Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.United StatesKidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.TritiumSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Extent. 600 miles (970 km)[2]. Type section. Named for. Marcellus, New York. ... Wilde, Pat; Quinby-Hunt, Mary S.; Lyons, Timothy W. (2005-10-13). Sulfur Proxies in Type III Black Shales: Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Ni, ... Extent[edit]. The Marcellus is found throughout the Allegheny Plateau region of the northern Appalachian Basin of North America ... white, Charles (1891). The Texan Permian and Its Mesozoic Types of Fossils. Washington D.C.: United States Geological Survey. p ...
... extent: acres of land; type: meadow, pasture etc.; and the location: township or parish where it was. These descriptions are ...
ISBN 0-679-72395-1 Ladell, R.M.; T.H. Hargreaves (October 1947). "The Extent of Neurosis". Br Med J. 2 (4526): 548-549. doi: ... The characteristic effects of a neurosis on the dominant and inferior functions are discussed in Psychological Types. Jung saw ... ISBN 0-691-01782-4. Jung, C.G. [1921] (1971). Psychological Types. Collected Works, vol. 6. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0- ...
Does the legal status of an institute influences effectiveness of the program? How & to what an extent? Cooperative type of ... There are linkages between SHG and other type institutes with that of cooperatives. The purpose of RIDF is to promote ... Effectiveness of the program depends upon many factors, but the type of organization to which the assistance is extended is ...
Times in marsh recovery can depend on the development stage of the marsh; type and extent of the disturbance; geographical ... These types of restoration projects are often unsuccessful as vegetation tends to struggle to revert to its original structure ... The amount of sediment adhering to salt marsh species is dependent on the type of marsh species, the proximity of the species ...
Complications also depend on the type/extent of spinal fusion surgery performed. There are three main time periods where ... There are many types of spinal fusion techniques. Each technique varies depending on the level of the spine and the location of ... There are many types of spinal fusion and each technique involves using bone grafting-either from the patient (autograft), ... The types of interbody fusion are: *Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) - the disc is accessed from an anterior abdominal ...
... of infinite extent). The typography features of GX were integrated in the form of 3 types of gxShape: Text shapes were the ... Each tag had an OSType type code, but there could be multiple tags of the same type attached to the same object. GX shapes ... the various types of typographic shapes are described in the GX Typography section below. additional types which were perhaps ... PostScript Type 1 font files have one to one mapping only, and as ligatures are many to one mappings, they can not be inserted ...
Medium fine ground types are called shinbikiko (新引粉,真挽粉) and used as breaded crust or for confection. Fine ground are jōnanko ( ... Apparently used for wagashi to some extent. In Chinese cuisine, it is used to make the translucent skin of the shrimp har gow. ... negi) asatsuki - type of chives nira (Chinese chives or garlic chive) rakkyo wakegi - formerly thought a variety of scallion, ... salmon (sake) - shiojake or salted salmon are often very salty fillets, so lighter salted amajio types may be sought. aramaki- ...
The families do to some extent overlap. Notably, pang and swish cymbals have some characteristics of china types, and some ... as well as many other types. In Western music these are all referred to as china type cymbals. China type cymbals are available ... In western music, China-type cymbals are a distinct type of crash cymbals designed to produce a bright, crisp, and explosive ... are considered china types while having none of the physical characteristics of the normal china type, while the Paiste crystal ...
Type II cells have prominent nuclei and nucleoli with much less chromatin than Type I cells. Type III cells have multiple ... In order to further classify the extent of dysgeusia and clinically measure the sense of taste, gustatory testing may be ... Type I, II, and III cells also contain synapses. Type IV cells are normally rooted at the posterior end of the taste bud. Every ... A single taste bud is composed of four different types of cells, and each taste bud has at least 30 to 80 cells. Type I cells ...
