Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mice, Inbred AMice, Inbred DBAChromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mice, Inbred C57BLQuantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Mice, Inbred AKRRecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Mice, Inbred C3HQuantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mice, Inbred BALB CPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Granulosa Cell Tumor: A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.Rats, Inbred BNMice, Inbred CBAGenes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Mice, Inbred ICRGenotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Mice, 129 Strain: Strains of mice arising from a parental inbred stock that was subsequently used to produce substrains of knockout and other mutant mice with targeted mutations.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Animals, LaboratoryBehavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Immunogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
  • Cytokine responses, measured at the molecular and protein levels, showed increased levels of IFN-gamma in lung extracts from mice of the resistant DBA/2 strain after a pulmonary challenge, whereas the susceptible BALB/c strain manifested a predominant IL-4 response. (asm.org)
  • Treatment of the susceptible BALB/c mice with recombinant murine IFN-gamma significantly protected mice against systemic challenge, and in the reciprocal experiment, the administration of an anti-IFN-gamma monoclonal antibody to the resistant DBA/2 mice significantly decreased their capacity to control disease. (asm.org)
  • Although the treatment of DBA/2 mice with recombinant IL-4 did not alter the disease, neutralization of endogenous IL-4 in infected BALB/c mice by administration of a neutralizing anti-IL-4 antibody led to a significant reduction in the fungal load in their tissues. (asm.org)
  • In experiment 2, A/J, AKR/J, Balb/CJ mice were treated with AOM for 6 weeks and sacrificed after 24 weeks. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • AOM-treated A/J and Balb/CJ mice developed 9.2 and 1 tumor/mouse, respectively. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Southern blot analysis revealed that the H60 locus was polymorphic among the BALB and the B6 strains. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, none of the H60 transcripts expressed in the donor BALB spleen were detected in the host B6 strain. (jimmunol.org)
  • The expression and immunogenicity of the LYL8/K b complex in BALB.B and CXB recombinant inbred strains strongly suggested that the H60 locus may account for one of the previously described antigenic activity among these strains. (jimmunol.org)
  • Importantly, mouse orthologs of human TBE controlling genes Oas1b, Cd209 , Tlr3, Ccr5, Ifnl3 and Il10 , are in CcS-11 localized on segments derived from the strain BALB/c, so they are identical in BALB/c and CcS-11. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The recombinant S. typhimurium χ 4550 strain was orally administered to BALB/c mice. (scielo.org.za)
  • Correctly targeted ES cells were injected into recipient blastocysts and chimeric founders were bred to BALB/c to generate mutant mice. (jax.org)
  • Enhancement of cellular immune function during cold adaptation of BALB/c inbred mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Briefly one hundred and twenty Balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups as LT, LB, LBT and control groups. (omicsonline.org)
  • By contrast, BALB/c mice are highly susceptible to infection with these organisms (12,13). (scielo.br)
  • By contrast, BALB/c mice develop a typical Th2 response. (scielo.br)
  • In addition, targeted disruption of the IL-4 gene in BALB/c mice causes these animals, which are otherwise susceptible to infection with L. major , to become highly resistant to these organisms (19). (scielo.br)
  • However (and surprisingly), genetic disruption of the IL-4 gene of BALB/c mice can also generate animals that are as susceptible to infection with L. major as are wild-type conventional BALB/c mice (20). (scielo.br)
  • A strain is inbred when it has undergone at least 20 generations of brother x sister or offspring x parent mating, at which point at least 98.6% of the loci in an individual of the strain will be homozygous, and each individual can be treated effectively as clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • This BXSB congenic strain lacks alpha/beta T cells and thus the homozygous null males do not develop the Yaa -induced lupus-like autoimmune disease. (jax.org)
  • and (ii) the RCS are homozygous inbred strains, which can be studied for functional activities long before the classical approach would permit meaningful immunological and physiological analysis. (ormedmedical.us)
  • Mice and rats used in the laboratory derive from a variety of sources. (jax.org)
