Thrombospondins: A family of related, adhesive glycoproteins which are synthesized, secreted, and incorporated into the extracellular matrix of a variety of cells, including alpha granules of platelets following thrombin activation and endothelial cells. They interact with a number of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS and anticoagulant factors. Five distinct forms have been identified, thrombospondin 1, -2, -3, -4, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). They are involved in cell adhesion, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE growth, and tissue repair.Thrombospondin 1: An extracellular matrix glycoprotein from platelets and a variety of normal and transformed cells of both mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Thrombospondin-1 is believed to play a role in cell migration and proliferation, during embryogenesis and wound repair. Also, it has been studied for its use as a potential regulator of tumor growth and metastasis.ADAM Proteins: A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Procollagen N-Endopeptidase: An extracellular endopeptidase which excises a block of peptides at the amino terminal, nonhelical region of the procollagen molecule with the formation of collagen. Absence or deficiency of the enzyme causes accumulation of procollagen which results in the inherited connective tissue disorder--dermatosparaxis. EC Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Receptors, Cytoadhesin: A group of INTEGRINS that includes the platelet outer membrane glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX) and the vitronectin receptor (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN). They play a major role in cell adhesion and serve as receptors for fibronectin, von Willebrand factor, and vitronectin.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Disintegrins: A family of polypeptides purified from snake venoms, which contain the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence. The RGD tripeptide binds to integrin receptors and thus competitively inhibits normal integrin-ligand interactions. Disintegrins thus block adhesive functions and act as platelet aggregation inhibitors.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Sulfoglycosphingolipids: GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS with a sulfate group esterified to one of the sugar groups.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Osteonectin: Non-collagenous, calcium-binding glycoprotein of developing bone. It links collagen to mineral in the bone matrix. In the synonym SPARC glycoprotein, the acronym stands for Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Properdin: A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Blood Platelet Disorders: Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Matrilin Proteins: PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.Calreticulin: A multifunctional protein that is found primarily within membrane-bound organelles. In the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM it binds to specific N-linked oligosaccharides found on newly-synthesized proteins and functions as a MOLECULAR CHAPERONE that may play a role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins. In addition calreticulin is a major storage form for CALCIUM and functions as a calcium-signaling molecule that can regulate intracellular calcium HOMEOSTASIS.Factor XIII: A fibrin-stabilizing plasma enzyme (TRANSGLUTAMINASES) that is activated by THROMBIN and CALCIUM to form FACTOR XIIIA. It is important for stabilizing the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) which culminates the coagulation cascade.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Fibrinolysin: A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.FucoseAfibrinogenemia: A deficiency or absence of FIBRINOGEN in the blood.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid: A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Complement C6: A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Metalloproteases: Proteases which use a metal, normally ZINC, in the catalytic mechanism. This group of enzymes is inactivated by metal CHELATORS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Thermolysin: A thermostable extracellular metalloendopeptidase containing four calcium ions. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) A BRAIN-specific hyalectin that may play a role in terminally differentiating NEURONS. It is found highly overexpressed in primary BRAIN TUMORS and in experimental models of GLIOMA.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Versicans: HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of a variety of tissues and organs. Several versican isoforms exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the versican MESSENGER RNA.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic: An acquired, congenital, or familial disorder caused by PLATELET AGGREGATION with THROMBOSIS in terminal arterioles and capillaries. Clinical features include THROMBOCYTOPENIA; HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA; AZOTEMIA; FEVER; and thrombotic microangiopathy. The classical form also includes neurological symptoms and end-organ damage, such as RENAL FAILURE.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hemorrhagic Disorders: Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).Corneal Neovascularization: New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Fibrinopeptide B: Two small peptide chains removed from the N-terminal segment of the beta chains of fibrinogen by the action of thrombin. Each peptide chain contains 20 amino acid residues. The removal of fibrinopeptides B is not required for coagulation.Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)Cathepsin G: A serine protease found in the azurophil granules of NEUTROPHILS. It has an enzyme specificity similar to that of chymotrypsin C.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Syndecans: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins that contain a short cytoplasmic domain, a single-span transmembrane domain, and an extracellular domain with heparin sulfate and CHONDROITIN SULFATE chains. Syndecans interact with a variety of heparin-binding INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS and may play a role in modulating cellular signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis.CCN Intercellular Signaling Proteins: A family of secreted proteins found associated with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and cell surface receptors. They are believed to play a role in modulating the effects of a variety of GROWTH FACTORS and PROTEASES at the cell membrane extracellular matrix. The CCN protein family is named after three protypical members; CYSTEINE-RICH PROTEIN 61; CONNECTIVE TISSUE GROWTH FACTOR; and NEPHROBLASTOMA OVEREXPRESSED PROTEIN.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Vitronectin: A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Nephrosis: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY without inflammatory or neoplastic components. Nephrosis may be a primary disorder or secondary complication of other diseases. It is characterized by the NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA and HYPOALBUMINEMIA with accompanying EDEMA.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Fucosyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC; EC; EC; EC Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Biotinylation: Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.Plasminogen: Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).PolyvinylsMatrix Metalloproteinase 13: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Angiogenic Proteins: Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Glomerular Mesangium: The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Erythrocytes, Abnormal: Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Pancreatic Elastase: A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADAMTS6 gene. This gene ... Expression of this gene may be regulated by the cytokine TNF-alpha. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000049192 - Ensembl, May ... and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and ... gene expression modulators by large-scale gain and loss of function studies". J. Endocrinol. 198 (3): 489-97. doi:10.1677/JOE- ...
Altered expression and activity levels of MMPs have been strongly implicated in the progression and metastasis of many forms of ... MMP2 has been shown to interact with: CCL7, THBS2, TIMP2, TIMP4, and Thrombospondin 1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Furthermore, expression of TGF-β is also correlated with immune tolerance and may help shield cancer cells from immune ... Furthermore, increased expression and activity of MMP-2 has been tied to increased vascularization of lung carcinoma metastases ...
