Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
Infection with group A streptococci that is characterized by tonsillitis and pharyngitis. An erythematous rash is commonly present.
GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-13. Included under this heading are the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA2 which is a monomeric receptor and the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR TYPE II which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13.
Protein exotoxins from Staphylococcus aureus, phage type II, which cause epidermal necrolysis. They are proteins with a molecular weight of 26,000 to 32,000. They cause a condition variously called scaled skin, Lyell or Ritter syndrome, epidermal exfoliative disease, toxic epidermal necrolysis, etc.
An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.
Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that specifically phosphorylates PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2. The enzyme lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE, however it is regulated by phosphorylation by PROTEIN KINASE A and through intramolecular autophosphorylation.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.

The rgg gene of Streptococcus pyogenes NZ131 positively influences extracellular SPE B production. (1/1506)

Streptococcus pyogenes produces several extracellular proteins, including streptococcal erythrogenic toxin B (SPE B), also known as streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B and streptococcal proteinase. Several reports suggest that SPE B contributes to the virulence associated with S. pyogenes; however, little is known about its regulation. Nucleotide sequence data revealed the presence, upstream of the speB gene, of a gene, designated rgg, that was predicted to encode a polypeptide similar to previously described positive regulatory factors. The putative Rgg polypeptide of S. pyogenes NZ131 consisted of 280 amino acids and had a predicted molecular weight of 33,246. To assess the potential role of Rgg in the production of SPE B, the rgg gene was insertionally inactivated in S. pyogenes NZ131, which resulted in markedly decreased SPE B production, as determined both by immunoblotting and caseinolytic activity on agar plates. However, the production of other extracellular products, including streptolysin O, streptokinase, and DNase, was not affected. Complementation of the rgg mutant with an intact rgg gene copy in S. pyogenes NZ131 could restore SPE B production and confirmed that the rgg gene product is involved in the production of SPE B.  (+info)

Extracellular cysteine protease produced by Streptococcus pyogenes participates in the pathogenesis of invasive skin infection and dissemination in mice. (2/1506)

The role of an extracellular cysteine protease encoded by the speB gene in group A Streptococcus (GAS) skin infection was studied with a mouse model. Mice were injected subcutaneously with a wild-type GAS serotype M3 strain or a cysteine protease-inactivated isogenic derivative grown to stationary phase. The mortality rate of mice injected with the M3 speB mutant strain was significantly decreased (P < 0.0008) compared to that of animals injected with the wild-type parental organism. The abscesses formed in animals infected with the cysteine protease mutant strain were significantly smaller (P < 0.0001) than those caused by the wild-type organism and slowly regressed over 3 to 4 weeks. In striking contrast, infection with the wild-type GAS isolate generated necrotic lesions, and in some animals the GAS disseminated widely from the injection site and produced extensive cutaneous damage. All of these animals developed bacteremia and died. GAS dissemination was accompanied by severe tissue and blood vessel necrosis. Cysteine protease expression in the infected tissue was identified by immunogold electron microscopy. These data demonstrate that cysteine protease expression contributes to soft tissue pathology, including necrosis, and is required for efficient systemic dissemination of the organism from the initial site of skin inoculation.  (+info)

Risk factors in the pathogenesis of invasive group A streptococcal infections: role of protective humoral immunity. (3/1506)

An impressive change in the epidemiology and severity of invasive group A streptococcal infections occurred in the 1980s, and the incidence of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome cases continues to rise. The reason for the resurgence of severe invasive cases remains a mystery-has there been a change in the pathogen or in host protective immunity? To address these questions, we have studied 33 patients with invasive infection caused by genotypically indistinguishable M1T1 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes who had different disease outcomes. Patients were classified as having severe (n = 21) and nonsevere (n = 12) invasive infections based on the presence or absence of shock and organ failure. Levels of anti-M1 bactericidal antibodies and of anti-streptococcal superantigen neutralizing antibodies in plasma were significantly lower in both groups than in age- and geographically matched healthy controls (P < 0.01). Importantly, the levels of these protective antibodies in plasma samples from severe and nonsevere invasive cases were not different. Together the data suggest that low levels of protective antibodies may contribute to host susceptibility to invasive streptococcal infection but do not modulate disease outcome. Other immunogenetic factors that regulate superantigen responses may influence the severity of systemic manifestations associated with invasive streptococcal infection.  (+info)

Biological effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III-secreted proteins on CHO cells. (4/1506)

A strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that fails to express known type III-secreted effector proteins was constructed as an expression host. Individual effectors were expressed in trans, and their biological effects on CHO cells were assessed in an acute cellular infection model. Intoxication with ExoS, ExoT, or ExoY resulted in alterations in cell morphology. As shown in previous genetic studies, ExoU expression was linked to acute cytotoxicity.  (+info)

Importance of the carboxyl terminus in the folding and function of alpha-hemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus. (5/1506)

The physical state of two model mutants of alpha-hemolysin (alphaHL), alphaHL(1-289), a carboxyl-terminal deletion mutant (CDM), and alphaHL(1-331), a carboxyl-terminal extension mutant (CEM), were examined in detail to identify the role of the carboxyl terminus in the folding and function of native alphaHL. Denatured alphaHL can be refolded efficiently with nearly total recovery of its activity upon restoration of nondenaturing conditions. Various biophysical and biochemical studies on the three proteins have revealed the importance of an intact carboxyl terminus in the folding of alphaHL. The CDM exhibits a marked increase in susceptibility to proteases as compared with alphaHL. alphaHL and CEM exhibit similar fluorescence emission maxima, and that of the CDM is red-shifted by 9 nm, which indicates a greater solvent exposure of the tryptophan residues of the CDM. In addition, the CDM binds 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS) and increases its fluorescence intensity significantly unlike alphaHL and CEM, which show marginal binding. The circular dichroism studies point that the CDM possesses significant secondary structure, but its tertiary structure is greatly diminished as compared with alphaHL. These data show that the CDM has several of the features that characterize a molten globule state. Experiments with freshly translated mutants, using coupled in vitro transcription and translation, have further supported our observations that deletion at the carboxyl terminus leads to major structural perturbations in the water-soluble form of alphaHL. The studies demonstrate a critical role of the carboxyl terminus of alphaHL in attaining the native folded state.  (+info)

Evidence for a structural motif in toxins and interleukin-2 that may be responsible for binding to endothelial cells and initiating vascular leak syndrome. (6/1506)

The dose-limiting toxicity of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and immunotoxin (IT) therapy in humans is vascular leak syndrome (VLS). VLS has a complex etiology involving damage to vascular endothelial cells (ECs), extravasation of fluids and proteins, interstitial edema, and organ failure. IL-2 and ITs prepared with the catalytic A chain of the plant toxin, ricin (RTA), and other toxins, damage human ECs in vitro and in vivo. Damage to ECs may initiate VLS; if this damage could be avoided without losing the efficacy of ITs or IL-2, larger doses could be administered. In this paper, we provide evidence that a three amino acid sequence motif, (x)D(y), in toxins and IL-2 damages ECs. Thus, when peptides from RTA or IL-2 containing this sequence motif are coupled to mouse IgG, they bind to and damage ECs both in vitro and, in the case of RTA, in vivo. In contrast, the same peptides with a deleted or mutated sequence do not. Furthermore, the peptide from RTA attached to mouse IgG can block the binding of intact RTA to ECs in vitro and vice versa. In addition, RTA, a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38-lys), and fibronectin also block the binding of the mouse IgG-RTA peptide to ECs, suggesting that an (x)D(y) motif is exposed on all three molecules. Our results suggest that deletions or mutations in this sequence or the use of nondamaging blocking peptides may increase the therapeutic index of both IL-2, as well as ITs prepared with a variety of plant or bacterial toxins.  (+info)

Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor interacts with mouse blastocysts independently of ErbB1: a possible role for heparan sulfate proteoglycans and ErbB4 in blastocyst implantation. (7/1506)

Blastocyst implantation requires molecular and cellular interactions between the uterine luminal epithelium and blastocyst trophectoderm. We have previously shown that heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is induced in the mouse luminal epithelium solely at the site of blastocyst apposition at 16:00 hours on day 4 of pregnancy prior to the attachment reaction (22:00-23:00 hours), and that HB-EGF promotes blastocyst growth, zona-hatching and trophoblast outgrowth. To delineate which EGF receptors participate in blastocyst activation, the toxicity of chimeric toxins composed of HB-EGF or TGF-(&agr;) coupled to Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) were used as measures of receptor expression. TGF-(&agr;) or HB-EGF binds to EGF-receptor (ErbB1), while HB-EGF, in addition, binds to ErbB4. The results indicate that ErbB1 is inefficient in mediating TGF-(&agr;)-PE or HB-EGF-PE toxicity as follows: (i) TGF-(&agr;)-PE was relatively inferior in killing blastocysts, 100-fold less than HB-EGF-PE, (ii) analysis of blastocysts isolated from cross-bred egfr+/- mice demonstrated that HB-EGF-PE, but not TGF-(&agr;)-PE, killed egfr-/- blastocysts, and (iii) blastocysts that survived TGF-(&agr;)-PE were nevertheless killed by HB-EGF-PE. HB-EGF-PE toxicity was partially mediated by cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), since a peptide corresponding to the heparin-binding domain of HB-EGF as well as heparitinase treatment protected the blastocysts from the toxic effects of HB-EGF-PE by about 40%. ErbB4 is a candidate for being an HB-EGF-responsive receptor since RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that day 4 mouse blastocysts express two different erbB4 isoforms and immunostaining with anti-ErbB4 antibodies confirmed that ErbB4 protein is expressed at the apical surface of the trophectoderm cells. It is concluded that (i) HB-EGF interacts with the blastocyst cell surface via high-affinity receptors other than ErbB1, (ii) the HB-EGF interaction with high-affinity blastocysts receptors is regulated by heparan sulfate, and (iii) ErbB4 is a candidate for being a high-affinity receptor for HB-EGF on the surface of implantation-competent blastocysts.  (+info)

Prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by elimination of recipient-reactive donor T cells with recombinant toxins that target the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor. (8/1506)

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), due to the presence of recipient-reactive T cells, limits the usefulness of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is a major contributor to patient mortality. To prevent GVHD, murine and human T cells were activated by antigen or mitogens and treated with a genetically engineered form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) directed against the IL-2 receptor. Treatment with the chimeric toxin eliminated alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) as determined by cytotoxicity and mixed lymphocyte culture assays. Precursor frequencies of alloreactive cytotoxic T cells and proliferative T cells were reduced up to 100-fold as shown by limiting dilution assays. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that treatment with the chimeric toxin completely eliminated CD25+ cells from the cultures. Toxin treatment had no significant effect on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells as determined in vitro by colony-forming assays and in vivo by long-term hematopoietic recovery after 950 rad irradiation. Toxin treatment decreased GVHD in transplanted mice to less than 10% (as compared to 88% in untreated controls). Thus, it is possible to prevent life-threatening GVHD after BMT by using a CD25 receptor-directed toxin to eliminate host-reactive T cells from bone marrow grafts.  (+info)

Nucleotide sequence of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C.: The nucleotide sequence of the gene speC, encoding streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C (SPE
The Pseudomonas exotoxin (or exotoxin A) is an exotoxin produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It inhibits elongation factor-2. It does so by ADP-ribosylation of EF2. This then causes the elongation of polypeptides to cease. (The mechanism of the toxin is similar to that of Diphtheria toxin.) It has been investigated as a treatment for hepatitis B and cancer. Yates SP, Taylor PL, Jørgensen R, et al. (February 2005). Structure-function analysis of water-soluble inhibitors of the catalytic domain of exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biochem. J. 385 (Pt 3): 667-75. doi:10.1042/BJ20041480. PMC 1134741 . PMID 15458385. Yates SP, Merrill AR (May 2004). Elucidation of eukaryotic elongation factor-2 contact sites within the catalytic domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A. Biochem. J. 379 (Pt 3): 563-72. doi:10.1042/BJ20031731. PMC 1224111 . PMID 14733615. Hafkemeyer P, Brinkmann U, Brinkmann E, Pastan I, Blum HE, Baumert TF (May 2008). Pseudomonas exotoxin antisense RNA selectively kills ...
The extent of the transfer of the adenosine 5-diphosphate ribose (ADPR) moiety of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide onto elongation factor 2 (EF-2) catalyzed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PA-toxin) was dependent upon the presence of a reducing agent, dithiotheritol (DTT). The reaction requires DTT in low concentration (1 to 10 mM) and in the absence of DTT less product, ADPR-EF 2, was formed. PA-toxin was fully activated by treatment with a denaturing agent, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), in conjunction with DTT. In the presence of activated toxin, the maximum transfer of ADPR onto EF-2 was observed when EF-2 had been previously reduced with DTT. Denaturation of EF-2 prior to reduction did not produce a further increase in its ability to act as a substrate for PA-toxin ...
Stuart, R K. and Pollack, M, Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin a inhibits proliferation of human bone marrow progenitor cells in vitro. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3514 ...
SPE, formerly. A group of toxins produced by Streptococcus pyogenes and responsible for many of the pathological sequelae of infection. Several (SPEA, SPEC, SPEX) are superantigens. SPEB is a cysteine peptidase (streptopain: peptidase 3.4.22.10, 398 aa) which possesses mitogenic activity but, when pure, is not a superantigen. SPEA (streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A) is a phage-encoded exotoxin. SPEA and SPEC show strong sequence homology to the staphylococcal enterotoxins. ...
Endotoxins are the lipopolysaccharides that are an integral part of the cell membrane of the gram-negative bacteria and become toxin in some conditions. Exotoxins are heat labile, proteinaceous substances or toxoids that are liberated by mostly gram-positive bacteria but sometimes also by gram-negative bacteria into its surrounding. Endotoxins are the associated cell toxins whereas exotoxins are the extracellular diffusible toxins. The molecular weight of endotoxins ranges from 50 to 1000KDa and associated with the lipopolysaccharide complex whereas the molecular weight of the exotoxin is about ten kDa and associated with the protein complex. Endotoxins show stability to heat at about 250°C and do no denature on heating whereas exotoxins are heat labile and get denatured at a minute temperature. Immune reactions get weak when endotoxins attack the cell and have high enzymatic activity but poor antigenicity whereas immune responses get stronger in the case of exotoxins but with no enzymatic ...
During the intoxication process, Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) and immunotoxins containing PE internalize into the target cell and become processed into two fragments, and the carboxyl fragment translocates into the cytosol where it inactivates elongation factor 2. We have proposed that after internaliz …
Recently, we reported the identification of novel streptococcal SAg genes including the incomplete spe-j gene by mining the S. pyogenes M1 genome database at the University of Oklahoma. This paper describes the cloning of the complete spe-j gene and yet another novel sag gene from the M1 strain (spe-i), followed by expression and functional analysis of the recombinant proteins.. The novel proteins are clearly related to SPEs and the SEs, which are part of the SAg family. Although the overall amino acid sequence identity to their nearest homolog is not particularly high (39.7% between SPE-I and SEI and 48.8% between SPE-J and SPE-C) the regions that are important for the characteristic SAg fold are highly conserved. These regions are α4, α5, β4, and β5. Recombinant forms of both SPE-I and SPE-J are extremely potent stimulators of human PBL at nanomolar concentrations, confirming their role as SAgs.. The data presented in this paper suggest that both SPE-I and SPE-J bind to the MHC class II ...
This invention relates to the production and use of recombinant Pseudomonas-derived toxins modified to increase their toxicity and potency in therapy. More particularly, the invention relates to certain deletions in domain II of the amino acid sequence of Pseudomonas exotoxin the domain which relates to the toxins natural proteolytic processing.
Gram negative and positive bacteria have evolved toxins to aid in their ability to colonize host organisms. Some gram-positive bacteria produce exotoxins called superantigens that hyper-stimulate the immune system by crosslinking the variable region of the beta chain (Vβ) of T cell receptors with the antigen presenting major histocompatibility complex II molecule on the surface of antigen presenting cells. This hyper-stimulation leads to overproduction of cytokines, which can result in toxic shock. In addition, the action of the superantigens has been implicated in many diseases including necrotizing pneumonia and endocarditis. Gram-negative bacteria produce lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also called endotoxin, as a major constituent in their outer cell walls. LPS binds to the host protein called MD-2 and the LPS:MD-2 complex associates with cell surface homodimeric Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). This tri-molecular interaction can lead to massive stimulation of cytokines from TLR4+ antigen presenting ...
Although perhaps best known as causing food poisoning, these toxins may act as specific allergens and induce IgE antibodies that may exacerbate the skin inflammation in AD (1-4). SEA and SEB are also implicated in infections, and may act as so-called superantigens, modulating and/or amplifying allergic inflammation (1, 5, 6). Circulating IgE antibodies to SEA and SEB are present in 50 to 85 % of patients with chronic AD (1, 6, 10). Titers of specific IgE to SEA and/or SEB has been correlated to severity of disease and density of S.a colonies in the skin (2, 9, 10). The sensitized patients had more severe AD; this correlation being more recognized in the age-group ,7 years. Furthermore the patients who had both exotoxin producing S.a on their skin and IgE antibodies to the same toxin had significantly more severe AD. It is suggested that exotoxin specific IgE antibodies and exotoxin producing S.a should be measured at the same time to evaluate the effect of exotoxin on AD severity (9 ...
Get an answer for What is the difference between endotoxins and exotoxins? and find homework help for other Toxins questions at eNotes
Study Flashcards On Q3: Micro: Exotoxin Producing Clostridia at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
G. Catho, Y. Gillet, O. Dumitrescu, G. Lina, G. Labbé, et al.. Intrafamilial transmission of Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin responsible for two cases of neonatal necrotizing pneumonia. Archives de Pédiatrie, 2011, 18, pp.1090-1094. ⟨10.1016/j.arcped.2011.07.019⟩. ⟨hal-02303176⟩ ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Abrogation of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B-mediated suppression of phagocytosis in U937 cells by Cordyceps sinensis mycelium via production of cytokines. AU - Kuo, Chih Feng. AU - Chen, Cheng Chih. AU - Lin, Chiou Feng. AU - Jan, Ming Shiou. AU - Huang, Robert Y.. AU - Luo, Yueh Hsia. AU - Chuang, Woei Jer. AU - Sheu, Chia Chin. AU - Lin, Yee Shin. PY - 2007/2/1. Y1 - 2007/2/1. N2 - Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SPE B) is a virulent factor in group A streptococcal infection. We previously showed that SPE B reduced phagocytosis in human monocytic U937 cells. Here we show that the mycelium extract of Cordyceps sinensis (CS), a Chinese immunomodulatory herbal medicine, increased phagocytosis in U937 cells. Neither heat nor trypsin pretreatment prevented CS extract from causing this increase. Further studies indicated that SPE B-mediated suppression of U937 cell phagocytic activity was abrogated by CS extract. Factors in the conditioned medium from CS-extract-treated U937 ...
The optimal production of P. haemolytica leukotoxin in the culture supernatant of a fluid medium is dependent on a number of factors. The leukotoxin has to be produced by using a strain that is known for its ability to produce high quantities of leukotoxin, inoculated into the most suitable type of medium at the correct culture density containing the necessary supplements and harvested after a certain growth period. The volume in which it is produced may also have an influence. Two different procedures are described to produce the leukotoxin in 5 to 15-ℓ quantities in RPMI 1640 medium. The first method used to produce leukotoxin is one that has been repeatedly described since the presence of the leukotoxin was first established in 1978. Using this method seven batches of leukotoxin were produced in litre quantities with leukotoxin activity ranging from 23-67 u/mℓ. The seed culture inoculum is prepared in brain heart infusion broth, which is centrifuged before the organisms are inoculated ...
