Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.E-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Descemet Membrane: A layer of the cornea. It is the basal lamina of the CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM (from which it is secreted) separating it from the CORNEAL STROMA. It is a homogeneous structure composed of fine collagenous filaments, and slowly increases in thickness with age.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Leukocyte Rolling: Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Nitroarginine: An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Hemangioblasts: Bipotential angio-hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to both HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS and ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Methylene Blue: A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Mice, Inbred C57BLArterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Endothelins: 21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Endothelium-Dependent Relaxing Factors: Paracrine substances produced by the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM with VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation (VASODILATION) activities. Several factors have been identified, including NITRIC OXIDE and PROSTACYCLIN.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration: The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.Hemorheology: The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Selectins: Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Glycocalyx: The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Microvessels: The finer blood vessels of the vasculature that are generally less than 100 microns in internal diameter.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.omega-N-Methylarginine: A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy: Disorder caused by loss of endothelium of the central cornea. It is characterized by hyaline endothelial outgrowths on Descemet's membrane, epithelial blisters, reduced vision, and pain.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Corneal Edema: An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Receptor, TIE-2: A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Thrombomodulin: A cell surface glycoprotein of endothelial cells that binds thrombin and serves as a cofactor in the activation of protein C and its regulation of blood coagulation.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Muscle Tonus: The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Erythrocytes, Abnormal: Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.Mesenteric Veins: Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Eye Banks: Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.Vasculitis: Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Lymphatic Vessels: Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.Mesentery: A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Charybdotoxin: A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Iris Diseases: Diseases, dysfunctions, or disorders of or located in the iris.Receptors, Leukocyte-Adhesion: Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Tissue Preservation: The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.OxadiazolesMice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Myography: The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3: A vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor whose expression is restricted primarily to adult lymphatic endothelium. VEGFR-3 preferentially binds the vascular endothelial growth factor C and vascular endothelial growth factor D and may be involved in the control of lymphangiogenesis.Nitric Oxide Donors: A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Methoxamine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that causes prolonged peripheral VASOCONSTRICTION.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Bussolino F, Valdembri D, Caccavari F, Serini G (2006). "Semaphoring vascular morphogenesis". Endothelium. 13 (2): 81-91. doi: ... De Winter F, Vo T, Stam FJ, Wisman LA, Bär PR, Niclou SP, van Muiswinkel FL, Verhaagen J (2006). "The expression of the ... Spinelli ED, McPhail LT, Oschipok LW, Teh J, Tetzlaff W (February 2007). "Class A plexin expression in axotomized rubrospinal ... vascular remodeling, and growth cone collapse. Both upregulation and downregulation of Plexin A4 has been observed following ...
... filamentous hyphal growth results in epithelial penetration and subsequent penetration of the vascular endothelium. The process ... LaeA influences the expression of 9.5% of the A. fumigatus genome, including many secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes such ... Panepinto JC, Oliver BG, Amlung TW, Askew DS, Rhodes JC (2002). "Expression of the Aspergillus fumigatus rheb homologue, rhbA, ... of angioinvasion causes endothelial damage and induces a proinflammatory response, tissue factor expression and activation of ...
The expression level of KCa2.3 channels in the endothelium influences arterial tone by setting arterial smooth muscle membrane ... pancreas and vascular endothelium tissues. KCa2.3 is most abundant in regions of the brain, but has also been found to be ... Links between hormonal regulation of sex organ function and KCa2.3 expression have been established. The expression of KCa2.3 ... The expression level of KCNN3 is dependent on hormonal regulation, particularly by the sex hormone estrogen. Estrogen not only ...
2003). "Expression of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 on vascular endothelium of gastric mucosa in patients with ... vascular addressins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Human MADCAM1 genome location and ... 2009). "Increased expression of mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 in the duodenum of patients with active celiac ... Nishimura T (2003). "Expression of potential lymphocyte trafficking mediator molecules in the mammary gland". Vet. Res. 34 (1 ...
... causing increased expression of adhesion molecules on endothelium, contraction of smooth muscle, and increased vascular ...
A study showed that ectopic expression of Prox-1 in blood vascular ECs (BECs) induced one-third of LEC specific gene expression ... Endothelium dysfunction is a prototypical characteristic of vascular disease, common in patients with autoimmune diseases such ... Tal1 gene is specifically found in the vascular endothelium and developing brain.[5] This gene encodes the basic helix-loop- ... Lymphatic-specific vascular endothelial growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D function as ligands for the vascular endothelial ...
