The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
A vocabulary database of universal identifiers for laboratory and clinical test results. Its purpose is to facilitate the exchange and pooling of results for clinical care, outcomes management, and research. It is produced by the Regenstrief Institute. (LOINC and RELMA [Internet]. Indianapolis: The Regenstrief Institute; c1995-2001 [cited 2002 Apr 2]. Available from http://www.regenstrief.org/loinc)
An antibiotic purine ribonucleoside that readily substitutes for adenosine in the biological system, but its incorporation into DNA and RNA has an inhibitory effect on the metabolism of these nucleic acids.
An ephrin that was originally identified as the product of an early response gene induced by TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS. It is linked to the CELL MEMBRANE via a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR and binds EPHA2 RECEPTOR with high affinity. During embryogenesis high levels of ephrin-A1 are expressed in LUNG; KIDNEY; SALIVARY GLANDS; and INTESTINE.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Data recorded by nurses concerning the nursing care given to the patient, including judgment of the patient's progress.
A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
Specifications and instructions applied to the software.
A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of services provided for obstetric and gynecologic patients.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Controlled vocabulary of clinical terms produced by the International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (IHTSDO).
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.
A management function in which standards and guidelines are developed for the development, maintenance, and handling of forms and records.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.
Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.
Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Care of infants in the home or institution.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.
Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.
Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.
Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.
Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A very potent liver carcinogen.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain BERBERINE, indolopyridoquinazoline and other ALKALOIDS and limonoids.
Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A cardiotonic cardiac glycoside found in STROPHANTHUS. The aglycone is STROPHANTHIN.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Complex compounds in which a dumbbell shaped molecule is encircled by a macrocycle. They are named after rota (wheel) and axis (axle). Notation with a prefix is used to indicate the number of interlocked components. They have potential use in NANOTECHNOLOGY. Rotaxanes have been made with CYCLODEXTRINS and CYCLIC ETHERS.
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
"I don't like the Ruby 1.9 hash syntax". Logical Friday. Archived from the original on 25 June 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011. " ... Conway, Damian (2005). "4: Values and Expressions". In Allison Randal and Tatiana Appandi (ed.). Perl Best Practices. O'Reilly ... The fat arrow is used to declare single expression anonymous functions in JavaScript, and C sharp. ... ". "Hacking Sharp Lambda Expressions into Hash Rockets". v t e. ...
The Institute "is committed to scholarship that reflects a concern for: transparency; simplicity in expression; clear, logical ...
The operators supported by F are: Arithmetic operators: +, -, *, /, ** Relational operators: <, <=, ==, /=, >, >= Logical ... expression ! assignment pointer => target ! pointer assignment Similar to Fortran, the type specification is made up of a type ...
"Microsoft Basic Logical Expression Evaluation". Vb.mvps.org. Retrieved 2009-06-16. "PRB: Round Function different in VBA 6 and ... Logical and bitwise operators are unified. This is unlike some C-derived languages (such as Perl), which have separate logical ... Round(2.5, 0) gives 2, ? Round(3.5, 0) gives 4. Integers are automatically promoted to reals in expressions that involve the ... This inherent functionality becomes especially useful when performing logical operations on the individual bits of an integer ...
The symbol ⇔ is logical equality. The expression "LHS ⇔ RHS" indicates that either (a) the left hand side (i.e. LHS) and right ... With this restriction, for each x in the domain, the expression arcsin(x) will evaluate only to a single value, called its ... 0 or y ≠ 0. However this fails if given x ≤ 0 and y = 0 so the expression is unsuitable for computational use. The above ... This might appear to conflict logically with the common semantics for expressions such as sin2(x), which refer to numeric power ...
The C programming language uses an integer type, where relational expressions like i > j and logical expressions connected by ... Examples of coding: set v 1 if { $v } { puts "V is 1 or true" } The above will show "V is 1 or true" since the expression ... When evaluating an expression in Boolean context, If no appropriate Bool method is defined, an exception is thrown. Booleans ... It is a special case of a more general logical data type (see probabilistic logic)-logic doesn't always need to be Boolean. In ...