The full extent of its distribution is unknown. The name Jedda is a toponym from Jedda Creek, which is close to where the type ... Type specimen photo from the Missouri Botanic Garden Fruit photo from the Australian National Botanic Gardens Distributional ... Type-Protologue: Locality: "Queensland, Cook District: between Jedda Creek and the Kennedy River. 15º37'S, 143º57'E. 18 October ...
Some of the most common variations are: Data types IEEE floating-point number 32-bit integer 8-bit data Mixed data types Bit ... However the name JBUS survived to some extent. JBUS supports function codes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 15, and 16 and thus all the ... Many of the data types are named from its use in driving relays: a single-bit physical output is called a coil, and a single- ... The following is a table of object types provided by a Modbus slave device to a Modbus master device: Versions of the Modbus ...
α2 Canum Venaticorum has a spectral type of A0, and has an apparent visual magnitude which varies between 2.84 and 2.98, with a ... The strong magnetic field of these stars is believed to produce starspots of enormous extent. Due to these starspots the ... α1 Canum Venaticorum is a F-type main sequence star. It is considerably fainter than its companion and has an apparent visual ... Royer, F.; Zorec, J.; Gómez, A. E. (2007). "Rotational velocities of A-type stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 463 (2): 671. ...
"Native vegetation in Western Australia: Extent, Type and Status". Resource Management Technical Report No. 249. Department of ...
The predominant type of farming on the Downs is arable farming; this increased greatly during the 20th century. Pastoral ... farming also occurs but to a lesser extent. Human settlements within the Downs have generally formed in sheltered valleys and ... The Downland of the North Downs consists of distinct lithostratigraphic units (the types of strata, the names of which are ...
"Native vegetation in Western Australia: Extent, Type and Status". Resource Management Technical Report No. 249. Department of ... There are also a number of vegetation communities of lesser extent, including some that are considered endangered or at risk. ... Within this area, most soil types carry mallee communities consisting primarily of Eucalyptus species. Sands and laterites ...
This fibrous connective tissue bundles have cartilage cells between them; these cells to a certain extent resemble tendon cells ... Fibrocartilage is composed of small, chained bundles of thick, clearly defined, type I collagen fibers. ...
"Native vegetation in Western Australia: Extent, Type and Status". Resource Management Technical Report No. 249. Department of ... It has a variety of surface types, including calcareous clays and loams containing kankar; outcrops of metamorphosed sandstone ... Within this area, most soil types carry mallee communities consisting primarily of Eucalyptus species. Clay soils support ... There are also a number of vegetation communities of lesser extent, including some that are considered endangered or at risk. ...
Two types of torpor are recognized. In one type, such as in hummingbirds, torpor may be entered on a daily basis and last only ... The extent of unresponsiveness during torpor can be pronounced. A hummingbird in deep torpor, for example, with a body ... Specialized type: rictal wattle. A type of caruncle, the wattle is a flap or lobe of flesh, often of a vivid colour, that hangs ... call Specific types: alarm; contact; duet; antiphonal duetting; food begging; flight; mobbing. A type of bird vocalization ...
"Native vegetation in Western Australia: Extent, Type and Status". Resource Management Technical Report No. 249. Department of ... The western extent of the region takes in the Leeuwin Naturaliste Ridge, an 80 kilometre (50 mi) long strip of coastal ... Extending from the ocean to the edge of the Yilgarn craton plateau, for most of its extent it may be adequately approximated as ... There are a number of soil types, including hard setting loamy soil, lateritic soil, leached sandy soil and Holocene marine ...
Himalaya is a type locality for the study of on-going continent-continent collision tectonics. The Himalayan arc extends about ... About 800 km of this extent is in Nepal; the remainder includes Bhutan and parts of Pakistan, India, and China. Since 55 Ma the ...
It also discusses the Upper Planes to an extent. Monsters: This chapter contains good-aligned monsters, featuring the Deathless ... type, as well as templates to create customized monsters. The artifact is mentioned in the Dungeon Master's Guide, version 3.5 ...