  • 4 ) have challenged the universality of CR even in mice, which together with rats are by far the mammals more utilized in CR studies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Rats and mice are the natural hosts of the virus, but pigs are the most commonly and severely infected domestic animals ( 5 , 36 ). (asm.org)
  • We have also compared the phenotypic profiles of NIH-HS rats with those of the low anxious RHA-I and the high anxious RLA-I rat strains. (scirp.org)
  • So, with the goal of optimizing the distribution of genotypic frequencies and recombination within the laboratory rat population, the "National Institutes of Health-N/NIH- Genetically Heterogeneous Rat Stock" (hereafter NIHHS rats) was formed through an eight-way cross of as much as possible separate inbred strains which were readily available. (scirp.org)
  • The latency of mice and rats to fall from the accelerating rotarod can differ markedly between laboratories using the same brand of rod as well as between studies using different kinds of rods. (uncg.edu)
  • Can humans be trained using the experiments of pavlov? (scrimshanders.com)
  • These data were used to compare observed population genetic variation across species (humans, mice, zebrafish), then across lines within zebrafish. (springer.com)
  • Cell types in the brains of mice and humans are almost indistinguishable in structure and function, but their numbers vary over more than three orders of magnitude. (nervenet.org)
  • Adipose tissue in lean mice and humans contains a higher proportion of M2/M1 macrophages, which are associated with local production of T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines by eosinophils ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Of the four identified strains of Ebola virus, three-the Zaire, Ivory Coast, and Sudan strains-have been shown to cause disease in both humans and nonhuman primates, with the Zaire strain exhibiting the highest lethality rate ( 13 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • The only documented outbreaks of Ebola virus infection in the United States were fortunately restricted to nonhuman primates at holding facilities in Virginia and Texas, caused by the Reston strain, which has not yet caused fatal disease in humans ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • Experimental infection of inbred and congenic mice with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) provides a well-established model to identify host genetic determinants that regulate both protective immunity and infection-associated immunopathology, including the development of CM. Similar to P. falciparum infection in humans, mice susceptible to PbA (e.g. (rupress.org)
  • It can be used to manipulate both NK T cell and conventional T cell responses in mice ( 19 )( 20 ) and potentially in humans ( 21 )( 22 )( 23 ). (rupress.org)
  • Like humans, mice are mammals, and their bodies undergo many similar processes, such as ageing, and have similar immune responses to infection and disease. (blood.ca)
  • Physiologically, mice are very like humans, albeit around 3,000 times smaller ( Partridge, 2013 ) but with similar basic body functions such as blood cell production (haematopoiesis), digestion, respiration and the cardiovascular system. (blood.ca)
  • Mouse models of various human diseases, including immune thrombocytopenia, have been relatively easy to develop, since mouse physiology and metabolism resemble those of humans. (blood.ca)
  • This locus contains 9 candidate genes, which will be focus of future studies not only in mice but also in humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Weight loss is the result of both lean and fat mass loss, although variation in fat loss is the component mostly responsible for the high variation observed in weight loss among different strains ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry with β-catenin resulted in marked nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of tumor cells in FVB/N. However, fainter and heterogeneous β-catenin staining was observed in A/J tumors, suggesting distinct pathways of tumorigenesis in different strains. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Across many different strains, genetic varieties and environmental conditions, the rate of flashes at peak predicts how long the worms are going to live. (scienceblog.com)
  • In a study of fearfulness in mice, we have shown it is possible to fine map small-effect QTLs in a genetically heterogeneous stock (HS). (pnas.org)
  • We have developed a robust method of fine mapping QTLs in genetically heterogeneous animals and suggest it is now cost effective to undertake genomewide high-resolution analysis of complex traits in parallel on the same set of mice. (pnas.org)
