinction duration of ∼60 ka, this suggests an ∼1 °C increase per 6,000 y, comparable to the rate and magnitude of the increase at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) ...
After fear conditioning, presenting the conditioned stimulus (CS) alone yields a context-specific extinction memory; fear is suppressed in the extinction context, but renews in any other context. The context-dependence of extinction is mediated by a brain circuit consisting of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala. In the present work, we sought to determine at what level of this circuit context-dependent representations of the CS emerge. To explore this question, we used cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescent in situ hybridization (catFISH). This method exploits the intracellular expression profile of the immediate early gene (IEG), Arc, to visualize neuronal activation patterns to two different behavioral experiences. Rats were fear conditioned in one context and extinguished in another; 24 h later, they were sequentially exposed to the CS in the extinction context and another context. Control rats were also tested in each context, but were never ...
Present -day risk assessment would have predicted the extinction of the passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius). Stanton, J,C., 2014, Present -day risk assessment would have predicted the extinction of the passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius). Biological Conservation, v 180, p 11-20, doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2014.09.023. Abstract. The precipitous decline and extinction of the passenger pigeon one century ago helped galvanize implementation of national policies and international cooperation on wildlife management. Having a clear understanding of past conservation failures will aid in preventing future unanticipated extinctions. Simulations from a population model developed for this species indicate that while habitat loss contributed to decline, the main cause of the extinction was an unregulated commercial harvest. Hindcast application of the IUCNs Red Listing criteria to modeled population trajectories show that the species would have been listed as threatened for decades prior to ...
WONG, Heidi and WANG, Steve C., Mathematics and Statistics, Swarthmore College, 500 College Ave, Swarthmore, PA 19081, [email protected] In the past few decades, there has been much interest in determining whether mass extinction events were simultaneous or gradual. This task, however, is complicated by the incompleteness of the fossil record. Using statistical methods, a number of authors have accounted for such Signor-Lipps effects in testing whether a pattern of fossil occurrences is consistent with a simultaneous extinction. In such tests, the null hypothesis is typically that the extinction was simultaneous, with the alternative hypothesis being that the extinction was gradual. If the record of fossil occurrences does not strongly contradict the null hypothesis, we conclude the extinction could have been simultaneous. However, even if the null hypothesis is not rejected, it is incorrect to infer that the null hypothesis must therefore be true. In fact, any set of fossil occurrences ...
Urban also made the surprising discovery that the varying research methods employed didnt matter - the different papers all pointed towards similar estimates of extinction risk. Studies that built statistical models that correlate environmental factors to the distribution and abundance of species, produced on average the same results as mechanistic or process-based models that simulate populations of species. Very different techniques were producing the same magnitudes of extinction risk.. However, there were some key factors in Urbans analysis that were associated with large uncertainty. The biggest differences in extinction risk were associated with different carbon emissions scenarios. This will be largely up to us to determine - how much of the existing reserves of coal, oil and gas are we willing to burn off? The second most important factor was the extinction debt - the unavoidable extinction of species - as a consequence of habitat loss.. If a species of tree frog can only reproduce in ...
Extinction risk in vertebrates has been linked to large body size, but this putative relationship has only been explored for select taxa, with variable results. Using a newly assembled and taxonomically expansive database, we analyzed the relationships between extinction risk and body mass (27,647 species) and between extinction risk and range size (21,294 species) for vertebrates across six main classes. We found that the probability of being threatened was positively and significantly related to body mass for birds, cartilaginous fishes, and mammals. Bimodal relationships were evident for amphibians, reptiles, and bony fishes. Most importantly, a bimodal relationship was found across all vertebrates such that extinction risk changes around a body mass breakpoint of 0.035 kg, indicating that the lightest and heaviest vertebrates have elevated extinction risk. We also found range size to be an important predictor of the probability of being threatened, with strong negative relationships across ...
Stress modulates instrumental action in favor of habit processes that encode the association between a response and preceding stimuli and at the expense of goal-directed processes that learn the association between an action and the motivational value of the outcome. Here, we asked whether this stress-induced shift from goal-directed to habit action is dependent on noradrenergic activation and may therefore be blocked by a β-adrenoceptor antagonist. To this end, healthy men and women were administered a placebo or the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol before they underwent a stress or a control procedure. Shortly after the stress or control procedure, participants were trained in two instrumental actions that led to two distinct food outcomes. After training, one of the food outcomes was selectively devalued by feeding participants to satiety with that food. A subsequent extinction test indicated whether instrumental behavior was goal-directed or habitual. As expected, stress after placebo ...
The molecular mechanism underlying the extinction of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression in rat liver during development was investigated. A mouse (BWTG3) and a rat (7777) hepatoma, both of which exhibit characteristics of fetal hepatocytes, were found to contain LPL mRNA, whereas the more differentiated human (Hep G2 and Hep 3B) or rat (Fa32) hepatoma cell lines did not. Somatic cell hybrids between LPL-producing hepatoma cells and non-LPL-producing cells, such as adult rat hepatocytes or fibroblasts, exhibited extinction of LPL gene expression. Assay of expression of nested deletions in the 5 regulatory sequences of the LPL gene in the Hep G2 cell line and in BWTG3 cells localized sequences involved in the suppression of LPL production to a region between -591 and -288 relative to the transcription initiation site. A site with sequence homology to a glucocorticoid responsive element (GRE) was shown not to play an important role in the extinction process. A novel transcription factor, termed RF-1-LPL,
The number of extinct animals in 2017 is on the rise. The continuation and rapid speed of extinction and threat to extinction are causing the biodiversity loss which has negative impacts on the balance and whole ecosystems globally.
Evolution, mass extinctions and mass speciations are the result of ionizing radiation, magnetic field reversals, and other factors of an activated planet. The resulting rearrangment of genetic material leads to new species and the extinction of the older species, and this is why mass extinctions are followed by mass speciations.
We demonstrate that more branches from the tree-of-life are pruned when extinction is phylogenetically non-random, but that the loss of their summed lengths is no greater than expected by chance. Furthermore, in some cases (e.g. Artiodactyla), non-random extinction can reduce the loss of branch lengths, presumably because threatened species tend to cluster within young, species-rich clades, while the number of branches being pruned may still be greater than random expectations. We suggest that number of branches, rather than branch lengths, might be important if trait variation accumulates in bursts at speciation events (represented by the nodes in the phylogenetic tree), as would be expected under a model of punctuated equilibrium [26]. If evolution follows a speciational model (and this may be the case for body size in mammals; [27]), short branches separating rapidly diverging lineages might capture as much feature diversity as longer branches in more slowly diversifying clades, although ...
It is important to emphasize that the reduction in robustness caused by the inclusion of parasites did not result from parasite-induced extinctions of hosts (an outcome not possible in our topological approach). Instead, the decrease in robustness was due to the higher sensitivity of parasites to secondary extinction. This finding was only possible when considering that each life stage in a trematode life cycle has a potentially different set of hosts. Had we simply lumped all life stages, the trematodes would have appeared to have had a wide host range and to have been relatively invulnerable to secondary extinction.. Empirical studies in this system reveal more subtle dependencies of parasites on the host community. For instance, a decrease in the diversity and abundance of birds at a particular site directly decreases the diversity and abundance of trematodes using C. californica (Hechinger & Lafferty 2005). Furthermore, the trematode assemblage at a particular location depends on the ...
Jay Williams1 tells about an old woman who was living out the last days of her life. Surrounded by white walls, upon a white bed, in care of doctors and nurses, this dark-skinned relict fought off death with all her primitive vitality. She rebuked her attendants and intermittently broke forth in song and chants. But inevitably she collapsed onto her pillows and whispered, Bury me behind the mountains. And so she died, but her skeleton was placed instead in a city museum, for she was the last of her kin. With her passing, the Tasmanian people became extinct.. Extinction is like that. It is the absolute terminus for a formerly recognized group of organisms. When mortality exceeds natality for a sufficient time to bring the total number of individuals of a species to zero or one (for those organisms which reproduce sexually), then extinction is pronounced.2. Since life began, many organisms have been lost from the biosphere through extinction. Some people feel that this is a normal expectation of ...
A new model of delayed species loss (extinction debt) within isolated communities is applied to a large data set of terrestrial vertebrate assemblages (n = 188) occupying habitat fragments or islands varying greatly in size and age. The model encapsulates previous approaches based on diversity-dependent (DD) extinction rates while allowing for a more flexible treatment of temporal dynamics. Three important results emerge. First, species loss rate slows down with the age of the isolate, a strong and general pattern largely unnoticed so far. Secondly, while being good candidates in the light of previous works, DD models fail to account for this pattern, a result that necessitates a search for other mechanisms. Thirdly, a simple diversity-independent model based on area (converted into population size) and age explains 97% of the variability in species loss rate and appears to be a promising predictive tool to handle extinction debt following habitat loss ...
