Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Myocardial Stunning: Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Connexin 43: A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Myoblasts, Cardiac: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial: Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.Ventricular Myosins: Isoforms of MYOSIN TYPE II, specifically found in the ventricular muscle of the HEART. Defects in the genes encoding ventricular myosins result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Inbred C57BLRegeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Tissue Survival: The span of viability of a tissue or an organ.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Excitation Contraction Coupling: A process fundamental to muscle physiology whereby an electrical stimulus or action potential triggers a myocyte to depolarize and contract. This mechanical muscle contraction response is regulated by entry of calcium ions into the cell.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Isolated Noncompaction of the Ventricular Myocardium: Rare congenital cardiomyopathies characterized by the lack of left ventricular myocardium compaction. The noncompaction results in numerous prominent trabeculations and a loose myocardial meshwork (spongy myocardium) in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Heterogeneous clinical features include diminished systolic function sometimes associated with left ventricular dilation, that presents either neonatally or progressively. Often, the RIGHT VENTRICLE is also affected. CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE; PULMONARY EMBOLISM; and ventricular ARRHYTHMIA are commonly seen.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Diacetyl: Carrier of aroma of butter, vinegar, coffee, and other foods.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Connectin: A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.Gap Junctions: Connections between cells which allow passage of small molecules and electric current. Gap junctions were first described anatomically as regions of close apposition between cells with a narrow (1-2 nm) gap between cell membranes. The variety in the properties of gap junctions is reflected in the number of CONNEXINS, the family of proteins which form the junctions.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.IodobenzenesGene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-1 RECEPTORS.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Endomyocardial Fibrosis: A condition characterized by the thickening of the ventricular ENDOCARDIUM and subendocardium (MYOCARDIUM), seen mostly in children and young adults in the TROPICAL CLIMATE. The fibrous tissue extends from the apex toward and often involves the HEART VALVES causing restrictive blood flow into the respective ventricles (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE).Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Calcineurin: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Cell SeparationGene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Benzophenanthridines: Compounds of four rings containing a nitrogen. They are biosynthesized from reticuline via rearrangement of scoulerine. They are similar to BENZYLISOQUINOLINES. Members include chelerythrine and sanguinarine.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Geum: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. Members contain TRITERPENES.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Actinin: A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Decanoic Acids: 10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Heart Arrest, Induced: A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
Direct conversion of quiescent cardiomyocytes to pacemaker cells by expression of Tbx18. Nature Biotechnology. 31: 54-62. Y-F. ... Formation of the Sinus Node Head and Differentiation of Sinus Node Myocardium Are Independently Regulated by Tbx18 and Tbx3. ... Direct conversion of quiescent cardiomyocytes to pacemaker cells by expression of Tbx18. Nature Biotechnology. 31: 54-62. Tung ... Direct conversion of quiescent cardiomyocytes to pacemaker cells by expression of Tbx18. Nature Biotechnology. 31: 54-62. ...
Cardiomyocytes are the basis for the correct architectural scheme of the heart, and if defects arise in these structures, ... Transcription factors GATA4 and NKX2-5 have been shown to physically interact with TBX20 and enhance gene expression. Tbx2 was ... shown to be directly repressed by Tbx20 in the myocardium. Analysis of data from genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation ... Homozygous conditional cardiomyocyte Tbx20 knockout adult mice died within 15 days after knockout induction. Mice hearts ...
... expression shifts to a lower levels in atria and higher levels in ventricular myocardium. S100A1 has shown to be a ... preclinical models and human cardiomyocytes, and thus shows great promise for clinical trials. Reduced expression of this ... Remppis A, Greten T, Schäfer BW, Hunziker P, Erne P, Katus HA, Heizmann CW (Oct 1996). "Altered expression of the Ca(2+)- ... Zimmer DB, Chessher J, Wilson GL, Zimmer WE (Dec 1997). "S100A1 and S100B expression and target proteins in type I diabetes". ...
"Developmental expression of myostatin in cardiomyocytes and its effect on foetal and neonatal rat cardiomyocyte proliferation ... Physiologically, minimal amounts of cardiac myostatin are secreted from the myocardium into serum, having a limited effect on ... "Angiotensin II activates myostatin expression in cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes via p38 MAP kinase and myocyte enhance ... "Insulin-like growth factor-1 mediates stretch-induced upregulation of myostatin expression in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes". ...
Increased Nox2 expression in human cardiomyocytes after acute myocardial infarction. Journal of Clinical Pathology. 56: 194-199 ... When taken up by macrophages in the myocardium following a MI, the nanoparticles degraded in the acidic environment of the ... Increased Nox2 expression in human cardiomyocytes after acute myocardial infarction. Journal of Clinical Pathology. 56: 194-199 ... Khaper, N., Kaur, K., Li, T., Farahmand, F. and P.K. Singal (2003). Antioxidant enzyme gene expression in congestive heart ...
Work comparing the differential gene expression of scarless healing MRL mice and a poorly-healing C57BL/6 mouse strain, ... However, this may be an important target for regenerative medicine as it implies that regeneration of cardiomyocytes, and ... Even in adult myocardium following infarction, proliferation is only found in around 1% of myocytes around the area of injury, ... Torok MA, Gardiner DM, Shubin NH, Bryant SV (August 1998). "Expression of HoxD genes in developing and regenerating axolotl ...
Song W, Majka SM, McGuire PG (1999). "Hepatocyte growth factor expression in the developing myocardium: evidence for a role in ... melanocytes and neonatal cardiomyocytes. HGF expression is restricted to cells of mesenchymal origin. MET transcription is ... Local and systemic expression of uncleavable HGF inhibits tumor growth and, more importantly, prevents metastasis. Decoy MET ... Both HGF and MET receptor mRNAs are co-expressed in cardiomyocytes from E7.5, soon after the heart has been determined, to E9.5 ...
... expression is developmentally regulated in both cardiac and skeletal muscle and is thought to be critical to ... Telethonin, as well as TNNI3, MYBPC3 and MYOM2 are phosphorylated by PKD in cardiomyocytes, and this leads to a reduction in ... in areas localized to T-tubule membranes surrounding Z-lines in the inner myocardium. In addition, Telethonin interacts with ... Telethonin forms a complex with MLP at Z-discs, which constitutes part of the cardiomyocyte stretch sensory mechanism. It has ...
Even in adult myocardium following infarction, proliferation is only found in around 1% of myocytes around the area of injury, ... By comparing the differential gene expression of scarless healing MRL mice and a poorly-healing C57BL/6 mouse strain, 36 genes ... However, this may be an important target for regenerative medicine as it implies that regeneration of cardiomyocytes, and ... Himeno, Y.; Engelman, R. W.; Good, R. A. (1992). "Influence of calorie restriction on oncogene expression and DNA synthesis ...
Expression of a mutant form of N-cadherin harboring a large deletion in the extracellular domain inhibited the function of ... Hertig CM, Eppenberger-Eberhardt M, Koch S, Eppenberger HM (January 1996). "N-cadherin in adult rat cardiomyocytes in culture. ... resulting in defects in trabecular formation within the myocardium. In cardiac muscle, N-cadherin is found at intercalated disc ... Mice with altered expression of N-cadherin and/or E-cadherin showed a dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype, likely due to ...
2010). "miR-1/miR-206 regulate Hsp60 expression contributing to glucose-mediated apoptosis in cardiomyocytes". FEBS Lett. 584 ( ... Bostjancic E, Zidar N, Stajner D, Glavac D (2010). "MicroRNA miR-1 is up-regulated in remote myocardium in patients with ... and expression of EVI1 is significantly correlated with the expression of miR-1-2 and miR-133-a-1 in established cell lines and ... Expression of miR-1 but not miR-133a gave transcriptional profiles that were consistent with a strong promyogenic influence on ...
... and EphrinB2 expression. Notch signaling sustains immature cardiomyocyte proliferation in mammals and zebrafish. The downstream ... a subset of endocardial cells lining the AV canal are activated by signals emanating from the myocardium and by ... The expression of elements of the Notch signaling pathway have been found in the developing pancreas, suggesting that Notch ... "REX-1 expression and p38 MAPK activation status can determine proliferation/differentiation fates in human mesenchymal stem ...
... and expression of Sox4 in cushions and myocardium. Foxp1 is also an important gene in muscle development of the esophagus and ... and cardiomyocyte proliferation increase and defective differentiation. These defects, caused by Foxp1 inactivation, lead to ... The expression of FOXP1 was also implicated in the biology of B cell malignancies, and is regulated by non-coding RNA (miRNA) ... Fox SB, Brown P, Han C, Ashe S, Leek RD, Harris AL, Banham AH (2004). "Expression of the forkhead transcription factor FOXP1 is ...
CPCs derived from iPSCs were shown to engraft into the adult myocardium and robustly differentiate into cardiomyocytes with ... Briefly, eCSCs have been first identified through the expression of c-kit, the receptor of the stem cell factor and the absence ... With the myocardium now recognized as a tissue with limited regenerating potential, harbouring eCSCs that can be isolated and ... Evidence from a genetic fate-mapping study that stem cells refresh adult mammalian cardiomyocytes after injury. Nat Med. 2007 ...
Both Klf4 & Klf5 proteins act on the Klf4 promoter where Klf4 increases expression and Klf5 decreases expression of Klf4 mRNA. ... Little is known of the Klfs in the myocardium. Klf5 activates the promoter of the hypertrophic agonist platelet derived growth ... Klf5 is itself regulated by the immediate early gene egr-1 in VSMCs, which, if similarly regulated in the cardiomyocyte, places ... It dramatically represses SRF/myocardin-induced activation of gene expression, and directly inhibits myocardin gene expression ...
"Increased expression of cytoskeletal, linkage, and extracellular proteins in failing human myocardium". Circulation Research. ... "The absence of desmin leads to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac dilation with compromised systolic function". Journal of ... In human heart failure, desmin expression is upregulated, which has been hyopthesized to be a defense mechanism in an attempt ... Cardiac tissue also exhibited progressive necrosis and calcification of the myocardium. A separate study examined this in more ...