Kuehbacher, A., Urbich C., Zeiher A.M., and Dimmeler S.. "Role of Dicer and Drosha for Endothelial MicroRNA Expression and ... Thus, miR-27b can be used to promote angiogenesis in patients with ischemic heart disease by suppressing Thrombospondin-1. ... Overexpression of miR-27b decreased the protein expression of Semaphorin 6A which favored new blood vessel sprouting in the ... MicroRNAs (miR) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. MiR cluster 23/27/24 ...
1999). "Biochemical characterization and expression analysis of neural thrombospondin-1-like proteins NELL1 and NELL2". Biochem ... fold prediction for laminin G-like and amino-terminal thrombospondin-like modules based on homology to pentraxins". J. Mol. ... 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039. Zhang Z, Henzel WJ (2005). "Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of ... 231 (1-2): 121-6. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(99)00093-1. PMID 10231576. Kuroda S, Oyasu M, Kawakami M, et al. ( ...
1999). "Biochemical characterization and expression analysis of neural thrombospondin-1-like proteins NELL1 and NELL2". Biochem ... 1995). "[IMAGE: molecular integration of the analysis of the human genome and its expression]". C. R. Acad. Sci. III, Sci. Vie ... 22 (1): 7-18. doi:10.1359/jbmr.061012. PMID 17042739. Jin Z, Mori Y, Yang J, et al. (2007). "Hypermethylation of the nel-like 1 ... 36 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039. Tsutsumi S, Kamata N, Vokes TJ, et al. (2004). "The novel gene encoding a ...
HHV-8 LAT expression similarly produces miRNAs which suppress production of Thrombospondin-1 protein involved in apoptosis and ... LAT-positive virus strains, that expression of LAT in neurons represses the expression of several lytic gene products, ... but reducing the expression of Thrombospondin-1 protein (THBS-1). In turn, down-regulation of THBS-1 reduces production of TGF- ... LAT expression regulates the activity of the Herpes genome during latent infection. LAT expression results in the suppression ...
Meiniel A, Meiniel R, Gonçalves-Mendes N, Creveaux I, Didier R, Dastugue B (2004). "The thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR) and ... Gonçalves-Mendes N, Blanchon L, Meiniel A, Dastugue B, Sapin V (May 2004). "Placental expression of SCO-spondin during mouse ... a new member of the thrombospondin family secreted by the subcommissural organ is a candidate in the modulation of neuronal ... a gene of the thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR) superfamily expressed in the brain". Gene. 312: 263-70. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119 ...
ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 17 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADAMTS17 gene. This ... Cal S, Obaya AJ, Llamazares M, Garabaya C, Quesada V, López-Otín C (January 2002). "Cloning, expression analysis, and ... and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and ... ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 17". Shah MH, Bhat V, Shetty JS, Kumar A (2014). "Whole exome ...
TGF-β on the one hand induces fascin expression, but on the other hand, restricts activity of transcription factor NF-κB. This ... Roh YH, Kim YH, Choi HJ, Lee KE, Roh MS (March 2009). "Fascin overexpression correlates with positive thrombospondin-1 and ... Abnormal fascin expression or function has been implicated in breast cancer, colon cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, ... In cancer, instead, TGF-β does not restrict NF-κB activity, and both can increase fascin expression, disrupting tissue ...
Expression of several stem cell markers, including c-Myc, is elevated in CD47-null endothelial cells and a human T cell line ... Chung J, Wang XQ, Lindberg FP, Frazier WA (1999). "Thrombospondin-1 acts via IAP/CD47 to synergize with collagen in alpha2beta1 ... Expression in equine cutaneous tumors has been reported as well. CD47 is a 50 kDa membrane receptor that has extracellular N- ... Starr JS, Jiang L, Li Z, Qiu Y, Menke DM, Tun HW (June 2013). "CD47 and Osteopontin Expression in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma ...
In this kind of setting the expression of ECM genes has the potential to more closely resemble that of the native expression ... fibronectin and thrombospondin-1 in the corneal mesenchyme. The effect was more pronounced in the βB-1 Crystallin promoter- ... Given the prominence of perlecan expression in atherosclerosis there is potential for therapy based upon perlecan expression ... on perlecan expression by VSMCs, expression did not change when compared to control cells. This was in contrast to a 2-10-fold ...
"Thrombospondin-2 is essential for myocardial matrix integrity: increased expression identifies failure-prone cardiac ... Crombie R, Silverstein R (Feb 1998). "Lysosomal integral membrane protein II binds thrombospondin-1. Structure-function ... "Cluster analysis of an extensive human breast cancer cell line protein expression map database". Proteomics. 2 (2): 212-23. doi ... "Scavenger receptor BI and BII expression levels modulate hepatitis C virus infectivity". Journal of Virology. 81 (7): 3162-9. ...
BAI1 contains at least one 'functional' p53-binding site within an intron, and its expression has been shown to be induced by ... containing thrombospondin type 1 repeats inhibits experimental angiogenesis". Oncogene. 15 (18): 2145-50. doi:10.1038/sj.onc. ... "Release of an inhibitor of angiogenesis upon induction of wild type p53 expression in glioblastoma cells". Nature Genetics. 8 ( ... 1 (12): 947-55. doi:10.1074/mcp.M200066-MCP200. PMID 12543931. Koh JT, Kook H, Kee HJ, Seo YW, Jeong BC, Lee JH, Kim MY, Yoon ...
SCO-spondin and F-spondin share a similar pattern of expression in the floor plate, flexural organ and subcommissural organ and ... Meiniel A, Meiniel R, Gonçalves-Mendes N, Creveaux I, Didier R, Dastugue B (2003). "The thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR) and ... The motifs coagulation factor 5/8 type C or discoidin and thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR) present in SCO-spondin consensus ... Gonçalves-Mendes N, Blanchon L, Meiniel A, Dastugue B, Sapin V (May 2004). "Placental expression of SCO-spondin during mouse ...