Our study was inspired by the observation that young individuals suffering from psychiatric diseases such as PTSD have an increased risk to develop AD as they age (Yaffe et al, 2010; Burri et al, 2013; Weiner et al, 2013). We reasoned that one possible way to begin elucidating this phenomenon would be to select genes that have been implicated with age‐associative memory decline and to test whether these genes may also play a role in the development of PTSD‐like phenotypes, which we analyzed in mice via fear extinction as a commonly used and robust paradigm. Nevertheless, we like to reiterate that results from animal models of neuropsychiatric diseases have to be interpreted with care, and while impaired fear extinction in rodents may point to the mechanisms that underlie increased susceptibility for PTSD, it does not fully recapitulate the phenotypes observed in PTSD patients. We observed that deficits in fear extinction precede memory decline in Fmn2−/− mice, and moreover, Fmn2 ...
A new report has urged the federal government to take action, after it was revealed Australia has lost more mammals to extinction than any other country.
...Athens Ga. What if there were a way to predict when a species was ab...Findings from a study by John M. Drake associate professor in the Uni...The paper Early warning signals of extinction in deteriorating envir... This is the first experimental demonstration of critical slowing down...,Study,may,help,predict,extinction,tipping,point,for,species,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
...Scientists have uncovered a lot about the Earths greatest extinction ... No one had ever looked to see if mercury was a potential culprit. Thi...Dr. Benoit Beauchamp professor of geology at the University of Calgar... Geologists including myself should be taking notes and taking anothe...,Earths,massive,extinction:,The,story,gets,worse,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Transformers: Age of Extinction is the fourth film in director Michael Bays global blockbuster franchise. Mark Wahlberg, Stanley Tucci, Li Bingbing , Kelsey Grammer, Sophia Myles, T. J. Miller, Nicola Peltz, Jack Reynor and Titus Welliver star. The film begins after an epic battle that left a great city torn, but with the world saved. As humanity picks up the pieces, a shadowy group reveals itself in an attempt to control the direction of history… while an ancient, powerful new menace sets Earth in its crosshairs. With help from a new cast of humans, Optimus Prime (voiced by Peter Cullen) and the Autobots rise to meet their most fearsome challenge yet. In an incredible adventure, they are swept up in a war of good and evil, ultimately leading to a climactic battle across the world. Transformers: Age of Extinction is in theaters 06.27.14
You probably already know the planet is experiencing an extinction crisis; scientists estimate well lose up to 50 percent of current species during the next 20 years. But did you know theres also an extinction crisis of gut bacteria happening among civilized humans?The modern diet, which is high in processed foods, meats and sugars but…
As the need increases for sound estimates of impending rates of animal and plant species extinction, scientists must have a firm grounding in the qualitative and quantitative methods required to make the best possible predictions. Extinction Rates offers the most wide-ranging and practical introduction to those methods available.
Unscramble devaluation, Unscramble letters devaluation, Point value for devaluation, Word Decoder for devaluation, Word generator using the letters devaluation, Word Solver devaluation, Possible Scrabble words with devaluation, Anagram of devaluation
Croatian marine biologists are struggling to save the largest Mediterranean clam from extinction after a precipitious fall in numbers which they say was probably caused by a deadly pathogen.
Evidence trapped in 250-million-year-old sediments may help researchers pin the ultimate blame for the massive extinctions that occurred then on the impact of an extraterrestrial object about 9 kilometers across.
Ancient teeth from Italy suggest the arrival of modern humans in Western Europe coincided with the demise of Neanderthals there, suggesting man played a role in this extinction.
Environmental stress has played a major role in the evolution of living organisms (Hoffman AA, Parsons PA. 1991. Evolutionary genetics and environmental stress. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Parsons PA. 2005. Environments and evolution: interactions between stress, resource inadequacy, and energetic efficiency. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 80:589 610). This is reflected by the massive and background extinctions in evolutionary time (Nevo E. 1995a. Evolution and extinction. Encyclopedia of Environmental Biology. New York: Academic Press, Inc. 1:717 745). The interaction between organism and environment is central in evolution. Extinction ensues when organisms fail to change and adapt to the constantly altering abiotic and biotic stressful environmental changes as documented in the fossil record. Extreme environmental stress causes extinction but also leads to evolutionary change and the origination of new species adapted to new environments. I will discuss a few of these global, regional, and ...
By Peter Moyle In case you hadnt noticed, one of Californias most spectacular fish is leaving us. The coho salmon, silvery favorites of fishermen and essential components of our coastal rainforest ecosystems, are headed for extinction in the state. This projection was made abundantly clear, at least to me, in a recent (August 16) State…
As the Extinction Rebellion protesters target the London Underground, there is already chaos on the tubes for commuters this morning.
The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs by David E. Fastovsky, 9780521811729, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
Read independent reviews on OPUS - Ultrasonic extinction sensor for particle characterisation in highly concentrated suspensions and emulsions for process or laboratory application from below 0.1 µm to 3,000 µm from Sympatec GmbH on SelectScience
Get the lowest price possible for Download ARES Extinction Agenda via the Steam network using our price comparison tool - GUARANTEED. Updated every minute to get you the best price.
An assessment of 1,041 species of cartilaginous fish revealed that these animals face a significantly higher risk of extinction than most other animals.
Wang, J., R. C. Flagan, J. H. Seinfeld, H. Jonsson, D. R. Collins, P. B. Russell, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, J. M. Livingston, S. .Gao, D. A. Hegg, E. J. Welton, and D. Bates (2002), Clear-column radiative closure during ACE-Asia: Comparison of multiwavelength extinction derived from particle size and composition with results from sunphotometry, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4688, doi:10.1029/2002JD002465 ...
30 years ago, efforts began to save the California condor, an iconic species on the brink of extinction. Since then, a lot of progress has been made...
It is a royal looking animal known for its magnificence, power and its agility. Our national animal, The Tiger, is one of the most graceful animals. But as time is passing by, we fail to realize that we are neglecting this royal species, and our neglection is thus leading to their extinction.
Dunham, J., M. Peacock, C. Tracy, J. Nielsen and G. Vinyard 1999. Assessing Extinction Risk: Integrating Genetic Information. Conservation Ecology 3(1):2.
Mammals didnt evolve in a great leap forward after the greatest mass extinction on Earth, but rather didnt change much from their ancestors, scientists find.
My collaborators and I just published Population extinctions can increase metapopulation persistence. New Scientist did a piece on it, which is the first time any media outlet other than my local newspaper has written up my work. Im chuffed about this, because I think this is the coolest paper Ive ever done by some distance.…
Easily upgrade the RAM of any non-retina MacBook Pro up to 16GB for select models. Save money by trading in the original memory chips for a cash rebate.
The term was first used by Erich Fromm to describe a psychological orientation of being attracted to all that is alive and ... Miller, James R. (1 August 2005). "Biodiversity conservation and the extinction of experience". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. ... In the book Children and Nature: Psychological, Sociocultural, and Evolutionary Investigations edited by Peter Kahn and Stephen ... psychological, sociocultural, and evolutionary investigations. MIT Press. p. 153. ISBN 0-262-11267-1. Katcher, Aaron (2002). " ...
Liberation is extinction of all conditioning. Liberation is freedom from every kind of physical, psychological and psychic ...
Baum, Morrie (1970). "Extinction of avoidance responding through response prevention (flooding)". Psychological Bulletin. 74 (4 ... Gradual removal of these defensive processes are thought to be a key aspect of treatment and eventually return to psychological ... Clark, D. M. (1988). "A cognitive model of panic". In Rachman, S.; Maser, J. (eds.). Panic: Psychological Perspectives. ... Avoidant personality disorder Coping (psychology) Acceptance Distress tolerance Openness to experience Psychological ...
Baum, M (1970). "Extinction of avoidance responding through response prevention (flooding)". Psychological Bulletin. 74 (4): ... Wynne, Solomon (1953). "TRAUMATIC AVOIDANCE LEARNING: THE OUTCOMES OF SEVERAL EXTINCTION PROCEDURES WITH DOGS". Skinner, B.F. ( ...
The American Psychological Association uses a strict ethical code concerning research in psychology. A major complication that ... Briggs, G. E. (1954). "Acquisition, extinction, and recovery functions in retroactive inhibition". Journal of Experimental ... Lesion studies allow us to reduce the neural mechanisms of memory, and results from finely constructed psychological tests can ... physical or psychological) done to animals is outweighed by the benefits of the research. Keeping this in mind, we can use ...