Zheng Q, Chen P, Xu Z, Li F, Yi XP (October 2013). "Expression and redistribution of β-catenin in the cardiac myocytes of left ... Studies in a model of adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes have shown that the appearance and distribution of beta-catenin is ... Mice lacking beta-catenin had no overt phenotype in the left ventricular myocardium; however, mice harboring a stabilized form ... Navarro P, Lozano E, Cano A (August 1993). "Expression of E- or P-cadherin is not sufficient to modify the morphology and the ...
... expression during cardiac development has been shown to be essential to proper atrioventricular (AV) formation and ... GATA4 is expressed in both embryo and adult cardiomyocytes where it functions as a transcriptional regulator for many cardiac ... and hypoplasia of the ventricular myocardium. As seen from the abnormalities from deletion of GATA4, it is essential for ... 1997). "Angiotensin II type1a receptor gene expression in the heart: AP-1 and GATA-4 participate in the response to pressure ...
... resulting in atrial cardiomyocytes that behave as ventricular cardiomyocytes. In disease models, ALC-2 expression in some ... "Myosin light chain 2a and 2v identifies the embryonic outflow tract myocardium in the developing rodent heart". The Anatomical ... Expression of ALC-2 has been shown to correlate with expression of alpha-myosin heavy chain in cardiac atria of non-human ... ALC-2 expression in adult murine hearts is cardiac-specific throughout embryonic days 8-16, and from day 12 and on is ...
... inhibition of PKCε translocation via a peptide inhibitor increases cardiomyocyte size and expression of hypertrophic gene panel ... PKCε translocates to cardiac muscle sarcomeres and modulates contractility of the myocardium. PKCε binds RACK2 at Z-lines with ... Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein ... Actin-capping protein, CapZ appears to affect the localization of PKCε to Z-lines and modulates the cardiomyocyte response to ...
... is one of the key regulators of embryonic stem cells differentiation into cardiomyocyte vs. neuronal fate. Expression ... and in the myocardium of the developing heart. Though no specific defect has been formally associated with mutations in Cripto ... "CRIPTO1 expression in EGFR-mutant NSCLC elicits intrinsic EGFR-inhibitor resistance". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. ...
Zheng Q, Chen P, Xu Z, Li F, Yi XP (Oct 2013). "Expression and redistribution of β-catenin in the cardiac myocytes of left ... "Stabilization of beta-catenin by a Wnt-independent mechanism regulates cardiomyocyte growth". Proceedings of the National ... "Stabilised beta-catenin in postnatal ventricular myocardium leads to dilated cardiomyopathy and premature death". Basic ... Navarro P, Lozano E, Cano A (Aug 1993). "Expression of E- or P-cadherin is not sufficient to modify the morphology and the ...
It was also shown that the mRNA expression of M-protein is exquisitely sensitive to thyroid hormone (T3); M-protein expression ... M-protein fragments generated via cleavage by matrix metalloproteinase 2 in left ventricular myocardium have been identified as ... and siRNA reduction of M-protein in neonatal cardiomyocytes showed that the absence of M-protein causes significant contractile ... suggesting different regulatory mechanisms for expression quantity and temporal appearance. In cardiac muscle, expression of M- ...
"Survival and development of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes transplanted into adult myocardium". J Mol Cell Cardiol. 34: 107-116. ... Expression of concern' about the paper. Subsequently, another preclinical study also raised doubts on the rationale behind ... 2009). "Human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells differentiate into functional mature cardiomyocytes: an in vitro model for ... Presently, the success of adult stem cells in regenerating human myocardium is just a fraction of what it could be. Three major ...
Over-expression of the C-terminal truncated cardiac TnI (cTnI1-192) in transgenic mouse heart resulted in a phenotype of ... The half-life of cTnI in adult cardiomyocytes is estimated to be ~3.2 days and there is a pool of unassembled cardiac TnI in ... Cardiac TnI is exclusively expressed in the myocardium and is thus a highly specific diagnostic marker for cardiac muscle ... Armour KL, Harris WJ, Tempest PR (Sep 1993). "Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the cDNA encoding human cardiac ...
The striated cells of cardiac and skeletal muscles are referred to as muscle fibers. Cardiomyocytes are the muscle fibres ... Staron, Robert S.; Johnson, Peter (November 1993). "Myosin polymorphism and differential expression in adult human skeletal ... Specialized cardiomyocytes located in the sinoatrial node are responsible for generating the electrical impulses that control ... "Does anyone know why skeletal muscle fibers have peripheral nuclei, but the cardiomyocytes not? What are the functional ...
ErbB4 expression in cardiomyocytes is required for rNRG1-stimulated cardiomyocyte cell cycling. We showed previously that adult ... rNRG1 induced cardiomyocyte proliferation in myocardium from infants with heart disease who were less than 6 months of age. Our ... 7. rNRG1 stimulates cardiomyocyte cycling in myocardium from infants with heart disease (younger than 6 months of age).. For ... Neuregulin stimulation of cardiomyocyte regeneration in mice and human myocardium reveals a therapeutic window ...
Myocardium / cytology, metabolism*. Nuclease Protection Assays. Phorbol Esters / pharmacology. Promoter Regions, Genetic / drug ... Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects, physiology. Humans. Imidazoles / pharmacology. Interleukin-1 / pharmacology. ...
Changes of Hsp70 expression in myocardium and cardiomyocytes under stress. Compared with the control, the results from Western ... A, B) Upregulation of Fas expression in myocardium of stressed rats and cardiomyocytes treated with corticosterone (CORT). The ... Rats and cardiomyocytes were treated with preheating to activate inducible Hsp70 expression before stress as in our previous ... Here, we observed the change of Hsp70 expression in rat myocardium under stress and explored the protective effect of Hsp70 on ...
Highly enriched populations of cardiomyocytes and their replicating precursors can be obtained, suitable for use in a variety ... Differentiated cells bear cell surface and morphologic markers characteristic of cardiomyocytes, and a proportion of them ... This invention provides populations human cells of the cardiomyocyte lineage. The cells are obtained by causing cultures of ... Expression of the early cardiomyocyte-associated gene GATA-4 was also improved under these conditions. The effect on α-MHC and ...
VP2-TSTA-fluc into infarcted mouse myocardium led to persistent HIF-1?-VP2 expression for 4 weeks, even though it improved ... Transfection of cultured HL-1 cardiomyocytes with pcTnT-HIF-1?-VP2-TSTA-fluc led to a strong correlation between FLuc and HIF-1 ... which allows modulation of transcriptionally targeted gene expression in the myocardium.We constructed a tTSTA plasmid vector ( ... Mean CBLuc expression of treated endothelial cells in culture was 20-fold higher with cationic than with neutral MBs (219.0 ...
Rationale: After a myocardial infarction, necrosed cardiomyocytes are replaced by fibrotic tissue. Subsequent thinning and ... Abstract 1604: Improved Cardiac Function after Expression of the Human Elastin Gene in the Infarcted Myocardium. Shu-Hong Li, ... Abstract 1604: Improved Cardiac Function after Expression of the Human Elastin Gene in the Infarcted Myocardium ... Abstract 1604: Improved Cardiac Function after Expression of the Human Elastin Gene in the Infarcted Myocardium ...
Expression profile of Meis1 in cardiomyocytes. Top row, Meis1 expression is absent at P1. Middle and bottom rows, nuclear ... Normal sarcomeric structure of Meis1 KO myocardium (bottom right). Graph shows quantification of the number of pH3+ TnnT2+ ... h, Immunostaining showing expression of Aurora B in Meis1 KO cardiomyocytes at P14 and quantification of the number of Aurora B ... d, qRT-PCR showing knockdown of Meis1 in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes using Meis1 siRNA. e, Cardiomyocyte mitosis following ...
Core 5. Myocardium: Function and FailureSession Title: Hot Topics in Cardiac Metabolism ... Abstract 17890: Cardiomyocyte-Specific ATGL Over-Expression Prevents Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction in Female Mice. ... Abstract 17890: Cardiomyocyte-Specific ATGL Over-Expression Prevents Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction in Female Mice ... To do this, wild type (WT) mice and mice with cardiomyocyte-specific ATGL over-expression (MHC-ATGL) received weekly ...
Heat-shock-induced bmp2b expression rescued endocardial nfatc1 expression in hand2 mutants and in myocardium-depleted embryos. ... The endocardium develops in tight association with cardiomyocytes. To test for a potential role of the myocardium in ... which resulted in the loss of endocardial nfatc1 expression. However, endocardial cells were present and retained expression of ... Myocardium and BMP signaling are required for endocardial differentiation Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
The metabolic myocardium is an omnivore and utilizes various carbon substrates to meet its energetic demand. While the adult ... KLF15 and PPARα Cooperate to Regulate Cardiomyocyte Lipid Gene Expression and Oxidation. Domenick A. Prosdocimo,1,2 Jenine E. ... α-mediated gene expression and lipid oxidation in cardiomyocytes. As such, this study establishes a molecular module involving ... α operate in a coordinated fashion to regulate myocardial gene expression requisite for lipid oxidation. In the current study, ...
... mediated gene expression and lipid oxidation in cardiomyocytes. As such, this study establishes a molecular module involving ... operate in a coordinated fashion to regulate myocardial gene expression requisite for lipid oxidation. In the current study, we ... The metabolic myocardium is an omnivore and utilizes various carbon substrates to meet its energetic demand. While the adult ... The metabolic myocardium is an omnivore and utilizes various carbon substrates to meet its energetic demand. While the adult ...