... output expression. Semantics links expressions of language to the outside world. Also logical semantics has developed its own ... Of course, it is assumed that we can do so at all: the extension of input expression(s) determines the extension of the ... Extensional logic cannot reach inside such fine logical structures of the language, it stops at a coarser level. The attempts ... If we fill them in with appropriate subexpressions, then the resulting entirely completed expression can be regarded as a ...
For certain regular expression operators like , (logical disjunction or boolean "or") it exceeds PCRE. On the other hand, RE2 ... Comparison of regular expression engines Cox, Russ (March 11, 2010). "RE2: a principled approach to regular expression matching ... PCRE, on the other hand, has almost all of the features that a regular expression library can have, but has unpredictable run- ... RE2 is a software library for regular expressions via a finite-state machine using automata theory, in contrast to almost all ...
The expressions are statements in formal logic which can be true or false. The processes are the rules of logical deduction. ... The expressions are equations. The processes are the rules of algebra, that allow one to manipulate a mathematical expression ... expressions) and manipulating them (using processes) to produce new expressions. The physical symbol system hypothesis (PSSH) ... The expressions are more data. The processes are programs that manipulate the data. Two lines of evidence suggested to Allen ...
Following are some of the important pointcut expressions supported by AspectJ. These expressions can be combined using logical ... The expressions required to select a particular point led to creation of Pointcut Expressions. Whenever the program execution ... Pointcuts are often specified using class names or method names, in some cases using regular expressions that match class or ... Different frameworks support different Pointcut expressions; AspectJ syntax is considered as de facto standard. Frameworks are ...
All that is required is the expression that "x quantity of product y is worth p quantity of product q", whether y and q happen ... This view is only logical; after all, prices express the quantity of money for which particular commodities will, or could, ... The point here is simply that the form of value, in its less developed state, does not require any monetary expression; counter ... In all his economic manuscripts, Marx says that at best prices are the "idealized expression" of the forms of value. ...
The Art of Logical Thinking. 1909. "Attainment with Honor", an article in "The Nautilus" magazine. June 1914. The Crucible of ... Bibliography of Atkinson writing as William Walker (or W. W.) Atkinson The Art of Expression and The Principles of Discourse. ...
Thus, a minterm is a logical expression of n variables that employs only the complement operator and the conjunction operator. ... Thus, a maxterm is a logical expression of n variables that employs only the complement operator and the disjunction operator. ... Any Boolean function of the N variables can be derived from a composite of the rows whose minterm or maxterm are logical 1s (" ... Canonical expressions are defined and described Hill, Fredrick J.; Peterson, Gerald R. (1974). Introduction to Switching Theory ...
The logical arguments are said to be stated in the order thesis, antithesis, synthesis. Although this style of philosophical ... Parallelism of expression serves to emphasize opposition of ideas". An antithesis must always contain two ideas within one ... This is based on the logical phrase or term. Antithesis can be defined as "a figure of speech involving a seeming contradiction ... In dialectics (any formal system of reasoning that arrives at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments) antithesis is the ...
... this would be more useful if a non-trivial expression had been substituted in place of nil. Lisp also provides logical ... and Meta expressions (M-expressions), which express functions of S-expressions. M-expressions never found favor, and almost all ... that would be translated into S-expressions. As an example, the M-expression car[cons[A,B]] is equivalent to the S-expression ( ... and the expression or expressions to which the function evaluates (the returned value is the value of the last expression that ...
The verbal expression of reasoning is the logical argument. Jean Piaget identifies several mental operations of the concrete ... The verbal expression of apprehension is called a term. Judgment is the mental operation by which we predicate something of a ... The verbal expression of judgment is the statement (or proposition). Inference (or reasoning) is the mental operation by which ... Logical connective Mental event Mental process Mental rotation Hobhouse, LT (2005). The Theory of Knowledge: A Contribution to ...
For any given generalized regular expression R and any string u, the derivative u−1R is again a generalized regular expression ... on Switching, Circuit Theory, and Logical Design (SWCT), Detroit. pp. 129-132. doi:10.1109/FOCS.1961.26. Janusz A. Brzozowski ( ... In an ordinary regular expression, neither ∧ nor ¬ is allowed. The string set denoted by a generalized regular expression R is ... Given a finite alphabet A of symbols, a generalized regular expression denotes a possibly infinite set of finite-length strings ...