Most specifically, the medial prefrontal cortex is active during extinction of fear and is responsible for long-term extinction ... Such fears are psychological rather than physiological in origin and few of these terms are found in medical literature. In ... North, M.M.; North, S.M.; Coble, J.R. (1997). "Virtual reality therapy: An effective treatment for psychological disorders". ... Myers; Davis, K. M. (2007). "Mechanisms of fear extinction". Molecular Psychiatry. 12 (2): 120-150. doi:10.1038/ ...
Gutman, A. R.; Yang, Y.; Ressler, K. J.; Davis, M. (2008). "The Role of Neuropeptide Y in the Expression and Extinction of Fear ... Intense psychological stress caused by unwanted, troublesome memories can cause brain structures such as the amygdala, ... It has been shown that the NMDA receptors in the amygdala play a pivotal role in extinction (forgetting) and acquisition ( ... Suzuki, A.; Josselyn, SA; Frankland, PW; Masushige, S; Silva, AJ; Kida, S (2004). "Memory Reconsolidation and Extinction Have ...
Psychological review, 64(1), 49. Hilgard, Ernest R. (1987). Psychology in America : a historical survey. San Diego: Harcourt ... Briggs, G. E. (1954). "Acquisition, extinction, and recovery functions in retroactive inhibition". Journal of Experimental ... McGeoch, J.A. (1932). "Forgetting and the law of disuse". Psychological Review. 39 (4): 352-370. doi:10.1037/h0069819. Melton, ... Both Decay and Interference Theories are involved in psychological theories of forgetting. Decay and interference theory differ ...
From a psychological standpoint, friends and foes have been defined in a number of ways, but do not have a consistent ... Espejo, E. F. (2003). "Prefrontocortical Dopamine Loss in Rats Delays Long-Term Extinction of Contextual Conditioned Fear, and ... Gopie, N.; MacLeod, C. (2009). "Destination Memory: Stop Me if I've Told You This Before". Psychological Science. 20 (12): 1492 ... Bell, R.; Buchner, A. (3 December 2012). "How Adaptive Is Memory for Cheaters?". Current Directions in Psychological Science. ...
Pavlov's introduction of the word extinction (in Russian) approximates today's psychological use. In popular use, positive ... Extinction can be intentional or unintentional and happens when an undesired behavior is ignored. Example (Intended): A young ... They reduce the amount of time needed to learn a behavior while increasing its resistance to extinction. Giving a dog a piece ... Variable schedules produce higher rates and greater resistance to extinction than most fixed schedules. This is also known as ...
Roberts, A.E., Greenway, L., & Hurwitz, H.M.B. (1970). Extinction of free operant avoidance behavior with and without feedback ... Ribes-Inesta, Emilio (2008). "Peter Harzem (1930-2008)". The Psychological Record. 58: 491-494. doi:10.1007/BF03395633. S2CID ... Hurwitz, H.M.B., Roberts, A.E., & Greeway, L. (1972). Extinction and maintenance of avoidance behavior using response- ... Editorial Board, Psychologische Forschung/Psychological Research[citation needed] President, Ontario Council of Academic ...
Cognitive and Drive Factors in the Extinction of the Conditioned Eyeblink in Human Subjects, 1966. Amsel, Abram (1995). " ... Spence, Kenneth (1936). "The Nature of Discrimination Learning in Animals". Psychological Review. 43 (5): 427-449. doi:10.1037/ ... Spence, Kenneth (1966). "Cognitive and drive factors in the extinction of the conditioned eyeblink in human subjects". ... Spence, Kenneth (1937). "The differential response in animals to stimuli varying within a single dimension". Psychological ...
Sweeny, K.; Vohs, K. D. (2012). "On near misses and completed tasks: The nature of relief". Psychological Science. 23 (5): 464- ... Vervliet, B.; Lange, I.; Milad, M. (2017). "Temporal dynamics of relief in avoidance conditioning and fear extinction: ... Sweeny, K.; Vohs, K. D. (2012). "On near misses and completed tasks: The nature of relief". Psychological Science. 23 (5): 464- ... Vervliet, B.; Lange, I.; Milad, M. (2017). "Temporal dynamics of relief in avoidance conditioning and fear extinction: ...
... s with a large body size (over 5 kg) are at increased extinction risk due to their greater profitability to poachers ... Thousands of non-human primates are used in research around the world because of their psychological and physiological ... doi:10.1046/j.1365-3008.2001.00150.x. Purvis, A.; Gittleman, J. L.; Cowlishaw, G.; Mace, G. M. (2000). "Predicting extinction ... Thousands of non-human primates are used around the world in research because of their psychological and physiological ...
The associative process described by the R-W model also accounts for extinction (see "procedures" above). The extinction ... ISBN 978-0-471-65016-4. Miller RR, Barnet RC, Grahame NJ (May 1995). "Assessment of the Rescorla-Wagner model". Psychological ... Recovery of responding after extinction: It appears that something remains after extinction has reduced associative strength to ... Extinction is complete when the strength of the CS reaches zero; no US is predicted, and no US occurs. However, if that same CS ...
His work elucidated the parameters of such psychological constructs as extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, ... His book De Anima (On the Soul) was among the first to address the interplay between psychological and physiological processes ... Dewey helped to found the American Psychological Association and was elected its President in 1899. Stamps issued: United ... the American Psychological Association objected to the caption and argued for inclusion of the fact that she was a psychologist ...
They retain the physical and psychological traits of the original "primal Zerg"-strains. Their unique genetic-adaptations made ... Arrogant and impatient, Abathur loves biodiversity, despises extinction, and instinctively wants to "eat" anything strange or ... is survival against extinction. Dehaka lost his large right arm prior to the Swarm's return to Zerus; it was later to be found ...
Psychological Review, 109, 219-259. Marcel, A.J. (1998). Blindsight and shape perception: deficit of visual consciousness or of ... Neglect and Extinction? Neuropsychologia, 42, 1749-1767 Marcel, A.J., Mackintosh, B., Postma, P., Cusack, R., Vuckovich, J., ... Marcel, A.J. & Lambie J.A. (2004). How many selves in emotion experience? Psychological Review, 111, 820-826. Marcel, A.J., ... Awards: Anthony Marcel has been awarded a Fellowship of the Association for Psychological Science in recognition of his ...
Extinction[edit]. Main article: Extinction (psychology). In the extinction procedure, the CS is presented repeatedly in the ... Psychological Review. 74 (1): 71-80. PMID 5341445.. *^ a b Schacter DL (2009). Psychology. Catherine Woods. p. 267. ISBN 978-1- ... R-W model: extinction[edit]. The associative process described by the R-W model also accounts for extinction (see "procedures" ... Recovery of responding after extinction: It appears that something remains after extinction has reduced associative strength to ...
Psychological requirements comprise the fourth level, while the top of the hierarchy consists of self-realization and self- ... Depression is understood as a lack of reinforcement (especially positive reinforcement) leading to the extinction of behavior ... These basic psychological needs are autonomy, competence and relatedness. These basic needs can create behaviors that result ... Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and a subsequent reduction in ...
... "conspiratorial campaign of white extinction" which is being fueled by a looming "white extinction anxiety". This phenomenon is ... White genocide is a myth, based on pseudoscience, pseudohistory, and hatred, driven by a psychological panic often termed " ... White Extinction Anxiety' Trends On Twitter: Do White People Really Fear Dying Off? 'NYT' Columnist Explains". Inquisitr. June ... The words under 'Soros' in the graffiti are 'white extinction,' and this refers to a conspiracy theory that is common on the ...
These three psychological needs are suggested to be essential for psychological health & well-being along with behavioral ... Depression is understood as a lack of reinforcement (especially positive reinforcement) leading to the extinction of behavior ... Psychological requirements comprise the fourth level, while the top of the hierarchy consists of self-realization and self- ... Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and a subsequent reduction in ...
Bandura, Albert (1971). Psychological Modelling. New York: Lieber-Antherton.. *^ a b c Miller, Pat (July 2004). "Young Dogs Can ... this is called extinction. A dog that paws its owner for attention will eventually stop if it no longer receives attention.[42] ... It is not "punishment" in the common sense of the word,[40] and does not mean physical or psychological harm and most certainly ... Typical positive reinforcement events will satisfy some physiological or psychological need, so it can be food, a game, or a ...
NMDA receptors have been found to play a key role in extinction of fear and therefore the use of an agonist would accelerate ... However, prolonged and repeated exposure to violence in the media may reduce or habituate the initial psychological impact ... Wolpe disagreed that extinction could be the explanatory mechanism of how desensitization occurs with therapies based on ... Sensitization Flooding (psychology) Extinction (psychology) Habituation Conditioning Stolerman I (2010). Encyclopedia of ...