Analysis of cardiomyocytes isolated from CFKO mice showed increased length but not width. The myocardium of CFKO mice exhibited ... We found that Tg IL-13 expression in the lung led to potent activation of ERK1/2 but not JNK1/2 or p38. ERK1/2 activation also ... PDGF-BB induced cardiomyocyte Akt phosphorylation in a time- and dose-dependent manner and prevented apoptosis via PI3K/Akt ... Although adipose tissue expression and circulating concentrations of CCL2 (also known as MCP1), a high-affinity ligand for CCR2 ...
In 1996, we reported connexin expression and GJIC in mouse ES cells. Because a substantial number of papers on these subjects ... In 1996, we reported connexin expression and GJIC in mouse ES cells. Because a substantial number of papers on these subjects ... ES cells and iPS cells also provide useful models to study connexin expression and gap-junctional intercellular communication ( ... have been published since our report, this Mini Review summarizes currently available data on connexin expression and GJIC in ...
... myocardium and that this subpopulation turns off amhc expression and adopts a ventricular gene expression signature after the ... Transiently amhc+ cardiomyocytes populate the ventricular apex. (A) Surface myocardium of a 7 dpf heart from an amhc:CreER; ... To define a possible developmental window for cardiomyocyte gene expression plasticity, we treated amhc:CreER; priZm embryos ... Examples of individual cardiomyocytes in the atrium (A) are outlined in white. Individual cardiomyocytes in the ventricle (V) ...
Disruption of this gradient is a hallmark of diseased myocardium and predisposes to ventricular arrhythmias (7, 9). Prior work ... Loss of H3K4 methylation destabilizes gene expression patterns and physiological functions in adult murine cardiomyocytes. Adam ... Reducing H3K4me3 marks in differentiated cardiomyocytes was sufficient to alter gene expression profiles. One gene regulated by ... Differential gene expression was confirmed by qPCR for selected genes (Figure 2A). Gene expression analysis was also performed ...
Switches in cardiac muscle gene expression as a result of pressure and volume overload. Am J Physiol. 1992;262:R364-R369. ... a, lanes 1 to 5 show Coomassie blue stained 5% to 20% gradient SDS-PAGE of rat skeletal muscle (lane 1), rat myocardium (lane 2 ... A Subpopulation of Cardiomyocytes Expressing α-Skeletal Actin Is Identified by a Specific Polyclonal Antibody. Sophie Clément, ... α-Skeletal actin expression in myocardial cells close to a fibrotic area in a hypertensive rat. Adjacent sections were stained ...
... and the cardiomyocyte diameter in human hearts after left-ventricular assist device (LVAD) support. BACKGROUND: Remodeling in ... Reversal of metallothionein expression is different throughout the human myocardium after prolonged left-ventricular mechanical ... The preferential reduction of MT-positive vacuolized cardiomyocytes in the sub-endocardium is comparable with the concept of ... cells were mainly located sub-endocardially in vacuolized cardiomyocytes and in small vessels throughout the myocardium. During ...
hPSCs derived cardiomyocytes including ventricular and atrial myocytes have have become important fordeveloping new treatment ... A specific marker for ventricle and atrial cardiomyocytes is found through the expression pattern of MYL2/MLC-2v and MYL7/MLC- ... The muscular walls of the heart, also known as the myocardium, are formed from atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes. ... Atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes have differential gene expression patterns concerning, for example, transcription factors ...
Cardiomyocytes Right Atrium * Cardiomyocytes Myocardium * Ventricular Septum Cells Interventricular Septum * Cardiomyocytes ... Protein Expression for TBX5 Gene. See protein expression from ProteomicsDB, MOPED, PaxDb, and MaxQB ... BMAL1-CLOCK,NPAS2 activates circadian gene expression. YAP1- and WWTR1 (TAZ)-stimulated gene expression ... mRNA expression in embryonic tissues and stem cells from LifeMap Discovery. *span" data-trigger="SectionLoaded"> Heart ( ...
Torrado M et al. Pitx2c is reactivated in the failing myocardium and stimulates myf5 expression in cultured cardiomyocytes. ... Lv Y et al. TGF-ß1 combined with Sal-B promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells. Exp Ther Med 15: ... Cohen JE et al. An innovative biologic system for photon-powered myocardium in the ischemic heart. Sci Adv 3:e1603078 (2017). ... Shi H et al. Hiding inside? Intracellular expression of non-glycosylated c-kit protein in cardiac progenitor cells. Stem Cell ...
In animal models, there is ample evidence that polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) infiltrating infarcted myocardium contribute ... Objective: Impaired perfusion of the myocardium induces a local inflammatory response. ... Upregulation of ICAM-1 on cardiomyocytes in jeopardized human myocardium during infarction. *Niessen H ... on myofibers of infarcted myocardium. This expression only occurred in parts that stained positive for complement. PMN ...
Second, inhibition of NOX2 expression attenuates oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in hypoxia-induced cardiomyocytes ... Oxygen free radical release in human failing myocardium is associated with increased activity of rac1-GTPase and represents a ... Increased Nox2 expression in human cardiomyocytes after acute myocardial infarction. Journal of clinical pathology. 2003;56:194 ... Ischemia induces nuclear NOX2 expression in cardiomyocytes and subsequently activates apoptosis. Apoptosis: an international ...
SDF-1alpha expression was decreased in eNOS(-/-) but increased in eNOS-Tg cardiomyocytes following A/R and in the myocardium ... Upregulation of Corin Gene Expression in Hypertrophic Cardiomyocytes and Failing Myocardium American Journal of Physiology. ... Cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes showed basal COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. In response to LPS, COX-2 expression ... Deficiency in TIMP-3 decreased p27 expression and increased cardiomyocyte proliferation in cardiomyocytes and neonatal hearts. ...
Finally, human myocardium with extensive fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy have shown substantial immunoreactivity for ... Ang II has been shown to increase osteopontin mRNA expression in fresh samples of human myocardium.20 Interestingly, it has ... In response to mechanical and/or metabolic stress the myocardium undergoes structural remodeling involving cardiomyocyte ... Myocardial osteopontin expression coincides with the development of heart failure. Hypertension. 1999; 33: 663-670. ...
The myocardial apoptotic index, expression of p-IκBα, and binding activity of NF-κB increased significantly in ADR groups in ... Acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity involved cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In this study, we investigated whether adriamycin induced ... Adriamycin induces myocardium apoptosis through activation of nuclear factor κB in rat and NF-κB activation requires IκBα ... Adriamycin induces myocardium apoptosis through activation of nuclear factor κB in rat. ...
HypertrophyProliferationVitroMyocardial InfarctionMiceIschemic myocardiumDifferentiationNeonatal Rat CardiomyocytesEndothelialRegulator of cardiomyocyteRegenerationRegulatesAdult cardiomyocytesMouse cardiomyocytesGenesVentricular myocardiumInducesH9C2Cardiac functionReprogramming of atrialFibrosis and cardiomyocyteContractileVascular smooth musclHypertrophicKnockoutAtrial fibrillationTerminally differentiatedProgenitor cellZebrafishPhenotypeSignificantlyApoptosis of cardiomyocytesMechanisms of cardiomyocyteDysfunctionMetabolismStemProliferateDifferentiate into cardiomyocytesLeft-ventricularRegenerativeOutflow tractEndogenousInterestinglyRegulationHumanPostnatalNormal myocardiumMetabolic myocardiumDeficient cardiomyocytesEmbryonic cardiomyocytesProtein expressionGene expression patternsMuscular walls of the heartOxidative stressProteinsMyocytes
- Alterations in cardiomyocyte calcium cycling have been shown to play a major role in the pathophysiology of contractile dysfunction, hypertrophy and the progression of heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
- Myoscape KO's showed increased heart weight to tibia length ratios and developed significantly exaggerated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
- During cardiac hypertrophy induced by aortic ligature between the renal arteries, the expressions of α-skeletal actin mRNA and protein were increased. (ahajournals.org)
- 5 An increase in skeletal actin mRNA expression also has been demonstrated in a variety of experimental models of hypertension with consequent myocardial hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
- CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that unloading of the left ventricle during prolonged LVAD support leads to regression of cellular hypertrophy and a decrease of MT expression. (biomedsearch.com)
- In response to mechanical and/or metabolic stress the myocardium undergoes structural remodeling involving cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. (ahajournals.org)
- 1 Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy includes an increase in contractile and embryonic protein content, which appears largely on the activation of transcription of the corresponding cardiac genes that encode these proteins. (ahajournals.org)
- Whereas the role of Ang II in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is well established, 3 emerging experimental and clinical evidence is providing support for the notion that this peptide induces myocardial fibrosis. (ahajournals.org)
- Finally, human myocardium with extensive fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy have shown substantial immunoreactivity for osteopontin. (ahajournals.org)
- In this chapter, the role of PLC isozymes in cardiac hypertrophy as well as some of the mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of PLC isozyme gene expression, protein abundance and activities are discussed. (springer.com)
- On the basis of the available literature, it is suggested that specific PLC isozymes could be involved in the cardiomyocyte response to different hypertrophic stimuli and that modification of the transcriptional regulation of PLC isozymes could also prevent the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and its transition to heart failure. (springer.com)
- Hypertrophic changes in the RV were more pronounced in the placebo group, as evidenced by greater wall thickness by echocardiography ( P = 0.008), increased cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area ( P = 0.001), and increased expression of hypertrophy-related genes, including brain natriuretic peptide, β-myosin heavy chain and myosin light chain. (physiology.org)
- This treatment attenuates remodeling of the myocardium by enhanced neovascularization, reduced inflammation and cardiac hypertrophy, and increased recruitment of endogenous cardiac stem cells. (physiology.org)
- In animal models of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), pressure overload, and LPS-induced dysfunction, IL-18 regulates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and induces cardiac contractile dysfunction and extracellular matrix remodeling. (springer.com)
- Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is associated with multiple pathophysiological cardiovascular conditions. (physiology.org)
- Recent studies have substantiated the finding that oxidants may contribute to the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. (physiology.org)
- Activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3) transcription factor has been shown to result from endocrine inducers of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy such as angiotensin II (ANG II) and serves as an important molecular regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. (physiology.org)
- Our data suggest that hypertrophy inducers ANG II and H 2 O 2 may activate NFAT3 in cardiomyocyte through an AP-1 transcription factor-dependent mechanism. (physiology.org)
- In the myocardium, ANG II has been shown to cause cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. (physiology.org)
- Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is associated with an altered profile of gene expression. (physiology.org)
- Activation of several transcription factors, including the nuclear factor of activated T cells-3 (NFAT3), contributes in part to the changes in gene expression associated with hypertrophy ( 28 , 29 ). (physiology.org)
- In cultured cardiac myocytes MLK3 mediated cGMP-stimulated JNK phosphorylation, and pharmacologic inhibition of MLK3 kinase activity induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. (tufts.edu)
- In response to pressure overload, MLK3-/- mice had worsened cardiac function and increased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. (tufts.edu)
- Loss of HIRA did not perturb heart development, but instead resulted in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and susceptibility to sarcolemmal damage. (biologists.org)
- Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) can modulate chromatin architecture and transcriptional activity, thereby participating in the regulation of cellular responses such as cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. (rupress.org)
- The administration of XJEK significantly improved cardiac dysfunction and abnormal ECG with reduced HW/BW ratio and ameliorated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and collagen deposition compared to MI, which was partly due to the decreased SOD and increased MDA in serum. (biomedcentral.com)
- We show that the mean cardiosomatic index (CSI) of adult HR fish was 34% higher than in LR fish, mainly because of hypertrophy of the compact myocardium. (biologists.org)
- Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy requires a source of Ca 2+ distinct from the Ca 2+ that regulates contraction. (aspetjournals.org)
- Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy downstream of Gq-coupled receptors is mediated specifically by PLC β 1b that is scaffolded onto a SH3 and ankyrin repeat protein 3 (Shank3) complex at the sarcolemma. (aspetjournals.org)
- We conclude that TrpC4 α is selectively involved in mechanisms downstream of PLC β 1b culminating in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and that the hypertrophic response is dependent on the TrpC4 α splice variant-specific sequence that binds to PIP 2 . (aspetjournals.org)
- and PLC β 1b is the only PLC that induces hypertrophy when overexpressed in cardiomyocytes in vitro. (aspetjournals.org)
- Simultaneously, IGF-1 also facilitates the relaxation of blood vessels, protects the ischemic myocardium, promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and enhances myocardial contractility [ 13 - 15 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- In adult mice, the recombinant growth factor neuregulin-1 (rNRG1) stimulates heart regeneration by driving the proliferation of heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). (sciencemag.org)
- Because young mice bear more proliferation-competent cardiomyocytes than do adult animals, Polizzotti et al . (sciencemag.org)
- asked whether rNRG1 might put cardiomyocyte proliferation into overdrive if given to mice during the neonatal period. (sciencemag.org)
- The neonatal mammalian heart is capable of substantial regeneration following injury through cardiomyocyte proliferation. (nih.gov)
- In contrast, overexpression of Meis1 in cardiomyocytes decreased neonatal myocyte proliferation and inhibited neonatal heart regeneration. (nih.gov)
- These results identify Meis1 as a critical transcriptional regulator of cardiomyocyte proliferation and a potential therapeutic target for heart regeneration. (nih.gov)
- To understand the structural divergence of the cardiac chambers, we determined the contributions of individual embryonic cardiomyocytes to the atrium in zebrafish by multicolor fate-mapping and we compare our analysis to the established proliferation dynamics of ventricular cardiomyocytes. (biologists.org)
- Our findings reveal proliferation dynamics and fate decisions of cardiomyocytes that produce the distinct architecture of the atrium. (biologists.org)
- has yielded new insights into the cellular mechanisms by which cardiomyocyte proliferation drives maturation of the zebrafish cardiac ventricle. (biologists.org)
- One such regulatory protein, named nucleostemin, has been studied in the context of stem cells and several cancer cell lines, where expression is associated with proliferation and maintenance of a primitive cellular phenotype. (nih.gov)
- Adult mammalian cardiomyocytes are considered terminally differentiated, incapable of proliferation and irreversibly withdrawn from the cell cycle soon after birth ( 28 , 29 ). (physiology.org)
- Although the adult heart has a limited capacity for myocyte proliferation, increasing the number of remaining cardiomyocytes by activating their proliferative potential via extrinsic factors could result in the repair of damaged myocardium. (physiology.org)
- However, its role in proliferation of cardiomyocyte derived from NPY-pretreated mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and its therapeutic potential in stem cell-mediated therapy for MI has not been explored to date. (physiology.org)
- Here, we have investigated whether NPY can trigger cell-cycle reentry in neonatal or adult cardiomyocytes and increase the proliferation of transplanted MSC that have already differentiated into cardiomyocytes within the infarcted myocardium. (physiology.org)
- Proper function of Tbx20 is essential because it controls other genes that regulate cardiomyocyte proliferation, such as Tbx2 and N-myc1. (wikipedia.org)
- This gene has been implicated in coordinating cardiac proliferation, regional specification and formation of the cardiac chamber Congenital heart diseases involving TBX20 include defects in septation, chamber growth and valvulogenesis and increased Tbx20 expression was shown to cause congenital atrial septal defects, patent foramen ovale and cardiac valve defects. (wikipedia.org)
- Despite the importance of cardiomyocyte proliferation in cardiac development and regeneration, the mechanisms that promote cardiomyocyte cell cycle remain incompletely understood. (nature.com)
- Rest deletion de-represses p21 and inhibits the cardiomyocyte cell cycle and proliferation in embryonic or regenerating hearts. (nature.com)
- By contrast, REST overexpression in cultured cardiomyocytes represses p21 and increases proliferation. (nature.com)
- We further show that p21 knockout rescues cardiomyocyte cell cycle and proliferation defects resulting from Rest deletion. (nature.com)
- In this study, we reveal that suppression of the cell cycle inhibitor gene p21 by REST is critically required during cardiac development and regeneration to maintain cardiomyocyte proliferation. (nature.com)
- The myocardium proliferation rate was significantly decreased and expression of the planar cell polarity protein, Scrib, was reduced. (uwo.ca)
- In conclusion, my thesis is the first to show that Rac1 signaling regulates several pathways, including proliferation, cell survival, gene expression and actin polymerization during embryonic heart development. (uwo.ca)
- In contrast, the myocardial scar was larger in cardiomyocyte‐specific Gata4 knockout ( CM ‐G4‐ KO ) mice after cryoinjury at P0, indicative of impaired regeneration, which was accompanied by reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation and reduced myocardial angiogenesis in CM ‐G4‐ KO mice. (embopress.org)
- Cardiomyocyte proliferation was also diminished in cardiac explants from CM ‐G4‐ KO mice and in isolated cardiomyocytes with reduced GATA 4 expression. (embopress.org)
- Using antibodies, we investigated the expression of stem cell, hypoxia, proliferation and migration biomarkers. (gu.se)
- At the myocardium border in the AVj costaining of the proliferation marker Ki67 with cardiomyocyte nuclei marker PCM1 and cardiac Troponin-T (cTnT) indicated proliferation of small cardiomyocytes. (gu.se)
- In support of our in vivo investigations, miR-297 overexpression was shown to upregulate AGTR1 and CTGF, and increased cell proliferation in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes. (whiterose.ac.uk)
- At least some of the beneficial effects of mIGF1 transgene expression were due to mIGF1 counteracting the strong increase in CTGF expression within cardiomyocytes caused by SRF deficiency, resulting in the blockade of fibroblast proliferation and related myocardial fibrosis. (biologists.org)
- However, the significance of these miRNA and miRNA in general in the regulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation in large mammals, including humans, where the timing of heart development relative to birth is very different than in rodents, is unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
- To determine the involvement of miRNA in the down-regulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation occurring before birth in large mammals, we investigated miRNA and target gene expression in sheep hearts before and after birth. (biomedcentral.com)
- The functions of predicted target genes for the miRNA in four of the six clusters were enriched for aspects of cell division and regulation of cell proliferation suggesting a potential role of these miRNA in regulating cardiomyocyte proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
- The results of this study show that the expression of miR-133a and one of its target genes is consistent with it being involved in the suppression of cardiomyocyte proliferation, which occurs across the last third of gestation in sheep. (biomedcentral.com)
- The expression patterns of the miR-15 family, miR-199a and miR-590 were inconsistent with direct involvement in the regulation cardiomyocyte proliferation in sheep, despite studies in rodents demonstrating that their manipulation can influence the degree of cardiomyocyte proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Hippo-deficient embryos had overgrown hearts with elevated cardiomyocyte proliferation. (sciencemag.org)
- These data uncover a nuclear interaction between Hippo and Wnt signaling that restricts cardiomyocyte proliferation and controls heart size. (sciencemag.org)
- Cardiotrophin-1, a secreted protein expressed at high levels in myocardium during cardiogenesis, has been shown to promote proliferation and survival of embryonic cardiomyocytes, suggesting a role for Cardiotrophin-1 in the activation of gp130 during cardiac development. (novusbio.com)
- Within days in culture, purified cardiomyocytes lost their characteristic electrophysiological properties and striations, flattened and began to divide, as confirmed by proliferation markers and BrdU incorporation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Dedifferentiation of myocytes facilitates proliferation and confers a degree of stemness, including the expression of c-kit and the capacity for multipotency. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- It is common for it to be utilized for in vitro development of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes ( iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes ). (news-medical.net)
- The antisense strategy is an established approach to specifically inhibit target gene expression and has been tested in vitro and in vivo [ 1 , 2 ]. (medsci.org)
- In vitro , TNF-expression was higher in RGS2 -/- cardiomyocytes after LPS stimulation. (uwo.ca)