  • We used it to predict QTLs for red blood cell count (RBC) and for plasma concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) in mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We integrated genomics (DNA variations), transcriptomics of liver and adipose tissue, and phenotypic data of NAFLD derived from female mice of ~ 100 strains included in the hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP) and compared the NAFLD molecular pathways and gene networks between sexes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • C5 -deficient B10.D2 mice were protected from CM, whereas C5 -sufficient B10.D2 mice were susceptible. (rupress.org)
  • Antibody blockade of C5a or C5a receptor (C5aR) rescued susceptible mice from CM. In vitro studies showed that C5a-potentiated cytokine secretion induced by the malaria product P. falciparum glycosylphosphatidylinositol and C5aR blockade abrogated these amplified responses. (rupress.org)
  • Conversely, A/J mice, although equally susceptible to PbA infection, are more resistant to the associated CM syndrome ( 6 - 7 ). (rupress.org)
  • Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, an inbred strain of type 1 diabetes [ 4 ], are extremely susceptible to β -cell destruction by STZ [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The 21 strains that were the most resistant or susceptible were genotyped using microsatellite markers in order to obtain genetic maps with the marker intervals of 5-10 cM. (ormedmedical.us)
  • It was clear that no B10 chromosomal segment is common to all resistant or all susceptible mice, and that no identical or overlapping patterns for RCS, either resistant or susceptible to tuberculosis, were observed. (ormedmedical.us)
  • However, new genetically-diverse mouse resources have now been developed to better simulate the genetic diversity found in human populations and overcome many of the limitations of linkage mapping in the human population in an experimental model system. (nih.gov)
  • For normalization, filtering and/or statistical analyses we have used various packages available in "R". A brief demonstration of how investigators can utilize our site to search for "candidate genes" for a given complex trait, e.g., fear conditioning in mice, is provided in Additional file 1 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Laboratory rat strains derive from the Rattus norvegicus species. (jax.org)
  • Another species, Rattus rattus , also is used as an experimental model, but has not contributed to the common laboratory rat strains. (jax.org)
  • Hansen and Spuhler developed a more naturalistic, genetically heterogeneous rat stock with the aim of optimizing the distribution of genotypic frequencies and recombination and under the hypothesis that the NIH-HS stock could yield a broad-range distribution of responses (broader than commonly used laboratory rat strains) to experimental conditions, and thus serve as a base population for selection studies. (scirp.org)
  • However, by combining available gene expression data with QTL mapping, we illustrated a five-filter protocol that nominated Asb3 and Tnni1 as candidates affecting increased mouse forebrain weight. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results show that an initial intravitreal injection of AAV vectors to one eye of a mouse does not influence AAV-mediated gene expression or related therapeutic effects in the other eye when vectors are administered to the subretinal space. (molvis.org)
  • The inbred line in which the Sd mutation arose was being maintained for study of a dominant but incompletely penetrant posterior duplication phenotype. (prolekare.cz)
  • None of the offspring of these shared mice displayed the posterior duplication phenotype, indicating that Danforth's original line was segregating two different mutations , . (prolekare.cz)
  • Dstn −/− homozygotes are viable but have corneal defects leading to eventual blindness in adult mice, whereas two alleles with inactivating point mutations ( Dstn corn1 and Dstn corn1-2J ) cause the same phenotype, indicating that they behave as null alleles , . (prolekare.cz)
  • Lack of invasiveness and metastasis in even the most sensitive strains provides a model system for studying the potential role of 'metastasis genes' in imparting a malignant phenotype. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Upon infection with L. major , mice of the resistant phenotype clearly develop a dominant Th1 phenotype of immune response to the parasite's antigens. (scielo.br)
  • Organotypic liver in vitro systems thus embody viable alternatives for select animal experiments, including preliminary evaluation of drug safety and hepatotoxicity. (ueg.eu)
  • In addition, the use of new drugs in the therapy of a parasitic infection, trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease), is being studied in vitro and in mice. (stanford.edu)
  • Anti-FCS cellular immune responses were also analysed after a single DC injection using in vitro proliferation of splenocytes either in RPMI supplemented with FCS, AIMV-BSA or RPMI containing autologous mouse serum or BSA as a read out. (saladgaffe.gq)