Panton-valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming cytotoxin produced by some clones of Staphylococcus aureus that is associated with infections ranging from uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections to life-threatening necrotizing pneumonia. PVL S aureus-associated maxillofacial infections are rarely reported; therefore, a high degree of clinical suspicion is warranted and close liaison with microbiologists and appropriate samples are required for optimal management. This report discusses the management and learning points from 3 such cases managed by the Greater Glasgow and Clyde National Health Service maxillofacial surgical teams.,p,,/p, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a virulence factor produced by some clones of Staphylococcus aureus. These isolates are associated with infections that range from uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections to life-threatening entities such as necrotizing pneumonia. 1 and 2 This report presents a case series of 3 PVL-positive community-acquired ...
A number of streptococcal products, including the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (SPE) types A, B, and C as well as a 22-kDa fragment of M type 5 protein (pep M5), are potent stimulants of human T-lymphocyte blastogenesis and belong to the newly designated family of superantigens. The V beta usage of human T cells stimulated with these toxins was investigated by using the polymerase chain reaction. We demonstrate that SPE A, B, and C as well as pep M5 stimulate the proliferation of T cells in a dose-dependent manner. pep M5 stimulates cells bearing V beta 2, 4, and 8 elements of the T-cell receptor (TCR), whereas SPE A stimulates TCR V beta 2-, 12-, 14-, and 15-bearing cells. SPE B stimulated only cells expressing TCR V beta 8 elements, while SPE C stimulated cells expressing V beta 1, 2, 5.1, and 10. These studies reveal that the preferential usage of particular V beta elements is distinct for these different superantigens, which may be important in the pathogenesis of various streptococcal ...
The Panton-Valentine leukocidin is associated with staphylococcal skin and pulmonary infections. We describe a school outbreak of skin infections and the public health response to it. Nasal carriage of a Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphyloc ...
Staphylococcus aureus is well adapted to the human host. Evasion of the host phagocyte response is critical for successful infection. The staphylococcal bicomponent pore-forming toxins Panton-Valentine leukocidin LukSF-PV (PVL) and γ-hemolysin CB (HlgCB) target human phagocytes through interaction with the complement receptors C5aR1 and C5aR2. Currently, the apparent redundancy of both toxins cannot be adequately addressed in experimental models of infection because mice are resistant to PVL and HlgCB. The molecular basis for species specificity of the two toxins in animal models is not completely understood. We show that PVL and HlgCB feature distinct activity toward neutrophils of different mammalian species, where activity of PVL is found to be restricted to fewer species than that of HlgCB. Overexpression of various mammalian C5a receptors in HEK cells confirms that cytotoxicity toward neutrophils is driven by species-specific interactions of the toxins with C5aR1. By taking advantage of ...
The characteristics, diagnosis, management, surveillance and epidemiology of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL)-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
A total of 75 Sta phylococcus aureus isolates obtai ned from patie nts with either recurre nt ski n abscesses or furu ncles ( n=48) or chro nic i nfectio ns from other body sites ( n=27) were scree ne
Streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z-2 (SMEZ-2) is certainly a streptococcal superantigen that primarily stimulates human T cells bearing V8 and mouse T cells bearing V11. conjugated to ovalbumin (M1-ovalbumin) resulted in faster and quantitatively higher degrees of anti-ovalbumin IgG, Kaempferol supplier with endpoint titers getting 1,000- to 10,000-flip higher than those in pets immunized with unconjugated ovalbumin. Substantially higher degrees of anti-ovalbumin IgG had been seen in mice transgenic for individual main histocompatibility complicated (MHC) course II. Substitution of M1 with an MHC course II binding mutant (DM) removed enhanced immunity, recommending that M1 improved the delivery of antigen via MHC course II-positive antigen-presenting cells that predominate within lymphoid tissues. Immunization of pets using a conjugate comprising M1 and ovalbumin peptide from positions 323 Kaempferol supplier to 339 generated degrees of anti-peptide IgG 100-fold greater than those in pets ...
In this study we used exotoxin analysis, functional genomics and a murine infection model to investigate the relative contribution of α-hemolysin, α-type phenol. soluble modulins and Panton-Valentine leukocidin to the enhanced https://www.selleckchem.com/products/lazertinib-yh25448-gns-1480.html virulence of ST93 CA-MRSA. We show that TEW-7197 mouse increased virulence in the BALB/c mouse skin infection model is less dependent on α-type phenol soluble modulin or Panton-Valentine leukocidin production but is instead due to high-level expression of α-hemolysin in this clone, controlled predominantly by the agr system. Results and discussion The emergence of CA-MRSA is a major public health issue, and there is a clear need to understand the basis for both virulence and transmission of global clones of CA-MRSA. The genetically distinct CA-MRSA clone ST93-IV [2B] has rapidly become the dominant clone in Australia and its rise accounts for the increase in incidence of CA-MRSA as a whole in this ...
B3(Fv)-PE38KDEL recombinant immunotoxin: composed of the heavy chain V(H) region of the carcinoma specific Mab B3 connected by a flexible linker peptide to the corresponding light chain V(L) which is in turn fused to a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin
Monecke, S. and Berger-Bachi, B. and Coombs, G. and Holmes, A. and Kay, I. and Kearns, A. and Linde, H-J. and OBrien, F. and Slickers, P. and Ehricht, R. 2007. Comparative genomics and DNA array-based genotyping of pandemic Staphylococcus aurreus strains containing Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 13 (3): pp. 236-249 ...
Can you help us find who dumped Valentine, the dog with a heart-shaped face? Wrapped in an old curtain, this beautiful dog with a heart-shaped pattern on his face was dumped outside a vets surgery with a broken leg. He lay in the cold for ten hours until waste collectors found him and raised the alarm. Now Stroud District Councils Animal Welfare Officers - who have re-named the stunning Saluki lurcher Valentine in time for St Valentines Day - have warned owners not to trade dogs on selling websites, as he was. And they have appealed for anyone who may know anything about who owns Valentine and how he was injured to contact them. A white van was captured on CCTV when Valentine - registered as Duke - was dumped but so far no evidence has emerged about those responsible.
Valentines Day Math Project Your students will love working on this 11 page Valentines Day Math Project! They will get into the Valentine spirit BEFORE and AFTER Valentines Day with this engaging math project! This is a great Valentines Day Print and Go Math Packet!
SUMMARY This review begins with a discussion of the large family of Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococcal pyrogenic toxin T lymphocyte superantigens from structural and immunobiological perspectives. With this as background, the revi
View Notes - reviewsheet from BI 112 at N. Michigan. Terms for Exam 2 nitrogen fixation restriction endonuclease endotoxin exotoxin lipopolysaccharide super antigen endosymbiosis algae protozoan
The largest free nude men valentines image and nude men valentines picture site on the internet is Free-Extras.com. Our site is continually updated with new nude men valentines pictures for people who are searching for pictures and images. Check our site out if you want nude men valentines pictures or images to post on myspace,facebook, or your blog and website.
Colorful block of hearts on the background carries a lovely message on this Valentines Day. Free online Many Hearts On Valentines Day ecards on Valentines Day
Celebrate the 14th by indulging in a selection of Cocomayas exquisite chocolates and artisan cakes and biscuits. Heart-shaped all-butter shortbread biscuits (from £2.50-£3.00 apiece) come wrapped in beautiful packaging to make for the perfect present. For an intimate gift, create a bespoke Name Bar with white, milk or dark chocolate and finish it off with a sprinkle of glitter or personalised decoration, a quirky way to spell out your love. www.cocomaya.co.uk.. Give Your Man Morning Glory this Valentines Day. Make Your Valentines Day Go With a Bang with Rude Healths Naughty Breakfast Range. Recent health studies show that when it comes to getting your man in the mood this Valentines Day it really is all about having your oats, and leading cereal maker Rude Health has the perfect recipe to put the passion into your Valentines Day breakfast.. The most common cause for not having sex is because people are too tired, with one in three married Brits even saying sex has become a chore. Well, ...
Valentine says that cowriter-director Marc Lewallen is big into costumes-he has an eye for them. (Brad M. Younts is the other writer-director, and Mary Spray supplied the songs.) When Marc started putting my costume together, handing me items, I kept giggling. And when we went shopping for the wig, I was like, Now I know who Barbra is. The hair is ridiculous, and when we added a big old headband, it was over-the-top ridiculous.. In real life, Valentine is director of operations at Stage 773, which recently celebrated nearly $2 million worth of renovations. We now have a four-theater complex: two 150-seat main stages, one 80-seat black box, and a 70-seat cabaret, she says proudly. Her husband, Brian Peterlin, is the shows tech guy, a member of silent sketch-comedy group Bri-Ko, and director of facilities at Stage 773.. Asked whether they have kids, Valentine says, Yeah. Our baby is a building at 1225 W. Belmont called Stage 773.. And in real life, I sound like a man, Valentine says. ...
Buy heart shaped valentine balloons from China heart shaped valentine balloons manufacturers, 37 heart shaped valentine balloons for sale.
Streptococcus mitogenic factor: distinct from previously described Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins; 271 aa residues, MW about 25 kDa; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank D13428
Looking for leukocidin? Find out information about leukocidin. A toxic substance released by certain bacteria which destroys leukocytes Explanation of leukocidin
Looking for a cannabis strain to fall in love with? Try Valentine X! Named for St. Valentine, the patron saint of epilepsy, Valentine X is a high-CBD strain with a CBD:THC ratio of 25:1.