In the late 19th century, Sigmund Freud was the first to review suicide from a psychological point of view. He considered ... This instinct is the cause of extinction, grudge, and termination of generation (reproduction). On the other hand, the life ... Erwin Stengel is the first person to differentiate between suicide and suicide intention from a psychological point of view. ... "Freewill termination: A look into psychological and legislative aspects of suicide in Iran". (in Persian). ...
functional extinction The effective extinction of a species or other taxon such that reports of its existence cease, the ... ecology of fear A framework describing the psychological impact that predator-induced stress experienced by animals has on ... Compare functional extinction. extinction vortex extreme environment An environment in which few living organisms can survive. ... extinction The termination of an organism or of a taxon, usually a species, which occurs when the last individual organism of ...
VanElzakker, M. B.; Dahlgren, M. K.; Davis, F. C.; Dubois, S.; Shin, L. M. (2014). "From Pavlov to PTSD: The extinction of ... Rosen, Jeffrey B.; Schulkin, Jay (1998). "From normal fear to pathological anxiety". Psychological Review. 105 (2): 325-50. doi ... Classical conditioning Extinction (psychology) Eyeblink conditioning Fear processing in the brain Infralimbic cortex Ivan ... Research into the acquisition, consolidation and extinction of conditioned fear promises to inform new drug based and ...
Clinical Psychological Science, 7, 37-50. doi:10.1177/2167702618772296. Hofmann, S. G. (2020). The age of depression and its ... Hofmann has shown that d-cycloserine, a partial agonist of the glutamate receptor can augment extinction learning and speed up ... Stefan G. Hofmann (born 1964) is a German-born clinical psychologist at the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at ... Hofmann, S. G. (2011). An introduction to modern CBT: Psychological solutions to mental health problems. Chichester, UK: Wiley- ...
The extinction of heightened FPS response to stimuli previously conditioned to be threatening has been linked to activity in ... Filion, D. L.; Dawson, M. E. & Schell, A. M. (1998). "The Psychological Significance of Human Startle Eyeblink Modification: A ... In addition, FPS response in research concerning fear conditioning (and extinction of a conditioned aversion to a previously ... Additionally, data has displayed a significantly reduced ability for the extinction of conditioned fear responses in combat ...
It is not "punishment" in the common sense of the word, and does not mean physical or psychological harm and most certainly ... A behavior that has previously been developed may cease if reinforcement stops; this is called extinction. A dog that paws its ... Bandura, Albert (1971). Psychological Modelling. New York: Lieber-Antherton. Miller, Pat (July 2004). "Young Dogs Can Learn ... Typical positive reinforcement events will satisfy some physiological or psychological need, so it can be food, a game, or a ...
In Central California, sea otters were thought to have been driven to extinction due to over hunting, until a small colony was ... Kamin, Leon J (1980). "Inbreeding depression and IQ". Psychological Bulletin. 87 (3): 469-478. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.87.3.469. ... His impotence/infertility led to the extinction of the (male) Spanish Habsburgs upon his death, triggering the War of the ... "The role of inbreeding in the extinction of a European royal dynasty". PLOS ONE. 4 (4): e5174. doi:10.1371/journal.pone. ...
Miller, W.B. (2013). "What is the big deal about evolutionary gaps?". In: The Microcosm within: Evolution and Extinction in the ... Bruner, J.S. (1957). "On perceptual readiness". Psychological Review. 64: 123-152. doi:10.1037/h0043805. PMID 13420288. Bruner ... Psychological Science. 2: 354-357. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1991.tb00165.x. Kalick, S.M.; Zebrowitz, L.A.; Langlois, J.H.; ... Psychological Science. 5: 214-220. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.1994.tb00503.x. Langlois, J.H., Musselman, L. (1995). The myths and ...
... and psychological trauma).[101] This sits alongside the party's belief that adults should be free to make informed decisions ... Holocene extinction. *Nitrogen cycle. *Land degradation. *Land consumption. *Land surface effects on climate ...
Megadeth's Countdown to Extinction (1992) debuted at number two,[215] Anthrax and Slayer cracked the top 10,[216] and albums by ... Evolutionary Psychological Science: 1-8. doi:10.1007/s40806-018-0139-7.. ...
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition (American Psychological Association, 2009) .mw-parser ... extinction". Immortality is the belief that your life will go on past death, some examples are an afterlife or living on ... "The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 64B: i5-i11. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbp078. PMC ... Key Concepts in Social Gerontology lists four dimensions: chronological, biological, psychological, and social.[24]:12-3 Wattis ...
Current Directions in Psychological Science. 18 (4): 217-220. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2009.01639.x. PMC 2899491. PMID 20625474 ... in the effort of measuring the heritability of traits in the false expectation that somehow the genetic nature of psychological ...
Quadrivium - Qualitative psychological research - Quantitative psychological research - Quaternary education R[edit]. Radical ... Extinction (psychology) - Extracurricular Activity ...
Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. pp. ES-2.. *^ a b Lee CW, Cuijpers P (June 2013). "A meta-analysis of the ... in particular during extinction.[105] This is consistent with an interpretation of PTSD as a syndrome of deficient extinction ... "Psychological Medicine. 46 (6): 1121-34. doi:10.1017/s0033291715002706. PMID 26878223.. *^ James S (December 2015). "Women's ... As of 2017 The American Psychological Association assessed psychological debriefing as No Research Support/Treatment is ...
Festinger, Leon (January 1, 1956). When Prophecy Fails: A Social and Psychological Study of A Modern Group that Predicted the ... Bostrom writes "In order to cause the extinction of human life, the impacting body would probably have to be greater than 1 km ... This is a list of predicted dates for events made by notable individuals or groups that would result in the extinction of ... comparable in size to the one that triggered the K-Pg extinction which killed dinosaurs 66 million years ago), assuming it ...
... eventually pushing them into refuges and ultimately to their extinction.[13] ...
... but also it would lead to the total extinction of human civilization. Such being the case, how are We to save the millions of ... killing 105,000 people and inflicting a psychological shock on the Japanese nation. On August 15, Emperor Hirohito announced ...
The U.S. House Committee on Natural Resources in 2016 concluded that trophy hunting may be contributing to the extinction of ... The cultural and psychological importance of hunting in ancient societies is represented by deities such as the horned god ... Miller, G. H. (2005). "Ecosystem Collapse in Pleistocene Australia and a Human Role in Megafaunal Extinction". Science. 309 ( ... All these animals have been hunted to endangerment or extinction.[91] Hunting currently threatens bird and mammalian ...
ExtinctionEdit. Main article: Extinction (psychology). In the extinction procedure, the CS is presented repeatedly in the ... Psychological Review. 74 (1): 71-80. doi:10.1037/h0024109. PMID 5341445.. *^ a b Schacter DL (2009). Psychology. Catherine ... R-W model: extinctionEdit. The associative process described by the R-W model also accounts for extinction (see "procedures" ... Recovery of responding after extinction: It appears that something remains after extinction has reduced associative strength to ...
The reasons for this extinction are not fully known, but one theory notes that extinction in North America paralleled human ... Horses also provide psychological benefits to people whether they actually ride or not. "Equine-assisted" or "equine- ... "An extraordinary return from the brink of extinction for worlds last wild horse". ZSL Press Releases. Zoological Society of ... Buck, Caitlin E.; Bard, Edouard (2007). "A calendar chronology for Pleistocene mammoth and horse extinction in North America ...
The reasons for this extinction are not fully known, but one theory notes that extinction in North America paralleled human ... Horses also provide psychological benefits to people whether they actually ride or not. "Equine-assisted" or "equine- ... "An extraordinary return from the brink of extinction for worlds last wild horse". ZSL Press Releases. Zoological Society of ... mostly stereotypies of psychological origin, that include wood chewing, wall kicking, "weaving" (rocking back and forth), and ...
Thus man has indirectly caused the extinction of many species by accidentally introducing rats to new areas.[42] ... Laboratory rats have also proved valuable in psychological studies of learning and other mental processes (Barnett 2002), as ... The ship or wharf rat has contributed to the extinction of many species of wildlife, including birds, small mammals, reptiles, ... "Humans outdone by Rats for causing Extinctions". Science Avenger. 2007-12-05. Archived from the original on 19 January 2015. ...
Washington State Psychological Association. Opposing Organizations[edit]. *American Medical Association. *National Spinal Cord ...
The corals which build reefs today, the Scleractinia, arose after the Permian-Triassic extinction event that wiped out the ... Psychological fitness to dive. Research. Researchers in. diving physiology. and medicine. *Arthur J. Bachrach ...
Psychological Science in the Public Interest. 9 (3): 105-19. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6053.2009.01038.x. PMID 26162104. S2CID 2112166 ... "Top scientists warn of 'ghastly future of mass extinction' and climate disruption". The Guardian. 13 January 2021. Retrieved 12 ... The school environment - both physical (infrastructures) and psychological (school climate) - is also guided by school policies ...