"Native vegetation in Western Australia: Extent, Type and Status". Resource Management Technical Report No. 249. Department of ...
There were two types of three-cylinder turbodiesel engines for this car, one was a magnesium 1.3-liter (1279 cc) powerplant ... Especially magnesium was used to a large extent; this was a result of Volvo's aborted Norwegian affair (Norway would take forty ... It was a project which comprised many engine options for the testing of different fuel types. In this project Volvo ...
Outcomes for breast cancer vary depending on the cancer type, extent of disease, and person's age.[14] Survival rates in the ... researchers said that there are four genetically distinct types of the breast cancer and that in each type, hallmark genetic ... Most types of breast cancer are easy to diagnose by microscopic analysis of a sample-or biopsy-of the affected area of the ... Chemotherapy or other types of therapy prior to surgery are called neoadjuvant therapy. Aspirin may reduce mortality from ...
Noonan concedes that the type of analysis described in Flook "may make sense in claims to" electromechanical inventions such as ... the possibility of rule that would exclude trolls but would admit pioneer discoveries of natural laws to a limited extent. Dyk ...
Extent of implementation of mental health services for victims of all types of violence (Violence prevention). This indicator ... Extent of implementation of mental health services for victims of all types of violence (Violence prevention) ...
Abstract 18173: Western Type Dietary Pattern is Associated With the Severity and Extent of Coronary Artery Disease. ... Conclusion: The unhealthy western type of diet is associated with the severity and extent of coronary artery lesions in ...
B-type natriuretic peptide has been used as a biological marker for prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ... B-Type natriuretic peptide levels predict extent and severity of coronary artery disease in non-ST elevation acute coronary ... BACKGROUND: B-type natriuretic peptide has been used as a biological marker for prognosis in patients with acute coronary ...
... Objective Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), a recently identified population of lymphoid cells lacking lineage-specific ... Conclusions ILC2 counts are elevated in patients with SSc and correlate with the extent of skin fibrosis and the presence of ...
Nearly 240,000 people with type 2 diabetes are diagnosed with heart disease or stroke in England and Wales each year, according ... New figures released in the UK are a stark reminder that people with type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of having a heart ... New figures reveal the extent of heart disease risk due to type 2 diabetes. ... People with type 2 diabetes are 2.4 times more likely to suffer a heart attack than the general population, and twice as likely ...
Fine-tuning the extent and dynamics of binding cleft opening as a potential general regulatory mechanism in parvulin-type ... Fine-tuning the extent and dynamics of binding cleft opening as a potential general regulatory mechanism in parvulin-type ... The largest difference can be attributed to the extent of the opening of the substrate binding cleft, along which motional mode ... We hypothesize that modulation of the extent and dynamics of the identified breathing motion might be one of the factors ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) may be studied by molecular or immunological approaches. Most analyses have been ... Extent of antigenic diversity in the V3 region of the surface glycoprotein, gp120, of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group ... HIV type 1 diversity in northern Paris, France.. *François Simon, Ibtissam Loussert-Ajaka, Florence Damond, Sentob Saragosti, ... Multivariate analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization data.. *Phillipe N. Nyambi, John N Nkengasong, +6 ...
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between HGI and extent of CHD in individuals with T2D. Methods This cross- ... The relationship between HGI and extent of CHD enables cardiovascular risk stratification in at risk individuals. Overall, HGI ... Discussion This study demonstrated that HGI correlated with the extent of CHD in individuals with T2D. People with supranormal ... Background Individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Diabetic ...
The anxiety score detects the latter anxiety disorders to a slightly greater extent than GAD and specific phobia, without being ... The research questions were: (1) Is the anxiety scale unidimensional or multidimensional? (2) To what extent does the anxiety ... able to distinguish between the different anxiety disorder types. The cut-off points ≥4 and ≥10 can be used to separate ... To what extent does the anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) detect specific types of anxiety ...