... it can precisely manipulate endogenous gene expression. Using this method, Wei et al., enhanced the expression of endogenous ... Thrombospondin-1 is a key environmental signal that inhibits stem cell self-renewal via CD47. Thus, CD47 antagonists enable ... Conversion by forced expression of both eight or of the three transcription factors Sox10, Olig2 and Zfp536, may provide such ... However, brief expression of a single transcription factor, the ELT-7 GATA factor, can convert the identity of fully ...
If both are deficient in XY mice, there is less expression of SRY and a reduction in the amount of SOX9. Moreover, defects in ... The protein has two cysteine-rich, furin-like domains and one thrombospondin type 1 domain. RSPO1 is required for the early ... 2004). "R-spondin, a novel gene with thrombospondin type 1 domain, was expressed in the dorsal neural tube and affected in Wnts ... R-spondin-1 is a secreted protein that in humans is encoded by the Rspo1 gene, found on chromosome 1. In humans, it interacts ...
The expression of this gene may be associated with various inflammatory processes as well as development of cancer cachexia. ... Tang BL, Hong W (1999). "ADAMTS: a novel family of proteases with an ADAM protease domain and thrombospondin 1 repeats". FEBS ... 2000). "Differential gene expression by endothelial cells in distinct angiogenic states". Eur. J. Biochem. 267 (9): 2820-30. ... A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADAMTS1 gene. ...
2006). "Expression of ADAMTS-8, a secreted protease with antiangiogenic properties, is downregulated in brain tumours". Br. J. ... A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 8 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADAMTS8 gene. ... "Entrez Gene: ADAMTS8 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 8". Wågsäter D, Björk H, Zhu C, et al. (2008). " ... This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. ...
The expression of this gene can be induced by a number of signalling molecules, principally tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and ... TSG-6 also interacts with a number of matrix associated molecules such as aggrecan, versican, thrombospondin (1&2), pentraxin-3 ... Mindrescu C, Le J, Wisniewski HG, Vilcek J (May 2005). "Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by TSG-6 protein in ... Chromosomal localization, frequency analysis, modeling, and expression". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (18): 15354- ...
Ectopic expression of WISP-2 also inhibits the motility and invasiveness of breast carcinoma cells. WISP-2 also inhibits ... thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR), and a cysteine knot motif within the C-terminal (CT) domain. However, WISP-2 is unique ... "CCN5/WISP-2 expression in breast adenocarcinoma is associated with less frequent progression of the disease and suppresses the ... 162 (1): 219-31. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63813-8. PMC 1851113 . PMID 12507905. Mason HR, Lake AC, Wubben JE, Nowak RA, ...
The damage of DNA due to exposure of UV rays will lead to expression of p53, thereby leading to eventual arrest of the cell ... Additionally, UV radiation would cause the down-regulation of an angiogenesis inhibitor, thrombospondin-1, and the up- ... Another transcription factor NF-κB, which is also activated by UV light, also increases the expression of MMP-9. The up- ... UV radiation decreases the expression of both retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors in human skin, thereby resulting ...
Expression of PEDF in the human retina is found at 7.4 weeks of gestation, suggesting it may play a role in retinal neuron ... Thrombospondin, an antiangiogenic protein, is upregulated by PEDF. PEDF stimulates several other well known signaling cascades ... PEDF expression is upregulated by plasminogen kringle domains 1-4 (also known as angiostatin) and the kringle 5 (K5) domain. ... VEGF expression by cancer cells is inhibited by PEDF. PEDF also displays neurotrophic functions. Retinoblastoma cells ...
Carron JA, Bowler WB, Wagstaff SC, Gallagher JA (Sep 1999). "Expression of members of the thrombospondin family by human ... Hatakeyama H, Nishizawa M, Nakagawa A, Nakano S, Kigoshi T, Miyamori I, Uchida K (Jul 2002). "Thrombospondin expression in ... "Entrez Gene: THBS2 thrombospondin 2". Bein K, Simons M (Oct 2000). "Thrombospondin type 1 repeats interact with matrix ... Adolph KW (May 1999). "Relative abundance of thrombospondin 2 and thrombospondin 3 mRNAs in human tissues". Biochemical and ...
However, CD36 is generally considered to be the dominant inhibitory signaling receptor for TSP1, and EC expression of CD36 is ... Thrombospondin 1, abbreviated as THBS1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the THBS1 gene. Thrombospondin 1 is a subunit ... The thrombospondin-1 protein is a member of the thrombospondin family. It is a multi-domain matrix glycoprotein that has been ... "Entrez Gene: THBS1 thrombospondin 1". Blake SM, Strasser V, Andrade N, Duit S, Hofbauer R, Schneider WJ, Nimpf J (Nov 2008). " ...
2007). "Increased cortical expression of two synaptogenic thrombospondins in human brain evolution". Cereb. Cortex. 17 (10): ... "Entrez Gene: THBS4 thrombospondin 4". Arber S, Caroni P (1996). "Thrombospondin-4, an extracellular matrix protein expressed in ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the thrombospondin protein family. Thrombospondin family members are adhesive ... 1993). "Identification and characterization of thrombospondin-4, a new member of the thrombospondin gene family". J. Cell Biol ...
"Thrombospondins 1 and 2 are necessary for synaptic plasticity and functional recovery after stroke". Department of Neurosurgery ... "Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator alters adhesion molecule expression in the ischemic rat brain". Department of ... "Molecular pathology of cerebral ischemia: delayed gene expression and strategies for neuroprotection". Department of Neurology ... Sel TH1 CD4+ dengan sekresi sitokina pro-radang termasuk IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ dan TNF-α dapat memperburuk efek yang ditimbulkan ...