Ok, I had to put one movie in here for all you singles out there. This movie is perfect if your single on Valentines Day because what could be better than watching a hot chick kill aliens all day? You can watch Sigourney Weaver and then picture your perfect girl, one that is hot and knows how to handle a gun (pun intended). This film is also great because you can kill a whole day by watching the entire franchise from Alien to Alien vs Predator: Requiem.. Well, that was my list of films that I know I will be watching this Valentines Day. But if you have any other V-Day gems, be sure to post them in the comments below so others can share the wealth this Valentines Day.. ...
New York NY (PRWEB) February 15 2013 In celebration of the Valentines Day My Cleaning Products announced a present for all mold sufferers. It declared that its now offering 20% discount on its green a href http://www.mycleaningproducts.com/promo/valentines/?utm_sourcevocus&utm_mediumpr&utm_campaignmold_remediation_02_14_13 title mol,Mold,Sufferers,Get,20%,Discount,,Zero,Shipping,Charge,and,Complimentary,Sample,of,Non-Toxic,Mold,Sprays,for,Valentines,Special,,My,Cleaning,Products,Reveals,the,Details,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
A few days ago we have posted a roundup of E-Card resources Best Free E-Card Resources: Lets Celebrate Valentines Day and now we representing a huge bundle of beautiful hearts to boost your excitement for Valentines Day, check out these 80 Cute Heart Examples which will surely make you more passionate on this Valentines Day, […]. Read More ...
A lovable ecard to wish your family on this Valentines Day! Free online Lovely Flowers For Valentines Day ecards on Valentines Day
Happy Valentines Day! Did you get any cards this year? Lets hope you didnt receive one of these. The rude, cruel, and insulting Vinegar Valentines of the Victorian era - Atlas Obscura In the 1840s, hopeful American and British lovers sent lacy valentines with cursive flourishes and lofty poems by the thousands. But what to…
Well i just wanted to take time out and wish everyone Happy Valentines Day. I hope everyone got to have there own special day. My day included my son (hes 4) giving me a valentines card. We made breafast together, and then went out to go shopping. Got alot of good deals for him on clothers as he will be starting school this year. He picked a stuffed animal for me and he picked some Ben 10 watch and accsessories for himself. I went and got my eyes checked and picked up my comntacts, and also dropped off my form for my disabled bus pass. I hope that works out, it will help alot in the long run. Well we came home, stopped and bought some ice crem and balloons and are going to finish the nite with movies. I love my son, hes my great little valentine!!! ...
Lets face it, Valentines Day is for the couples and wanna be couples out there. Valentines Day is a day is also a holiday where there is a lot of
The g-toxin and the leukocidins are two-component protein toxins that damage membranes of susceptible cells. The proteins are expressed separately but act together to damage membranes. There is no evidence that they form multimers prior to insertion into membranes. The g-toxin locus expresses three proteins. The B and C components form a leukotoxin with poor hemolytic activity, whereas the A and B components are hemolytic and weakly leukotoxic. The classical Panton and Valentine (PV) leukocidin is distinct from the leukotoxin expressed by the g-toxin locus. It has potent leukotoxicity and, in contrast to g-toxin, is non-hemolytic. Only a small fraction of S aureus isolates (2% in one survey) express the PV leukocidin, whereas 90% of those isolated from severe dermonecrotic lesions express this toxin. This suggests that PV leukocidin is an important factor in necrotizing skin infections. PV-leukocidin causes dermonecrosis when injected subcutaneously in rabbits. Furthermore, at a concentration ...
Dr. Onda is focusing on the pre-clinical development of recombinant immunotoxins (RITs) as new immunotherapy reagents. RITs are genetically modified forms of Pseudomonas exotoxin A that are targeted to cancer cells by the Fv portion of antibodies. These RITs are now in clinical trials and have produced many complete remissions in cancer. As a staff scientist, Dr. Onda uses protein engineering to make these proteins more useful in patients by decreasing their immunogenicity so more treatment cycles can be given before antibodies develop in the patients. New RITs were designed by identifying and silencing the major B cell epitopes. These new RITs are being developed for clinical trials.. ...
Nalpac announces the release of its 2013 Valentines Day Catalog, featuring new and romantic products as well as classics popular with shoppers for the Valentines Day season.
Valentines day is around the corner so everybodys searching for awesome Valentines day ideas for him. Well, at least those whos gonna spend it with someone. Im going to spend it alone, watching movies, and drinking wine. Dont pity me, thats how I like it. For the rest of you I have a list of some of the best gifts that will make your man happy on the special day ...
Click to download Heart, Love, Hearts, Valentine, Bookmark, Fav, Favorite, Favourite, University, Education icon from Free Vector Valentine Heart Iconset by DesignBolts
The month of February means love is in the air. Unfortunately, it also means that afflictions unique to Valentines Day may occur. Be prepared for Feb. 14 Be prepared for Valentines Day by troubleshooting holiday-related mishaps that may call for ICD-10-CM codes in your healthcare organization.
The St. Valentines Day massacre is the stuff of American legend, and the tale is familiar to nearly everyone. But the story of that bloody day in Chicago has never been told, or seen, like this before.
Lin complains that I dont write to her as much as she would like it, because, mostly, were together, and we dont travel separately. So, whens to write? Now, or better a week ago, a month ago, a year ago. Were not together on this Valentine Day. Im at home and she is in room CCU 7 at St.…
Im going to spend today on the go, like I always do. Hungry babies that need to be changed, stop for no one, not even on Valentines day. My hubby will get home from work, tired and hungry and Ill make him something yummy to eat. He loves my Panini, so Ill put together his favorite ingredients. Well talk about his day and mine. Hell tell me the latest in the saga that goes on at his job, and Ill tell him whose poop I had to clean off the floor. Well kiss each other, meaningfully and tell the other we missed them. Then well pick up the nearest crying child to console and soothe. We wont go out for Valentines, probably wont exchange cards ...
Rachel Barrett created the Happy Valentines Day with Simple Abstract Heart design as part of our Christian Valentines Clipart collection. This word art design is available exclusively from FaithClipart.com in royalty free EPS or JPG format.
Have you already thought about the plan for Valentines Day? And that plan includes a romantic dinner at home? Surely the answer of the majority is a resounding yes. Therefore, we wanted to help you as much as possible by collecting a nice collection of photos of Valentine day table decorations to celebrate.. Read More. ...
Happy Valentines everyone I hope you have a wonderful weekend with your loved ones, I made a chocolate brownie cake and sprinkled a little heart on the top, I am not so good at cake decorating as you can see. The recipe for the cake is below, I must confess it was better the last time I made it I think I was too distracted playing with Jasmine, aw well, its the thought that counts and isnt that what valentines is all about, small gestures to show folks you love them ...
A Gilded Valentines Mini Workshop! This workshop is a 4 day workshop! And will include 3 projects from the Gilded Girls.. Shea and Debbie.. plus fun tags/card sets AND a valentines project from me too! This class is open for...
Amanda Hicks says, I created a Valentines day wreath to show my love of skulls. Some of the images are from you Noah, and some are from Richs flicker page, which I saw posted on Skull-a-Day. I asked Rich if I could use and post his images, and he said it was fine. I found some others by just surfing the net. I made the images into beads by glazing them onto flat bottom glass beads, then attached them to the frame. I also added the black flowers to make it pop a little more. I hope you like it. Happy Valentines Day ...
Click to download Heart, Valentine, Favourite, Love, Favorite, Bookmark, Fav, Bandaged icon from Happy Valentines Day Iconset by IconDrawer
VINTAGE VALENTINE Hello Honeybunch! I go for you in a GRAPE big way! Be my Valentine! 3 x 4 circa 1950s- 1960s It is in VERY GOOD CONDIT
Valentines Day is nearly upon us! Here are the rest of the submissions for my Valentines Open Brief, see more here, and see the ones which were chosen by East
The Sweetheart City unveiled its 2014 official valentine cachet stamp and verse this week. Find out how you can mail a Valentine through Loveland.
Depending on the strain, S. aureus is capable of secreting several exotoxins, which can be categorized into three groups. Many ... Medical Laboratory Manual For Tropical Countries vol two Dinges MM, Orwin PM, Schlievert PM (January 2000). "Exotoxins of ... Exfoliative toxins Exfoliative toxins are exotoxins implicated in the disease staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), ...
Streptococcal exotoxins are produced by Streptococcus pyogenes. These toxins share the ability to bind to the major ... Rotavirus (NSP4) Endotoxin Exotoxin "enterotoxin" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Carlton Gyles, Magdalene So, Stanley Falkow, ... An enterotoxin is a protein exotoxin released by a microorganism that targets the intestines. Enterotoxins are chromosomally ... Dinges, M. M.; Orwin, P. M.; Schlievert, P. M. (2000). "Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 13 ...
Dinges MM, Orwin PM, Schlievert PM (January 2000). "Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 13 (1 ...
Dinges, MM; Orwin, PM; Schlievert, PM (January 2000). "Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 13 ( ...
Exotoxin. Gram. positive. Bacilli. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. Clostridium:. *tetani *Tetanospasmin ...
Since characterization, the development of synthetic pathways to histrionicotoxin has been of interest to research groups due to its unusual functionality. The Kishi group proposed the first total synthesis of the parent 283A in 1985 using 89, a previously synthesized lactam used for the synthesis of other variants.[8] Treatment with acetic anhydride yielded 133 in quantitative yield. The cyclic enol ether 134 was formed through oxidative cleavage promoting intramolecular addition followed by a basic deprotection and dehydration. Bromination followed by dehydrobromination in methanol was then found to give an epimeric mixture of unsaturated 135. Hydrolysis, reduction and acetylation yielded 136. Formation of a thiolactam followed by condensation with ethyl bromoacetate gave 137. Selective deprotection of the allylic alcohol followed by oxidation gave 138. A Wittig reaction then generated a chloroalkene, which, upon base-promoted elimination of HCl, gave a terminal alkyne, which was subsequently ...