These effects result from coagulation, which is normally prevented in the vascular endothelium by expression of antithrombotic ... along with overexpression of vasoconstrictors not only affect vascular tone but also promote vascular remodeling. PAH deals ... In order to understand how blood is delivered to cranial tissues, it is important to understand the vascular anatomy of the ... This decrease in blood flow in the cerebral vascular system can result in a buildup of metabolic wastes generated by neurons ...
2001). "Expression of VACM-1 protein in cultured rat adrenal endothelial cells is linked to the cell cycle". Endothelium. 8 (1 ... 1999). "VACM-1 receptor is specifically expressed in rabbit vascular endothelium and renal collecting tubule". Am J Physiol. ... 1999). "VACM-1 receptor is specifically expressed in rabbit vascular endothelium and renal collecting tubule". Am. J. Physiol. ... and is specifically expressed in vascular endothelium and renal collecting tubules. Cul5 inhibits cellular proliferation, ...
"Leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium induces E-selectin linkage to the actin cytoskeleton". J. Cell Biol. 133 (2): 445-55 ... Cloning and expression of fragments in E. coli". FEBS Lett. 317 (3): 189-94. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(93)81274-4. PMID 8425604. ... Deroanne CF, Colige AC, Nusgens BV, Lapiere CM (1996). "Modulation of expression and assembly of vinculin during in vitro ... Scott GA, Liang H, Cassidy LL (1996). "Developmental regulation of focal contact protein expression in human melanocytes". ...
In humans, vascular endothelium production of EETs involves mainly CYP2C9 and numerous indirect studies have implicated CYP ... Forced expression of CYP2J2 also enhanced, while forced inhibition of its expression (using Small interfering RNA) reduced, the ... electrical signal synthesized or generated in and released from the vascular endothelium that hyperpolarize nearby vascular ... The forced over-expression of CYP2J2 in or the addition of an EET to cultured human Tca-8113 oral squamous cancer cells, lung ...
NO produced by eNOS in the vascular endothelium plays crucial roles in regulating vascular tone, cellular proliferation, ... which induces vascular endothelial expression of chemokines and adhesion molecules. In addition to these functions, NO produced ... In the vascular endothelium, NO is synthesized by eNOS from L-arginine and molecular oxygen, which binds to the heme group of ... eNOS is primarily responsible for the generation of NO in the vascular endothelium, a monolayer of flat cells lining the ...
Experiments have shown this reduces α-Gal expression by 70%.[26]. *Expression of human complement regulators (CD55, CD46, and ... Overcoming acute vascular rejection[edit]. Due to its complexity, the use of immunosuppressive drugs along with a wide array of ... The endothelium activation is considered type II since gene induction and protein synthesis are involved. The binding of XNAs ... Acute vascular rejection[edit]. Also known as delayed xenoactive rejection, this type of rejection occurs in discordant ...
Mice engineered to specifically have vascular endothelium cells deficient in β-catenin showed disrupted adhesion between ... Ji J, Yamashita T, Wang XW (2011). "Wnt/β-catenin signaling activates microRNA-181 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma". ... Yi ZY, Feng LJ, Xiang Z, Yao H (2011). "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to ... conditional inactivation of the β-catenin gene in endothelial cells causes a defective vascular pattern and increased vascular ...
The VCAM-1 protein mediates the adhesion of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils to vascular endothelium. It also ... VCAM-1 expression has also been observed in other cell types (e.g., smooth muscle cells). It has also been shown to interact ... Vascular cell adhesion protein 1 also known as vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) or cluster of differentiation 106 ( ... The sustained expression of VCAM-1 lasts over 24 hours. Primarily, the VCAM-1 protein is an endothelial ligand for VLA-4 (Very ...
... and being expressed in vascular endothelium cells and binding to L-selectin. The expression and localisation of PODXL in human ... Koop K, Eikmans M, Baelde HJ, Kawachi H, De Heer E, Paul LC, Bruijn JA (Aug 2003). "Expression of podocyte-associated molecules ... "Enhanced podocalyxin expression alters the structure of podocyte basal surface". Journal of Cell Science. 117 (Pt 15): 3281-94 ... uterus and seminal vesicle and according to RNA expression analysis, the PODXL transcripts are present in all analysed human ...