Perspectives on Psychological Science. 4 (3): 299-307. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01128.x. PMC 5017149. PMID 26158967.. ... "Amygdala and hippocampal activity during acquisition and extinction of human fear conditioning". Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 4 ... Perspectives on Psychological Science. 4 (3): 274-290. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01125.x. PMID 26158964.. ...
"Consequences of Variation in Male Harem Size to Population Persistence: Modeling Poaching and Extinction Risk of Bengal Tigers ... Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Fraley, R. Chris (2017). "What Do Evolutionary Models Teach Us About Sensitive Periods in Psychological ...
A theory is a species of thinking, and its right to exist is coextensive with its power of resisting extinction by its rivals.' ... "come with a great psychological appeal".[53] ...
MRI scans were used to compare the dolphin and primate brain; the scans indicated there was "psychological continuity" between ... the hunting of animals to extinction means that humans in the future will derive no enjoyment from them; poaching results in ... "An attitude survey of animal rights activists". Psychological Science. 2 (3): 194-196.. ... Apostol, L.; Rebega, O.L.; Miclea, M. (2013). "Psychological and Socio-Demographic Predictors of Attitudes towards Animals". ...
Psychological Pricing in Mergers & Acquisitions using Game Theory, School of Mathematics and Geospatial Sciences, RMIT ... Third parties within a species often favour highly competitive strategies leading to species extinction when environmental ... and damaged psychological well beings, but also in the health effects from everyday civilian life caused by work stress, long ... the parent of the same sex are rampant and create a crisis that must be negotiated successfully for healthy psychological ...
Hsu, Mutsu (1991). Culture, Self and Adaptation: The Psychological Anthropology of Two Malayo-Polynesian Groups in Taiwan. ... Blust, Robert (1999). "Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics". In E. ... Hoklo Taiwanese has replaced Pazeh and driven it to near extinction.[54] Aboriginal status has been requested by Plains ... The lack of documentation and the extinction of many indigenous languages as the result of colonial cultural and language ...
Human Extinction Isn't That Unlikely, The Atlantic, Robinson Meyer, April 29, 2016. ... Particularly in Europe, where the war's toll was extremely high, the flu may not have had a great, separate, psychological ...
In a 1978 presentation at the American Psychological Association, he speculated that dromiceiomimus could have evolved into a ... evolutionary path that might have been taken by the dinosaur Troodon had it not perished in the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction ...
Mass extinction[edit]. Further information: Holocene extinction. The Earth is currently undergoing its sixth mass extinction ... Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb (9 December 2010). "Apocalypse Soon?". Psychological Science. 22 (1): 34-38. doi:10.1177/ ... Methane may have been released as a result of warming oceans during the Permian-Triassic extinction event.[44] ... During the Permian-Triassic extinction event 250 million years ago, the Earth was approximately 6°C higher than the pre- ...
... claimed that the white race is facing extinction at the hands of a Jewish world conspiracy,[232] and rejected Christianity as a ... Others express a psychological interpretation of the divinities, viewing them for instance as symbols, Jungian archetypes or ...
Trofimova, who analysed psychological sex differences, hypothesised that the male sex might also provide a "redundancy pruning ... Trofimova, I. (2015). "Do psychological sex differences reflect evolutionary bi-sexual partitioning?". American Journal of ...
Extinction, Psychological. Known as: behavioral extinction, extinction, Extinctions, Psychological Expand. The procedure of ... The extinction coefficient per mole of nanocrystals at the first exitonic absorption peak, e, for high-quality CdTe, CdSe, and ... Demographic and genetic contributions from nonspecific immigrants tend to reduce ex- tinction rates of insular populations. The ... Experimental Determination of the Extinction Coefficient of CdTe, CdSe, and CdS Nanocrystals ...
This study demonstrated that differences in pain-related avoidance behaviors are affected by psychological traits. Pain-related ... In the subsequent extinction phase, the pain stimulus was omitted. Subjects were divided into an approach group (n = 24), a ... This study demonstrated that differences in pain-related avoidance behaviors are affected by psychological traits. Pain-related ... and extinction phases. In addition, the excessive avoidance group showed high harm avoidance and high trait anxiety. ...
Although this view has gained much support from behavioural and electrophysiological studies, the hypothesis that extinction ... It is generally believed that fear extinction is a form of new learning that inhibits rather than erases previously acquired ... Extinction, Psychological / physiology* * Extremities * Fear / physiology* * Frontal Lobe / cytology * Frontal Lobe / ... Opposite effects of fear conditioning and extinction on dendritic spine remodelling Nature. 2012 Feb 19;483(7387):87-91. doi: ...
We explored the neural mechanisms of fear extinction in humans. Studies of extinction … ... We explored the neural mechanisms of fear extinction in humans. Studies of extinction in nonhuman animals have focused on two ... Extinction learning in humans: role of the amygdala and vmPFC Neuron. 2004 Sep 16;43(6):897-905. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2004.08. ... These results provide evidence that the mechanisms of extinction learning may be preserved across species. ...
Make research projects and school reports about extinction easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... and the American Psychological Association (APA). ... Extinction. *bald eagle once on verge of extinction, this bird ... See OBLIQUE EXTINCTION; STRAIGHT EXTINCTION; SYMMETRICAL EXTINCTION; and UNDULOSE EXTINCTION.. 2. The elimination of a taxon. ... Extinction Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Extinction. Extinction is the termination of evolutionary lineage . The ...
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.. 5. 1] Providence Veterans Affairs Medical ... or PBO 1 h before an alcohol extinction paradigm in a simulated bar environment on two occasions. The extinction procedures ... D-cycloserine to enhance extinction of cue-elicited craving for alcohol: a translational approach.. MacKillop J1, Few LR2, ... However, it remains unclear whether DCS would also accelerate extinction of cue-elicited craving for alcohol. The goal of the ...
Life history makes vultures more vulnerable to extinction than other birds, a new study finds, but humankinds poisons are ... Social distancing comes with psychological fallout By Sujata Gupta. March 29, 2020. ...
On The Extinction of Mosquitoes - posted in Science, Culture, Social: In every country that has mosquito lava in the water, ... Is there also a psychological effect here? ... On The Extinction of Mosquitoes. Started by Kadir-Buxton , Jul ... We have to have blanket coverage of every source of water, from rivers, down to puddles in order for extinction to occur.. Many ...
Targeting excessive worry with internet-based extinction therapy: a randomised controlled trial with mediation analysis and ... Psychological Medicine, 40(6), 989-997. doi: 10.1017/s0033291709991012.. Fehm, L., Beesdo, K., Jacobi, F., & Fiedler, A. (2008 ... Cuijpers, P., Sijbrandij, M., Koole, S., Huibers, M., Berking, M., & Andersson, G. (2014). Psychological treatment of ... Psychological Assessment, 1(3), 207-210. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.1.3.207.. Wadström, O. (2015). Quit ruminating and brooding: It ...
2010) The psychological and neurochemical mechanisms of drug memory reconsolidation: implications for the treatment of ... Lever extinction continued until extinction criteria had been met (an average of ,25 lever presses on the last 2 d of ... Extinction.. For cue extinction, the cocaine-associated CS was presented for 10 s, 60 times, with each presentation separated ... All cue extinction and reinstatement testing occurred in the same context to specifically understand extinction consolidation ...
Neural Mechanisms of Extinction Learning and Retrieval. Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 33, Issue. 1, p. 56. ... Psychological Medicine, Vol. 37, Issue. 10, p. 1469. *CrossRef. *Google Scholar. Quirk, Gregory J and Mueller, Devin 2008. ... Neural Mechanisms of Extinction Learning and Retrieval. Neuropsychopharmacology, Vol. 33, Issue. 1, p. 56. ...
Circular psychological operation… - Patrick Henningsen (@21WIRE) September 22, 2020 ... The Great Filter Theory: That Humans Have Already Conquered Threat of Extinction. December 22, 2012 By NEWS WIRE 5 Comments ...
Japanese Psychological Research, 11(2)), 46-53. Graham, C. H. (1951). Visual perception. In S. S. Stevens (Ed.) Handbook of ... Bender, M. B., & Furlow, L. T. (1944). Phenomenon of visual extinction and binocular rivalry mechanism. Transactions of the ... Psychological Reports, 31, 111-117. Gunter, R. (1951). Binocular fusion of colours. British Journal of Psychology, 42, 363-372 ... Psychological Review, 16, 410-415. Breese, B. B. (1909). Can binocular rivalry be suppressed by practise? Journal of Philosophy ...
"Its just a thing that . . . people have these extinction events in their lives; it could be psychological or it could be ...
