Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Transforming Growth Factors: Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor: Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Insulin-Like Growth Factor II: A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Fibroblast Growth Factor 1: A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Fibroblast Growth Factor 7: A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1: A fibroblast growth factor receptor with specificity for FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS; HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a tyrosine kinase that transmits signals through the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1: A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.Fibroblast Growth Factor 10: A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta: A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Somatomedins: Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Receptor, IGF Type 1: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha: A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to both PDGF-A chains and PDGF-B chains. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transforming Growth Factor beta2: A TGF-beta subtype that was originally identified as a GLIOBLASTOMA-derived factor which inhibits the antigen-dependent growth of both helper and CYTOTOXIC T LYMPHOCYTES. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta2 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met: Cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptors for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. They consist of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and sites critical for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia.QuinazolinesReceptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-sis: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the sis gene (GENES, SIS). c-sis proteins make up the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. Overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor: A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Receptor, trkA: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1: One of the six homologous proteins that specifically bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions. The function of this protein is not completely defined. However, several studies demonstrate that it inhibits IGF binding to cell surface receptors and thereby inhibits IGF-mediated mitogenic and cell metabolic actions. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;204(1):4-29)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is mainly expressed in LUNG; KIDNEY; PANCREAS; and SPLEEN. It also plays an important role in SKELETAL MUSCLE development and can contribute to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Pregnancy Proteins: Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C: A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR D in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mice, Inbred C57BLFibroblast Growth Factor 9: A fibroblast growth factor that was originally identified as a mitogen for GLIAL CELLS. It is expressed primarily in NEURONS.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Angiogenesis Inducing Agents: Agents that induce or stimulate PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS or PATHOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors: These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.Fibroblast Growth Factor 4: A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.Receptors, Somatomedin: Cell surface receptors that bind somatomedins and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Studies have disclosed two types of receptors for this family of peptide hormones. The type I receptor is homologous to the insulin receptor and has tyrosine kinase activity. The type II receptor is identical to the mannose-6-phosphate receptor which is important in trafficking of lysosomal enzymes.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Tyrphostins: A family of synthetic protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. They selectively inhibit receptor autophosphorylation and are used to study receptor function.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3: A vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor whose expression is restricted primarily to adult lymphatic endothelium. VEGFR-3 preferentially binds the vascular endothelial growth factor C and vascular endothelial growth factor D and may be involved in the control of lymphangiogenesis.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Autocrine Communication: Mode of communication wherein a bound hormone affects the function of the cell type that produced the hormone.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 4: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Mice, Inbred BALB CEpithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor B: A vascular endothelial growth factor expressed in a variety of tissues. It binds with high specificity to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-1 and NEUROPILIN-1.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D: A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR C in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.Fibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Smad2 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.PhosphoproteinsGene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesCulture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.ras Proteins: Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Smad3 Protein: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. Activated Smad3 can bind directly to DNA, and it regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
Nicola NA, Metcalf D (1991). "Subunit promiscuity among hemopoietic growth factor receptors". Cell. 67 (1): 1-4. doi:10.1016/ ... Oostra BA, Willemsen R (2003). "A fragile balance: FMR1 expression levels". Hum Mol Genet. 12 Spec No 2 (90002): R249-57. doi: ... "Dysregulated Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor-Dependent Translation of AMPA Receptor and Postsynaptic Density-95 mRNAs at ... Antar LN, Li C, Zhang H, Carroll RC, Bassell GJ (2006). "Local functions for FMRP in axon growth cone motility and activity- ...
October 2003). "Aldosterone stimulates epidermal growth factor receptor expression". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (44): 43060-66. doi: ... Many of these remodelling effects seem to be mediated by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), which is a common ... December 2005). "Increased gene expression of collagen Types I and III is inhibited by beta-receptor blockade in patients with ... and also by epidermal growth factor (EGF), which is a target of the signaling pathway activated by aldosterone Reduced ...