Whereas expression of the α IIb chain is restricted to megakaryocytes, the β 3 subunit is expressed more widely as a component ... It should be pointed out that the GPIb/IX complex may also bind to other ligands, including P-selectin, thrombospondin-1, high- ... These mutations do not affect surface expression of platelet α IIb β 3 complexes, but mutant receptors are unresponsive to ... Other thrombasthenic patients with significant levels of nonfunctional α IIb β 3 surface expression have mutations that involve ...
thrombospondins;. MAPKs,. mitogen-activated protein kinases;. GFAP,. glial fibrillary acidic protein;. RB2,. reactive blue 2;. ... Purinergic signaling induces thrombospondin-1 expression in astrocytes Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... First, RB2 is an antagonist of rat P2Y4 receptors, but not P2Y2 receptors (37), and we found that RB2 reduced the expression ... ATP-induced expression of TSP-1 is mediated by protein kinase signaling. Astrocytes were treated with UO126 (10 μM), wortmannin ...
Interleukin 10 expression is correlated with thrombospondin expression and decreased vascular involvement in colon cancer. Int ... TSP-2 gene expression in 28% of tumors, and gene expression of both markers in 34% of tumors. Both thrombospondin genes were ... strong thrombospondin expression to weak VEGF expression has also been found (wherein extracellular intratumoral or peritumoral ... Expression of Thrombospondin-1 in Resected Colorectal Liver Metastases Predicts Poor Prognosis. Christopher D. Sutton, Kenneth ...
Novel Proangiogenic Effect of Factor XIII Associated With Suppression of Thrombospondin 1 Expression. Rima Dardik, Arieh ... Novel Proangiogenic Effect of Factor XIII Associated With Suppression of Thrombospondin 1 Expression ... Novel Proangiogenic Effect of Factor XIII Associated With Suppression of Thrombospondin 1 Expression ... Novel Proangiogenic Effect of Factor XIII Associated With Suppression of Thrombospondin 1 Expression ...
... induced expression of TSP-1 in VSMCs. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of PPARδ and treatment with GSK0660, a selective ... Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is implicated in vascular diseases associated with oxidative stress, such as abdominal aortic ... Ligand-Activated Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor δ Attenuates Vascular Oxidative Stress by Inhibiting Thrombospondin ... reversed the effect of GW501516 on H2O2-induced expression of TSP-1, suggesting that PPARδ is associated with GW501516 activity ...
Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) plays a fundamental role in cancer progression by regulating cell stromal cross-talk in the tumor ... Thrombospondin-1 Silencing Down-Regulates Integrin Expression Levels in Human Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Cells with BRAFV600E: ... "Thrombospondin-1 Silencing Down-Regulates Integrin Expression Levels in Human Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Cells with BRAFV600E: ... and β1 protein expression levels in vivo in the ATC microenvironment, which is enriched in stromal and inflammatory cells. ...
We hypothesize that inflammatory cytokines reduce the expression of immunoregulatory thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) in glandular ... Sharmila Masli, Bruce Turpie; Pro-inflammatory cytokines in autoimmune Sjögrens syndrome alter thrombospondin-1 expression in ... Pro-inflammatory cytokines in autoimmune Sjögrens syndrome alter thrombospondin-1 expression in epithelial cells from lacrimal ... Pro-inflammatory cytokines in autoimmune Sjögrens syndrome alter thrombospondin-1 expression in epithelial cells from lacrimal ...
VEGF expression, p53 expression as well as with the expression of the extracellular matrix components was studied to explore ... This expression was also positively correlated with microvessel density, VEGF expression and extracellular matrix components ... The immunohistochemical expression of TSP-1 in tumour cells and in the tumour stroma was studied in 148 formalin-fixed paraffin ... showed absence of TSP expression. A higher TSP-1 immunoreactivity in well and moderately differentiated tumours compared to ...
Expression Overview. GXDs primary emphasis is on endogenous gene expression during development. Click on grid cells to view ... Gray triangles = other expression annotations only. (e.g. absence of expression or data from mutants). ... Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB), Gene Ontology (GO), MouseCyc ... ADAMTS4, ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 4. Orthology source: HomoloGene, HGNC ...
ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 9), Authors: Sawako Yoshina, Shohei Mitani. Published in: Atlas Genet ... Expression in : [Datasets] [Normal Tissue Atlas] [carcinoma Classsification] [NCI60]. Genevestigator. Expression in : [tissues] ... Gene Expression. ADAMTS9 [ NCBI-GEO ] ADAMTS9 [ EBI - ARRAY_EXPRESS ] ADAMTS9 [ SEEK ] ADAMTS9 [ MEM ] ... Q9P2N4 [function] [subcellular_location] [family_and_domains] [pathology_and_biotech] [ptm_processing] [expression] [ ...
Thrombospondin-1, glycoprotein. Decreases apoptosis of endothelial cells,. decreases expression of inflammatory molecules. ... decreases expression of inflammatory molecules like TNF. and iNOS.. Angiostatin, cleaved product of plasminogen containing the ... blocks the binding of VEGF to KDR/Flk-1, and decreases spontaneous release of VEGF from endothelial cell culture,. structurally ... blocks the binding of VEGF to KDR/Flk-1,. structurally supports role of the Bruchs membrane. ...
... families and anti-angiogenic factor thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and its receptor CD36 were quantified and localized at the porcine ... Expression of angiogenic basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet derived growth factor, thrombospondin-1 and their receptors ... Kawano Y, Nakamura S, Nasu K, Fukuda J, Hisashi Narahara H, Miyakawa I: Expression and regulation of thrombospondin-1 by human ... mRNA expression of PDGF-bb and its receptors at the porcine maternal-fetal interface. PDGF-bb (A, D), PDGFRα (B, E), and PDGFRβ ...
Expression analysis of recombinant lysyl oxidase (LOX) in myofibroblastlike cells. Connect. Tissue Res. 43, 613-619 (2002).. ... thrombospondin-3, thrombospondin-5, and type IX collagen. Am. J. Pathol. 172, 1664-1674 (2008).. ... Structure of a thrombospondin C-terminal fragment reveals a novel calcium core in the type 3 repeats. EMBO J. 23, 1223-1233 ( ... The lack of thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) dictates the course of wound healing in double-TSP1/TSP2-null mice. Am. J. Pathol. 161, 831 ...