... knockout mice are phenotypically normal, viable and fertile, they have a normal vascular system. Over-expression of egfl7 ... in regenerating endothelium following arterial injury, in atherosclerotic plaques, and in growing tumours. Expression of egfl7 ... In glioma, egfl7 expression levels correlate with tumour grade. There is a correlation between expression of egfl7, cell ... Expression is down-regulated in adults but is still detectable in blood vessels of lung, heart and kidney. An up-regulation of ...
A key role in this concerted action, which leads to a 2-to-20 fold increase in vascular diameter, depending on species size ( ... Shear stress leads to the activation and expression of all nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) isoforms and nitric oxide production, ... synthesis in the endothelium and in the smooth muscle of the media. This leads to attraction and activation of monocytes and T- ... Collateralization differs from angiogenesis in that several blood vessels supply one vascular bed and these vessels are ...
The differential selectin expression profile on endothelium and the specific interactions of selectins expressed by endothelial ... the degree of expression of selectins on the vascular wall and the presence of the appropriate ligand on cancer cells are ... A number of studies have shown increased expression of carbohydrate ligands on metastatic tumor, enhanced E-selectin expression ... In addition, cytokines such as TNF-alpha stimulate the expression of E-selectin and additional P-selectin a few hours later. As ...
Experiments have shown this reduces α-Gal expression by 70%. Expression of human complement regulators (CD55, CD46, and CD59) ... The endothelium activation is considered type II since gene induction and protein synthesis are involved. The binding of XNAs ... Acute vascular rejection requires de novo protein synthesis and is driven by interactions between the graft endothelial cells ... Binding of the previously mentioned XNAs to the donor endothelium leads to the activation of host macrophages as well as the ...
VAP-1-expression is increased in blood vessels of ischemic areas where it may be mediating neutrophil adhesion to vascular ... endothelium in ischemic heart. The presence of diminished expression of vascular VAP-1 in infarcted brain areas and the ... Singh B, Tschernig T, van Griensven M, Fieguth A, Pabst R (May 2003). "Expression of vascular adhesion protein-1 in normal and ... Weston CJ, Adams DH (Jul 2011). "Hepatic consequences of vascular adhesion protein-1 expression". Journal of Neural ...
"Expression of the CD34 gene in vascular endothelial cells". Blood. 75 (12): 2417-26. PMID 1693532. Fackler MJ, Civin CI, ... It is expressed on lymph node endothelia, whereas the L-selectin to which it binds is on the T cell. Conversely, under other ... Ogawa M, Tajima F, Ito T, Sato T, Laver JH, Deguchi T (Jun 2001). "CD34 expression by murine hematopoietic stem cells. ... a member of a family of single-pass transmembrane sialomucin proteins that show expression on early hematopoietic and vascular- ...
It has also been found that ectopic expression of Prox1 in blood vascular epithelium can force vascular endothelial cells to ... Instead, they will begin to express markers that are specific to blood vessel endothelium. These markers include CD34 and ... This potential is indicated by the presence of some known lymphatic markers such as Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor ...
... of the vascular endothelial growth factor family and the only known growth factors largely specific for vascular endothelium. ... 2007). "Enhanced expression of ANGPTL2 in the microvascular lesions of diabetic glomerulopathy". Nephron Exp. Nephrol. 105 (4 ... expression, and characterization of angiopoietin-related protein. angiopoietin-related protein induces endothelial cell ...
2007). "Expression of lymphatic vascular endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1) in the human placenta". Lymphatic research ... The lymphatic endothelium is a specialised form of epithelium, distinct from but similar to vascular endothelium. A lymph ... At this stage vascular and lymphatic endothelia were seen to be morphologically distinct and lymphatic vessels considered less ... 2003). "Cloning, expression, characterization, and role in autocrine cell growth of cell surface retention sequence binding ...
Adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to vascular endothelium in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). ... Majewski S, Hunzelmann N, Nischt R, Eckes B, Rudnicka L, Orth G, Krieg T, Jablonska S.:TGF beta-1 and TNF alpha expression in ... "Adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to vascular endothelium in patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma)". ... Vascular and antifibrotic treatment]. Pol Merkur Lek. 2008, 25, 196-200. Rakowska A, Slowinska M, Kowalska-Oledzka E, Olszewska ...