- In vitro study in H9c2 cardiomyocytes has shown the potential of Rg1 to increase ATP content in the cells. (frontiersin.org)
- Here, we have prospectively identified a population of hESC-derived ROR2 + /CD13 + /KDR + /PDGFRα + cells that give rise to cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro at a clonal level. (pnas.org)
- The aim of this study was to develop a strategy that identified and evaluated the potential of specific miRNAs capable of inducing reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts directly to cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The findings from this study provide the first proof-of-concept that miRNAs have the capability of directly converting fibroblasts to a cardiomyocyte-like phenotype in vitro . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- A number of studies have documented the distinct changes in gene expression that occur in macrophages when they experience hypoxia in vitro (see summary in Table I ⇓ ). These include up-regulation of molecules required for macrophage survival, tissue revascularization (and thus reoxygenation of the ischemic site), and recruitment and activation of more macrophages and/or other inflammatory cells ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The expression pattern of MYL2/MLC-2v and MYL7 /MLC-2a is considered as a specific marker for ventricle and atrial cardiomyocytes, commonly used for in vitro development of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes) . (ptglab.com)
- Zheng B, Wang J, Tang L, Tan C, Zhao Z, Xiao Y, Ge R, Zhu D. Involvement of Rictor/mTORC2 in cardiomyocyte differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells in vitro . (ijbs.com)
- Methods Human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC) and Ea.Hy 926 cells exposed to cyclic mechanical strain (CMS) in vitro were analysed for MCP-1 expression and activation of signalling intermediates. (bmj.com)
- Following in vitro differentiation, BCRP+ cells isolated from human heart biopsy samples (n = 6) showed expression of cardiac troponin T and α-myosin heavy-chain, but no full differentiation into functional beating cardiomyocytes was observed. (rero.ch)
- Expression and regulation of ST2, an interleukin-1 receptor family member, in cardiomyocytes and myocardial infarction. (biomedsearch.com)
- Patients who have had myocardial infarction are consequentially suffering from heart failure and their heart function deteriorates, leading to a significant loss of ventricular cardiomyocytes. (news-medical.net)
- Although there are effective therapies available for common disorders of atrial cardiomyocytes, like atrial fibrillation, loss of ventricular cardiomyocytes as a result of myocardial infarction is unable to be successfully treated. (news-medical.net)
- NOX2 and HIF-1α proteins were increased in cardiomyocytes after acute myocardial infarction. (medsci.org)
- It has been confirmed that NOX2 was expressed in the cardiomyocytes in human heart and increased in the acute myocardial infarction in cardiomyocytes in patients [ 11 - 12 ]. (medsci.org)
- The permanent loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction (MI) often results in heart failure. (physiology.org)
- 1,2 It has been demonstrated in the myocardium from failing human hearts, 3 in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, 4,5 and in association with myocardial infarction. (ahajournals.org)
- Rg1 prevented I/R-elicited insults in myocardium, including myocardial infarction and apoptosis, decreased myocardial blood flow (MBF) and heart function, and alteration in myocardium structure. (frontiersin.org)
- Patients who suffer from cardiac failure by myocardial infarction have deteriorated heart function and a significant loss of ventricular cardiomyocytes. (ptglab.com)
- Therefore, while there are available and effective therapies for commonly occurring disorders of atrial cardiomyocytes such as atrial fibrillation, loss of ventricular cardiomyocytes resulting from myocardial infarction cannot be effectively treated. (ptglab.com)
- Hypertrophic growth of the myocardium is a complex response initiated by pathologic stimuli, including pressure or volume overload, myocardial infarction, and congenital factors. (aspetjournals.org)
- To do this, wild type (WT) mice and mice with cardiomyocyte-specific ATGL over-expression (MHC-ATGL) received weekly intraperitoneal injections of saline or DOX (8mg/kg) for four weeks. (ahajournals.org)
- Surprisingly, the preservation of cardiac function in MHC-ATGL mice following DOX treatment was associated with decreased protein expression of PPARα, Oxpat, CD36, and FATP1 as well as increased phosphorylation of acetyl CoA carboxylase when compared to DOX-treated WT mice, indicating a reduction of fatty acid uptake and subsequent oxidation in the cardiomyocyte. (ahajournals.org)
- To investigate histological similarities and differences in PV cardiomyocyte localization and distribution, we performed comparative light and electron microscopic studies on humans, rats and mice, and generated a transgenic mouse strain. (medsci.org)
- Results on mice (C57BL/6 and BALBc) and rats (Wistar) revealed that cardiomyocytes regularly extend from the hilus along venous vessels into the lung tissue surrounding individual intrapulmonary veins of varying diameters (70-250µm). (medsci.org)
- This fact prompted us to perform a comparative histological and ultrastructural study on the occurrence of cardiomyocytes along PVs in humans, mice and rats. (medsci.org)
- Adult wild-type and RGS2 -/- C57BL/6 mice and neonatal cardiomyocytes were treated with LPS and assessed for inflammatory responses and cardiac function. (uwo.ca)
- Myocardial TNF-α expression was higher in RGS2 -/- mice during endotoxemia. (uwo.ca)
- Results show that TNF-α expression was induced by LPS in wild-type mice, and the response was further enhanced in the heart of RGS2 deficient mice. (uwo.ca)
- Homozygous conditional cardiomyocyte Tbx20 knockout adult mice died within 15 days after knockout induction. (wikipedia.org)
- In order to study the molecular mechanisms that lead to such arrhythmias we utilize a systematic protocol for isolation of atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes from Kv channel ancillary subunit knockout mice. (jove.com)
- Using a conditional Hrt2 null allele, we show that cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Hrt2 in mice results in ectopic activation of atrial genes in ventricular myocardium with an associated impairment of cardiac contractility and a unique distortion in morphology of the right ventricular chamber. (pnas.org)
- Consistent with the atrialization of ventricular gene expression in Hrt2 mutant mice, forced expression of Hrt2 in atrial cardiomyocytes is sufficient to repress atrial cardiac genes. (pnas.org)
- Injection of the COX‐2 product PGE 2 enhances cardiomyocyte replenishment in young mice and recovers cell renewal through attenuating TGF‐β1 signaling in aged mice. (embopress.org)
- PGE2 rescues the cardiomyocyte replenishment capacity that is lost in aged mice. (embopress.org)
- In this study, we determined the consequence of HIRA deficiency in cardiomyocytes in vivo by studying the phenotype of cardiomyocyte-specific Hira conditional-knockout mice. (biologists.org)
- This study aimed to assess the relative expression levels of genes in the RAS pathway in mice conceived using IVF, compared to natural mating with superovulation. (whiterose.ac.uk)
- In addition, the relative expression of candidate genes expressed in the myocardial tissue of newborn, adult and old mice was determined between the IVF and naturally mated populations. (whiterose.ac.uk)
- Results demonstrated that expression of the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and collagen 3 (COL3), in the myocardial tissue of IVF-conceived mice, was elevated at 3 weeks, 10 weeks, and 1.5 years of age, when compared to their non-IVF counterparts. (whiterose.ac.uk)
- Cardiac-specific mIGF1 expression substantially extended the lifespan of SRF mutant mice, markedly improved cardiac functions, and delayed both DCM and HF. (biologists.org)
- We conclude that M 3 -mAChR overexpression reduced the incidence of arrhythmias and mortality after myocardial I/R by protecting the myocardium from ischemia in mice. (springer.com)
- We generated forebrain-specific activin- or follistatin-transgenic mice in which transgene expression is under the control of the Tet-OFF system. (scialert.net)
- Two complementary methods were used: 1) cardiomyocyte purification from rat hearts, and 2) genetic fate mapping in cardiac explants from bi-transgenic mice. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Up-regulation of TLR4 expression has been shown in diabetic mice. (biomedcentral.com)
- This study aimed to delineate the role of TLR4 in myocardial apoptosis, and to block this process through gene silencing of TLR4 in the myocardia of diabetic mice. (biomedcentral.com)
- Treatment of TLR4 siRNA knocked down gene expression as well as diminished its elevation in diabetic mice. (biomedcentral.com)
- We found that TLR4 was up-regulated in the myocardia of STZ-treated diabetic mice (STZ mice), which displayed increased expression of apoptotic genes such as Fas and caspase-3. (biomedcentral.com)
- Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes from catalase mice with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly attenuated or ablated catalase-offered protection against lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although existing treatments such as coronary revascularization could save ischemic myocardium, there are rarely effective treatment measures against necrotic or non-functional myocardium. (nature.com)
- The stem cells' directional differentiation is a long-term and gradual process, but the transplanted cells in ischemic myocardium cannot survive for a long time. (nature.com)
- Previous studies have confirmed that after myocardial ischemia, mRNA and protein expression of enzymes related to glycometabolism played important protective roles in ischemic myocardium 11 . (nature.com)
- and WO 03/020920, with respect to the culturing and genetic alteration of pPS cells, differentiation into cardiomyocyte lineage cells, and use of the differentiated cells. (google.com)
- We further identified bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) as a candidate myocardium-derived signal required for endocardial differentiation. (biologists.org)
- Our results indicate that the myocardium is crucial for endocardial morphogenesis and differentiation, and identify BMP as a signal involved in endocardial differentiation. (biologists.org)
- ES cells and iPS cells also provide useful models to study connexin expression and gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) during cell differentiation and reprogramming. (frontiersin.org)
- Because a substantial number of papers on these subjects have been published since our report, this Mini Review summarizes currently available data on connexin expression and GJIC in ES cells and iPS cells during undifferentiated state, differentiation, and reprogramming. (frontiersin.org)
- TGF-ß1 combined with Sal-B promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells. (abcam.com)
- Aspirin inhibits growth and enhances cardiomyocyte differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. (abcam.com)
- Stem cell-specific proteins and regulatory pathways that determine self-renewal and differentiation have become of fundamental importance in understanding regenerative and reparative processes in the myocardium. (nih.gov)
- Formation of the Sinus Node Head and Differentiation of Sinus Node Myocardium Are Independently Regulated by Tbx18 and Tbx3. (wikipedia.org)