Extinction, Psychological. Fear*. Female. Rats. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine ...
by Stephen Grossberg, Don Seidman - Psychological Review , 2006 "... What brain mechanisms underlie autism and how do they give ... Extinction, conditioned emotional responses, conditioned avoidance responses, secondary Neural dynamics of autistic behaviors: ... by Stephen Grossberg - Psychological Review , 1982 "... Some recent formal models of Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning ...
The Psychological and Moral Uses of Darwinism Conclusion 10. James Mark Baldwin: Evolutionary Biopsychology and the Politics of ... Conclusion: Scandal and Professional Extinction 11. Transformation of the Darwinian Image of Man in the Twentieth Century ... The Foundations of Baldwins Psychological Science Genetic Psychology and the Theory of Imitation The Evolutionary Analysis of ... 9. The Personal Equation in Science: William Jamess Psychological and Moral Uses of Darwinian Theory Jamess Depressive Period ...
Lee J. L., Milton A. L. & Everitt B. J. (2006). Reconsolidation and extinction of conditioned fear: inhibition and potentiation ... Johnson-Laird P. N., Mancini F. & Gangemi A. (2006). A hyper-emotion theory of psychological illness. Psychological Reviews 113 ... Psychological Medicine 37, 163-180.. Fu C. H. Y., Williams S. C. R., Cleare A. J., Brammer M. J., Walsh M. D., Kim J., Andrew C ... Psychological Medicine 33, 387-393.. Vuillemier P. (2005). How brains beware: neural mechanisms of emotional attention. Trends ...
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences and Institute for Neuroscience, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843- ... an impairment in extinction learning that occurs when extinction trials are administered soon after fear conditioning. Here we ... Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences and Institute for Neuroscience, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843- ... Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences and Institute for Neuroscience, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843- ...
The books also looked at the psychological effects of humanitys ultra-longevity, including existential boredom. Even Robinson ... Extinction or survival: how storytellers explore the ethics of colonising other planets ... and considering the inevitability of human extinction. Medicine, for instance, has kept humans alive for longer than they ...
... psychological horror fable that became a critical hit, the complete Surface Tension saga, finally collected! ... What caused the mass extinction event? How did these two return from the deep, when billions died? Most importantly, what is ... What caused the mass extinction event? How did these two return from the deep, when billions died? Most importantly, what is ... the coral, and what does it want with the Earth? The creeping, psychological horror fable that became a critical hit, the ...
Debating Benatar: should the human species pursue its own extinction?. As Darwinian entities with strong physiological and ... psychological drives towards personal survival and reproduction, humans share many similarities with their animal cousins. ...
The Psychological and Moral Uses of Darwinism. Conclusion. 10. James Mark Baldwin: Evolutionary Biopsychology and the Politics ... Conclusion: Scandal and Professional Extinction. 11. Transformation of the Darwinian Image of Man in the Twentieth Century. ... 9. The Personal Equation in Science: William Jamess Psychological and Moral Uses of Darwinian Theory. Jamess Depressive ... The Foundations of Baldwins Psychological Science. Genetic Psychology and the Theory of Imitation. The Evolutionary Analysis ...
Extinction, Psychological / drug effects. Feeding Behavior / psychology*. Male. Methamphetamine*. Models, Psychological. Rats. ... All groups underwent extinction sessions, followed by a cue-induced reinstatement test. Although food demand was less elastic ...
Feng Yongfeng, an environmental reporter at Guangming Daily, argues that most of the benefits are psychological. But that ... China can help avert an extinction crisis Beijing will be crucial to steering an ambitious Paris-style agreement to restore ... As some rare animal species approach extinction, conservation groups in southern China are working to change the regions ... Eating habits in south China driving endangered animals to extinction *Zhang Qifeng ...
"People have these extinction events in their lives; it could be psychological or it could be physical. And, yes, it was ...
... environmental roles and psychological differences. more. ... of genetic evidence for understanding Neanderthal extinction. ... It not only allows an understanding to the possibilities of what led to their extinction, but it also supports the information ... Who were the Neanderthals? Discuss the importance of genetic evidence for understanding Neanderthal extinction. Neanderthals, a ... which suggest that both genetic and fossil evidence have equal importance in helping us to understand Neanderthal extinction; ...
Could species threatened by climate change and other stresses avoid extinction through rapid evolution? ... Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is related to psychological resources. Shimon Saphire-Bernstein, Baldwin M. Way, Heejung S. Kim, ... Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is related to psychological resources. Shimon Saphire-Bernstein, Baldwin M. Way, Heejung S. Kim, ... Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is related to psychological resources. Shimon Saphire-Bernstein, Baldwin M. Way, Heejung S. Kim, ...
To feel grief is certainly a physical as well as a psychological experience. And physical deprivation also has psychological ... Extinction, Climate Change, and the Rights of Nature by Tikkun Staff. *Why Extinction Matters at Least as Much as Climate ... We Are All Facing Extinction. by Susan Griffin. December 12, 2011 We live in a society that pits the needs of human beings ... Rather his aim is to elevate animal extinction in public discourse as the most crucial issue, the sine qua non that ought to ...
Better near extinction than a totally frozen or drowned globe. At first, the waters were below the rims of the basins; now they ... A psychological fallacy pushes us to believe that the ocean basins were made by and for the primordial waters. That the basins ...
  • We sought to develop a dual approach for weakening cocaine memories through phosphoproteomic identification of targets regulated in opposite directions by memory extinction compared with reconsolidation in male Sprague-Dawley rats that had been trained to self-administer cocaine paired with an audiovisual cue. (
  • Kimble, D. P., & Kimble, R. J. The effect of hippocampal lesions on extinction and "hypothesis" behavior in rats. (
  • In this study, genome-wide analysis of gene expression was conducted following an extinction session (90 min) in rats that expressed behavioral incubation of heroin-seeking and goal-directed behavior. (
  • Following the self-administration period, rats were reintroduced to the self-administration chambers for a 90-minute extinction session in which they could seek heroin, but received none. (
  • The researchers used an animal model of extinction in which rats were trained to associate a short burst of white noise with a sugary liquid. (
  • Once the rats had learned that the white noise predicted sugar, extinction training was implemented in which the noise was presented over and over again without sugar. (
  • Extinction is a fundamental psychological process that happens in many different organisms, ranging from worms to mice to rats to humans. (
  • There is a survey currently running on the Doomstead Diner, which asks people to make specific, numerical estimates about the timing of human extinction. (
  • Guy's conclusion is that these changes will mean that the Earth will no longer provide a habitat for humans, leading to near-term human extinction. (
  • I have previously written a summary of the interrelated psychological, sociological, political-economic, military, nuclear, ecological and climate threats to human survival on Earth which threaten human extinction by 2026. (
  • In the ''Human Extinction by 2026? (
  • Intentionally or otherwise, the elite coup is also fast-tracking four paths to human extinction. (
  • The first step involves introducing known facts about the issue and asking for their response before scaring them with any acknowledgement that human extinction is the ultimate outcome. (
  • Fear extinction offers a tractable and translatable behavioral readout of individual differences in learned recovery from trauma. (
  • Under most conditions (with exceptions, such as juvenile rodents [ 10 ]), the behavioral manifestation of fear extinction likely reflects the emergence of a new, inhibitory form of learning that successfully competes with the trauma memory to reduce fear expression. (
  • Brakel holds that classical psychoanalysis operates on both the psychological level and the biological level, whereas cognitive behavioral therapies operate primarily on the psychological level. (
  • Extinction sessions were conducted on groups after either 1 d or 14 d of drug-free enforced abstinence to demonstrate behavioral incubation. (
  • Just, drug theory levels propriete one-third problem measure are more psychological to le event darker behavioral min than today indications. (
  • A psychiatric disorder in which a dramatic reduction in caloric intake consequent to excessive dieting leads to significant bodily, physiological, biochemical, emotional, psychological, and behavioral disturbances. (
  • We know today that the psychological mechanism of paranoid phenomena is twofold: one is caused by damage to the brain tissue, the other is functional or behavioral. (
  • We explored the neural mechanisms of fear extinction in humans. (
  • The researchers intend to investigate the psychological, neural, ontogenetic and clinical processes of extinction learning in animals and humans. (
  • We are currently facing the sixth mass extinction of species in the history of life on Earth, biologists claim-the first one caused by humans. (
  • However, giving the fathers ''extinction learning,' which is very akin to cognitive behavioural therapy in humans,' the transmission of that fear can be prevented. (
  • In 2017, the American Psychological Association issued a report analyzing "climate grief" and there is a growing body of research into how the tangible effects of climate change combine with increased global calls to action are effecting the humans' sense of humanity and self. (
  • A simple experiment into machine learning using the psychological principles of operant conditioning, spontaneous recovery and extinction. (
  • These results provide evidence that the mechanisms of extinction learning may be preserved across species. (
  • Could species threatened by climate change and other stresses avoid extinction through rapid evolution? (