Other areas of possible benefit are (surprisingly in a 'logical' language) emotional expression. Lojban has a fully developed ... As befits a logical language, there is a large assortment of logical connectives. Such conjunction words take different forms ... due to the logical and unambiguous structure and greater means of expression (use as a speakable language) Eliminating ... The Logical Language Group (LLG) began developing Lojban in 1987. The LLG sought to realize Loglan's purposes, and further ...
Logical Dilemmas: The Life and Work of Kurt Gödel. Wellesley MA: A. K. Peters. Fearnley-Sander, Desmond, 1982. "Hermann ... Symbolism for the exact and systematic expression of all present knowledge, making possible a "logistic" treatment of science ... The Logical Structure of the World: Pseudoproblems in Philosophy. University of California Press. Translation of his 1928 Der ... Leibniz: Logical Papers. Oxford Univ. Press. -, and Mary Morris, trans., 1973. Leibniz: Philosophical Writings. London: J M ...
Indicate a logical-disjunction relationship of two expressions. For example, The two expressions, ABD and AED and be written ... Indicate a logical-disjunction relationship of two expressions and an abbreviated version of the curly braces notation, while ... For example, The two expressions, ABD and AD and be written with parentheses as: A ( B ) D {\displaystyle A(B)D} , B is ...
... at the beginning of an expression to denote logical negation. For example,!A means "the logical negation of A", also called " ... The expression n! means "the product of the integers from 1 to n". For example, 4! (read four factorial) is 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 24 ... Many computer languages using C-style syntax use "!" for logical negation; !A means "not A", and A != B means "A is not equal ... to indicate expression of joy. Over time, the i moved above the o; that o first became smaller, and (with time) a dot.[page ...
Music is the "logical expression" of feelings, a "symbolic form". Music videos are an example of syntagm, which interacting ...
A variety of symbols are used to express logical ideas; see the List of logic symbols Time and motion study symbols such as ... In linguistics and semiotics, a notation is a system of graphics or symbols, characters and abbreviated expressions, used (for ... Various notations have been developed to specify regular expressions. The APL programming language provided a rich set of very ... Infix notation, the common arithmetic and logical formula notation, such as "a + b − c". Polish notation or "prefix notation", ...
PMID 15116117.. Also available here: An autonomous molecular computer for logical control of gene expression Bond, G. L.; Hu, W ... under expression of the genes PPAP2B and GSTP1 and an over expression of PIM1 and HPN. Their automata evaluated the expression ... "An autonomous molecular computer for logical control of gene expression". Nature. 429 (6990): 423-429. Bibcode:2004Natur.429.. ... The DNA enzymes simulate logical functions. For example, such a DNA will unfold if two specific types of DNA strand are ...
ISBN 0-201-02988-X. Chapter 2: Finite Automata and Regular Expressions, p.54. Arden, D.N. An Introduction to the Theory of ... on Switching Circuit Theory and Logical Design (SWCT), Detroit/MI. (open-access abstract) John E. Hopcroft and Jeffrey D. ... Regular expression Nondeterministic finite automaton Daintith, John (2004). "Arden's Rule". Archived from the original on 13 ... Arden's rule can be used to help convert some finite automatons to regular expressions, as in Kleene's algorithm. ...
Only expressions which can be obtained by finitely many applications of rules 1 and 2 are terms. For example, no expression ... This implies that if a formula is a logical consequence of an infinite set of first-order axioms, then it is a logical ... It is common to divide the symbols of the alphabet into logical symbols, which always have the same meaning, and non-logical ... A logical system satisfying Lindström's definition that has a semidecidable logical consequence relation and satisfies the ...
First ed., 1972) Rorty, Richard, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature Searle, John, Expression and Meaning Introduction Origins ... of the essays 1. A taxonomy of illocutionary acts 2. Indirect speech acts 3. The logical status of fictional discourse 4. ...
He criticized the Paris Opera Ballet use of the mask because it restricted the dancer from showing facial expressions that ... Noverre called for the logical development of plots. According to Noverre, plots should be thematically integrated with ... Noverre stressed that within a dramatic context, validity and sincerity of gestural expression are of the utmost importance in ... Noverre pronounced his advanced ideas on stage make-up for dancers that would allow for the dancer's expression to be seen ...