- NPY also induced differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) into cardiomyocytes following transplantation into infarcted myocardium. (physiology.org)
- NPY-induced MSC gene expression, cell migration, tube formation, and endothelial cell differentiation were analyzed. (physiology.org)
- Additionally, MSC-treated myocardium demonstrated increased expression of the antihypertrophy secreted factor, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), and its downstream effector, SMAD 2/3, in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and in the porcine RV myocardium. (physiology.org)
- The myocardium and endocardium arise from fusion of two bilateral fields of cardiac precursor cells in the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (the first heart field), and subsequent recruitment and delayed myocardial differentiation of pharyngeal mesoderm (the second heart field) [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
- To identify new mechanisms regulating CPC differentiation, we used primary and clonally expanded Sca-1+ CPCs from murine adult hearts in homotypic culture or coculture with cardiomyocytes. (jci.org)
- Expression kinetics analysis during homotypic culture differentiation showed downregulation of Wnt target genes concomitant with increased expression of the Wnt antagonist, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1), which is necessary to stimulate CPC differentiation. (jci.org)
- J:94925 Ahn JI, Lee KH, Shin DM, Shim JW, Kim CM, Kim H, Lee SH, Lee YS, Temporal expression changes during differentiation of neural stem cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cell. (jax.org)
- In the present study, we examined a possible link between Rictor expression and cardiomyocyte differentiation of the mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. (ijbs.com)
- Knockdown of Rictor by shRNA significantly reduced the phosphorylation of Akt at serine 473 followed by a decrease in cardiomyocyte differentiation detected by beating embryoid bodies. (ijbs.com)
- Taken together, the results demonstrated that Rictor/mTORC2 might play an important role in the cardiomyocyte differentiation of mES cells. (ijbs.com)
- Knockdown of Rictor resulted in inhibiting ventricular-like myocytes differentiation and induced arrhythmias symptom, which was accompanied by interfering the expression and distribution patterns of cell-cell junction proteins. (ijbs.com)
- Rictor/mTORC2 might become a new target for regulating cardiomyocyte differentiation and a useful reference for application of the induced pluripotent stem cells. (ijbs.com)
- Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells into cardiomyocytes offers an innovative approach to find the new target for regulating the cardiac development and to reveal underlying mechanisms for induced pluripotent stem cell researches. (ijbs.com)
- However, differentiation of mES cells can result in the different lineages, the atrial-, ventricular- and sinus node-like cardiomyocytes without selectivity. (ijbs.com)
- Endocardial progenitors acquire a molecular identity distinct from other vascular endothelial cells and initiate expression of specific genes such as nfatc1 . (biologists.org)
- However, endocardial cells were present and retained expression of general vascular endothelial markers. (biologists.org)
- Cell culture studies have shown that Ang II stimulates osteopontin mRNA expression in cardiac cells, including fibroblasts 9,18 and microvascular endothelial cells. (ahajournals.org)
- The basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor Hairy-related transcription factor 2 (Hrt2) is expressed in ventricular, but not atrial, cardiomyocytes, and in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. (pnas.org)
- Because Hrt2 is expressed in cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells, it is unclear which of these abnormalities reflect cell-autonomous functions of Hrt2 in one particular cell type. (pnas.org)
- The expressions of endothelial NO synthetase (eNOS) expression in serum and cardiac tissues were determined using ELISA assay and immunohistochemistry. (biomedcentral.com)
- Furthermore, BPA increased the expression of phosphorylated eNOS and endothelial tube formation in HUVEC. (diva-portal.org)
- Human cardiomyocytes (CMs) are derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and are now an influential source for cardiac regeneration. (news-medical.net)
- It is proposed from this study that heart regeneration in zebrafish can be attained by transdifferentiation of differentiated atrial cardiomyocytes into ventricular cardiomyocytes. (news-medical.net)
- Stem cell therapy might ameliorate heart failure by promoting cardiomyocyte regeneration and neovascularization, and recruiting resident stem cells. (nature.com)
- Our study reveals a REST-p21 regulatory axis as a mechanism for cell cycle progression in cardiomyocytes, which might be exploited therapeutically to enhance cardiac regeneration. (nature.com)
- By elucidating the REST-p21 genetic mechanism underlying the cell cycle regulation of proliferating cardiomyocytes during cardiac development and regeneration, our study provides an opportunity for developing cell-based therapeutics for heart disease. (nature.com)
- Long thought to act merely passively to protect the myocardium from frictional forces in the pericardial cavity during the enduring contraction and expansion cycles of the heart, it is now considered to be a crucial source of cells and signals that direct myocardial growth and formation of the coronary vasculature during development and regeneration. (mdpi.com)
- Response to cardiac injury is characterized by inadequate cardiomyocyte regeneration and excessive fibrosis resulting in significant impairment of tissue structure and function. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Although self‐renewal ability of adult mammalian heart has been reported, few pharmacological treatments are known to promote cardiomyocyte regeneration after injury. (embopress.org)
- Human cardiomyocytes (CMs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have become an important source for cardiac regeneration. (ptglab.com)
- This study shows that zebrafish heart regeneration can be achieved by transdifferentiation of differentiated atrial cardiomyocytes into ventricular cardiomyocytes (4). (ptglab.com)
- Meis1 regulates postnatal cardiomyocyte cell cycle arrest. (nih.gov)
- Ins(1,4,5)P 3 regulates phospholipase C β1 expression in cardiomyocytes. (springer.com)
- 21 We therefore hypothesized that ET-1 regulates apoptosis in the myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
- Here we show that REST also regulates the cardiomyocyte cell cycle. (nature.com)
- Gene expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that Hippo signaling negatively regulates a subset of Wnt target genes. (sciencemag.org)
- ST6GalNAc I regulates the gene expression of IGF-1 (zeige IGF1 Antikörper ) through STAT5b (zeige STAT5B Antikörper ) activation and plays role in gastric cancer invasion and metastasis. (antikoerper-online.de)
- Meis1 deletion in mouse cardiomyocytes was sufficient for extension of the postnatal proliferative window of cardiomyocytes, and for re-activation of cardiomyocyte mitosis in the adult heart with no deleterious effect on cardiac function. (nih.gov)
- Phospholipase C and cAMP-dependent positive inotropic effects of ATP in mouse cardiomyocytes via P2Y11-like -receptors. (springer.com)
- Recent studies show that macrophages then respond rapidly to the hypoxia present by altering their expression of a wide array of genes. (jimmunol.org)
- Mechanistically, decreased GATA 4 levels caused the downregulation of several pro‐regenerative genes (among them interleukin‐13, Il13 ) in the myocardium. (embopress.org)
- However, the target genes of class IIa HDACs that control inducible cardiac growth and the broader mechanisms whereby these deacetylases modulate locus-specific gene expression within chromatin remain a mystery. (rupress.org)
- The array expression data showed that 1,130 genes were changed with HDAC4 overexpression, of which 815 genes were down-regulated and 315 up-regulated ( Fig. S1 ). (rupress.org)
- Here, we examined the expression of genes associated with Ca 2+ channels using a model of Txn suppression in cardiomyocyte cultures (siRNA and Txn inhibitor) and report that Txn knockdown can cause Ca 2+ overload in the myocardial cytoplasm and release of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca 2+ , which induces ER stress. (rsc.org)
- Our results showed that Txn knockdown could lead to cytosolic Ca 2+ overload through upregulated gene expression of Ca 2+ channel-related genes in the cytoplasmic and ER membranes. (rsc.org)
- The expression of the miR-15 family members was variable with age, however, four of their target genes decreased with age. (biomedcentral.com)
- J:228714 Badeaux AI, Yang Y, Cardenas K, Vemulapalli V, Chen K, Kusewitt D, Richie E, Li W, Bedford MT, Loss of the methyl lysine effector protein PHF20 impacts the expression of genes regulated by the lysine acetyltransferase MOF. (jax.org)
- Furthermore, APS increased the expression of apoptosis‑associated genes B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (BAX), of proteases cysteine‑aspartic acid protease (caspase)‑3 and ‑9, and of cytochrome c. (spandidos-publications.com)
- BPA (≤1 μM) increased the mRNA expression of the proangiogenic genes VEGFR-2, VEGF-A, eNOS, and Cx43 and increased the production of nitric oxide in HUVEC. (diva-portal.org)
- To detect glucose metabolism in global left ventricular myocardium and regional myocardium, combined with assessment of cardiac function, positron emission tomography-computer tomography (PET-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. (nature.com)
- During embryogenesis, Hrt2 is expressed in the ventricular myocardium, but not in the atrial myocardium, and in the cardiac outflow tract and aortic arch arteries ( 5 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
- Using the Cre/loxP system, mouse models with an anterior second heart field (SHF) or ventricular myocardium specific deletion of Rac1 were generated. (uwo.ca)
- Finally, I showed that a Rac1 deficiency in the ventricular myocardium resulted in ventricular noncompaction and defective trabecular development. (uwo.ca)
- Actin polymerization was severely disrupted and cardiomyocytes failed to polarize in E18.5 Rac1 deficient ventricular myocardium. (uwo.ca)
- Here, we show that transduction of ADV-NOX2-AS induces potent silencing of NOX2 in cardiomyocytes, and resulting in attenuation of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. (medsci.org)
- It has been demonstrated that hypoxia also induces ROS generation in myocardium. (medsci.org)
- Objective: Impaired perfusion of the myocardium induces a local inflammatory response. (mendeley.com)
- Adriamycin induces myocardium apoptosis through activation of nuclear factor κB in rat and NF-κB activation requires IκBα degradation. (ovid.com)
- Yet, the means by which hyperglycemia induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes have not been fully understood. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cardiomyocytes (H9C2, ATCC) were cultured at 37°C in complete medium (CM) containing 89% DMEM, 1% penicillin and streptomycin (life Tech) and 10% FBS (Sigma) with 5% CO2. (medsci.org)
- The presence of apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes (H9c2 and neonatal) was evaluated by morphological criteria, electrophoresis of DNA fragments, 4′,6′-diamidine-2′-phenylindole staining, and TUNEL analysis. (ahajournals.org)
- The embryonic rat heart-derived myogenic cell line H9c2 was obtained from American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, Md). Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were prepared from ventricles of 1-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats as described previously. (ahajournals.org)