  • To place the campaigns that address climate change in competition with campaigns that address the extinction of species, as Allen Kanner does in his article " Why Extinction Matters as Much as Climate Change ," is less a departure from the divisive mindset that dominates post-industrial society than a subtle continuation of it. (
  • The climatic change reduces the diversity of ecosystems and causes the extinction of numerous species. (
  • Ultimately, Imagining Extinction demonstrates that biodiversity, endangered species, and extinction are not only scientific questions but issues of histories, cultures, and values. (
  • The author's goal is not to understand what endangered species and extinction mean biologically but to move toward understanding what they do (and perhaps to learn what they could eventually come to) mean culturally-or, in her words, 'how they mean culturally. (
  • One million species face extinction, UN panel says. (
  • Up to 1 million plant and animal species are on the verge of extinction, with devastating implications for human survival, according to a United Nations report released Monday. (
  • We're cataloging new species, and creating a basis for assessing and reversing the extinction of species. (
  • An ongoing current event in which a large number of living species are threatened with extinction or are going extinct because of environmentally destructive human activities. (
  • According to the research literature on conditioning, it is extremely difficult to destroy the original association of the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus even after intensive extinction training. (
  • These data suggest that stress-induced activation of the LC increases BLA spike firing and causes impairments in extinction learning. (
  • Stress-induced impairments in extinction learning are believed to sustain posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (
  • This is tricky, because it's so easy to pass over some small niche that may remain survivable far into the future, and all it takes is one of these to narrowly avoid extinction. (
  • My sole motive is to avoid death in the collapse of civilization and to avoid extinction due to global warming. (
  • Imagining Extinction persuasively advocates for the centrality of the literary, the anthropological, the historical, and the psychological in coding and recoding our present considerations of extinction and the Anthropocene. (
  • Some were one-off… as would be the "anthropocene" extinction that we're causing ourselves, right now, through the powerful impact of human civilization. (
  • In 2017, the American Psychological Association diagnosed rising eco-anxiety and called it " a chronic fear of environmental doom . (
  • Studies of extinction in nonhuman animals have focused on two interconnected brain regions: the amygdala and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). (
  • Consistent with animal models suggesting that the amygdala is important for both the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear, amygdala activation was correlated across subjects with the conditioned response in both acquisition and early extinction. (
  • Intra-basolateral amygdala inhibition of CaMKII promoted memory extinction and disrupted reconsolidation, leading to a reduction in subsequent cue-induced reinstatement. (
  • Stress impairs extinction learning and these deficits depend, in part, on stress-induced norepinephrine release in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). (
  • Patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show heightened amygdala activity, elevated levels of stress hormones, including norepinephrine, and are resistant to the extinction of fear memories. (
  • Fear learning and extinction are controlled by the activity of three interconnected regions: the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. (
  • Bloodgood DW, Sugam JA, Holmes A, Kash TL (2018) Fear extinction requires infralimbic cortex projections to the basolateral amygdala. (
  • Signaling analyses revealed dysregulated expression of neural genes accompanied by selective activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulatory enzyme p85 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in the amygdala following fear extinction. (
  • We then discuss how estradiol (E2), a primary gonadal hormone, may modulate the mechanisms of fear extinction and mediate some of the sex differences observed in psychiatric disorders. (
  • Basic and clinical research suggests that D-cycloserine (DCS) enhances extinction to fear cues under certain conditions. (
  • DCS was associated with augmented reductions in alcohol craving to alcohol cues during the first extinction session and these effects persisted through all subsequent sessions, suggesting facilitation of extinction. (
  • the extinction protocol comprised 63 min of subsequent active and passive exposure to personalized alcohol cues. (
  • Outcome-specific Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) with alcohol cues and its extinction. (
  • While the word extinction might conjure up mental images of dinosaurs and dodo birds, it also refers to the psychological process that mediates our ability to stop reacting to environmental cues that no longer predict desirable events. (
  • For example, systemic or intra-BLA administration of propranolol reduces the immediate extinction deficit (IED), an impairment in extinction learning that occurs when extinction trials are administered soon after fear conditioning. (
  • Moreover, propranolol administration dampened the stress-induced impairment in extinction observed when extinction training is delivered shortly after fear conditioning. (
  • What caused the mass extinction event? (
  • 29, 2016-New fossil evidence strengthens the proposition that the world's first mass extinction was caused by 'ecosystem engineers' - newly evolved organisms that radically altered the environment. (
  • That all the poverty, the climate devastation, the perpetual war, and consumption fetishism we see all around us have roots in a mass psychological infection? (
  • Mass extinctions. (
  • We are living in the midst of the 6th mass extinction. (
  • The Earth is presently in the midst of a mass extinction event. (
  • Although this view has gained much support from behavioural and electrophysiological studies, the hypothesis that extinction causes the partial erasure of fear memories remains viable. (
  • In the study, Chaudhri's team tested the hypothesis that extinction memory - our ability to recall that a cue is no longer followed by an expected event - is formed and stored in the infralimbic cortex. (
  • The subjects in the excessive avoidance group exhibited delayed response latencies, and their high-fear responses remained in the acquisition, test, and extinction phases. (
  • The change of startle responses from acquisition phases to extinction is usually evaluated as the adaptation of fear. (
  • Over the past two decades, substantial knowledge has been attained about the mechanisms underlying the acquisition and subsequent extinction of conditioned fear.Lacking in the current knowledge is how men and women may or may not differ in the biology of fear and its extinction.In this review, we begin by highlighting the epidemiological differences in incidence rate. (
  • Over the past two decades, substantial knowledge has been attained about the mechanisms underlying the acquisition and subsequent extinction of conditioned fear. (
  • In October, British television aired repeated claims by spokespersons for Extinction Rebellion that "billions would die" from climate change. (
  • Extinction Rebellion has finally responded to repeated accusations of climate hypocrisy - by blaming "the system" for their personal carbon excesses. (
  • I presume there is a lot of psychological theory related to what I am perceiving when I discuss climate-induced collapse. (
  • The increasing visibility of climate change effects, the researchers wrote, is producing feelings of depression, anxiety and helplessness in the face of potential extinction. (
  • A June 2018 study published by Australian and Canadian researchers in the International Journal of Mental Health Systems noted the "often-unseen" impacts of climate change, particularly its psychological consequences. (
  • The study notes that in 2015, the World Health Organization ( WHO ) "set forth the framework for building climate resilient health systems" and cited an added emphasis on "the global call to action to reduce climate change" is having psychological impacts on children and adults worldwide. (
  • When reducing the stimulus intensity during the training period, a memory extinction and subsequently reinstatement effects were observed. (
  • Typically, memory extinction occurs when the CS is presented in the absence of the US ( Joels and Lamprecht, 2014 ). (
  • this can be stabilized by propranolol, a β-noradrenergic receptor blocking drug, which in turn facilitates extinction when it normally fails. (
  • Medial prefrontal cortex involvement in the expression of extinction and ABA renewal of instrumental behavior for a food reinforcer. (
  • Of these, the medial prefrontal cortex modulates specific aspects in fear and extinction via a top-down regulation. (
  • [6] The extinction of heightened FPS response to stimuli previously conditioned to be threatening has been linked to activity in the medial prefrontal cortex . (
  • Noradrenergic signaling may contribute to extinction impairments by modulating medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuits involved in fear regulation. (
  • Finally, we show that LC-NE activation is sufficient to produce extinction deficits, and this is blocked by intra-BLA propranolol. (
  • However, noradrenergic signaling in response to psychological stress may disrupt mPFC function, contributing to extinction deficits. (
  • The degrees of spine remodelling induced by fear conditioning and extinction strongly correlate with the expression and extinction of conditioned fear responses, respectively. (
  • Notably, spine elimination and formation induced by fear conditioning and extinction occur on the same dendritic branches in a cue- and location-specific manner: cue-specific extinction causes formation of dendritic spines within a distance of two micrometres from spines that were eliminated after fear conditioning. (
  • Thus, within vastly complex neuronal networks, fear conditioning, extinction and reconditioning lead to opposing changes at the level of individual synapses. (
  • Knowledge gained on the biological basis of Pavlovian conditioning has led to the general acceptance that fear extinction may be a useful model in understanding the underlying mechanisms in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders and may also be a good model for current therapies treating these disorders. (
  • This study demonstrated that differences in pain-related avoidance behaviors are affected by psychological traits. (
  • His focus is on understanding, both at the psychological and neural systems levels, how organisms represent the causal structure of their environment with special interests in the extinction of acquired behaviors, in the mechanisms involved in reward processing and interval timing, and in computational models of associative learning. (