Expression of thrombospondins by endothelial cells. Injury is correlated with TSP-1. Am J Pathol. 1995;147:1068-1080. ... Immunolocalization of thrombospondin-1 in human atherosclerotic and restenotic arteries. Am Heart J. 1998;135(2 Pt 1):357-364. ... The role of thrombospondin-1 in tumor progression and angiogenesis. Bioessays. 1996;18:71-76. doi: 10.1002/bies.950180113. ... Thrombospondin-1 deficiency accelerates atherosclerotic plaque maturation in ApoE-/- mice. Circ Res. 2008;103:1181-1189. doi: ...
Thrombospondin-1: multiple paths to inflammation. Mediat Inflamm. 2011;2011:10. ... Altered expression of long noncoding RNAs in blood after ischemic stroke and proximity to putative stroke risk loci. Stroke. ... Gene expression was compared between HDAC9 risk allele-positive and risk allele-negative LVAS patients and controls. Functional ... SNP Polymorphism Gene expression Large vessel stroke Ischemic stroke Atherosclerosis Electronic supplementary material. The ...
Silencing of Thrombospondin-1 Is Critical for Myc-Induced Metastatic Phenotypes in Medulloblastoma. Limei Zhou, Daniel Picard, ... Table 1.. Table 1. Myc and Tsp-1 expression in primary medulloblastoma ...
TSP1 expression by the epidermal keratinocytes is potently inhibited by UVB. It inhibits cutaneous angiogenesis and UVB-induced ... Chemopreventive apigenin controls UVB-induced cutaneous proliferation and angiogenesis through HuR and thrombospondin-1.. [Xin ... We show that apigenin acts, at least in part, via endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor, thrombospondin-1 (TSP1). ... Cox-2 and HIF-1α are important mediators of angiogenesis. Both apigenin and TSP1 peptide mimetic attenuated their induction by ...
thrombospondin 1 MGI:98737 .yui-skin-sam .yui-dt th{ background:url( ... Filter expression by: Anatomical System Assay Type Detected? Theiler Stage Wild type? Filtered by: No filters selected. 0 ... Expression images in MGI are copyrighted; click on an image for details about their use. ... Number of expression results annotated as. present in structure and/or substructures ...
Kasper H. U., Ebert M., Malfertheiner P., Poessner A., Kirkpatricl C. J., Wolf H. K. Expression of thrombospondin-1 in ... Clezardin P., Frappart L., Clerget M., Pechoux C., Delmas P. D. Expression of thrombospondin (TSP1) and its receptors (CD36 and ... The patterns of expression vary in each organ, and the relationship between clinical data and the expression of CD36 was ... Correlation among the Expression Levels of Angiogenesis-related Factors.. VEGF expression showed a significant correlation with ...
... trigger display or apoptotic signals like phosphatidylserine or thrombospondin (2) EXTRINSIC, RECEPTOR-initiated pathway: TNF ... 1) 2/3 diameter of normal RBC (2) more densely hemoglobinized at periphery (3) lack a zone of central pallor (4) deeper red w/ ... 1) absence of SRY on Y chromosome (2) absence of MIF from sertoli cells, maintain paramesophric duct (3) absence of DHT from ... 1. promotion of m3 cholinergics on detrusor (bethanechol) 2. block alpha-1 on trigone and sphincter (i.e. tamulosin, prazosin) ...
The induction of yes-associated protein expression after arterial injury is crucial for smooth muscle phenotypic modulation and ... Thrombospondins: Purification of human platelet thrombospondin-1. Methods Cell Biol. 143, 347-369 (2018).. ... Role of thrombospondin-1 in mechanotransduction and development of thoracic aortic aneurysm in mouse and humans. Circ. Res. 123 ... Thrombospondin-1 deficiency accelerates atherosclerotic plaque maturation in ApoE-/- mice. Circ. Res. 103, 1181-1189 (2008).. ...
T lymphocyte expression of thrombospondin-1 and adhesion to extracellular matrix components. Eur J Immunol 2002; 32:1069-79. ... Ras-induced interleukin-8 expression plays a critical role in tumor growth and angiogenesis. Cancer Cell 2004; 6:447-58. * ... Endogenous thrombospondin-1 is a cell-surface ligand for regulation of integrin-dependent T-lymphocyte adhesion. Blood 2006; ... Thrombospondin 1 promotes tumor macrophage recruitment and enhances tumor cell cytotoxicity of differentiated U937 cells. ...
Gene expression in intrahepatic tumors through DNA recombination by a replication-activated adenovirus vector *Xiao W Huang ... Rights & permissionsfor article Tumor suppressor U19/EAF2 regulates thrombospondin-1 expression via p53 . Opens in a new window ... Co-expression of CD147 (EMMPRIN), CD44v3-10, MDR1 and monocarboxylate transporters is associated with prostate cancer drug ... Tumor suppressor U19/EAF2 regulates thrombospondin-1 expression via p53 *F Su ...
MiR-106b expression determines the proliferation paradox of TGF-β in breast cancer cells *C Gong ... Rights & permissionsfor article Tumor suppressor U19/EAF2 regulates thrombospondin-1 expression via p53 . Opens in a new window ... A modified compression model of spinal cord injury in rats: functional assessment and the expression of nitric oxide synthases ... Rights & permissionsfor article MiR-106b expression determines the proliferation paradox of TGF-β in breast cancer cells . ...
Human expression patterns: qualitative and quantitative analysis of thrombospondin-1 under physiological and pathological ... Thrombospondin-1 inhibits ADAMTS13 activity in sickle cell disease.. Novelli EM, Kato GJ, Hildesheim ME, Barge S, Meyer MP, ... Matricellular protein thrombospondin-1 in pulmonary hypertension: multiple pathways to disease.. Rogers NM, Ghimire K, Calzada ... Thrombospondin-1 signaling through CD47 inhibits self-renewal by regulating c-Myc and other stem cell transcription factors. ...