RPE cells express the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). HGF stimulates RPE cell migration and its presence is also ... Expression of PDGF in particular PDGF-AA is triggered during ocular injury and contributes to PVR pathology. ... transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFβ2), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and interleukins have been shown to play a ... Andrews A, Balciunaite E, Leong FL, Tallquist M, Soriano P, Refojo M, Kazlauskas A (1999). "Platelet-derived growth factor ...
Holmes DI, Zachary I (Jan 2004). "Placental growth factor induces FosB and c-Fos gene expression via Flt-1 receptors". FEBS ... ΔFosB increases the expression of AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 and also decreases expression of dynorphin, thereby enhancing ... As a transcription factor, ΔFosB produces this behavioral phenotype by regulating the expression of specific target genes, ... Yamamura Y, Hua X, Bergelson S, Lodish HF (Nov 2000). "Critical role of Smads and AP-1 complex in transforming growth factor- ...
"Control of the Expression of c-sis mRNA in Human Glioblastoma Cells by Phorbol Ester and Transforming Growth Factor ß1". Cancer ... It may also cause production of growth hormones in other parts of the body. Receptor tyrosine kinases add phosphate groups to ... Ras is activated by growth factor signaling (i.e., EGF, TGFbeta) and acting like a binary switch (on/off) in growth signaling ... An oncogene may cause a cell to secrete growth factors even though it does not normally do so. It will thereby induce its own ...
High expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) correlates with unfavorable outcome. Over-expression of kinetochore ... "Identification of gains on 1q and epidermal growth factor receptor overexpression as independent prognostic markers in ... Over-expression of Notch ligands, receptors, and target genes (HES1, HEY2, and MYC), as well as down-regulation of Notch ... A gene expression profiling experiment has shown that three members of the SOX family of transcription factors also possessed ...
Its expression can negatively affect receptor internalization and inhibit growth factor signaling. Multiple transcript variants ... The product of this gene is part of a protein complex that regulates the endocytosis of growth factor receptors. The encoded ... "REPS2/POB1 is downregulated during human prostate cancer progression and inhibits growth factor signalling in prostate cancer ... Yadav S, Zajac E, Singhal SS, Singhal J, Drake K, Awasthi YC, Awasthi S (2005). "POB1 over-expression inhibits RLIP76-mediated ...
Bass MD, Humphries MJ (2002). "Cytoplasmic interactions of syndecan-4 orchestrate adhesion receptor and growth factor receptor ... Growth factor signaling may be disrupted by changes in syndecan-4 expression. The cellular uptake, trafficking, and nuclear ... "Heparan sulfate proteoglycans function as receptors for fibroblast growth factor-2 activation of extracellular signal-regulated ... "Human ryudocan from endothelium-like cells binds basic fibroblast growth factor, midkine, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor ...
... also regulates platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (Pdgfrα) expression. This is responsible for lens fiber ... As Foxe3 expression downregulates, Prox1 expression increases causing a reduction in cellular proliferation in the anterior ... Foxe3, also known as Forkhead Box E3, is a transcription factor that is responsible for the formation of the lens placode, a ... Forkhead box protein E3 (FOXE3) also known as forkhead-related transcription factor 8 (FREAC-8) is a protein that in humans is ...
Increased relative expression of ERβ compared to ERα. *Interference/cross-talk with growth factor signaling pathways such as ... Gefitinib(Iressa) and Erlotinib (Tarceva) are epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors used for non- ... "Mechanisms of acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer" ... Resistance to selective estrogen receptor modulator drugs[edit]. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a commonly ...
This endosomal protein regulates the cell-surface expression of epidermal growth factor receptor. This protein also has a role ... 2001). "Sorting nexin 6, a novel SNX, interacts with the transforming growth factor-beta family of receptor serine-threonine ... 2003). "Enterophilin-1, a new partner of sorting nexin 1, decreases cell surface epidermal growth factor receptor". J. Biol. ... nexin-1 with an early sorting endosomal compartment is required for its ability to regulate epidermal growth factor receptor ...