Socialism is the highest expression of democracy and its logical fulfillment". Although it was believed to be a socialist party ...
The two paradigms share many important features, like logical variables and backtracking. Today most Prolog implementations ... constraints are defined by an arithmetic expression, i.e., using < , > , ≤ , ≥ , = , ≠ , . . . {\displaystyle <,>,\leq ,\geq ... neq ,...} ; logical constraints: constraints are defined with an explicit semantic, i.e., AllDifferent, AtMost,... Definition ...
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This set of MATLAB Multiple Choice Questions & Answers (MCQs) focuses on "Logical Expressions - 2″. ... 6. All logical operators operate on at least two operands.. a) True. b) False ...
Logical operators. As seen in the previous sample, you can also use logical operators like and and or to make your filters more ... You can also combine various filters in a single expression, making this a very powerful way of getting specific nodes. ... To that end, this post contains a list of XPath filter expressions commonly used in BizTalk Server. Unless specified ... This can be done by placing the string or number expression around your XPath. ...
Example 2 - Logical Interfaces per Physical Interface. To fetch the logical interface of selected physical interface ... XPath and Regular Expression Examples. Default Xpath and Regex are added during server start up or data migration performed ...
This section describes how to create and use logical expressions in DeepSee MDX. ... You cannot use member expressions in a logical comparison expression. For example, the following is not a valid logical ... One expression is numeric and the other is a string. The numeric expression is less than the string expression. ... For example, the following is a valid logical expression:. homed.CURRENTMEMBER.Properties(Name) = magnolia. Copy code to ...
Logical Expressions Publication date:. 09/14/2017. Series:. A Jennings and OShea Novel , #3. ...
Which of the following will evaluate to true only if boolean expression A, B, and C are all false? ...
matches a logical newline. Perl converts between \n. and your OSs native newline character when reading from or writing to ... regular expression modifier. See perlrecharclass.. The uppercase variants (. \W. , \D. , \S. , \H. , and \V. ) are character ... To be compatible with .Net regular expressions, \g{name}. may also be written as \k{name}. , \k,name,. or \kname. . ... In a regular expression, the backslash can perform one of two tasks: it either takes away the special meaning of the character ...
This translation uses the Lbase logical expressions Lbase:String. and Lbase:XMLthing. , which are true respectively of unicode ... RDF expression E. Lbase expression TR[E]. a plain literal "sss". sss, with all occurrences of the symbols ,\,(,),,,, ... Also used between a set of expressions and an expression.). Equivalent (prep., with to) True under exactly the same conditions ... Inference (n.) An act or process of constructing new expressions from existing expressions, or the result of such an act or ...
Using the when expression with ranges. *. Logical AND operator. *. Useful Android Studio shortcut keys ...
... including regular expressions) in several commands (DO, FOR, IF / IFF, SWITCH, etc.). ... the unary logical operator NOT (or !) followed by a logical expression. two logical expressions connected by a binary logical ... IF evaluate a conditional expression, and perform a different action based on whether or not the expression is TRUE. The SWITCH ... A relational expression compares two character strings, using one of the relational operators in the table below. Each of these ...
The following operators are supported in profile expressions:. ! - A logical not of the profile & - A logical and of the ... can be used with logical expressions also:. static Profiles of(String... profiles) Create a new Profiles instance that checks ... A profile string may contain a simple profile name (for example "production") or a profile expression. A profile expression ... For example "a & b , c" is not a valid expression; it must be expressed as "(a & b) , c" or "a & (b , c)". ...
org.apache.pig.newplan.logical.expression.LogicalExpressionVisitor. * *org.apache.pig.newplan.logical.expression. ... Methods inherited from class org.apache.pig.newplan.logical.expression.LogicalExpressionVisitor. visit. ...
org.apache.pig.newplan.logical.expression.ColumnExpression. * *org.apache.pig.newplan.logical.expression.DereferenceExpression ... LogicalExpressionPlan in which this expression will be added.. Returns:. LogicalExpression with its own logical expression plan ... Methods inherited from class org.apache.pig.newplan.logical.expression.LogicalExpression. getNextUid, getType, hasFieldSchema, ... Fields inherited from class org.apache.pig.newplan.logical.expression.LogicalExpression. fieldSchema, uidOnlyFieldSchema. ...
org.apache.pig.newplan.logical.expression.LogicalExpressionVisitor. * *org.apache.pig.newplan.logical.expression. ... Method to call on every node in the logical expression plan.. Parameters:. op. - Node that is currently being visited.. Throws: ... Methods inherited from class org.apache.pig.newplan.logical.expression.LogicalExpressionVisitor. visit. ...