  • The clinical manifestations of platelet-type bleeding typically involve the skin or mucous membranes and include petechiae, ecchymosis, epistaxis, menorrhagia, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage ( Box 30-1 ). (
  • Platelets are small (1 to 4 µm in diameter) and were once thought to be fragments of other mature blood cells, dismissed as "blood dust. (
  • Table 30-1 lists the members of these families of receptors that are found on platelets, as well as several receptors that do not belong to any of these families. (
  • Astrocytes express both P2Y and P2X receptors ( 13 - 18 ), and these receptors are coupled to protein kinase cascades, including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and protein kinase B/Akt ( 14 , 15 , 19 , 20 ), that mediate gene expression ( 21 , 22 ). (
  • In smooth muscle and mesangial cells, TSP-1 gene expression is rapidly induced by serum and growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2 ( 23 - 27 ), but little is known about TSP-1 regulation in the brain. (
  • Research has demonstrated that both oncogene activation and loss of tumour-suppressor gene expression are directly or indirectly related with a decrease in TSP expression. (
  • GXD's primary emphasis is on endogenous gene expression during development. (
  • Complete loss or downregulation of ADAMTS9 gene expression was found in 15 out of 16 esophageal carcinoma cell lines. (
  • In this pilot study, we evaluated whether the HDAC9 polymorphism rs2107595 is associated with differences in leukocyte gene expression in patients with LVAS. (
  • Gene expression was compared between HDAC9 risk allele-positive and risk allele-negative LVAS patients and controls. (
  • HDAC9, TWIST1 and FERD3L gene expression in asymptomatic stable and unstable carotid plaques. (
  • One of the major gene expression programs triggered by hypoxia is mediated through hypoxia-responsive transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). (
  • Here, we report the identification and cloning of a novel HIF-1-responsive gene, designated RTP801 . (
  • Exploring the host desmoplastic response to pancreatic carcinoma: gene expression of stromal and neoplastic cells at the site of primary invasion. (
  • The dramatic opportunities presented by comprehensive gene profiling technologies are curbed by the problem of segregating these large amounts of gene expression data into meaningful categories for study. (
  • This is particularly evident in infiltrating carcinomas of the pancreas, in which global gene expression data primarily mirrors the prominent desmoplastic response to the infiltrating neoplasm. (
  • In an effort to better characterize the gene expression of invasive pancreatic cancers and their associated desmoplastic response, we performed in situ hybridization on pancreatic cancer tissues to characterize the expression of 12 genes identified by serial analysis of gene expression as highly expressed in invasive pancreatic cancer tissues but not in pancreatic cancer cell lines. (
  • In situ hybridization demonstrated that eight genes were expressed within the stromal and/or angioendothelial cells of the desmoplastic response to the invasive tumor, and four of these genes were specifically expressed by the stromal cells immediately adjacent to the invasive neoplastic epithelium, suggesting regional differences in gene expression within the host desmoplastic response. (
  • In contrast, four genes were specifically expressed by the invasive neoplastic epithelium, indicating important differences between in vivo and in vitro gene expression of human epithelial neoplasms. (
  • We have identified a highly organized structure of gene expression within the host stromal response to invasive pancreatic cancer that may reflect tumor-host communication and serve as a target for therapeutic intervention. (
  • Architectural compartments of gene expression in invasive pancreatic cancer tissues as determined by in situ hybridization. (
  • panstromal, gene expression detected within all stromal cells of the invasive tumor. (
  • ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADAMTS6 gene. (
  • This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. (
  • Expression of this gene may be regulated by the cytokine TNF-alpha. (
  • Thrombospondin-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the THBS4 gene. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the thrombospondin protein family. (
  • Clinical Significance of PRKCI Gene Expression in Cancerous Tissue in Patients With Gastric Cancer. (
  • Polymorphism in TSP-1-encoding gene in humans is associated with reduced TSP-1 expression in ocular surface cells and the development of chronic ocular surface inflammation. (
  • The release of specific metabolites and temporal gene expression profiles of marrow-derived osteoprogenitors were analyzed at definite time points, relevant to in vitro culture as well as in vivo differentiation. (
  • Bio-Rad collaborated with Biogazelle, leaders in real-time PCR research, to design and experimentally validate PCR primers for gene expression assays across the human and mouse transcriptomes. (
  • The selected pathways were used to design panels of real-time PCR primers tailored for the top-ranked genes for differential gene expression analysis. (
  • Each gene target within a pathway was assigned a score based on the frequency of differential expression and its research significance. (
  • Reference genes are used in relative gene expression analysis to normalize for variation in the amount of input messenger RNA (mRNA) among samples. (
  • Bornstein P, Alfi D, Devarayalu S, Framson P, Li P. Characterization of the mouse thrombospondin gene and evaluation of the role of the first intron in human gene expression. (
  • Association between FBP1 and hypoxia-related gene expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. (
  • The apoptosis repressor with a CARD domain (ARC) gene is a direct hypoxia-inducible factor 1 target gene and promotes survival and proliferation of VHL-deficient renal cancer cells. (
  • A novel distal upstream hypoxia response element regulating oxygen-dependent erythropoietin gene expression. (
  • The expression of thrombospondin-1 ( TSP-1 ), an antiangiogenesis gene, showed no significant change [Figure . (
  • We utilized microarray technology to study the interaction between TP53 mutational status and hypoxia on angiogenic gene expression. (
  • Affymetrix U133A arrays were analyzed for angiogenic gene expression in 19 ovarian cancer cell lines stratified both by TP53 mutation status and A2780 wild-type (wt) TP53 vs. mutated (m) TP53 cell lines after treatment under hypoxic conditions or with ionizing radiation. (
  • Studied gene expression of genetic variants of ADAMTS7 in atherosclerotic occlusive peripheral arterial disease (PAD). (
  • 2008 ). Recent gene expression profiling of different cell types in the brain further showed that the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for these matricellular proteins were mostly enriched in glia and were particularly expressed by developing astrocytes (Table 1 , (Cahoy et al. (
