Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Catastrophic Illness: An acute or prolonged illness usually considered to be life-threatening or with the threat of serious residual disability. Treatment may be radical and is frequently costly.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Inflation, Economic: An increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods resulting in a substantial and continuing rise in the general price level.United StatesCosts and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Insurance, Major Medical: Insurance providing a broad range of medical services and supplies, when prescribed by a physician, whether or not the patient is hospitalized. It frequently is an extension of a basic policy and benefits will not begin until the basic policy is exhausted.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Rest: Freedom from activity.Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Fees, Pharmaceutical: Amounts charged to the patient or third-party payer for medication. It includes the pharmacist's professional fee and cost of ingredients, containers, etc.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services: Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.Prescription Fees: The charge levied on the consumer for drugs or therapy prescribed under written order of a physician or other health professional.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Insurance Claim Review: Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Fees, Medical: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for medical services.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Hospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.TajikistanSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Direct Service Costs: Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Insurance, Physician Services: Insurance providing benefits for the costs of care by a physician which can be comprehensive or limited to surgical expenses or for care provided only in the hospital. It is frequently called "regular medical expense" or "surgical expense".Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Deductibles and Coinsurance: Cost-sharing mechanisms that provide for payment by the insured of some portion of covered expenses. Deductibles are the amounts paid by the insured under a health insurance contract before benefits become payable; coinsurance is the provision under which the insured pays part of the medical bill, usually according to a fixed percentage, when benefits become payable.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Adipocytes, Brown: Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Tax Exemption: Status not subject to taxation; as the income of a philanthropic organization. Tax-exempt organizations may also qualify to receive tax-deductible donations if they are considered to be nonprofit corporations under Section 501(c)3 of the United States Internal Revenue Code.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Fee Schedules: A listing of established professional service charges, for specified dental and medical procedures.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Body Fluid Compartments: The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Medicare Part B: The voluntary portion of Medicare, known as the Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Program, that includes physician's services, home health care, medical services, outpatient hospital services, and laboratory, pathology, and radiology services. All persons entitled to Medicare Part A may enroll in Medicare Part B on a monthly premium basis.Long-Term Care: Care over an extended period, usually for a chronic condition or disability, requiring periodic, intermittent, or continuous care.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Rate Setting and Review: A method of examining and setting levels of payments.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Insurance: Coverage by contract whereby one part indemnifies or guarantees another against loss by a specified contingency.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (U.S.): A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Accelerometry: Qualitative and quantitative measurement of MOVEMENT patterns.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Fee-for-Service Plans: Method of charging whereby a physician or other practitioner bills for each encounter or service rendered. In addition to physicians, other health care professionals are reimbursed via this mechanism. Fee-for-service plans contrast with salary, per capita, and prepayment systems, where the payment does not change with the number of services actually used or if none are used. (From Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Cost Allocation: The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Utilization Review: An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Medical Savings Accounts: Tax-exempt trusts or custodial accounts established by individuals with financial institutions for saving money for future medical expenses.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.TaiwanFinancial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Medically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Mice, Inbred C57BLOvernutrition: An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.IndiaCross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Diagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Medicare Part D: A stand-alone drug plan offered by insurers and other private companies to beneficiaries that receive their Medicare Part A and/or B benefits through the Original Medicare Plan. It includes Medicare Private Fee-for-Service Plans that do not offer prescription drug coverage and Medicare Cost Plans offering Medicare prescription drug coverage. The plan was enacted as the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 with coverage beginning January 1, 2006.Employer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.AzerbaijanCold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.California
Capital expenditure (CAPEX). *Operating expense (OPEX). *Activity-based costing. *Life cycle cost analysis ... Migration expenses. *Risks: susceptibility to vulnerabilities, availability of upgrades, patches and future licensing policies ...
... which certainly would have been considered a Capital Expenditure for tax purposes. See Expenses versus Capital Expenditures. ... as a loss or if it was a non-depreciable capital expenditure. The court held that it was a capital expenditure. In 1947, ... Contrast this decision with Midland Empire Packing Company v. Commissioner, in which the Tax Court held that an expenditure to ... Dissent The dissent found that the construction of drainage system was an ordinary and necessary business expense that did not ...
Expenditures refer to candidate expenses. "Loser in riding fight seeks NDP leadership", Globe and Mail, 28 March 1988, A4. The ...
Note that C, G, and I are expenditures on final goods and services; expenditures on intermediate goods and services do not ... Examples include food, rent, jewelry, gasoline, and medical expenses, but not the purchase of new housing. ... The new formula deducted from GDP (personal consumption + public non-defensive expenditures - private defensive expenditures + ... household final consumption expenditure). These personal expenditures fall under one of the following categories: durable goods ...
Provincial expenditures refer to candidate expenses. Italicized expenditures refer to submitted totals, and are presented when ...
Provincial expenditures refer to candidate expenses. http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/local/museum-ceo-dumped-279390072.html ...
Provincial expenditures refer to candidate expenses. McFadyen stepping down as PC leader, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 4 ...
Expenditure entries refer to individual candidate expenses. Fontaine was elected Chief of the Sagkeeng First Nation in 1989, ...