  • Antigen-specific cellular recall response was also enhanced in these mice, while negligible level of IFN-γ was detected in splenocyte cultures, in vitro . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Jackson Laboratory has additional features to maintaining mice, one can order mice that have been altered with genetic tools such as Gal4/UAS or CRISPR, meaning that even if the strain does not currently exist, you can still obtain a line of mouse that is useful to your research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The foundation for this work was laid by the pioneering work of Leroy Stevens at The Jackson Laboratory, culminating in the discovery that pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells could be grown in culture and that mouse genes could be altered in such cells by homologous recombination or targeting. (jax.org)
  • For example, the so-called "NOD scid gamma" mouse developed by Leonard Shultz at The Jackson Laboratory lacks mature T or B cells and functional NK cells, is deficient in cytokine signaling, and can accept transplantation of virtually any human tissue. (jax.org)
  • Upon arrival at The Jackson Laboratory, homozygotes were intercrossed for rederivation and males at generation N8F45 were transferred to the laboratory of Dr. Derry Roopenian where it was observed that the satin mutation was in the imported strain. (jax.org)
  • In this chapter, we suggest that mouse models are useful for studying genetic background effects for acquired hearing loss. (intechopen.com)
  • Male mice on the BXSB recombinant inbred genetic background (see Stock No. 000740 ) develop spontaneous autoimmune disease closely resembling the human disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), including moderate lymph node and spleen enlargement, hemolytic anemia, hypergammaglobulinemia, and immune complex glomerulonephritis. (jax.org)
  • First, we demonstrated that anxiety-like behaviors in two separate assays were more substantial in D2 mice. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We compared the behaviors of eight inbred mouse strains across 18 variables, using 11 behavioral assays, and gave ethanol (EtOH) as an intoxicant. (uncg.edu)
  • Increased use of gene manipulation in mice (e.g., targeted or random mutagenesis) has been accompanied by increased reliance on a very few rapid and simple behavioral assays, each of which aspires to model a human behavioral domain. (uncg.edu)
  • Further evidence for this hypothesis was provided by experiments in which H-2K(b) produced in Drosophila melanogaster cells and immobilized on the surface of a tissue culture plate was able to stimulate hybridomas derived from these alloreactive T cells. (nih.gov)
  • The data presented here provide a gateway for CC strain selection for future studies of cancer immunity, autoimmune conditions, and various infections because investigators can tailor selection of strains based on the frequencies of particular T cell subsets as well as their activation status, steady-state cytokine expression, and other phenotypic selection parameters. (fredhutch.org)
  • In addition, some recently developed laboratory mouse strains are derived wholly from other Mus species or other subspecies, such as M. spretus ). (jax.org)
  • Interestingly, introduction of the D-ssu gene into the same parasite strain (self), but not into a different subspecies, significantly affected or completely ablated oocyst development, suggesting a stage- and subspecies (strain)-specific regulation of oocyst development by D-ssu . (asm.org)
  • Most in vivo studies use mouse models owing to their relatively low cost, short lifespan and ease of genetic manipulation, which allow for a level of experimental control that is not possible with human studies. (ueg.eu)
  • The ability to model human disease in the mouse makes it such a valuable experimental system. (jax.org)
  • Although many somatic cell types have so far been successfully used for cloning mice, ease of access and noninvasiveness at cell collection and readiness for experimental use should also be key determinants of usable donors for this purpose. (riken.jp)
  • Methods and materials Ethics statement All experiments involving animals were conducted in accordance with Italian national regulations and covered by experimental protocols reviewed by local Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees. (sykpathway.com)
  • The results establish the source of an immunodominant autosomal minor H Ag that, by its differential transcription in the donor vs the host strains, provides a novel peptide/MHC target for host CD8 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Different alleles of the ND1 protein differed by a single amino acid substitution within this peptide sequence and were recognized bidirectionally by T cells in appropriate donor/host strain combinations. (jimmunol.org)
  • Possible mechanisms that could account for their immunodominance include substitutions in antigenic peptide sequences and/or in the relative abundance of peptide/MHC expressed in the donor strain. (jimmunol.org)

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