... a novel acidic fibroblast growth factor receptor with a distinct expression pattern". The EMBO Journal. 10 (6): 1347-54. PMC ... and the first growth factor capable of inducing lymphangiogenesis: vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C). In the years ... "A novel vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF-C, is a ligand for the Flt4 (VEGFR-3) and KDR (VEGFR-2) receptor tyrosine ... "A novel endothelial cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase with extracellular epidermal growth factor homology domains". ...
1990). "Molecular cloning and expression of an additional epidermal growth factor receptor-related gene". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... Epidermal growth factor receptor family Epidermal growth factor receptor Receptor tyrosine-kinases GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibition induces a resistance mechanism via the epidermal growth factor receptor/HER3/ ... rational basis for cotargeting insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor in hepatocellular ...
Rotem-Yehudar R, Galperin E, Horowitz M (Aug 2001). "Association of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor with EHD1 and SNAP29 ... "A Golgi-associated PDZ domain protein modulates cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator plasma membrane expression". The ... SNAP receptor activity. • SNARE binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • plasma membrane. • SNARE complex. • early endosome. ... attachment protein receptor) protein syntaxin 6". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (31): 29456-65. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
"Enhanced expression of Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines by breast cancer cells attenuates growth and metastasis potential ... Rot A (2005). "Contribution of Duffy antigen to chemokine function". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 16 (6): 687-94. doi:10.1016/j. ... Liu XH, Hadley TJ, Xu L, Peiper SC, Ray PE (1999). "Up-regulation of Duffy antigen receptor expression in children with renal ... In human breast cancer samples low expression of the DARC protein is significantly associated with estrogen receptor status, ...
"The RGM/DRAGON family of BMP co-receptors". Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. 20 (5-6): 389-398. doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2009.10. ... Furthermore, aberrant expression of RGMs was indicated in breast cancer. The perturbed expression was associated with disease ... novel bone morphogenetic protein co-receptors, are key regulators of the growth and aggressiveness of prostate cancer cells". ... co-receptor of the repulsive guidance molecule family. In humans this protein is encoded by the RGMB gene. RGMB is a ...
Gao J, Symons AL, Bartold PM (1999). "Expression of transforming growth factor-beta receptors types II and III within various ... for the cytoplasmic domain of the type III transforming growth factor beta receptor in regulating transforming growth factor ... Betaglycan also known as Transforming growth factor beta receptor III (TGFBR3), is a cell-surface chondroitin sulfate / heparan ... 1995). "The soluble exoplasmic domain of the type II transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta receptor. A heterogeneously ...
Weiner TM, Liu ET, Craven RJ, Cance WG (Jan 1994). "Expression of growth factor receptors, the focal adhesion kinase, and other ... "Expression profile of receptor-type protein tyrosine kinase genes in the human thyroid". Endocrinology. 139 (3): 852-8. doi: ... "Consistent and selective expression of the discoidin domain receptor-1 tyrosine kinase in human brain tumors". Neurosurgery. 47 ... "An orphan receptor tyrosine kinase family whose members serve as nonintegrin collagen receptors". Molecular Cell. 1 (1): 25-34 ...
... expression is regulated by growth factors, growth factor receptors, oncogenes, environmental stress, ionizing radiation, ... nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 1, and homeobox protein SIX3, and represses BCL11B as well as E-cadherin expression ... MTA1 regulates gene expression by functioning as a coregulator to integrate DNA-interacting factors to gene activity. MTA1 ... a cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase complex ring finger factor, and regulates estrogen receptor transactivation ...
Over-expression or constitutive activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can promote tumor processes. EGF-induced ... "Smurf1 interacts with transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor through Smad7 and induces receptor degradation". J. Biol ... Salomon DS, Brandt R, Ciardiello F, Normanno N (July 1995). "Epidermal growth factor-related peptides and their receptors in ... such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Therefore, it provides a cross-talk ...
2003). "Expression of progastrin-releasing peptide and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor mRNA transcripts in tumor cells of ... 1994). "Corticotropin-releasing factor stimulates cyclic AMP, arachidonic acid release, and growth of lung cancer cells". ... 1995). "Expression and characterization of cloned human bombesin receptors". Mol. Pharmacol. 47 (1): 10-20. PMID 7838118. Moody ... Frankel A, Tsao MS, Viallet J (1994). "Receptor subtype expression and responsiveness to bombesin in cultured human bronchial ...