- NPY directly induced neonatal and adult cardiomyocyte cell-cycle reentry and enhanced the number of differentiated cardiomyocytes from MSC in the infarcted myocardium, which corresponded to improved cardiac function, reduced fibrosis, ventricular remodeling, and increased angiomyogenesis. (physiology.org)
- Cardiomyocyte degeneration gave way to focal replacement fibrosis and impaired cardiac function. (biologists.org)
- Recent research using the atria of zebrafish suggests that the activation of Notch signa-ling as a response to ventricle ablation is essential for the reprogramming of atrial cardiomyocytes into ventricular cardiomyocytes. (news-medical.net)
- Taken together, we have identified a novel modulator of cardiomyocyte L-type calcium channels and contractile function. (ahajournals.org)
- The cardiomyocytes showed the ultrastructure of a normal working myocardium with intact intercalated discs and tightly packed contractile filaments. (medsci.org)
- 7 Because a reduction of contractile material is a prominent feature in heart failure, modification of apoptosis in the myocardium might provide a new therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases. (ahajournals.org)
- Atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes, for example, display distinct gene expression patterns, contractile properties, and hormonal responses required for coordinated cardiac contractility. (pnas.org)
- Despite the mechanisms behind this cardiac deterioration is still unknown, evidences suggest that ER stress-induced cardiomyocytes contractile dysfunction results from PI3K/AKT signaling pathway inhibition, which would be caused by JNK activation. (usp.br)
- The contractile force of the cardiomyocyte is transmitted through the adherens junction, a component of the intercalated disc, enabling the myocardium to function as a syncytium. (biologists.org)
- This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca 2+ properties were assessed 18 h later using an IonOptix edge-detection system. (biomedcentral.com)
- Lethal toxin exposure suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function (suppressed peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/re-lengthening, prolonged duration of shortening/re-lengthening, and impaired intracellular Ca 2+ handling), the effects of which were alleviated by catalase. (biomedcentral.com)
- On the other hand, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA ablated or significantly attenuated lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile anomalies. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our results suggest that catalase is protective against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca 2+ anomalies, possibly through regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial function. (biomedcentral.com)
- Phospholipase C (PLC) is considered to mediate the cardiomyocyte hypertrophic response to norepinephrine. (springer.com)
- Here, we show a novel paradigm whereby select gene loci are subject to inducible regulation through class IIa HDAC binding to nucleoporin 155 (Nup155), which can modulate the hypertrophic growth program in cardiomyocytes. (rupress.org)
- HR hearts had higher mRNA levels of cortisol receptors ( MR , GR1 and GR2 ), increased RCAN1 levels [suggesting enhanced pro-hypertrophic nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) signaling] and increased VEGF gene expression (reflecting increased angiogenesis). (biologists.org)
- Because terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes have exited the cell cycle, histone variants should be utilized for the bulk of chromatin remodeling. (biologists.org)
- For this reason, in terminally differentiated cells, such as cardiomyocytes, which have largely exited the cell cycle, histone variants should be utilized for the bulk of chromatin remodeling ( Rai and Adams, 2013 ). (biologists.org)
- It has long been thought that mammalian cardiomyocytes are terminally-differentiated and unable to proliferate. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Contradicting the prevailing view that they are terminally-differentiated, postnatal mammalian cardiomyocytes are instead capable of substantial plasticity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In this study, we demonstrate that the critical period of stem/progenitor cell‐mediated cardiomyocyte replenishment is initiated within 7 days and saturates on day 10 post‐infarction. (embopress.org)
- The protein levels of brachyury (mesoderm protein), Nkx2.5 (cardiac progenitor cell protein) and α-Actinin (cardiomyocyte biomarker) decreased in Rictor knockdown group during cardiogenesis. (ijbs.com)
- Here we test the hypothesis that mature mammalian cardiomyocytes retain substantial cellular plasticity, including the ability to dedifferentiate, proliferate, and acquire progenitor cell phenotypes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- no co-expression of BCRP and progenitor cell marker Sca-1 or pluripotency markers Oct-3/4, SSEA-3, and SSEA-4 was detected. (rero.ch)
- To test for a potential role of the myocardium in endocardial morphogenesis, we used two different zebrafish models deficient in cardiomyocytes: the hand2 mutant and a myocardial-specific genetic ablation method. (biologists.org)
- As zebrafish mature, atrial wall cardiomyocytes proliferate laterally to generate cohesive patches of diverse shapes and sizes, frequently with dominant clones that comprise 20-30% of the wall area. (biologists.org)
- Here, we used multicolor fate-mapping to visualize and quantify the contributions to zebrafish heart morphogenesis by embryonic atrial cardiomyocytes. (biologists.org)
- This is in contrast to zebrafish and salamander, in which cardiomyocytes retain the ability to proliferate throughout life and can regenerate their heart after significant damage. (biomedcentral.com)
- Additionally, myocardial specific over-expression of Vinculin in a fly strain without the age-related stiffening phenotype (w1118 flies) induced cardiac stiffness indicating a causative role for Vinculin in inducing age-related changes. (stemcellsportal.com)
- Detailed studies of the reprogrammed cells, demonstrated that a single transient transfection of the microRNAs can direct a switch in cell fate as documented by expression of mature cardiomyocyte markers, sarcomeric organization, and exhibition of spontaneous calcium flux characteristic of a cardiomyocyte-like phenotype. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Genetic interaction studies indicated that β -catenin heterozygosity suppressed the Hippo cardiomyocyte overgrowth phenotype. (sciencemag.org)
- In animal models, there is ample evidence that polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) infiltrating infarcted myocardium contribute significantly to infarct size. (mendeley.com)
- The myocardial apoptotic index, expression of p-IκBα, and binding activity of NF-κB increased significantly in ADR groups in dose-dependent manner. (ovid.com)
- In addition, cardiomyocytes occurred significantly more often in right than in left veins, however, never in intrapulmonary veins. (medsci.org)
- Finally, protein expressions of pro-inflammation cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β in the cardiac tissues with XJEK treatment were significantly decreased compared to model. (biomedcentral.com)
- Meanwhile, patch-clamp analysis revealed that shRNA- Rictor significantly increased the number of cardiomyocytes with abnormal electrophysiology. (ijbs.com)
- The results showed that restraint stress led to cardiac dysfunction and structural damage of the myocardium, as well as activation of the Fas pathway. (nih.gov)
- Taken together, our data suggest that chronic reduction in myocardial TG content by cardiomyocyte-specific ATGL over-expression is able to prevent DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction. (ahajournals.org)
- Epigallocatechin gallate reverses cTnI-low expression-induced age-related heart diastolic dysfunction through histone acetylation modification. (abcam.com)
- These findings indicate that the altered expression of RAS in myocardial tissue might contribute to cardiovascular malformation and/or dysfunction in IVF-conceived offspring. (whiterose.ac.uk)
- The exact mechanisms underlying the transition from adaptation to cardiomyocyte dysfunction are still not completely understood. (springer.com)
- We previously demonstrated that Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) is an independent regulator of cardiac lipid metabolism thus raising the possibility that KLF15 and PPAR α operate in a coordinated fashion to regulate myocardial gene expression requisite for lipid oxidation. (hindawi.com)
- Importantly, given the unrelenting demand for mechanical power, the myocardium is endowed with the ability to rapidly adjust its metabolism to substrate availability. (hindawi.com)
- The gene expressions of glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT4), glucose metabolism-related enzymes phosphofructokinase (PFK), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)) and 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70s6k) in BM-MSCs injected areas were up-regulated at week 4 after BM-MSCs transplantation and this was confirmed by Western-blot and immunohistochemistry. (nature.com)
- Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging revealed that myocardial 2-Fluorine-18-Fluoro-2-deeoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake increased after stem cells transplantation 12 , indicating increased glucose metabolism in cardiomyocytes. (nature.com)
- A common feature of all of these conditions is extensive remodeling, a decrease in the rate of aerobic metabolism in the cardiomyocyte, and an increase in cardiac efficiency. (springer.com)
- report the characterization of global gene expression patterns of human hair follicle stem cells after their isolation using sophisticated laser capture techniques to microdissect out bulge cells. (jci.org)
- A detailed understanding of the molecular and functional variances between atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes is helpful in defining novel techniques for applications of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), as well as providing cellular models for research into genetic atrial- or ventricular-related diseases. (news-medical.net)
- Potential therapies could include stimulating the myocytes to divide and adding new cells via pharmacological and genetic manipulations or delivering stem cells to multiply and subsequently differentiate into cardiomyocytes ( 7 ). (physiology.org)
- However, concerns about the maturity and functional heterogeneity of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, 5 the low survival and retention of delivered cells, as well as their potential tumorigenicity still exist 6 , 7 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Stem cell‐derived cardiomyocyte replenishment occurs within 7 days of injury. (embopress.org)
- PGE2 stimulates cardiomyocyte replenishment mediated by cardiac stem cells. (embopress.org)
- These results imply that the majority of replenished cardiomyocytes may be originated from the endogenous stem/progenitor cells. (embopress.org)
- Altogether, these findings indicate different developmental stages of cardiomyocytes below the region dense in stem cell marker expression. (gu.se)
- A proper understanding of the molecular and functional differences between atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes helps to define new strategies not only for embryonic stem cells (ESCs) applications but also to provide cellular models for the study of genetic atrial- or ventricular-related diseases (5). (ptglab.com)