Reproduction occurs generally between December and early May[citation needed]. Typically, the adult newts will return to the pool in which they hatched. After a mating dance, the male mounts the female and rubs his chin on her nose. He then attaches a spermatophore to the substrate, which she will retrieve into her cloaca.. The egg mass released by the female contains between seven and 30 eggs, and is roughly the consistency of a thick gelatin dessert[citation needed]. Typically, the egg masses are attached to stream plant roots or to rocky crevices in small pools of slow-moving water, but they have also been known to be attached to underwater rocks or leaf debris. While shallow in a wide sense, these pools are rather deep relative to the average depth of a Southern California stream, varying in depth from about 1-2 metres (3.3-6.6 ft).. Adult newts typically leave the pools shortly after breeding has concluded, however, some adults may remain in the pools for an additional few months to ...
Carruthers JD, Carruthers JA (January 1992). "Treatment of glabellar frown lines with C. botulinum-A exotoxin". The Journal of ...
... only affects mammals. No effect is found on reptiles, insects or fish. In experiments performed on mice, symptoms such as convulsions, continuous urination, tremors and tachypnea occurred 10 minutes after injection and increased during 30 minutes. An injection of 1 μg of birtoxin resulted in severe neurotoxic effects for 24 hours, but this dose is not lethal to mice. LD99 in mice is achieved at 2 μg.[1]. An antibody against the N-terminus of the birtoxin protein structure has been shown to neutralize the venom of the South African spitting scorpion, and such antibodies may be useful clinically to treat envenomation.[9]. ...
Exotoxin. Gram. positive. Bacilli. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. Clostridium:. *tetani *Tetanospasmin ...
... are bacterial exotoxins which share common features regarding their domain architecture. Each family of PTs ...
Pyrogenic exotoxins are implicated as the causative agent of scarlet fever and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. There is no ... SpeB is known as streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B, streptopain and streptococcal cysteine proteinase as a result of its ... All superantigenic streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins contain two major conserved protein domains that are linked by an α-helix ... Chiang-Ni, C.; Wu, J.-J (2008). "Effects of Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B on Pathogenesis of Streptococcus pyogenes". ...
S. saprophyticus produces no exotoxins. Patients with urinary tract infections caused by S. saprophyticus usually present with ...
TSST-1 is a bacterial exotoxin found in patients who have developed toxic shock syndrome (TSS), which can be found in ... 2000). "Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus." Clinical Microbiology Reviews 13(1): 16-34. Todar, Kenneth. (2012). "Bacterial ...
One such exotoxin is alpha toxin, which is produced by C. perfringens and is the key virulence factor in its pathogenesis. ... Bacteria often possess the ability to create exotoxins to assist them in competing with other microbes in their natural ... Alongside such rapid proliferation is a corresponding mass-production of exotoxin that causes severe damage to local tissue in ... Bacteria cause myonecrosis by specific exotoxins. These microorganisms are opportunistic and, in general, enter the body ...
Bacteria generate toxins which can be classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are generated and actively ... Alpha toxin Anthrax toxin Cyanotoxin Diphtheria toxin Exotoxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Shiga-like toxin Microbial toxins : ...
SIB: Viral exotoxin. Expasy: ViralZone. Accessed 2 Feb 2021 Oteo, Jesús; Aracil, Belén; Ignacio Alós, Juan; Luis Gómez-Garcés, ... The virulent and toxigenic strains are lysogenic, and produce an exotoxin formed by two polypeptide chains, which is itself ...
Bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins (bAREs) covalently transfer an ADP-Ribose moiety of NAD+ to target proteins of infected ... Krueger, KM; Barbieri, JT (January 1995). "The family of bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. ... Exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Pertussis toxin of B. Pertussis; C3 toxin of C. botulinum; and Diphtheria toxin of ...
... s are two hemolytic exotoxins from Streptococcus. Types include streptolysin O (SLO; slo), which is oxygen-labile, ...
On a broader scale, toxins may be classified as either exotoxins, being excreted by an organism, or endotoxins, that are ...
The heat-labile enterotoxin is inactivated at high temperatures.[1][2]. It acts similarly to the cholera toxin by raising cAMP levels through ADP-ribosylation of the alpha-subunit of a Gs protein leading to the constitutive activation of adenylate cyclase. Elevated cAMP levels stimulate the activation of the CFTR channel thus stimulating secretion of chloride ions and water from the enterocyte into the gut lumen. This ionic imbalance causes watery diarrhea.. In addition to its effects on chloride secretion, which involve the same steps as the effects of cholera toxin, heat-labile enterotoxin binds additional substrates: lipopolysaccharide on the surface of E. coli cells and A-type blood antigens.[3] The importance of these binding events is not yet known.. ...
C. tetani also produces the exotoxin tetanolysin, a hemolysin, that causes destruction of tissues.[5] ...
... who distinguished between exotoxins, which he classified as a toxin that is released by bacteria into the surrounding ...
Exotoxins are extremely immunogenic meaning that they trigger the humoral response (antibodies target the toxin). Exotoxins are ... Exotoxins are actively secreted by some bacteria and have a wide range of effects including inhibition of certain biochemical ... Exotoxins are also produced by a range of other bacteria including Escherichia coli; Vibrio cholerae (causative agent of ... These are divided into two groups: endotoxins and exotoxins. Endotoxin is a component (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) of the cell ...
Bacterial exotoxins that act as superantigens also may cause sepsis. Superantigens simultaneously bind major histocompatibility ...
... belong to the polymorphic toxin category of bacterial exotoxins. Rhs proteins are widespread and can be produced by ...
One of the exotoxins is encoded on the bacterial chromosome, while the other is encoded on a plasmid. These exotoxins are ... The syndrome is induced by epidermolytic exotoxins (exfoliatin) A and B, which are released by S. aureus and cause detachment ... Clindamycin is sometimes also used because of its inhibition of exotoxins. The prognosis of SSSS in children is excellent, with ... it is thought not to be different from scarlet fever caused by staphylococcal exotoxin after Keith Powell proposed equating it ...
Likewise, Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A inactivates EF-2. Parker, J. (2001). "Elongation Factors; Translation". ...
β-Exotoxin I Exporter (βETE). *AmfS Peptide Exporter (AmfS-E). *SkfA Peptide Exporter (SkfA-E) ...
The production of pyrogenic exotoxins by group A streptococci.. Hallas G.. Abstract. Lancefield group A streptococci isolated ... These strains were examined for the presence of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPE) types A, B and C by isoelectric ...
Prokaryotic exotoxin A catalyses the transfer of ADP ribose from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to elongation factor-2 ... Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of Pseudomonas exotoxin A complexed with a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide analog: ...
Exotoxins / chemistry, immunology*. Humans. Models, Molecular. Staphylococcal Infections / microbiology. Staphylococcus aureus ...
Cross-references: Bacterial exotoxin B (IPR003896). The following external resources were found for this entry:. PANDIT. The ...
More particularly, the invention relates to certain deletions in domain II of the amino acid sequence of Pseudomonas exotoxin ... Purification method for recombinant exotoxin a, recombinant exotoxin a muteins and recombinant proteins comprising exotoxin a ... One promising source for an effective therapeutic toxin is Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) is an extremely ... Pseudomonas exotoxin A mutants and uses thereof. EP2311854A1. Jul 25, 2006. Apr 20, 2011. The Government of the U.S.A. as ...
Exotoxins are often encoded by mobile genetic elements, including bacteriophage (phage). Phage can transfer genetic information ... This is the first report of an environmental reservoir of a bacterial exotoxin gene in an atypical host. Screening bacterial ... providing the first evidence for an environmental pool of exotoxin genes in bacteria. ... Many bacteria produce secreted virulence factors called exotoxins. ...
Here, we describe four structures of a catalytically active complex between a fragment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A ( ... Exotoxin A-eEF2 complex structure indicates ADP ribosylation by ribosome mimicry. *René Jørgensen1. na1, ... Yates, S. P. & Merrill, A. R. A catalytic loop within Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A modulates its transferase activity. J. ... Jørgensen, R., Merrill, A., Yates, S. et al. Exotoxin A-eEF2 complex structure indicates ADP ribosylation by ribosome mimicry. ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
What is the difference between endotoxins and exotoxins? and find homework help for other Toxins questions at eNotes ... making it difficult for the exotoxins to survive and function. Exotoxins are often combated by B Cells in the lymphatic system ... An Exotoxin is a type of toxin produced by a cell for the express purpose of releasing into the surrounding environment. These ... One good defense against exotoxins is heat, which is why one common immune response is fever; the fever heats up the bodys ...
An exotoxin is a poison secreted by an organism like a fungus, bacterium, alga, or protozoan. Many exotoxins are so dangerous ... An exotoxin is a poison secreted by an organism like a fungus, bacterium, alga, or protozoan. Exotoxins are infamously virulent ... If exotoxins target vulnerable organs like the brain, permanent damage can be done. Even if the patients infection can be ... An exotoxin can be classified by the types of tissues it targets, like neurotoxins that target neurons and enterotoxins that ...
Exotoxin A (ETA) is secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa under iron-limiting growth conditions. The ETA structural gene, toxA, is ... Exotoxin A production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires the iron-regulated pvdS gene encoding an alternative sigma factor ...
What is streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins? Meaning of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins medical term. What does streptococcal ... Looking for online definition of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins in the Medical Dictionary? streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins ... streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins. streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins. The preferred name for those toxic chemicals released by ... Streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin (SME) Z-1 and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (SPE)-J were identified in one patient with ...
Rabbit polyclonal Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Recombinant fragment. Immunogen ... Anti-Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B antibody. See all Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B primary antibodies. ... All lanes : Anti-Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B antibody (ab225941) at 1/500 dilution. Lane 1 : Recombinant Streptococcus ... Recombinant full length protein corresponding to Streptococcus pyogenes Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B aa 100 to the C- ...