The op member defines the operator in the logical expression: value operator current_value The logical expression must evaluate ...
That is only logical. Heard of the expression, "Enemy of my enemy is my friend?" ...
The expression realized after resolving qualifiers . Used in deriving this logical entity ... Synonymous with table or view in a database, or a single logical file structure that one or many files may match. ... Property that identifies if the object is a physical object (materialized) or virtual/logical object defined on other objects. ... Property that identifies if the object is a physical object (materialized) or virtual/logical object defined on other objects. ...
Evaluation of logical expressions is stopped as soon as the result is known.. If you dont want this, you can replace the and- ... c( min( a( false ), b( true ) ) ); // Output: Expression is false.. c( a( true ) or b( true ) ); // Output: Expression true.. c ... function a($x) { echo Expression ; return $x; }. function b($x) { echo is ; return $x; }. function c($x) { echo $x ? true ... Expressions. Operators. Control Structures. Functions. Classes and Objects. Namespaces. Errors. Exceptions. Generators. ...
Video: Arithmetic Expressions. *Video: Logical expressions. *Practice Quiz: Arithmetic and logical expressions in Julia ... By the end of this module, you will be able to: create an array from data; learn to use the logical structures IF and FOR ; ...
Expression Handling¶. Every "expr" is interpreted: *logical: AND, OR, !. *compare: =, <, <=, >, =>, !=. *precedence: (, ). * ...
The masses have a right to change property relations; Fascism seeks to give them an expression while reserving property. The ... logical result of Fascism is the introduction of aesthetics into public life. ...
"Theres something elemental about expression through music. Its been a part of every culture since prehistory, so it can ... We need something to supplement the scientific, logical approach to life.. "Music and art are what make us human." ...
"Especifically, logical OR returns true only if either one operand is true. For instance, in this OR expression (x,O ,, x, 8) ... How does logical OR work?. "Logical or," not to be confused with "bitwise or," is a short-circuiting operator that evaluates to ... "logical or returns true"); } else { puts("logical or returns false"); } } If I call test(0). what will happen?. The test. ... printf("Imput a figure between 1 y 8: "); scanf("%i", &x); } while ( x , 1 ,, x , 8 ); // Why this expression write in this way ...
... logical AND ,, logical OR ! logical NOT [ ... ] test operator - inside can be any arithmetic expression ,/code, Example of ... should be a valid logical expression. The logical operators that can be used in expr: ,code, == equal != not equal =~ regular ... Example: ,code c, sl_send_reply(404, Not found); exit; ,/code, ==== Expressions ==== An expression is an association group ... Arithmetic expressions can be used in condition expressions. ,code, if( $var(a) & 4 ) log(var a has third bit set\n); ,/code ...
can be used to group items into a single logical item. *. A bracket expression [...]. specifies a character class, just as in ... Regular Expressions. 9.7.3. POSIX. Regular Expressions. There are three separate approaches to pattern matching provided by ... expression returns true if the string. matches the supplied pattern. . (As expected, the NOT LIKE. expression returns false if ... Matches regular expression, case insensitive. thomas ~* .*Thomas.*. !~. Does not match regular expression, case sensitive. ...
They will offer text, date-time, mathematical, logical and conversion operations. But this is not all. A unique opportunity ... This item will allow the end user to open the expression editor and easily make a complex expression at run time. In addition, ... we are going to equip RadGridView with an Expression Editor. This powerful editor will allow you to build complex expressions ... If you think this is enough for a tool like an expression editor, we dont! On top of all the features described above, ...
Inner participation leads to outward expression. The outward can also spark the inward. The former, however, has logical ...