"Substance P enhances cytokine-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression on cultured rheumatoid fibroblast- ... It has been shown that vasodilatation to substance P is dependent on the NK1 receptor located on the endothelium. In contrast ... and cytokine expression,[58] Reciprocally, cytokines may induce expression of SP and its NK1R.[59][60] In this sense, for ... SP initiates expression of almost all known immunological chemical messengers (cytokines).[19][20][21] Also, most of the ...
... vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and VEGF) were determined by the multiplex assay. After the single injection of both types ... affects the vascular infarction-related molecules (VIRMs). Nineteen eyes with DME were treated with 0.5 mg of intravitreal ... To determine whether an intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) in eyes with diabetic ... Expression of vascular infarction-related molecules after anti-vascular endothelium growth factor treatment for diabetic ...
... peroxide mediates vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression from interleukin-18-activated hepatic sinusoidal endothelium: ... Using intrasplenically injected B16 melanoma (B16M) cells, we show that the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 ( ... indicating that VCAM-1 expression on tumor-activated HSE cells had a prometastatic contribution. Because VCAM-1 expression is ... resulting in a complete abrogation of both VCAM-1 expression and B16M cell adhesion increases in HSE cells isolated from B16M ...
Vascular gene expression in mice overexpressing human endothelin-1 targeted to the endothelium. Physiol Genomics. 2011;43:148- ... Gene Expression Analyses of Mouse Aortic Endothelium in Response to Atherogenic StimuliSignificance. Ayca Erbilgin, Nathan ... Identification of CAD candidate genes in GWAS loci and their expression in vascular cells. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:1894-1905. ... Mature vascular endothelium can give rise to smooth muscle cells via endothelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation: in vitro ...
... Virchows ... In vascular tumours, the patterns of beta 1 and alpha 1 to alpha 6 subunit expression generally corresponded to those found in ... Expression of alpha 2 in EC was inconsistent. With rare exceptions, the alpha 4 chain was absent in EC. The beta 3 and alpha v ... Expression of the beta 1 subunit was a constitutive feature of EC. Among the beta 1-associated alpha subunits, alpha 5 and ...
Androgen Exposure Increases Human Monocyte Adhesion to Vascular Endothelium and Endothelial Cell Expression of Vascular Cell ... Androgen Exposure Increases Human Monocyte Adhesion to Vascular Endothelium and Endothelial Cell Expression of Vascular Cell ... Androgen Exposure Increases Human Monocyte Adhesion to Vascular Endothelium and Endothelial Cell Expression of Vascular Cell ... Androgen Exposure Increases Human Monocyte Adhesion to Vascular Endothelium and Endothelial Cell Expression of Vascular Cell ...
Transcriptional control of occludin expression in vascular endothelia: regulation by Sp3 and YY1.. Biochimica et Biophysica ... Transcriptional control of occludin expression in vascular endothelia: regulation by Sp3 and YY1 ... Expression of occludin in brain endothelium corresponded with binding of Sp3 to a minimal promoter segment close to the ... Endothelium differentiates in response to tissue-specific signals; brain endothelium expresses tight junctions and transporters ...
ICAM-1 expression on vascular endothelium (21). In addition, we have previously demonstrated that febrile-range hyperthermia ... Fever-Range Hyperthermia Enhances L-Selectin-Dependent Adhesion of Lymphocytes to Vascular Endothelium. Wan-Chao Wang, Lorin M ... The effects of fever-range temperatures on lymphocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium was assessed in a Stamper-Woodruff ... Fever-Range Hyperthermia Enhances L-Selectin-Dependent Adhesion of Lymphocytes to Vascular Endothelium ...
Endothelium, Vascular / cytology, metabolism. Female. Male. Membrane Transport Proteins / biosynthesis*, immunology, metabolism ... Highly differential expression of SN1, a bidirectional glutamine transporter, in astroglia and endothelium in the developing ... Strong transient SN1-like staining is also found in Bergmann glia and vascular endothelium in the first postnatal weeks. Strong ... In this article, we have quantified the expression and studied the localization of SN1 at different developmental stages. SN1 ...