  • Cellular origin of matricellular protein gene expression in the developing and adult rodent brain. (
  • ADAMTS17 (ADAM Metallopeptidase With Thrombospondin Type 1 Motif 17) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • ADAMTS18 (ADAM Metallopeptidase With Thrombospondin Type 1 Motif 18) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • Effects of IH and SH on the gene expression profile in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) have not been compared. (
  • Each contributing to the knowledge of not only the dynamic relationships between the different components of connective tissues which regulate cell signalling and gene expression in normal conditions, but also the relevant role played by the ECM components in the onset of a considerable number of diseases. (
  • No Embryo expression data was found for this gene. (
  • Techniques applied in other malignancies, such as gene expression and proteomic profiling, may also ultimately allow for clinical stratification. (
  • By using a model system for cell transformation mediated by the cooperation of the activated H- ras oncogene and the inactivated p53 tumor suppressor gene, rCop-1 was identified by mRNA differential display as a gene whose expression became lost after cell transformation. (
  • Unlike the other members of the CCN gene family, rCop-1 is not an immediate-early gene, it lacks the conserved C-terminal domain which was shown to confer both growth-stimulating and heparin-binding activities, and its expression is lost in cells transformed by a variety of mechanisms. (
  • Ectopic expression of rCop-1 by retroviral gene transfers led to cell death in a transformation-specific manner. (
  • In this report we describe the identification and give a functional characterization of rCop-1 , a gene whose expression is abolished by cell transformation. (
  • This rapid uptake has resulted primarily from the ease of use of siRNAs and the strong need for a method to reduce the expression of individual genes in mammalian cells in order to establish a link between gene identity and gene function. (
  • In many cases, scientists make predictions about gene function based on expression patterns in different samples. (
  • In another report, Chen and Barritt (3) used siRNAs to study the transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) gene. (
  • Reducing the expression of a potential therapeutic target and determining if the desired phenotype results provides confidence that an inhibitor of the same target gene should have therapeutic value. (
  • To determine the potential value of the gene as a drug target, Li et al (6) used siRNAs to reduce cyclin E expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. (
  • Reducing the expression of a single gene has implications on the expression and activities of genes that are in the same pathway(s). (
  • Using this approach, Clemitson and colleagues have identified SPON1 as a novel candidate hypertension gene from within a region of rat chromosome 1 containing a blood pressure QTL. (
  • Dissection of a blood pressure QTL on rat chromosome 1 leads to identification of SPON1 as a novel candidate gene for hypertension. (
  • B, Expression profiling revealed increased expression of SPON1 and its gene product F-spondin in SHR- compared with WKY-derived sequences. (
  • The SPON1 gene product is F-spondin, the prototypical member of a group of nonthrombospondin members of the thrombospondin type I repeat (TSR) superfamily of proteins. (
  • Specific focus is on understanding how key factors associated with inflammatory disorders, such as cytokines and lipid metabolites, regulate macrophage processes and gene expression during atherosclerosis and the acute-phase response. (
  • In particular, we are elucidating the pathways leading from the interaction of such factors with their receptors, through the signalling cascades, to the control of gene expression in the nucleus and the subsequent regulation of cellular processes. (
  • This was followed by postdoctoral research at the European Molecular Biology Laboratories (Heidelberg) and Istituto di Ricerche di Biologia Molecolare "P. Angeletti" (Rome) on the molecular mechanisms underlying liver-specific gene expression during inflammation. (
  • For that purpose, gene expression of 213 Bi-treated tumor cells was quantified using a real time quantitative-PCR low-density array covering 380 genes in combination with analysis of cell proliferation and the mode of cell death. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate key biological processes such as the mode of cell death, cell survival, and proliferation with regard to gene expression after incubation of HSC45-M2 gastric cancer cells with 213 Bi-d9MAb conjugates. (
  • The human CD36 gene contained transcription factor binding sites (including PPARG and PPARA) contributing to a high gene expression level (6.6 times average). (
  • One group of HIF-1 target genes involved in the adaptive response facilitates O 2 delivery to oxygen-deprived tissues. (
  • Another group of HIF-1-dependent genes acts to compensate for the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation that occurs when oxygen is lacking. (
  • While HIF-1-dependent genes participating in the adaptive response to hypoxia are widely characterized, genes mediating its proapoptotic function remain largely unknown. (
  • To ensure accurate quantitation, it is important to include one or more reference genes exhibiting constant expression levels under the experimental conditions. (
  • The two most prominent switching genes were thrombospondin 1 and arginase 1. (
  • Protein expression levels of both genes were higher in obese BMM? (
  • These data indicate that thrombospondin 1 and arginase 1 are important bacterial response genes, whose regulation is altered in macrophages from obese mice. (
  • Low oxygen tension increases mitochondrial membrane potential and enhances expression of antioxidant genes and implantation protein of mouse blastocyst cultured in vitro. (
  • Four genes continued to demonstrate significant differential expression ( p ≤ 0.05) after adjusting for multiple comparisons. (
  • Among all proinflammatory genes, only IL-8 mRNA showed significantly higher levels of expression (1.78-fold) during IH, compared with SH-4%, but both types of hypoxic exposure elicited striking three- to eightfold increases in IL-8 and IL-6 protein levels in the media. (
  • IH and SH-4% also upregulated antioxidant genes, including heme oxygenase-1 and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2), whereas classical genes regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), such as endothelin and glucose transporter GLUT1, were not induced. (
  • RT-qPCR validation on an independent set of samples confirmed the GBM-specific differential expression of several genes, including three upregulated ( CALU, CXCL9 , and TIMP1 ) and two downregulated ( GPX3 and TIMP3 ) novel genes. (
  • It has been proposed that both p53 and Ras function, whether directly or through other signaling molecules, to control expression of genes that are important for cell growth and differentiation ( 13 , 17 , 37 ). (