Extent of Hunner lesions: The relationships with symptom severity and clinical parameters in Hunner type interstitial cystitis ...
Publication type, MeSH terms, Substances. Publication type. *Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S. ... The cytosolic endopeptidase, thimet oligopeptidase, destroys antigenic peptides and limits the extent of MHC class I antigen ... plays an important role in vivo in degrading peptides released by proteasomes and is a significant factor limiting the extent ...
Publication type, MeSH terms, Substance, Grant support. Publication type. *Review. MeSH terms. *Female ... To what extent should waterpipe tobacco smoking become a public health priority?. Jawad M1, McEwen A, McNeill A, Shahab L. ...
It is possible to see which customers buy which types of goods, and to track the discounts they get, how these change over time ... Separation of semantic and presentational markup, to the extent possible, is architecturally sound. Draft TAG finding, 30 June ... 4.1 Types of separation. Separate resources (files ). Separate location (client and server). ... to the extent possible, is architecturally sound. ...
Extent and Medium. *2 drawings. Scope and Content. File documents a project for a service station for an unknown location. ... Rural-Type Service Station for Armco Drainage & Metal Ltd Print this page ... Please keep in mind that your consultation date will be based on the type of material you wish to study. To prepare your visit ... Project: Rural-Type Service Station for Armco Drainage & Metal Ltd, 1954 AP109.S3.D25 ...
Quantity / Object type: 1 File. Extent and Medium: *6 reprographic copies with annotations ... Please keep in mind that your consultation date will be based on the type of material you wish to study. To prepare your visit ... Materials in this project series have been kept in their original order and/or arranged by material type. ...
The extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or ... Pub Type(s). Journal Article. Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S. ... The extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam.. Nature. 2003 Apr 17; 422(6933):681-7.Nat ... "The Extent and Patterns of Usage of Agent Orange and Other Herbicides in Vietnam." Nature, vol. 422, no. 6933, 2003, pp. 681-7. ...
Incomplete run, extent uncertain. Premiere issue Sept 1951. Museum has:. 1954: Vol. 3, no. 9-10. 1955: Vol. 4, no. 1-12. 1956: ... Extent. 3 boxes Description. Technical journal published monthly, subtitled Cybernetics, Robots, Automatic Control. Subtitle ... Type. Document Date. 1956-1975 Publisher. Berkeley Enterprises, Inc. ...
Only a doctor familiar with a persons medical history, type of cancer, stage, characteristics of the cancer, treatments chosen ... Local extent is how far the tumour grows into the wall of the vagina and into surrounding tissues. The farther the tumour has ... Type of tumour. The type of vaginal tumour is an important prognostic factor. Squamous cell carcinoma has a more favourable ... Only a doctor familiar with your medical history, the type, stage and characteristics of your cancer, the treatments chosen and ...
The running program limits the extent of muscular atrophy in the soleus and the plantaris muscles of type 2 SMA-like mice. The ... The trained type 2 SMA-like mice lived significantly longer than the untrained type 2 SMA-like mice (p , 0.001). Untrained type ... Thus, the neuronal apoptosis in the spinal cord of trained type 2 SMA-like mice processed to a limited extent in comparison ... Motor behavior of control, untrained, and trained type 2 SMA-like mice. a, b, Grip assay of control (a) and trained type 2 SMA- ...
ALLOC_EXTENT_CACHE and ALLOC_FREESPACE_CACHE These classes are used to synchronize access to caches of extents and pages with ... IO Wait Types. There are several IO-related wait types. These wait types do not occur because of regular database page IO ... The wait type documentation in Books Online lists quite a few wait types as "Internal Only." This means that these wait types ... Parallel query wait types. Several wait types related to parallel queries are worth identifying. The CXPACKET. wait type occurs ...