Evidence for a disease-promoting effect of Staphylococcus aureus-derived exotoxins in atopic dermatitis.. Bunikowski R1, Mielke ... Some strains of S aureus secrete exotoxins with T-cell superantigen activity (toxigenic strains), and abnormal T-cell functions ... The data demonstrate that S aureus-released exotoxins can modulate disease severity and dermal T-cell infiltration. ...
Downloading a figure as powerpoint requires a browser with javascript support. Enable javascript and try again For help please contact [email protected] ...
... Provided are high affinity T cell receptor variable regions that are ...
Murine macrophage activation by staphylococcal exotoxins.. S D Fleming, J J Iandolo, S K Chapes ... Murine macrophage activation by staphylococcal exotoxins. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
DIFFERENTIATION OF EXOTOXIN AND OTHER BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOMALLEI FILTRATES. Robert J. Heckly ... DIFFERENTIATION OF EXOTOXIN AND OTHER BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOMALLEI FILTRATES ... DIFFERENTIATION OF EXOTOXIN AND OTHER BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOMALLEI FILTRATES ... DIFFERENTIATION OF EXOTOXIN AND OTHER BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOMALLEI FILTRATES ...
... Nature. 1983 Oct 20-26;305(5936): ...
A lack of therapeutics for both exotoxin and endotoxin induced shock and implicated diseases, as well as an interest in further ... Engineering of bacterial exotoxin and endotoxin antagonists. Welcome to the IDEALS Repository. ... Some gram-positive bacteria produce exotoxins called superantigens that hyper-stimulate the immune system by crosslinking the ...
ADP-ribosyltransferase activities of Pseudomonas exotoxin-S and -T depend on 14-3-3 proteins inside the host cell. By binding ... 14-3-3 proteins activate Pseudomonas exotoxins-S and -T by chaperoning a hydrophobic surface. Karlberg, Tobias ... Together, this indicates that 14-3-3 proteins activate exotoxin ADP-ribosyltransferase domains by chaperoning their hydrophobic ...
This Gram-positive bacterium produces a variety of exotoxins, known as streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPEs),3 which are ... Streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z, a novel acidic superantigenic toxin produced by a T1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes. ... The total number of streptococcal exotoxins in all strains is likely to be much higher, as several spe genes are located on ... These are SPE-A (20), SPE-C (21), streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z (SMEZ) (22), and streptococcal SAg (SSA) (23). Recently, ...
... Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1991 May;10(5):351- ... These findings suggest a role for exotoxin in severe manifestations of Group A streptococcal disease in children. ...
Polyethylene Glycol-modified Chimeric Toxin Composed of Transforming Growth Factor α and Pseudomonas Exotoxin. Qing-cheng Wang ... Polyethylene Glycol-modified Chimeric Toxin Composed of Transforming Growth Factor α and Pseudomonas Exotoxin ... Polyethylene Glycol-modified Chimeric Toxin Composed of Transforming Growth Factor α and Pseudomonas Exotoxin ... Polyethylene Glycol-modified Chimeric Toxin Composed of Transforming Growth Factor α and Pseudomonas Exotoxin ...
... exotoxin spot by water and to carry our spectrophotometry at 259 and 330 nm. .beta.-exotoxin content in industrial formulations ... beta.-exotoxin content at biotechnological stages of bitoxibacillin production has been determined. (PDF 0-2 workdays service) ... Efimtsev E.I.; Burov G.P.; Solomin A.A., 1990: Quantitative determination of beta exotoxin of bacillus thuringiensis in ... A method of quantitative determination of .beta.-exotoxin content in liquid and dry bioformulations has been developed. The ...
... exotoxins) is a most common strategy among microbial pathogens. Yet, oddly, these virulence factors are fairly rare among oral ... The production and secretion of protein toxins (exotoxins) is a most common strategy among microbial pathogens. Yet, oddly, ... Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: A Unique Exotoxin-Producing Oral Bacterium by Pedro Valero-Guillén ...
These manganese-resistant Fur mutants constitutively produce siderophores and exotoxin A when grown in concentrations of iron ... Coordinate regulation of siderophore and exotoxin A production: molecular cloning and sequencing of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa ... Coordinate regulation of siderophore and exotoxin A production: molecular cloning and sequencing of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa ... Coordinate regulation of siderophore and exotoxin A production: molecular cloning and sequencing of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa ...
Production of elastase, exotoxin A, and alkaline protease in sputa during pulmonary exacerbation of cystic fibrosis in patients ... Production of elastase, exotoxin A, and alkaline protease in sputa during pulmonary exacerbation of cystic fibrosis in patients ... Production of elastase, exotoxin A, and alkaline protease in sputa during pulmonary exacerbation of cystic fibrosis in patients ... Production of elastase, exotoxin A, and alkaline protease in sputa during pulmonary exacerbation of cystic fibrosis in patients ...
Does STEC release exotoxins into food that are heat-stable and can the toxins make people sick after being heated to high ... Does STEC release heat-stable exotoxins into food? - posted in Food Microbiology: I cant find anything definitive online Sorry ... Does STEC release exotoxins into food that are heat-stable and can the toxins make people sick after being heated to high ... a) Does STEC release exotoxins into food that are heat-stable and (b) can the toxins make people sick after being heated to ...
Streptococcus pyogenes(group A streptococcus) produces a variety of exotoxins, including the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins ... and functional characterization of a novel exotoxin termed streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin J (SPE J). Purified recombinant SPE ... Functional Characterization of Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin J, a Novel Superantigen. John K. McCormick, Alexa A. Pragman, ... Functional Characterization of Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin J, a Novel Superantigen. John K. McCormick, Alexa A. Pragman, ...
  • The production of pyrogenic exotoxins by group A streptococci. (nih.gov)
  • These strains were examined for the presence of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPE) types A, B and C by isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels and by immunoprecipitation in agar gels. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, recent studies have demonstrated that streptococcal M proteins and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins act as superantigens, which cause a marked expansion of both CD4+, and CD8+ T cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • syndrome, a severe response to streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (Spe proteins), which trigger overproduction of inflammatory cytokines, leading to tissue damage, organ failure, and shock (3,4). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPEs) induce fever (and rash in scarlet fever) and strongly activate the immune system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins also play a major role in the pathogenesis of GAS infections by acting as superantigens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Immunological and biochemical characterization of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins I and J (SPE-I and SPE-J) from Streptococcus pyogenes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin (SME) Z-1 and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (SPE)-J were identified in one patient with peritonitis who recovered after 2 weeks in intensive care. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Several studies described the potential involvement of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (SPE) A in invasive streptococcal disease (2,19,22,23), while others reported an association with SPE-C (24,25). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recombinant full length protein corresponding to Streptococcus pyogenes Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B aa 100 to the C-terminus. (abcam.com)
  • Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B (SpeB) has cysteine-type peptidase activity. (abcam.com)
  • Here, we report the cloning, expression, and functional analysis of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (SPE)-J and another novel SAg (SPE-I). SPE-I is most closely related to SPE-H and staphylococcal enterotoxin I, whereas SPE-J is most closely related to SPE-C. Recombinant forms of SPE-I and SPE-J were mitogenic for PBL, both reaching half maximum responses at 0.1 pg/ml. (jimmunol.org)
  • This Gram-positive bacterium produces a variety of exotoxins, known as streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPEs), 3 which are believed to be involved in pathogenicity or virulence. (jimmunol.org)
  • The majority of clinical STSS cases have been associated with the pyrogenic toxin superantigens (PTSAgs) streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A or C (SPE A or C), although cases have been reported that are not associated with either of these exotoxins. (asm.org)
  • The SAg exotoxins causing or associated with TSS include TSS toxin-1 (TSST-1), the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), and the streptococcal scarlet fever toxins (referred to as streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins or SPEs) ( 17 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • SPEA (streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A) is a phage-encoded exotoxin. (oup.com)
  • Nucleotide sequence of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C. (mysciencework.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of the gene speC, encoding streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type C (SPE C), was determined. (mysciencework.com)
  • The mature amino acid sequence of SPE C was analyzed for homology with the amino acid sequences of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type A, the staphylococcal enterotoxins, and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. (mysciencework.com)
  • Invasive infections of Streptococcus pyogenes are dependent on the cysteine protease streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B. Previous structures of the enzyme have not disclosed the proper active-site configuration. (lu.se)
  • Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (SPE) potentiates lethal shock induced by endotoxin. (oup.com)
  • It has recently been demonstrated that the bacteriophage-borne gene (speC) encoding pyrogenic exotoxin C is harbored by phylogenetic lineages representing virtually the entire breadth of genomic differentiation present in the species Streptococcus pyogenes (J. M. Musser, A. R. Hauser, M. H. Kim, P. M. Schlievert, K. Nelson, and R. K. Selander, Proc. (elsevier.com)
  • Does Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin-C Trigger the Onset of Kawasaki Disease? (nature.com)