  • Using differential display ( 22 ), we set out to identify genes whose expression is altered by both mutant ras and p53 by comparing the mRNA expression profiles of normal rat embryo fibroblasts (REFs) and their derivatives transformed by either a constitutively inactivated or a temperature-sensitive mutant p53 in cooperation with the activated H- ras oncogene ( 11 , 27 ). (
  • Induction of other ARE-regulated detoxification genes such as NQO1 (NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1), GST (glutathione S-transferase) and HO1 (heme oxygenase 1) by genotoxic stress was also decreased in HIPK2-deficient cells. (
  • This is an abstract that was submitted for the 2016 ARVO Annual Meeting, held in Seattle, Wash., May 1-5, 2016. (
  • van den Hooff had tentatively proposed that signal molecules emanating from the ECM, such as collagens and their peptides, could "contribute to at least one aspect of ultimate malignancy of neoplastic cells" [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • 2016. Expression of Heat Shock Protein 27 in melanoma metastases is associated with overall response to bevacizumab monotherapy: Analyses of predictive markers in a clinical phase II study. (
  • and Wang, Shuxia, "Thrombospondin 1 Deficiency Ameliorates the Development of Adriamycin-Induced Proteinuric Kidney Disease" (2016). (
  • Under hypoxic conditions, oxygen-sensing machinery activates a transcription factor known as hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). (
  • Paradoxically, like the adaptive response to hypoxia, hypoxia-dependent apoptosis was shown to be HIF-1 dependent. (
  • Cells with genetically deleted HIF-1α appeared to be resistant to hypoxia-triggered apoptosis ( 6 ). (
  • Moreover, HIF-1α was demonstrated to mediate hypoxia-induced delayed neuronal death in a stroke model ( 15 ). (
  • HIF-2α-mediated induction of pulmonary thrombospondin-1 contributes to hypoxia-driven vascular remodelling and vasoconstriction. (
  • HIF-2a mediates hypoxia-induced LIF expression in human colorectal cancer cells. (
  • In pigs, 3 months after transplantation of kidney grafts, we observed a deregulation of the hypoxia inducible factor 1a-vascular endothelial growth factor-A axis induced in cholesterol-enriched diet animals concomitant with an overexpression of thrombospondin-1 and a decrease in cortical microvessel density promoting vascular remodeling. (
  • Thrombospondin (TSP-1) Expression in molecular breast cancer subtypes of African-American women. (
  • 1. Elucidation how endothelial NOS (eNOS) is regulated in the context of normal physiology and in disease using cellular and molecular approaches in signal transduction. (
  • 1 , 2 These two proteins, relatively obscure before their link to MN, have been brought to the forefront of glomerular disease with others such as APOL1, suPAR, and angiopoietin-like 4, to inform our expanding understanding of glomerular disease at the molecular level. (
  • The expression profiles of 102 cytokines were measured using an array, and comparisons of the two pathological groups performed using the 'significance analysis of microarray' (SAM) methodology. (
  • These results provide novel evidence for differential expression of cytokines in plaque rupture and erosion in STEMI. (
  • CD54 is expressed at low levels in diverse cell types, and is induced by cytokines (TNF-α, interleukin-1) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (1). (
  • 1) publication describing the use of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in mammalian cells in 2001. (
  • Furthermore, RNA interference specific for TSP-1 confirmed the role of this molecule as a negative regulator of T cell activation. (
  • Treatment of primary cultures of rat cortical astrocytes with extracellular ATP caused an increase in TSP-1 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and was inhibited by antagonists of P2 and P1 purinergic receptors. (
  • Additional studies indicated that P2Y 4 receptors stimulate both TSP-1 expression and release. (
  • P2Y receptors are coupled to protein kinase cascades, and signaling studies demonstrated that blockade of mitogen-activated protein kinases or Akt inhibited ATP- and UTP-induced TSP-1 expression. (
  • We conclude that TSP-1 expression can be regulated by activation of P2Y receptors, particularly P2Y 4 , coupled to protein kinase signaling pathways and suggest that purinergic signaling may be an important factor in TSP-1-mediated cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions such as those occurring during development and repair. (
  • The actions of extracellular ATP are a result of stimulation of P2-type purinergic receptors, which are categorized into ligand-gated ion channels (P2X 1-7 ) or metabotropic heptahelical G protein-coupled receptors (P2Y 1,2,4,6,11-14 ) ( 12 ). (
  • In this study, we show that extracellular ATP, through the activation of P2Y 4 receptors, stimulates TSP-1 expression and release in astrocytes and that this nucleotide-induced increase is mediated by protein kinase signaling pathways. (
  • Goals: Our goal was to understand whether TSP-1 could affect protein levels of its integrin receptors (e.g. (
  • We found that E2 rapidly (within 3h) induced TSP-1 expression in MCF-7 and T47-D breast cancer cells, an effect that was blocked by ICI 182,780, indicating the involvement of estrogen receptors (ER). (
  • Kubo M, Ihn H, Yamane K, Tamaki K. The expression levels and the differential expression of transforming growth factor-beta receptors in dermatofibroma and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. (
  • To evaluate whether restoring TSP-1 mediated regulatory mechanism provides a potential new therapeutic approach for chronic ocular surface inflammation, we assessed the efficacy of topically administered TSP-derived peptide in resolving chronic ocular surface inflammation in TSP-1 deficient mice. (
  • 2019 Nov 15;10(1):322. (
  • 2019 Nov 1;10(1):5012. (
  • Sci Rep . 2019 Jun 26;9(1):9295. (
  • 2019. Discontinuation of anti-PD-1 antibody therapy in the absence of disease progression or treatment limiting toxicity: clinical outcomes in advanced melanoma. (
  • Moreover, real-time PCR showed that E2 induced TSP-1 mRNA in normal mammary gland of immature ovariectomized mice 3h following hormone administration. (
  • Deficiency of TSP-1 in mice results in spontaneous development of Sjögren's syndrome-associated chronic ocular surface inflammation. (
  • The expression of Foxp3 was significantly increased in draining lymph nodes of TSP-peptide-treated mice compared to control peptide-treated mice. (
  • from lean and obese mice were exposed to live Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) for three incubation times (1 h, 4 h and 24 h). (
  • Adamts5(-/-) mice were protected from hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction, as indicated by increased mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activity, higher ATP levels and higher expression of antioxidant enzymes. (