We show that NO inhibits exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies, endothelial granules that mediate vascular inflammation and ... inhibits vascular inflammation, but the molecular basis for its anti-inflammatory properties is unknown. ... Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism * Exocytosis / drug effects * Exocytosis / physiology* * Gene Expression Regulation * Humans ... Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits vascular inflammation, but the molecular basis for its anti-inflammatory properties is unknown. We ...
2001) Effect of salt loading on nitric oxide synthase expression in normotensive rats. Am J Hypertens 14:155-163. ... Potassium softens vascular endothelium and increases nitric oxide release. H. Oberleithner, C. Callies, K. Kusche-Vihrog, H. ... Potassium softens vascular endothelium and increases nitric oxide release. H. Oberleithner, C. Callies, K. Kusche-Vihrog, H. ... Potassium softens vascular endothelium and increases nitric oxide release. H. Oberleithner, C. Callies, K. Kusche-Vihrog, H. ...
10) is indispensable for the establishment of this haemogenic endothelium population whereas the core binding factor Runx1 ( ... 11) is critical for generation of definitive haematopoietic cells from haemogenic endothelium. Together our results merge the ... Both are correct: the haemangioblast does generate haematopoietic cells, but via a haemogenic endothelium intermediate. There ... The haemangioblast generates haematopoietic cells through the formation of a haemogenic endothelium intermediate. It has been ...
In: Catravas J.D., Callow A.D., Ryan U.S. (eds) Vascular Endothelium. NATO ASI Series (Series A: Life Sciences), vol 294. ... Expression of human inducible nitric oxide synthase in a tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B)-deficient cell line: H4B promotes assembly ... Nitric Oxide Acute Lung Injury Guanylate Cyclase Pulmonary Vascular Permeability Peroxynitrous Acid These keywords were added ... Nitric oxide regulates IL-8 expression in melanoma cells at the transcriptional level. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 214:949- ...
Collectively, these data suggest that the DSCR1s promoter directs vascular bed-specific expression in activated endothelium and ... attenuates NFAT-dependent vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression and inflammation in the endothelium. J. Biol. Chem. 281: ... Here, we show that the DSCR1s promoter directs widespread basal expression of lacZ throughout the vascular tree in the ... Phenotypic heterogeneity of the endothelium. II. Representative vascular beds. Circ. Res. 100:174-190. View this article via: ...
Virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds modulates the expression of atherosclerosis-related genes in vascular endothelium ... We aimed to evaluate the effect of the consumption of virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds on the vascular endothelium. ... 1 gene expression (p , 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively) and increased MT-CYB, SDHA and SOD1 gene expression (p = 0.004, p = ... limited RAGE expression, but at 1 and 2 % downregulated p47phox, NF-κB p65 and p-p38 expression in these organs (P , 0.05). ...
Vascular Biology. Shear Stress Inhibits Smooth Muscle Cell-Induced Inflammatory Gene Expression in Endothelial Cells. Role of ... 2 expression on the endothelium. Cell Adhes Commun. 1998; 6: 381-400. ... Chiu JJ, Chen LJ, Lee PL, Lee CI, Lo LW, Usami S, Chien S. Shear stress inhibits adhesion molecule expression in vascular ... Flow-mediated regulation of G-protein expression in cocultured vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Arterioscler ...
endothelium. *vascular gene expression. *microarray. Introduction. Despite improvements in surgery and chemotherapy, mortality ... The gene expression profiles derived in the current study define unique alterations in vascular gene expression in epithelial ... Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes proliferation of cortical neuron precursors by regulating E2F expression. FASEB J ... Alterations in vascular gene expression in invasive breast carcinoma. Cancer Res 2004; 64: 7857-66. ...
MGO-induced cell death was apoptosis since MGO increased cleaved caspase-3 expression. Telmisartan (0.1-10 microM) inhibited ... Telmisartan inhibits methylglyoxal-mediated cell death in human vascular endothelium.. Baden T1, Yamawaki H, Saito K, Mukohda M ... Since serum MGO level is increased in diabetic patients, MGO is implicated in diabetic complications related to vascular injury ...
Using immunohistochemistry we observed widespread and intense staining on the endothelium of tumor-associated vessels for PECAM ... 100%), ICAM 1 (69%), and E- and P-selectins (52% and 59% of cases respectively). Endothelial expression of the selectins was ... we have also examined the expression of CAMs in a subset of these tumors (n=64). ... Angiogenesis is the formation of new capillaries from the existing vascular network and is essential for tumor growth and ...