  • GENTAUR antibody-antibodies.com The Marketplace for Antibodies : Nucleotide sequence of the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type B gene and relationship between the toxin and the streptococcal proteinase precursor. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Nucleotide sequence of the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type B gene and relationship between the toxin and the streptococcal proteinase precursor. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin (SPE) type B-encoding structural gene, speB, was subcloned from a 4.5-kilobase streptococcal DNA insert onto a 2.4-kilobase insert, which was then sequenced. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • A lack of therapeutics for both exotoxin and endotoxin induced shock and implicated diseases, as well as an interest in further understanding these molecular interactions, guided my studies and development of high affinity agents to neutralize these toxins. (illinois.edu)
  • The production and secretion of protein toxins (exotoxins) is a most common strategy among microbial pathogens. (asmblog.org)
  • Does STEC release exotoxins into food that are heat-stable and can the toxins make people sick after being heated to high temperatures? (ifsqn.com)
  • We constructed several ITs using two enzymatic toxins both able to block protein translation, one of bacterial origin (a truncated version of Pseudomonas exotoxin A, PE40) endowed with EF-2 ADP-ribosylation activity, the other being the plant ribosome-inactivating protein saporin, able to specifically depurinate 23/26/28S ribosomal RNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among three types of exotoxins, membrane-disrupting toxins are the toxins that cause damage to host cells by breaking down the structure of their plasma membranes or by forming protein channels or by disrupting the phospholipids. (microbialfacts.com)
  • These toxins caused by these microorganisms are classified into endotoxin and exotoxin. (coredifferences.com)
  • Endotoxins are the associated cell toxins whereas exotoxins are the extracellular diffusible toxins. (difference.wiki)
  • In brief, endotoxin, enterotoxin, and exotoxin are three types of toxins produced by pathogenic bacteria. (pediaa.com)
  • Exotoxins are toxins that are released by living bacteria cells. (prezi.com)
  • The Pseudomonas exotoxin (or exotoxin A) is an exotoxin produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of Pseudomonas exotoxin A complexed with a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide analog: implications for the activation process and for ADP ribosylation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • More particularly, the invention relates to certain deletions in domain II of the amino acid sequence of Pseudomonas exotoxin the domain which relates. (google.com)
  • One promising source for an effective therapeutic toxin is Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) is an extremely active monomeric protein (molecular weight 66 kD), secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which inhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells through the inactivation of elongation factor 2 (EF-2) by catalyzing its ADP-ribosylation (catalyzing the transfer of the ADP ribosyl moiety of oxidized NAD onto EF-2). (google.com)
  • ADP-ribosyltransferase activities of Pseudomonas exotoxin-S and -T depend on 14-3-3 proteins inside the host cell. (diva-portal.org)
  • Recombinant immunotoxins composed of antibody Fvs linked to domains II and III of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) have shown great promise for the treatment of hematologic malignancies but have done less well against cancers derived from epithelial cells ( 4 - 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Abstract 2663: SPECT/CT analysis of distribution of intracranially infused interleukin-13 Pseudomonas exotoxin, a targeted agent for interleukin-13 receptor expressing brain tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interleukin-13 Pseudomonas exotoxin (IL-13PE), a powerful targeted agent for IL-13 receptor α2 (IL-13Rα2) - positive tumors is being tested for safety and effectiveness in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) clinical trials. (aacrjournals.org)
  • SPECT/CT analysis of distribution of intracranially infused interleukin-13 Pseudomonas exotoxin, a targeted agent for interleukin-13 receptor expressing brain tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A series of Pseudomonas exotoxin A-based immunotoxins have been developed over the last several years to a variety of cell surface targets and have evolved from a chemically conjugated immunotoxin to a fully recombinant form ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • To target these receptors, we have investigated the safety and activity of directly infusing IL-4(38-37)-PE38KDEL, a chimeric protein composed of circularly permuted IL-4 and a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE), into recurrent malignant high-grade gliomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) is a bacterial toxin that arrests protein synthesis and induces apoptosis. (asm.org)
  • A mutant CHO-K1 strain with resistance to Pseudomonas exotoxin A is unable to process the precursor fusion glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus. (asm.org)
  • RPE.40, a mutant strain of CHO-K1 cells isolated for resistance to Pseudomonas exotoxin A and cross-resistant to alphaviruses, is also highly resistant to virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus. (asm.org)
  • Pseudomonas exotoxin-mediated selection yields cells with altered expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. (rupress.org)
  • 267:12420-12423) [corrected] showed that Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) could bind immobilized LRP. (rupress.org)
  • Large amounts of various modified forms of Pseudomonas exotoxin are produced. (justia.com)
  • Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) is an extremely active monomeric protein (molecular weight 66Kd), secreted by Pseudomonas aeruqinosa, which inhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells through the inactivation of elongation factor 2 (EF-2) by catalyzing its ADP-ribosylation (catalyzing the transfer of the ADP ribosyl moiety of oxidized NAD onto EF-2). (justia.com)
  • A chimeric toxin created by genetically fusing the gene encoding TGFα (targets the EGF receptor) to the gene encoding Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) preferentially kills rapidly proliferating smooth muscle cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Epstein, Stephen E. / Cytotoxic effects of vascular smooth muscle cells of the chimeric toxin, heparin binding TGFα-Pseudomonas exotoxin . (elsevier.com)
  • We have raised antisera against Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) and domains Ia and III to study the structure-function relationships of PE. (elsevier.com)
  • Hwang, J & Chen, M 1989, ' Structure and function relationship of Pseudomonas exotoxin A. An immunochemical study ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 264, no. 4, pp. 2379-2384. (elsevier.com)
  • Cytotoxicity of folate-Pseudomonas exotoxin conjugates toward tumor cells. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • To test this possibility, momordin-folate and truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin-folate conjugates (LysPE38 and Cys-PE35), i.e. protein synthesis inhibitors either lacking or containing the desired translocation domain, respectively, were examined for their abilities to block protein synthesis in a variety of cell types. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Further, cells expressing low levels of folate receptors could only be exterminated by the translocation competent Pseudomonas exotoxin-folate conjugates. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Cytotoxicity of folate-Pseudomonas exotoxin conjugates toward tumor cells. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • An Exotoxin is a type of toxin produced by a cell for the express purpose of releasing into the surrounding environment. (enotes.com)
  • The extent of the transfer of the adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose (ADPR) moiety of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide onto elongation factor 2 (EF-2) catalyzed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PA-toxin) was dependent upon the presence of a reducing agent, dithiotheritol (DTT). (osu.edu)
  • By comparison, exotoxin A production in other expression systems and host strains yields approximately 1/4 to 1/10 as much toxin. (asm.org)
  • Exotoxin= excreted/released from cell when the cell lyses - Endotoxin= embedded in bacterial surface - Enterotoxin= toxin that causes diarrhea or vomiting - Type I= bind to host surface but don't go in. (coursehero.com)
  • Streptococcal pyogenic exotoxin, Toxic shock syndrome toxin, Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA). (microbialfacts.com)
  • Both streptococcal pyogenic exotoxin and toxic shock syndrome toxin cause T cell stimulation, the -release of cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, TNF), possible enhancement of LPS activities. (microbialfacts.com)
  • 1. A continuous cell line which produces human anti-exotixin antibodies, comprising: a stable fused cell hybrid of a human peripheral blood lymphocyte immunized by a toxin, or an imunogenic fragment thereof, or a toxoid prepared from an exotoxin, or an immunogenic fragment thereof, and a mouse myeloma cell, in which the antibodies are capable of neutralizing exotoxin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Construction and use of a nontoxigenic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the production of recombinant exotoxin A. (asm.org)
  • To express recombinant forms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A in high yield, we have developed a nontoxigenic strain of P. aeruginosa derived from the hypertoxigenic strain PA103. (asm.org)
  • The PA103A strain (ToxA-) was used subsequently as the host strain for the expression and production of several recombinant versions of exotoxin A, and the results were compared with exotoxin A production in other P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli strains. (asm.org)
  • Many bacteria produce secreted virulence factors called exotoxins. (hindawi.com)
  • The results indicate that the sea gene is present in an alternative bacterial host, providing the first evidence for an environmental pool of exotoxin genes in bacteria. (hindawi.com)
  • To explore this hypothesis, we cultured environmental bacteria and screened them for a phage-encoded exotoxin gene. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we describe the isolation of bacteria from environmental ambient air and the screening of the isolates for the phage-encoded sea gene using an exotoxin-specific colony PCR assay. (hindawi.com)
  • Some gram-positive bacteria produce exotoxins called superantigens that hyper-stimulate the immune system by crosslinking the variable region of the beta chain (Vβ) of T cell receptors with the antigen presenting major histocompatibility complex II molecule on the surface of antigen presenting cells. (illinois.edu)
  • Exotoxins are proteins produced by both gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. (microbialfacts.com)