"Differential expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors in human digital development suggests common pathogenesis in ... KGFR, keratinocyte growth factor receptor, is an isoform active in the metaphysis and interphalangeal joints. FGFR1 is an ... published a paper showing evidence that acrocephalosyndactyly is caused by a defect on the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 ... There has been one study that suggests it has something to do with the expression of three isoforms of FGFR2, the gene with the ...
... hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) receptor] tyrosine kinase block HGF/SF-induced tumor cell growth and invasion ... HGF expression is restricted to cells of mesenchymal origin. MET transcription is activated by HGF and several growth factors. ... "Scatter factor and hepatocyte growth factor are indistinguishable ligands for the MET receptor". EMBO J. 10 (10): 2867-78. PMC ... "Role of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, c-Met, in oncogenesis and potential for therapeutic inhibition". Cytokine Growth ...
"High-efficiency expression/cloning of epidermal growth factor-receptor-binding proteins with Src homology 2 domains". ... This gene encodes a growth factor receptor-binding protein that interacts with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ... Growth factor receptor-bound protein 7, also known as GRB7, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRB7 gene. The ... GRB7 growth factor receptor-bound protein 7". Tanaka S, Mori M, Akiyoshi T, Tanaka Y, Mafune K, Wands JR, Sugimachi K (Aug 1998 ...
Recent research has shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor 1 are key mediators of exercise ... In fact, newborn neurons are more excitable than older neurons due to a differential expression of GABA receptors. A plausible ... Carro, E; Trejo, J. L.; Busiguina, S; Torres-Aleman, I (2001). "Circulating insulin-like growth factor I mediates the ... While the exact nature of the relationship between neurogenesis and Alzheimer's disease is unknown, insulin-like growth factor ...
... the Interleukin-6 receptor and lack of expression of CD45. In humans, CD27 is a good marker for plasma cells, naive B cells are ... This is a type of safeguard to the system, almost like a two-factor authentication method. First, the B cells have to encounter ... the activation and growth of B cell clones able to secrete antibodies of higher affinity for the antigen. ... Compared with CD138, which disappears rapidly ex vivo, the expression of CD319 is considerably more stable.[10] ...
Ectopic expression of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor disrupts mesoderm organisation during mouse ... Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) regulates the cell cycle and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition of many cells in ... These defects temporally and spatially paralleled the expression of the TGFbeta type I receptor, which is first expressed in ... We have analysed chimaeric mouse embryos generated from embryonic stem cells with abnormal receptor expression to study the ...
The assays developed for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and insulin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression have ... insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin-like growth factor 2, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, insulin-like growth factor 2 ... Low concentrations of both insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and insulin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid were detected ... transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to quantify insulin-like growth factor receptor and insulin receptor expression ...
Effective Inhibition of the Epidermal Growth Factor/Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Binding by Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor ... Molecular cloning and expression of an additional epidermal growth factor receptor-related gene. G D Plowman, G S Whitney, M G ... Molecular cloning and expression of an additional epidermal growth factor receptor-related gene ... Molecular cloning and expression of an additional epidermal growth factor receptor-related gene ...
Aberrant expression and activation of growth factors like insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF ... The expression of the receptors and signaling molecules were investigated using Western blot. IGF-IRβ, AR, pAkt, IKK-α and p38 ... The deregulation of growth factor signaling is associated with increased proliferation and cell survival, decreased apoptosis, ... The expression of signaling molecules in the cancer tissues were deregulated when compared to the control samples. Thus, flawed ...
Gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors and angiogenesis in bronchial asthma.. Hoshino M1, ... Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent inducer of endothelial cells, which may contribute to chronic ... and we examined the mRNA expression of VEGF and its receptors (flt-1 and flk-1) within bronchial biopsy specimens from ... Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor. *Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A. *Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor ...