... the remainder apparently due to an endothelium-derived vasodilator, cytochrome P450-dependent, which may be endothelium-derived ... Endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly greater in pregnant than in nonpregnant rats. Acetylcholine provoked a ... Experimental preeclampsia in rats affects vascular gene expression patterns. *Simone V Lip, Anne Marijn van der Graaf, +4 ... Possible involvement of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor in vascular responses of abdominal aorta from pregnant rats. ...
... is primarily attributable to constitutive expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene. Although a more ... Endothelium, Vascular / enzymology. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic*. Genes, Reporter. Hypertension / enzymology. ... Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) is primarily attributable to constitutive expression of the endothelial nitric oxide ... Expression was uniform across multiple founders and was not significantly affected by genomic integration site. These ...
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology (ATVB). *Circulation. *→ Circ: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. *→ Circ: ... A Three-Kilobase Fragment of the Human Robo4 Promoter Directs Cell Type-Specific Expression in Endothelium. Yoshiaki Okada, ... A Three-Kilobase Fragment of the Human Robo4 Promoter Directs Cell Type-Specific Expression in Endothelium ... A Three-Kilobase Fragment of the Human Robo4 Promoter Directs Cell Type-Specific Expression in Endothelium ...
Physiological and pathological control of gene expression (2). *. Vascular biology (5). *. Endothelium/vascular type/nitric ...
Physiological and pathological control of gene expression (2). *. Vascular biology (5). *. Endothelium/vascular type/nitric ...
Differential global gene expression response patterns of human endothelium exposed to shear stress and intraluminal pressure ... Methodological studies of multiple reference genes as endogenous controls in vascular gene expression studies Roya Doroudi, ... Expression of GHR and Downstream Signaling Genes in Human Adipose Tissue-Relation to Obesity and Weight Change. Camilla A M ... Gene expression profiling of the rat hippocampus one month after focal cerebral ischemia followed by enriched environment. ...
Bussolino F, Valdembri D, Caccavari F, Serini G (2006). "Semaphoring vascular morphogenesis". Endothelium. 13 (2): 81-91. doi: ... De Winter F, Vo T, Stam FJ, Wisman LA, Bär PR, Niclou SP, van Muiswinkel FL, Verhaagen J (2006). "The expression of the ... Spinelli ED, McPhail LT, Oschipok LW, Teh J, Tetzlaff W (February 2007). "Class A plexin expression in axotomized rubrospinal ... vascular remodeling, and growth cone collapse. Both upregulation and downregulation of Plexin A4 has been observed following ...
  • Regulation of vascular tone during pregnancy: a novel role for the pregnane X receptor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These Nrp-plexin and semaphorin complexes initiate cascades that regulate diverse processes such as axon pruning and repulsion, dendritic attraction and branching, regulation of cell migration, vascular remodeling, and growth cone collapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the constitutive expression of CD28, up-regulation of ICOS requires prior activation of T cells ( 1 , 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • In addition, we show that the consensus Gli-binding motif is enriched within the putative regulatory elements of a sizeable proportion of genes that showed positive regulation in our assay, indicating that their expression is directly induced by Hedgehog. (genetics.org)
  • In vertebrates, three distinct Ci homologs, the Gli proteins, have subsumed the function of Ci in the regulation of target gene expression. (genetics.org)
  • Historically, the vasodilatory prostanoids, especially prostacyclin and prostaglandin E 2 , are believed to contribute significantly to the regulation of normal vascular tone and blood pressure (BP), primarily by counteracting the prevailing effects of the systemic vasoconstrictor systems, including angiotensin II, the catecholamines, and vasopressin. (physiology.org)
  • Numerous studies have firmly established the dogma that TxA 2 , while important in pathophysiological states in males, plays little or no role in the regulation of vascular tone or BP in females, except in the pulmonary vasculature. (physiology.org)
  • Recent studies from our laboratory and others challenge this dogma and reveal that the TxA 2 pathway in the systemic vascular wall is an estrogen-dependent mechanism that appears to play an important role in the regulation of vascular tone and BP in females, in both normal and pathophysiological states. (physiology.org)
  • Therefore, in this Invited Review, we shall review the basic biochemistry and physiology of TxA 2 in the CV system, provide a historical perspective on the roles of TxA 2 in normal physiology and pathophysiology of vascular tone and BP, present more recent findings that challenge this dogma, and, finally, provide a new perspective on the role of the constrictor prostanoids in the regulation of vascular function and BP. (physiology.org)