Publication types * Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt MeSH terms * Adolescent * Adult ... Extent of surgery affects survival for papillary thyroid cancer Ann Surg. 2007 Sep;246(3):375-81; discussion 381-4. doi: ... The objective of this study was to examine whether the extent of surgery affects outcomes for PTC and to determine whether a ... For PTC ,1 cm extent of surgery did not impact recurrence or survival (P = 0.24, P = 0.83). For tumors , or =1 cm, lobectomy ...
... ... Pacific tobacco industry interference index : a tool for monitoring the types and extent of tobacco industry interference. en. ...
Extent. 600 miles (970 km)[2]. Type section. Named for. Marcellus, New York. ... Wilde, Pat; Quinby-Hunt, Mary S.; Lyons, Timothy W. (2005-10-13). Sulfur Proxies in Type III Black Shales: Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Ni, ... Extent[edit]. The Marcellus is found throughout the Allegheny Plateau region of the northern Appalachian Basin of North America ... white, Charles (1891). The Texan Permian and Its Mesozoic Types of Fossils. Washington D.C.: United States Geological Survey. p ...
SIA type. SIA extent. Target age group. Population reached in targeted age group. % administrative coverage. ...
Type de publication:. Journal Article. Auteurs:. Adam, C.; Bonneville, A.. Source: Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth ... So far, its exact extent has not yet been established. Thanks to better bathymetric coverage and a specially adapted filtering ...
  • Extent of antigenic diversity in the V3 region of the surface glycoprotein, gp120, of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M and consequences for serotyping. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Inter- and intraclade neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: genetic clades do not correspond to neutralization serotypes but partially correspond to gp120 antigenic serotypes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The cytosolic endopeptidase, thimet oligopeptidase, destroys antigenic peptides and limits the extent of MHC class I antigen presentation. (nih.gov)
  • Obviously, demonstration of the superiority of such an approach would require to demonstrate that despite smaller extents of resection seizure outcome remains as good as with more extensive resection types. (wiley.com)
  • We characterize light sensitivity recovery in continuously illuminated wild-type zebrafish cones and demonstrate that sensitivity recovery does not occur in the absence of EML1. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cox Proportional Hazards modeling stratified by tumor size was used to assess the impact of surgical extent on outcomes and to identify a tumor size threshold above which total thyroidectomy is associated with an improvement in recurrence and long-term survival rates. (nih.gov)
  • Only a doctor familiar with your medical history, the type, stage and characteristics of your cancer, the treatments chosen and the response to treatment can put all of this information together with survival statistics to arrive at a prognosis. (cancer.ca)
  • demonstrated that TLR is more effective than medical management in the treatment of drug-resistant TLE, the question of the extent of resection has grown in importance. (wiley.com)
  • If the new treatment plan suggests normal tissue was exposed to a reduced amount of radiation, multiple treatment plans will be generated to assess the extent to which this reduction will allow for increased tumor dose in the future. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Research shows that this type of violence occurs most frequently in emergency and psychiatric treatment settings, waiting rooms, and geriatric settings, but is by no means limited to these. (cdc.gov)
  • Does one type of treatment lessen the chance of the lymphoma coming back more than another? (cancer.org)
  • What type of follow-up will I need after treatment? (cancer.org)
  • However, gaps in communication, lifestyle and differences in the treatment plans for the two types can make it difficult for the two sides to understand each other. (chicagotribune.com)
  • This study aimed to investigate the relationship between HGI and extent of CHD in individuals with T2D. (peerj.com)
  • Certain types of latches are a common source of blocking and, unfortunately, latch blocking is often hard to investigate and resolve (because of the scarcity of diagnostic information available for them). (informit.com)
  • Investigate the Radical Extent of Lymphadenectomy of LAparoscopic Right Colectomy for Colon Cancer(RELARC). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial to Investigate the Radical Extent of Lymphadenectomy: D2 Dissection vs. Complete Mesocolic Excision, of LAparoscopic Right Colectomy for Right-sided Colon Cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Prevention of Type 2 violence is a primary focus of this course. (cdc.gov)