Illustrate the following logical expression to its equivalent logical curcuit. ... Illustrate the following logical expression to its equivalent logical curcuit.View attachment 109323 ... Your expressions use four operators. What are they? Three are pretty standard for AND, IOR, and XOR. Whats the fourth for? ... So now we have 3 expressions. What have you been taught about logic gates and functions?. Re-read item 1 of post #2. ...
  • A comparison operator compares its operands and returns a logical value based on whether the comparison is true. (mozilla.org)
  • For example, use the Relational Operator block to evaluate the expression outside of the If block or add the tunable parameter as an input to the If block. (mathworks.com)
  • Arithmetic Operators and Numerical Expressions. (pearson.com)
  • port executes when its associated expression evaluates to true. (mathworks.com)
  • If the language supports expressions with side effects but does not specify short-circuit evaluation, then a further distinction exists about which expression evaluates first-if the language guarantees any specific order (bear in mind that the conditional also counts as an expression). (wikipedia.org)
  • expr) where ids are a space separated list of identifiers evaluates to function in which the ids are bound in body expressions. (racket-lang.org)
  • subtraction is left associative so Perl evaluates the expression left to right. (cpan.org)
  • Chapter 9: Expressions. (wrox.com)
  • Conditional assignments are discussed in detail in section Conditional Assignments in chapter Conditional Expressions, Assignments and Equations . (gams.com)
  • A complete and detailed list of operators and expressions is also available in the reference . (mozilla.org)
  • They include variables, quote and quote-like operators, any expression in parentheses, and any function whose arguments are parenthesized. (cpan.org)
  • that look like compound statements, but aren't--they're just TERMs in an expression--and thus need an explicit termination when used as the last item in a statement. (cpan.org)
  • Statements and Expressions. (informit.com)
  • Expression Statements. (wrox.com)
  • Logical assignment operators , combining logical operators and assignment expressions. (infoworld.com)
  • Underlying this proposal is the reasoning that there are a dozen mathematical assignment operators but none for often-used logical operators. (infoworld.com)
  • This package provides infix notation for writing mathematical expressions. (racket-lang.org)
  • Some philosophers and linguists treat descriptions as referential expressions, others have treated them as quantificational expressions, and some have treated them as predicational expressions. (stanford.edu)
  • For more complex assignments, the destructuring assignment syntax is a JavaScript expression that makes it possible to extract data from arrays or objects using a syntax that mirrors the construction of array and object literals. (mozilla.org)
  • Other languages have borrowed syntax from Perl, particularly its regular expression extensions. (cpan.org)
  • is a ternary operator that is part of the syntax for basic conditional expressions in several programming languages . (wikipedia.org)
  • From this we can extract components of the logical, philosophical and linguistic perspectives on vagueness. (nd.edu)
  • If the language does not permit side-effects in expressions (common in functional languages), then the order of evaluation has no value semantics-though it may yet bear on whether an infinite recursion terminates, or have other performance implications (in a functional language with match expressions, short-circuit evaluation is inherent, and natural uses for the ternary operator arise less often, so this point is of limited concern). (wikipedia.org)
  • This algorithm configures a sequence of logical clauses in conjunctive normal form (CNF), that when are taken together, accept all the positive examples and reject all the negative examples. (lsu.edu)
  • The use of MaBoSS, a tool based on Monte-Carlo kinetic algorithm to perform stochastic simulations on logical models results in model state probabilities, and allows for a semi-quantitative study of the model phenotypes and perturbations. (frontiersin.org)
  • statement, see chapters Dynamic Sets , Conditional Expressions, Assignments and Equations and Programming Flow Control Features respectively. (gams.com)
  • In E. coli the transcriptional regulation of gene expression involves both dedicated regulators binding specific DNA sites with high affinity and also global regulators - abundant DNA architectural proteins of the bacterial chromoid binding multiple low affinity sites and thus modulating the superhelical density of DNA. (arxiv.org)
  • Here we look at the properties of effective networks derived from significant gene expression changes under variation of the two forms of control and find that upon limitations of one type of control (caused e.g. by mutation of a global DNA architectural factor) the other type can compensate for compromised regulation. (arxiv.org)