- Many dedifferentiated cardiomyocytes went on to express the stem cell antigen c-kit, and the early cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2.5 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Reversal of metallothionein expression is different throughout the human myocardium after prolonged left-ventricular mechanical support. (biomedsearch.com)
- OBJECTIVES: We examined the distribution of metallothionein (MT), a stress-inducible protein, and the cardiomyocyte diameter in human hearts after left-ventricular assist device (LVAD) support. (biomedsearch.com)
- METHODS: The immunoreactivity for MT and the cardiomyocyte diameter was analyzed in left-ventricular tissue specimens of 17 patients with end-stage heart failure before and after LVAD support. (biomedsearch.com)
- In the present study, we evaluated Nox4 expression and its relationship with myocardial remodelling and LV (left ventricular) function in patients with severe AS (aortic valve stenosis). (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Human cardiomyocytes are derived from proliferating precursors during development, but there is little evidence to support a robust postnatal regenerative capacity ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
- Repopulation of the injured heart with new, functional cardiomyocytes remains a daunting challenge for cardiac regenerative medicine. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- IF of embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) sagittal sections revealed pYap signal in both second heart field (SHF) progenitors and outflow tract and ventricular cardiomyocytes (fig. S1, A to D). Salv CKO hearts had reduced pYAP but no change in total Yap, revealing that Hippo signaling is active in the developing heart and that Salv deletion reduces cardiac Hippo activity (fig. S1, E and F). (sciencemag.org)
- Expression of Hsp70 is an endogenous mechanism by which living cells adapt to stress and the protection of Hsp70 may interfere with the apoptotic machinery in a variety of ways. (nih.gov)
- We first tested for a PKGI-MLK3 protein-protein interaction with endogenous proteins in the myocardium by co-immunoprecipitation. (tufts.edu)
- their target loci in vivo and the mechanisms whereby they integrate their actions over these endogenous loci in cardiomyocyte nuclei remain unknown. (rupress.org)
- 20 Interestingly, it has been shown that myocardial osteopontin expression is markedly attenuated in Ang II-infused rats treated either with adrenalectomy or with the selective aldosterone blocker eplerenone. (ahajournals.org)
- Interestingly, a recent study by Senyo et al reported that ~20% of pre‐existing cardiomyocytes at the border zone undergo cell cycle although among them, only 3.2% of cells complete the cell division (Senyo et al , 2013 ). (embopress.org)
- Thus, we have an incomplete view of how differential regulation of cardiomyocyte division might account for distinct chamber morphologies. (biologists.org)
- However, a paucity of information exists regarding the regulation of specific PLC isozyme gene and -protein expression as well as activities in normal and hypertrophied myocardium. (springer.com)
- Macrophages accumulate in large numbers in such sites and then respond rapidly to the hypoxia present with altered gene expression, thought to be mediated, in part, via their up-regulation of the transcription factors, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) 3 1 and 2 ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Our results suggest that transcriptional regulation by HIRA is crucial for cardiomyocyte homeostasis. (biologists.org)
- Our present study reveals a novel model of regulation for low Txn expression in myocardial injury. (rsc.org)
- miRNA microarray analysis suggests a coordinated and potentially more complex role of multiple miRNA in the regulation of cardiomyocyte quiescence and highlights significant differences between species that may reflect their substantial differences in the timing of this developmental process. (biomedcentral.com)
- This invention provides populations human cells of the cardiomyocyte lineage. (google.com)
- Conclusion: These findings indicate that, in infarcted human myocardium, PMNs are degranulated, possibly upon interaction with ICAM-1 and activated complement. (mendeley.com)
- 18,19 In addition, Ang II has been shown to increase osteopontin mRNA expression in fresh samples of human myocardium. (ahajournals.org)
- They also fuse with genetically abnormal myofibers of muscular dystrophy, cardi omyopathy, or Type II diabetes, transferring their nuclei containing the normal human genome to provide stable, long-term expression of the missing gene products. (scirp.org)
- Increased expression of cytoskeletal, linkage, and extracellular proteins in failing human myocardium. (stemcellsportal.com)
- Further, the potential of hESC-derived cardiovascular lineage cells to functionally couple to human myocardium remains untested and unknown. (pnas.org)
- We observed rare clusters of ROR2 + cells and diffuse expression of KDR and PDGFRα in first-trimester human fetal hearts. (pnas.org)
- We also evaluated human and rodent myocardium in ex-vivo hypoxia?reoxygenation models and did a transcriptomic analysis in myocardial samples from the randomised patients to identify the signalling pathway(s) involved. (docme.ru)
- Ex-vivo analysis of human myocardium revealed an intrinsic morning?afternoon variation in hypoxia?reoxygenation tolerance, concomitant with transcriptional alterations in circadian gene expression with the nuclear receptor Rev-Erb? (docme.ru)
- We used this strategy to construct a comprehensive, antibody-based protein atlas for expression and localization profiles in 48 normal human tissues and 20 different cancers. (mcponline.org)
- We show that a comprehensive atlas of human protein expression patterns in normal and cancer tissues can be created by combining the methods mentioned above. (mcponline.org)
- Razeghi P, Young ME, Alcorn JL, Moravec CS, Frazier OH, Taegtmeyer H (2001) Metabolic gene expression in fetal and failing human heart. (springer.com)
- Cardiomyocytes in the human heart are renewed throughout life . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Methods and results We obtained 55 biopsy samples from human atria and ventricles and used immunohistological analysis to investigate two cardiac cell types, characterized by the expression of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/ABCG2 [for side population (SP) cells] or c-kit. (rero.ch)
- a , qRT-PCR showing increased expression of Meis1 at postnatal day 7 (P7), a time point that coincides with cell cycle arrest of cardiomyocytes. (nih.gov)
- Further, immunostaining showed that REST was expressed in the majority of cardiomyocytes between embryonic day (E) 11.5 and postnatal day (P) 3, whereas the number of REST-expressing cardiomyocytes was drastically reduced from P3 to P28 (Supplementary Fig. 1c, d ). (nature.com)
- The metabolic myocardium is an omnivore and utilizes various carbon substrates to meet its energetic demand. (hindawi.com)
- As such, the metabolic myocardium has evolved robust molecular and allosteric mechanisms to adjust to various physiologic and pathologic milieus in order to meet its unrelenting need for energy [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- As larvae mature into juveniles, the ventricular wall grows as a single-cardiomyocyte-thick patchwork of muscle clones, built by continued lateral expansion of several dozen embryonic cardiomyocytes. (biologists.org)
- To create the final, cortical layer of adult muscle, juvenile trabecular myocytes derived from a rare group of ∼8 clonally dominant embryonic cardiomyocytes breach the wall and expand on the chamber surface ( Gupta and Poss, 2012 ). (biologists.org)
- 14 15 16 This has left open questions regarding the distribution of α-skeletal actin protein expression in muscle tissues, as well as the degree to which the 2 α-striated muscle actins colocalize in the same cell and within the sarcomere. (ahajournals.org)
- Myocardial apoptosis was assessed by multiple methods including DNA fragmentation and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, bax and bcl-2 protein expression, and caspase activity. (jove.com)
- An initial analysis of myocardia from aged rhesus monkeys (22 years) and rats (24 months) found a common pattern of protein expression, with abundant cytoskeletal proteins present in comparison to younger specimens. (stemcellsportal.com)
- MLK3 protein expression increased in myocardial tissues from humans with end-stage heart failure and cardiac remodeling. (tufts.edu)
- It is also possible to generate protein expression data on many different individual patients to evaluate heterogeneity of tissue profiles ( 2 , 3 ). (mcponline.org)
- 8 ) showed that the combination of the cloning and expression of recombinant protein fragments with immunohistochemistry analysis could be used for systematic protein expression and subcellular localization describing distribution and expression of putative gene products in normal tissues as well as in common cancers and other forms of diseased tissues. (mcponline.org)
- The use of tissue microarrays (TMAs) generated from multiple biopsies combined into single paraffin blocks enabled high throughput analysis of protein expression in various tissues and organs ( 2 ). (mcponline.org)
- 10 ) showed that high throughput analysis of protein expression can be performed with a standard set of tissue microarrays representing both normal and cancer tissues. (mcponline.org)
- Atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes have differential gene expression patterns concerning, for example, transcription factors, structural proteins, and ion channels. (news-medical.net)
- Differential gene expression patterns displayed in atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes. (ptglab.com)
- Moreover, a truncated mutant of Nup155 that cannot bind HDAC4 suppressed HDAC4-induced gene expression patterns and chromatin-nucleoporin association, suggesting that Nup155-mediated localization was required for HDAC4's effect on gene expression. (rupress.org)
- Yu B, Meng F, Yang Y, Liu D, Shi K. NOX2 Antisense Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Cardiomyocyte. (medsci.org)
- NOX2-derived oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocyte remains unclear. (medsci.org)
- In the current study, we use NOX2 antisense strategy to investigate the role of NOX2 in hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes. (medsci.org)
- We hypothesized that NOX2 antisense could specifically inhibit NOX2 expression and thus attenuate hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. (medsci.org)
- However, the relationship of hypoxia-induced HIF-1α, and NOX2-derived oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocyte remains unclear. (medsci.org)
- TLR4 deficiency resulted in inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NADPH oxidase activity, suggesting suppression of hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis by TLR4 is associated with attenuation of oxidative stress to the cardiomyocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in cardiomyocytes was induced by photoexcitation-generated oxidative stress and detected by rapid dissipation of tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester fluorescence using a confocal microscope. (asahq.org)
- Such forces are mediated through cytoskeletal proteins such as Vinculin , a protein overexpressed in aging patient myocardium and mutated in some cases of heart failure . (stemcellsportal.com)
- In addition, the expressions and distribution patterns of cell-cell junction proteins (Cx43/Desmoplakin/N-cadherin) were also affected in shRNA- Rictor cardiomyocytes. (ijbs.com)
- This switch goes along with the expression of "adult" isoforms of metabolic enzymes and other proteins. (springer.com)