  • To what extent does the anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) detect specific types of anxiety disorder in primary care? (biomedcentral.com)
  • For use in primary care practice general scales are more relevant because of their promise to detect all or most types of anxiety disorder (i.e., panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and specific phobia). (biomedcentral.com)
  • As relevant studies typically either lump different anxiety disorders together or focus on a limited number of specific anxiety disorders, there is currently a lack of evidence that available and popular anxiety scales are capable of detecting all or most types of anxiety disorder in primary care. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular analysis has shown that both of the severe SMA types, i.e., the early-onset form (type 1) and the mild late-onset form (type 2), are linked to the same locus on chromosome 5, where the SMN (survival motor neuron) gene is duplicated in an inverted repeat ( Lewin, 1995 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • 1 cm extent of surgery did not impact recurrence or survival (P = 0.24, P = 0.83). (nih.gov)
  • The largest difference can be attributed to the extent of the opening of the substrate binding cleft, along which motional mode the three molecules occupy distinct regions. (jyu.fi)
  • We hypothesize that modulation of the extent and dynamics of the identified 'breathing motion' might be one of the factors responsible for functional differences in the distinct parvulin subfamilies. (jyu.fi)
  • As rates of Type 2 diabetes soar, tempers are flaring in the diabetes blogosphere, where many people with Type 1 diabetes are lobbying for a new, distinct name for their condition in hopes of clearing up misconceptions and securing more resources to put toward a cure. (chicagotribune.com)
  • While all people with diabetes are characterized by elevated blood sugar, Type 1 and Type 2 are essentially two distinct diseases. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is synthesized in mammalian cells as a mixture of two forms that differ in their extent of N-linked glycosylation. (elsevier.com)
  • Multivariate analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization data. (semanticscholar.org)
  • You may find it helpful to read this example quickly before you examine the detailed data type and metadata information later in the chapter. (oracle.com)
  • Type 1, by contrast, used to be called 'juvenile diabetes' because it is often present from childhood. (chicagotribune.com)
  • We then review the available evidence on the types of vocalizations in human vocal repertoire and present the results of two perceptual experiments that contrast the classification of non-linguistic sounds in terms of emotion and in terms of acoustic categories. (springer.com)
  • In addition to the above terms, it is convenient to define dynamic scope to mean indefinite scope and dynamic extent . (cmu.edu)
  • Therefore entities with dynamic extent obey a stack-like discipline, paralleling the nested executions of their establishing constructs. (cmu.edu)
  • Now a factor underlying how much these trouble making spirit persons can bring is, in large measure, how much and to what extent a community's members are in some form of partnership, league, association, or even agency with such spirit people. (angelfire.com)
  • However, I hope to show in what follows, that the type-identity theory provides solutions to the problems that both of these theories face using the causal exclusion argument. (brightkite.com)
  • It also gives us the tools to recreate the processes in the laboratory, to more precisely engineer cells that are lost or damaged in severe diseases, such as type 1 diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases, for future cell replacement therapies. (idw-online.de)
  • Our discovery breaks new ground because it explains how multipotent progenitor cells mature into different cell types during organ formation", Semb says. (idw-online.de)
  • We show that the extent of glycosylation of individual t-PA molecules is dependent on the state of folding of the polypeptide chain, since the probability of addition of an oligosaccharide side chain at Asn-184 is decreased under conditions that promote the formation of enzymically active molecules. (elsevier.com)
  • This breakthrough published in the journal 'Nature' will facilitate the manufacturing of pancreatic islet cells from stem cells and might help combating type 1 diabetes. (idw-online.de)
  • In a cross-linguistic naming task (Experiment 1), verbal categorization of 132 authentic (non-acted) human vocalizations by English-, Swedish- and Russian-speaking participants revealed the same major acoustic types: laugh, cry, scream, moan, and possibly roar and sigh. (springer.com)
  • However, participants preferred to name the call type before naming the emotion. (springer.com)