  • We infer that spatial and temporal variation of DNA superhelicity during the growth cycle coordinates oxygen and nutrient availability with global chromosome structure, thus providing a mechanistic insight into how the organization of a complete bacterial chromosome encodes a spatiotemporal program integrating DNA replication and global gene expression. (pnas.org)
  • Our approach aims to combine the mechanistic insights of logical modeling with multi-omics data integration to provide patient-relevant models. (frontiersin.org)
  • SANDPOINT, Idaho, Oct. 24 (SEND2PRESS NEWSWIRE) - A new book from Logical Expressions, Inc. aims to help new, adopted-cat owners get off on the right "paw. (send2press.com)
  • Logical models of cancer pathways are typically built by mining the literature for relevant experimental observations. (frontiersin.org)
  • The condition is evaluated true or false as a Boolean expression . (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression is true when either the current processor load is more than 5 or the processor load was more than 2 during last 10 minutes. (zabbix.com)
  • The expression is true when number of received bytes on eth0 is more than 100 KB within last 5 minutes. (zabbix.com)
  • Consider a logical system with N entities which assume binary values of either TRUE (1) or FALSE (0). (lsu.edu)
  • By revealing two distinct logical types of control, our approach provides basic insights into both the organizational principles of transcriptional regulation and the mechanisms buffering genetic flexibility. (arxiv.org)
  • We anticipate that the general concept of distinguishing logical types of control will apply to many complex biological networks. (arxiv.org)
  • Combining Different Types in One Expression. (pearson.com)
  • For details on the types of logical conditions, see section Logical Conditions . (gams.com)
  • In this case one might employ a formal language whose symbols represent natural language expression types. (nd.edu)
  • Alternatively, lookup tables can be specified in Perl Compatible Regu- lar Expression form. (postfix.org)
  • Each pattern is a perl-like regular expression. (postfix.org)
  • Furthermore, we describe the known regulators and the role of genetics (especially chromosome 3 and BRCA-Associated Protein 1 (BAP1 status)), and, last but not least, the effect of putative therapeutic treatments on HLA expression. (mdpi.com)
  • This work leads to the use of logical modeling for precision medicine and will eventually facilitate the choice of patient-specific drug treatments by physicians. (frontiersin.org)
  • You can use the supported unit symbols in trigger expressions, for example '5m' (minutes) instead of '300' seconds or '1d' (day) instead of '86400' seconds. (zabbix.com)
  • Expression Values. (wrox.com)
  • This may involve setting limits, explaining why a certain behavior is wrong and what can be done instead, discussing values, and using distraction, time-out, and natural and logical consequences. (webmd.com)
  • References to logical concepts are detected by a text processing procedure by detection of descriptors, e.g., names, also including abbreviations, from a hierarchical dictionary. (google.ca)
  • We present here a novel framework, referred to as PROFILE, to tailor logical models to a particular biological sample such as a patient tumor. (frontiersin.org)
  • We show that the highly conserved spatial ordering of relevant genes along the chromosomal replichores largely corresponds both to their temporal expression patterns during growth and to an inferred gradient of DNA superhelical density from the origin to the terminus. (pnas.org)
  • The only kind of simple statement is an expression evaluated for its side-effects. (cpan.org)
  • In other words, list operators tend to gobble up all arguments that follow, and then act like a simple TERM with regard to the preceding expression. (cpan.org)
  • The reason that philosophers find these apparently simple expressions so intriguing is that choices made about their proper logical analysis have repercussions that extend far beyond the philosophy of language and philosophy of logic. (stanford.edu)
  • The method includes a procedure to create domain-specific hierarchical dictionaries for logical concepts in a given domain. (google.ca)
  • These elements build on existing SQL to allow flexible and powerful calculation expressions. (oracle.com)
  • Some recent work recent work in linguistics has even called into question the idea that definite and indefinite determiners correspond to logical elements in the analysis of the logical form of natural language. (stanford.edu)
  • An abnormal expression of HLA Class I may influence cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) as well as Natural Killer (NK) cell responses. (mdpi.com)
  • 1. One might want to investigate the meanings of natural language expressions. (nd.edu)
  • inside a string or regular expression. (cpan.org)
  • The regular expression can contain whitespace. (postfix.org)