  • I am interested in both the neural and the psychological mechanisms underlying learned behaviors. (
  • Much research has shown that adolescents' sexual attitudes and behaviors are influenced by media," says Ross O'Hara, currently a post-doctoral fellow at the University of Missouri, who conducted the research with other psychological scientists while at Dartmouth College. (
  • In the subsequent extinction phase, the pain stimulus was omitted. (
  • These findings suggest that β-adrenoceptors mediate stress-induced changes in mPFC spike firing that contribute to extinction impairments. (
  • It is also unclear how the neural correlates of fear extinction may mediate sex differences in the etiology, maintenance, and prevalence of psychiatric disorders. (
  • Therefore, inhibition of CaMKII represents a novel mechanism for memory-based addiction treatment that leverages both extinction enhancement and reconsolidation disruption to reduce relapse-like behavior. (
  • This unit's focus will be on two psychological disorders, depression and schizophrenia and how by using films students will better understand abnormal behavior. (
  • Since WWII - particularly following the publications of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring (1962) and Paul Ehrlich's Population Bomb (1968) - sensitivities toward extinction have heightened with cold war fears of nuclear war, the obvious diminishment and degradation of the natural order owing to industrialization and burgeoning human numbers, and with millennial apocalyptic fears. (
  • Compare this to the trauma of simply being alive with the pervasive stress and pressures of survival and the omnipresent fear of death/extinction. (
  • Leading celebrities including Benedict Cumberbatch, Stephen Fry, Emma Thompson, Olivia Colman, Ellie Goulding, Tom Yorke, and Bob Geldof have all promoted Extinction Rebellion in recent weeks. (
  • I discovered her videos after googling "extinction rebellion millions will die. (
  • As important as your cause is," said Jeffrey in one of the videos, an open letter to Extinction Rebellion, "your persistent exaggeration of the facts has the potential to do more harm than good to the scientific credibility of your cause as well as to the psychological well-being of my generation. (
  • Prefrontal theta oscillations are modulated by estradiol-status during fear recall and extinction recall. (
  • Burgos Robles A, Vidalgonzalez I, Santini E, Quirk G (2007) Consolidation of fear extinction requires nmda receptor-dependent bursting in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. (
  • All groups underwent extinction sessions, followed by a cue-induced reinstatement test. (
  • Here we explored whether locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) regulates stress-induced changes in spike firing in the BLA and consequent extinction learning impairments. (
  • and president of the Eastern Psychological Association (2012) and Pavlovian Society (2016). (
  • Effects of D -cycloserine (DCS) and placebo on craving for alcohol during cue reactivity and extinction across the study protocol. (
  • The first is based on proving the existence of an extinction mechanism. (
  • Fast forward: I now understand these experiences to essentially be a psychological coping mechanism. (
  • Although exposure to major psychological trauma is unfortunately common, risk for related neuropsychiatric conditions, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), varies greatly among individuals. (
  • Exposure to severe psychological traumas can result in debilitating anxiety disorders, such as PTSD [ 1 ]. (
  • In recent years, the field has seen rapid advances in elucidating neural systems and circuits that are dysfunctional in patients with anxiety disorders, including PTSD [ 5 ], and recruited in rodent and human subjects during impaired processes, such as fear extinction. (
  • Here, we discuss how a growing body of evidence from studies in rodent and human subjects that utilize fear extinction as a readout of recovery from learned trauma is rapidly informing understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of individual differences in risk for PTSD and other trauma-related conditions. (
  • Here, we report a link between the oxytocin receptor ( OXTR ) SNP rs53576 and psychological resources, such that carriers of the "A" allele have lower levels of optimism, mastery, and self-esteem, relative to G/G homozygotes. (
  • The use of d -cycloserine in fear extinction and oxytocin in affiliative bonds is used as an example of these futuristic approaches. (
  • Nature's current rate of decline is unparalleled, the report says, and the accelerating rate of extinctions "means grave impacts on people around the world are now likely. (
  • Rapid progress is also being made in identifying key molecular circuits, epigenetic mechanisms, and gene variants associated with differences in fear extinction. (
  • Using transcranial two-photon microscopy, we investigated how neural circuits are modified by fear learning and extinction by examining the formation and elimination of postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer-V pyramidal neurons in the mouse frontal association cortex. (
  • Nicole simpson's extinction 26, 2013 in 1998, carefully complex a cost sometimes i was prescribed dementia for neurogenesis neurons. (
  • Cue-elicited craving for alcohol is well established but extinction-based treatment to extinguish this response has generated only modest positive outcomes in clinical trials. (
  • Survey of psychological disorders of adulthood with emphasis on the clinical description of each disorder, explanatory theories, research on etiology and treatment, and issues in prevention. (
  • More specifically, I would like my students to understand the stories behind the clinical symptoms of psychological disorders. (
  • Clinical Psychological Science - a new journal from APS - publishes advances in clinical science and provides a venue for cutting-edge research across a wide range of conceptual views, approaches, and topics. (
  • Extinction, recognized by Pavlov almost 100 years ago [ 8 ], occurs when 'a fear conditioned organism exposed to a fear-eliciting cue in the absence of any aversive event. (
  • But rather than attempt a poor hack of psychological theory to validate or explain my perceptions, I will instead share a purely layman's perspective of the attitudes and responses I have encountered. (
  • What if we told you that humanity is being driven to the brink of extinction by an illness? (
  • D-cycloserine to enhance extinction of cue-elicited craving for alcohol: a translational approach. (
  • Gradual removal of these defensive processes are thought to be a key aspect of treatment and eventually return to psychological health. (
  • Our research examines the evolutionary origins of emotions, their current structure, and how they affect psychological processes ranging from food selection to moral decision-making. (
  • We conclude that the future will see the development of interventions that aim for synergy between specific biological processes and psychological experiences as they unfold developmentally. (
  • Over six years, psychological scientists examined whether or not seeing sex on the big screen translates into sex in the real world for adolescents. (
  • These findings provide evidence that DCS enhances extinction of cue-elicited craving for alcohol in individuals with AUDs in the context of outpatient treatment. (
  • Evidence is growing that extinction events - many or most of them - seem to follow a cyclical rhythm of every 26 to 30 million years, with varying severity, and I have discussed this cycle - with fascinating theories - elsewhere. (
  • Let me offer you the evidence to support the scenario presented above with some brief reiteration to begin followed by more elaborate explanation of the paths to extinction. (
  • The infralimbic cortex is a part of the brain that is important for extinction. (
  • In persons free of brain-tissue lesions, such phenomena most frequently occur as a result of being reared by people with paranoidal characteropathia, along with the psychological terror of their childhood. (
  • Brain cortex damage in these areas selectively impairs the above mentioned function without impairing memory, associative capacity, or in particular such instinct-based feelings and functions as for instance the ability to intuit a psychological situation. (
  • The goal of the current study was to examine whether, compared with placebo (PBO), DCS enhanced extinction of cue-elicited craving among treatment-seeking individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). (
  • The mechanisms of this "Extinction Learning" , which is very important in the treatment of anxiety and pain disorders, will be studied in a Collaborative Research Centre of the same name. (
  • Further, the fiction films that I will be using graphically show the i mpact of these psychological disorders on the individual, family, and society. (
  • Utterances like these inspire aversion among cultivated and logical people, but they enslave less critical minds, e.g. people with other kinds of psychological deficiencies, who were earlier the objects of the egotistical influence of individuals with character disorders, and in particular a large part of the young. (
  • His arguments seem to ignore the fact that human beings are animals and that global warming is threatening us with extinction too. (
  • The West still deals with the twin "cognitive shocks" from the mid-nineteenth-century discoveries that extinction was the fate both of creatures very much like human beings and of cultures as articulate as those in the West, whose people can still speak directly to Western civilization because of their writing systems. (
  • We're researching how psychological, emotional and social factors affect economic decision making. (
  • Learning is a basic psychological process, and investigations of the principles and mechanisms of learning have been the subject of research and debate since the establishment of the first psychological laboratory by Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzeig, Germany , in 1879. (
  • We know the most famous extinction event, the demise of the dinosaurs, was caused (all or mostly) by a huge asteroid that struck the Yucatan Peninsula, 65 million years ago. (
  • Those in the mental health field have also borrowed research from other traumatic events to better understand the psychological wounds inflicted by the terrorist attacks. (
  • This course will teach and apply the statistics and research methods utilized in non-experimental psychological research. (
  • This course will teach and apply the statistics and research methods utilized in experimental psychological research. (
  • Psychological Research, 84(5), pp. 1211-1222. (
  • We have to have blanket coverage of every source of water, from rivers, down to puddles in order for extinction to occur. (