  • The main difference between endotoxin and exotoxin is that endotoxin is lipopolysaccharides protein complexes which are the structural component of the cell wall of bacteria whereas exotoxin is the protein secreted by the specific bacteria. (difference.wiki)
  • Exotoxins are heat labile, proteinaceous substances or toxoids that are liberated by mostly gram-positive bacteria but sometimes also by gram-negative bacteria into its surrounding. (difference.wiki)
  • Exotoxin is the protein produced inside pathogenic bacteria most commonly gram-positive bacteria, as a result of growth and metabolism. (difference.wiki)
  • Exotoxins are usually secreted by bacteria and act enzymatically or with the direct action on the host cell. (difference.wiki)
  • Exotoxins are toxic substances that are secreted by bacteria outside of their cell. (studyread.com)
  • But, exotoxin is a protein mainly secreted by Gram-positive bacteria . (pediaa.com)
  • Exotoxin is a type of secretory protein of Gram-positive bacteria and some Gram-negative bacteria. (pediaa.com)
  • For example, cholera and diphtheria bacteria produce exotoxins. (historyofvaccines.org)
  • Staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigen exotoxins. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Some strains of S aureus secrete exotoxins with T-cell superantigen activity (toxigenic strains), and abnormal T-cell functions are known to play a critical role in AD. (nih.gov)
  • Two of these illnesses are staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS), which is associated with superantigen (SAg) exotoxins made primarily locally ( S. aureus ) ( 17 ) or both locally and systemically (group A streptococci) ( 33 ), but usually having systemic effects ( 17 , 33 ). (asm.org)
  • Exotoxin A production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires the iron. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Effect of fpvA mutations on exotoxin A production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Unpublished master's thesis). (ucalgary.ca)
  • Evidence for a disease-promoting effect of Staphylococcus aureus-derived exotoxins in atopic dermatitis. (nih.gov)
  • Role of Staphylococcus Aureus Exotoxins in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyp. (kjorl.org)
  • The present study investigated the prevalence of genes encoding for exotoxins, adhesion and biofilm factors in Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from samples in a referral burn hospital in Tehran, Iran. (ac.ir)
  • The molecular weight of endotoxins ranges from 50 to 1000KDa and associated with the lipopolysaccharide complex whereas the molecular weight of the exotoxin is about ten kDa and associated with the protein complex. (difference.wiki)
  • This article provides a detailed insight into the differences between exotoxins and endotoxins. (coredifferences.com)
  • This is the first report of an environmental reservoir of a bacterial exotoxin gene in an atypical host. (hindawi.com)
  • These are SPE-A ( 20 ), SPE-C ( 21 ), streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z (SMEZ) ( 22 ), and streptococcal SAg (SSA) ( 23 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Refined crystallographic structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and its implications for the molecular mechanism of toxicity. (nature.com)
  • At least one of the modified forms (pJH8) of the exotoxin exhibits low toxicity to human or mouse cells by itself but retains its enzymatic activity and makes a very active cell specific immunotoxin with very low nonspecific cytotoxicity. (justia.com)
  • An exotoxin is a poison secreted by an organism like a fungus, bacterium , alga, or protozoan. (wisegeek.com)
  • In addition to disease caused by direct bacterial infection, some foodborne illnesses are caused by exotoxins which are excreted as the bacterium grows. (skybrary.aero)
  • Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, disease caused by an exotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani . (cdc.gov)
  • Another example of an disease that you might be familiar with that is caused by an exotoxin is diphtheria. (wisegeek.com)
  • Some of the common health disorders caused by exotoxins are Cholera, tetanus, and Diphtheria. (coredifferences.com)
  • Prokaryotic exotoxin A catalyses the transfer of ADP ribose from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to elongation factor-2 in eukaryotic cells, with subsequent inhibition of protein synthesis [ PMID: 8692916 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Here, we describe four structures of a catalytically active complex between a fragment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA) and its protein substrate, translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2). (nature.com)
  • The Fab portion of the antibodies made against epitopes of the binding site of an exotoxin blocks the exotoxin from binding to the exotoxin receptor on the host cell membrane. (ccbcmd.edu)
  • In addition to that, exotoxins are susceptible to antibodies, and hence, the immune system of the body can mount an immune response against them. (pediaa.com)
  • This is the first report of an alternative bacterial host from the environment that carries a phage-encoded exotoxin gene that is commonly associated with a different bacterial host. (hindawi.com)
  • A canine model was utilized to study and compare the effects of prostaglandins E 1 , A 1 , and F 2α , theophylline, and cholera exotoxin upon net absorption or secretion of water and electrolytes from the jejunum. (elsevier.com)
  • Mucosal application of cholera exotoxin induced net secretion rates which exceeded the maximum net secretory rates induced by prostaglandin infusions. (elsevier.com)
  • There was a significant correlation between the magnitude of effect of intra-arterial prostaglandin and of intraluminal cholera exotoxin when determined in the same dog. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Glutamate enhances the yield of exotoxin A (ETA), which is induced by iron limitation, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (nebraska.edu)
  • Together, this indicates that 14-3-3 proteins activate exotoxin ADP-ribosyltransferase domains by chaperoning their hydrophobic surfaces independently of the amphipathic C-terminal segment. (diva-portal.org)
  • Many exotoxin genes are carried on mobile genetic elements, including bacterial viruses (bacteriophage or phage). (hindawi.com)
  • If a phage encodes virulence genes, such as exotoxin genes, the phage could facilitate the transfer of these genes to nontoxigenic bacterial hosts, thereby increasing the exotoxin gene pool. (hindawi.com)
  • Secretion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase, exotoxin A, and alkaline protease in sputum during bronchopulmonary exacerbations was examined in 18 cystic fibrosis patients chronically infected with this microorganism. (asm.org)
  • What is the difference between Exotoxin and Endotoxin in terms of secretion from cells? (brainscape.com)
  • Exotoxins are types of toxic substances that are released extracellularly. (coredifferences.com)
  • But, exotoxins are highly toxic and often fatal. (pediaa.com)
  • The data demonstrate that S aureus-released exotoxins can modulate disease severity and dermal T-cell infiltration. (nih.gov)
  • This coagulopathy was most likely caused by S. aureus exotoxins forming inhibitory complexes with coagulation factor Xa. (ejcrim.com)
  • Exotoxins releases toxoid used in treating with formalin while endotoxin cannot make toxoid. (coredifferences.com)
  • A multicopy plasmid carrying the P. aeruginosa fur gene restores manganese susceptibility and wild-type regulation of exotoxin A and siderophore production in these Fur mutants. (asm.org)
  • Differential regulation of exotoxin production dependent on the environmental conditions surrounding the microbe suggests that it may be possible to identify agents that downregulate exotoxin production in the host, even if the microbe cannot be effectively killed. (asm.org)
  • What is the difference between endotoxins and exotoxins? (enotes.com)
  • Some organisms secrete exotoxins steadily, while others produce them as needed, and in some cases they are only released during lysis, when a cell breaks up as an organism dies. (wisegeek.com)
  • Immune reactions get weak when endotoxins attack the cell and have high enzymatic activity but poor antigenicity whereas immune responses get stronger in the case of exotoxins but with no enzymatic activity and high antigenicity. (difference.wiki)
  • To adapt to the reduced environmental oxygen (EO) and iron-limited conditions within the CF mucus, P. aeruginosa likely alters the production of its virulence factors such as pyoverdine and exotoxin A (ETA). (tdl.org)
  • Therefore, the lethal exotoxin and proteolytic enzyme are separable entities. (asm.org)
  • A little amount of bacterial exotoxins is sufficient to be a lethal dose. (microbialfacts.com)
  • Even if the patient's infection can be treated, lingering complications may occur as a result of the damage caused by the exotoxin. (wisegeek.com)
  • Produce exotoxin that can cause foodborne infection… rapid onset of nausea, acute vomiting, diarrhea. (coursehero.com)
  • Exotoxins have the ability to spread to other parts from a focus infection causing a lot of damage. (coredifferences.com)
  • Exotoxins usually contribute to the infection process but endotoxins do not. (essaylimo.com)
  • Among these, the redox active exotoxin pyocyanin (PCN) is produced in concentrations up to 100 μmol/L during infection of CF and other bronchiectatic airways. (illinois.edu)
  • while, enterotoxin is a type of exotoxin effective on the intestines. (pediaa.com)
  • Enterotoxin is also a type of exotoxin. (pediaa.com)
  • Bacterial exotoxins stimulate the production of antitoxins as well as potential immune response. (microbialfacts.com)
  • Murine macrophage activation by staphylococcal exotoxins. (asm.org)
  • These findings suggest a role for exotoxin in severe manifestations of Group A streptococcal disease in children. (nih.gov)
  • Coordinate regulation of siderophore and exotoxin A production: molecular cloning and sequencing of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fur gene. (asm.org)
  • These manganese-resistant Fur mutants constitutively produce siderophores and exotoxin A when grown in concentrations of iron that normally repress their production. (asm.org)
  • The amanitin-sensitive enzyme is also inhibited by exotoxin, but higher concentrations are required. (portlandpress.com)
  • Chitosan malate inhibited both bacterial growth and, at sub-growth-inhibitory concentrations, the production of exotoxins, in both broth and thin-film cultures. (asm.org)
  • Elucidation of eukaryotic elongation factor-2 contact sites within the catalytic domain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A". The Biochemical Journal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exotoxins can produce illness even when the microbes that produced them have been killed. (skybrary.aero)
  • Many species produce exotoxins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • An exotoxin can be classified by the types of tissues it targets, like neurotoxins that target neurons and enterotoxins that are designed to assault the digestive tract. (wisegeek.com)
  • Furthermore, endotoxins and enterotoxins are heat stable, but exotoxins are destroyed rapidly at 60 °C. Moreover, endotoxins are weak toxics, producing general symptoms, while enterotoxins cause diarrhoea and food poisoning. (pediaa.com)