R. E. Schmandt, R. Broaddus, K. H. Lu et al., "Expression of c-ABL, c-KIT, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β in ... Y. Kitadai, T. Sasaki, T. Kuwai et al., "Expression of activated platelet-derived growth factor receptor in stromal cells of ... S. Yamamoto, H. Tsuda, M. Takano et al., "Expression of platelet-derived growth factors and their receptors in ovarian clear- ... "Prognostic significance of stromal platelet-derived growth factor β-receptor expression in human breast cancer," American ...
Expression of a Trk high affinity nerve growth factor receptor in the human prostate.. Pflug BR1, Dionne C, Kaplan DR, Lynch J ... whereas binding was not displaced by epidermal growth factor or platelet-derived growth factor. Scatchard plot analysis of [ ... Nerve growth factor-beta (NGF beta) and a NGF beta-immunoreactive protein derived from human prostatic stromal cell secretory ... In this report we have characterized the expression of the signal-transducing component of the NGF receptor, the Trk tyrosine ...
Transforming growth factor β1 inhibits expression of NKp30 and NKG2D receptors: Consequences for the NK-mediated killing of ... Transforming growth factor β1 inhibits expression of NKp30 and NKG2D receptors: Consequences for the NK-mediated killing of ... Transforming growth factor β1 inhibits expression of NKp30 and NKG2D receptors: Consequences for the NK-mediated killing of ... Transforming growth factor β1 inhibits expression of NKp30 and NKG2D receptors: Consequences for the NK-mediated killing of ...
Close, J. L., Liu, J., Gumuscu, B. and Reh, T. A. (2006), Epidermal growth factor receptor expression regulates proliferation ... Epidermal growth factor receptor expression regulates proliferation in the postnatal rat retina. ...
These findings suggest that several changes of expression in FGFs and FGF-Rs may correlate with malignant progression of human ... Studies on the expression of fibroblast growth factors and fibroblast growth factor receptors in human prostate cancer] Nihon ... Purpose: We tried to clarify the role of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and those receptors (FGF-Rs) in cell proliferation of ... The expression of FGF7 mRNA was detected only in the primary cultured stromal cells. Of 17 patients with human prostate cancer ...
Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Receptors TrkA and p75NTR in the Visual Cortex of the Rat: Development and Regulation by ... Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Receptors TrkA and p75NTR in the Visual Cortex of the Rat: Development and Regulation by ... Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Receptors TrkA and p75NTR in the Visual Cortex of the Rat: Development and Regulation by ... Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Receptors TrkA and p75NTR in the Visual Cortex of the Rat: Development and Regulation by ...
... Argyris ... Argyris Tzouvelekis, Paschalis Ntolios, Andreas Karameris, et al., "Increased Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor ( ...
Developmental expression of two closely related fibroblast growth factor receptors, bek and flg, is described from early ... Developmental expression of two murine fibroblast growth factor receptors, flg and bek ... Developmental expression of two murine fibroblast growth factor receptors, flg and bek ... Developmental expression of two murine fibroblast growth factor receptors, flg and bek ...
... little is known about expression of growth factor receptors in male breast cancer. We therefore investigated expression ... Conclusions Expression patterns of growth factor receptors and hypoxia membrane proteins in male breast cancer are different ... expressed multiple growth factor receptors. Since individual membrane receptors are expressed in only half of male breast ... Results Growth factor receptors were variably expressed in 4.5% (MET) up to 38.5% (IGF1-R) of male breast cancers. Compared to ...
Clinical Implications of the Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors in Human Transitional Cell Carcinoma. Edward M. ... Clinical Implications of the Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors in Human Transitional Cell Carcinoma ... Clinical Implications of the Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors in Human Transitional Cell Carcinoma ... Clinical Implications of the Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors in Human Transitional Cell Carcinoma ...
J D Potts, S Bassnett, S Kornacker, D C Beebe; Expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptors in the developing chicken ... Expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptors in the developing chicken lens. ... Expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptors in the developing chicken lens. ... Platelet-derived growth factor receptors were studied using Western blot analyses and immunofluorescence-confocal microscopy. ...