Expenditures refer to individual candidate expenses. Bill Blaikie, Address to the Premier's Dinner, 29 October 2004. " ...
Provincial expenditures refer to candidate expenses. David Kuxhaus, "Grits pick Gerrard as their saviour", Winnipeg Free Press ...
Provincial expenditures refer to candidate expenses. Italicized expenditures refer to submitted totals, and are presented when ... In the same period, West argued that Manitobans should pay health-care premiums instead of paying for health expenses through ...
However, the expense of the military was proving ruinous to the Russian economy, consuming some 65% of the government's annual ... revenue.[7] Since the nation was at peace, Catherine was determined to reduce military expenditure.[7] For most of her reign, ... However, on this single issue, the reduction of military expenses, Catherine was able to have her way.[8] The resulting tax ...
Provincial expenditures refer to individual candidate expenses. Italicized expenditures refer to submitted totals, and are ... An independent review completed in late October 2005 found only minor discrepancies in Dingwall's expenses, amounting to less ... Dingwall resigned after the accusations were made public, but later claimed that his expenditures were inaccurately reported ... and argued that the auditors failed to include numerous ambiguous expenses in their findings. Pallister sang a parody of Pink ...
Election expenditures refer only to candidate expenses. MaryAnn Mihychuk (Minto) resigned her seat on May 21, 2004 to campaign ...
Expenditures refer only to candidate election expenses. Eric Stefanson (PC) resigned as the member for Kirkfield Park on ...
Expenses. $123.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $33 billion (1986)[1]. Economic aid. $4.0 billion extended ... Budget expenditures ($ billion). 123.2. 563. 1 GNP, used for the GDR, includes income earned by its citizens abroad, minus ... The budget envisaged expenditures of 34.688 bn East marks, an increase of about 10% over the 31.730 bn of the 1952 budget. Its ... These prices served as a basis for calculating expenses and receipts. Enterprises had every incentive to use these prices as ...
Total capital expenditures for the project were to be $1.7 billion $1.3 billion was planned for operating costs. According to ... Total expenses incurred constituted nearly $100 million. In April, 2006, SOCAR announced it would be able to develop the field ... Total expenditures would reach close to $200 million. According to the Vice-President of SOCAR, Khoshbakht Yusifzade, the ...
Of these expenditures, 85.7% went toward program expenses. Notable alumni include: Howard Baker Jr., 1943, former Senate ... In the 2005 fiscal year, the school's total revenue was $34,922,423 and total expenses equaled $25,380,730. ...
"Labour MP Phil Hope drawn into expenses row". Daily Telegraph. 4 Feb 2008. Retrieved 24 Apr 2010. "Staffing expenditure: ... 41,000 as MPs retreat on expenses, The Daily Telegraph, 13 May 2009 MPs should take Phil Hope's lead over expenses row, "The ... In May 2009, Hope was criticised for claiming £37,000 in expenses from the taxpayer over 4 years for a London flat. The Daily ... confirmed that a member may employ one relative subject to general conditions relating to expenses. ...
Expense accounts represent the company's expenditures. Common examples are utilities, rents, depreciation, interest, and ... Expense 722 Insurance Expense 726 Salaries and Wages Expense 729 Rent Expense 732 Utilities Expense 905 Interest Expense The ... Welfare Expenses 610 Advertising Expenses 599 Printing & Stationery Expenses 631 Supplies Expense 711 Depreciation ... 400 Rental Income 410 Sales Income 420 Interest Income 570 Office Expense 585 Computer Expenses 595 Communication Expense 597 ...
Provincial election expenditures in Manitoba refer to individual candidate expenses. Italicized expenditures refer to submitted ... John Gray, "Liberal numbers don't add up in attack on NDP expenditure", Globe and Mail, 16 May 1995, A6. Nicolaas Van Rijn, " ...
Expenditure entries refer to individual candidate expenses. Profile: Markus Buchart, Manitoba Votes 2003, Canadian Broadcasting ...
Expenditure entries refer to individual candidate expenses. Municipal election information is taken from the Winnipeg Free ...
Expenditure entries refer to individual candidate expenses. "MLA Biographies - Living". The Legislative Assembly of Manitoba. " ...
Negative aspects of using a living trust as opposed to a will and probate include upfront legal expenses, the expense of trust ... They must provide a regular accounting of trust income and expenditures. Trustees may be compensated and be reimbursed their ... The trustee may be compensated and have expenses reimbursed, but otherwise must turn over all profits from the trust properties ... expenses. A court of competent jurisdiction can remove a trustee who breaches his/her fiduciary duty. Some breaches of ...
If the federal match expenditure is also counted, the program, on average, takes up 22% of each state's budget.[83][84] Some 43 ... The federal government pays on average 57% of Medicaid expenses. Loss of income and medical insurance coverage during the 2008- ... The federal government pays on average 57% of Medicaid expenses. On November 25, 2008, a new federal rule was passed that ... Federal law gives options as to whether non-long-term-care-related expenses, such as normal health-insurance-type medical ...

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