  • In the vasculature, eNOS is a well-established primary source of NO that plays an important role in the regulation of systemic blood pressure, blood flow, and regional vascular tone ( 2 , 25 - 27 ), whereas NO derived from nNOS or iNOS also plays an important role in vasodilatation and vascular protection under various pathological conditions ( 28 - 31 ). (rupress.org)
  • 2 The endothelium is crucial for the control of vascular homeostasis, and is involved in the regulation of intracellular signaling, 1 vascular tonus and permeability, 3 coagulation cascade and angiogenesis, 4 among others. (scielo.br)
  • Regulation of astrocyte glutamate transporter-1 (GLT1) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression in a model of epilepsy. (medworm.com)
  • 3 Department of Medicine, Center for Vascular Biology Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. (jci.org)
  • Hypoxia-Regulatory Elements of the Human Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene," Cellular and Molecular Biology Research 40(1):35-39 (1994). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Our laboratory is focused on understanding the etiology of vascular dysfunction in these diseases and is focused on several broad aspects of endothelial cell biology and function. (yale.edu)
  • With state-of-the art molecular biology and protein biochemistry labs, we work with our clients to rapidly evaluate in parallel to identify the optimal expression system for candidate proteins. (abgent.com)
  • KCNA10 is a cyclic nucleotide-gated, voltage-activated K channel that is detected in kidney, heart, and aorta by Northern blot and postulated to participate in renal K metabolism and to regulate vascular tone. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The currently accepted paradigm is that "sensing" of a change (either increase or decrease) in the shear force occurs via elements on the endothelial cell membrane that activate intracellular signaling pathways to modify cell structure, metabolism, and gene expression. (physiology.org)
  • Abstract Since NO production is dependent on the availability of l -arginine, we examined whether l -arginine transport and NO synthesis are coregulated by vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells cultured from the same vessel wall source. (ahajournals.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that the haemangioblast generates haematopoietic cells through the formation of a haemogenic endothelium intermediate, providing the first direct link between these two precursor populations. (nature.com)
  • In large part, this has been due to the lack of proper genetic tools that distinguish coronary from aortic endothelia. (plos.org)
  • However, recent studies have shown that vascular calcification is a highly regulated, cell-mediated process similar to bone formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Or to: William C. Aird, Department of Molecular and Vascular Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. (jci.org)
  • In recent years, whole genome expression profiling of cancer using methods such as microarray and serial analysis of gene expression has advanced our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in cancer onset and progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The paper included two dozen Dartmouth authors from the Departments of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Medicine, Genetics, Radiology, Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Heart and Vascular Research Center and the Norris Cotton Cancer Center. (healthcanal.com)
  • By understanding better the molecular pathways and genetic circuitry responsible for the pathological mineralization process novel drug targets may be identified and exploited to combat and reduce the detrimental effects of vascular calcification on human health. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore the identification and characterization of novel mediators of vascular calcification will offer the potential for future therapeutics to inhibit progression or induce regression of vascular calcification. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tspan5 and Tspan17, the two most closely related TspanC8s by sequence, were the only TspanC8s that regulated VE-cadherin expression and were required for lymphocyte transmigration. (jimmunol.org)
  • Lymphocyte expression of CD31 is most closely associated with the CD45RA+CD8+ naive T phenotype. (stanford.edu)
  • Raised tHcy concentrations are associated with laboratory evidence of atherogenesis (eg, endothelial dysfunction) and thrombosis, and epidemiological evidence of an increased risk of atherothrombotic vascular disease. (mja.com.au)
  • Notch signaling is an ancient intercellular signaling mechanism that plays myriad roles during vascular development and physiology in vertebrates. (biologists.org)
  • In this review, I will highlight the multiple roles that the Notch signaling pathway plays during vascular development and physiology in vertebrates. (biologists.org)
  • Few mechanistic studies, however, have examined the vascular effects of androgens in humans, although we have recently demonstrated an association between androgen deprivation and enhanced endothelial function in older men consistent with a deleterious effect of androgens on vascular reactivity. (ahajournals.org)