Parallel Decreases in the Expression of Receptors for Insulin and Insulin-like Growth Factor I in a Mutant Human Fibroblast ... Parallel Decreases in the Expression of Receptors for Insulin and Insulin-like Growth Factor I in a Mutant Human Fibroblast ... Parallel Decreases in the Expression of Receptors for Insulin and Insulin-like Growth Factor I in a Mutant Human Fibroblast ... Parallel Decreases in the Expression of Receptors for Insulin and Insulin-like Growth Factor I in a Mutant Human Fibroblast ...
Amplification and enhanced expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene in A431 human carcinoma cells ... Amplification and enhanced expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene in A431 human carcinoma cells ... Amplification and enhanced expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene in A431 human carcinoma cells ... Amplification and enhanced expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene in A431 human carcinoma cells ...
An epidermal growth factor receptor intron 1 polymorphism mediates response to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. ... Serum IgE, Tumor Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression, and Inherited Polymorphisms Associated with Glioma Survival. ... Serum IgE, Tumor Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression, and Inherited Polymorphisms Associated with Glioma Survival ... Serum IgE, Tumor Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression, and Inherited Polymorphisms Associated with Glioma Survival ...
In the absence of NGF, the growth of primordial follicles is retarded, ... and its two membrane-anchored receptors are expressed in the developing ovary before the organization of the first primordial ... The neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) and its two membrane-anchored receptors are expressed in the developing ovary before ... Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / drug effects. Nerve Growth Factor / pharmacology*. Organ Culture Techniques. ...
Although the importance of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-α signaling during normal alveogenesis is known, it ... Dynamic regulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor α expression in alveolar fibroblasts during realveolarization Am ... Although the importance of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-α signaling during normal alveogenesis is known, it ... Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling regulates myofibroblast differentiation during alveolarization, whereas peroxisome ...
Expression of the Drosophila homologue (DER) of the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor has been studied during ... Expression of Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor homologue in mitotic cell populations ... Expression of Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor homologue in mitotic cell populations ... Expression of Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor homologue in mitotic cell populations ...
The discovery and characterization of growth factors and their receptors has led to considerable interest in the roles these ... Epidermal Growth Factor Nerve Growth Factor Palatal Shelf Nerve Growth Factor Expression Epidermal Growth Factor Family These ... Expression of Growth Factors and Their Receptors in Development. In: Sporn M.B., Roberts A.B. (eds) Peptide Growth Factors and ... Freemark M, Comer M (1987) Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like transforming growth factor (TGF) activity and EGF receptors in ...
cDNA cloning and developmental expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors from Xenopus laevis.. R Friesel, I B Dawid ... cDNA cloning and developmental expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors from Xenopus laevis. ... cDNA cloning and developmental expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors from Xenopus laevis. ... cDNA cloning and developmental expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors from Xenopus laevis. ...
  • We present evidence that classical TGFbeta-induced growth inhibition was probably the cause of insufficient mesoderm being available for paraxial and axial structures. (uniprot.org)
  • and (2) assuming that ectopic expression of TbetaRII results in no other changes in ES cells, the absence of TbetaRII is the principle reason why the embryo proper is unresponsive to TGFbeta ligand until after gastrulation. (uniprot.org)
  • We have analysed chimaeric mouse embryos generated from embryonic stem cells with abnormal receptor expression to study the effect of TGFbeta on these processes in vivo and the consequences for normal development. (uniprot.org)
  • Using Northern blot and western blot analyses, we detect the expression of PCDGF mRNA and protein in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The results presented here provide evidence of a novel estradiol responsive gene product in human breast cancer cell lines and give information about the hormonal control of epithelin/granulin (PCDGF) expression in these cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Lu, R & Serrero, G 1999, ' Stimulation of PC cell-derived growth factor (Epithelin/Granulin precursor) expression by estradiol in human breast cancer cells ', Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 256, no. 1, pp. 204-207. (elsevier.com)
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