Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.
Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
Infection with group A streptococci that is characterized by tonsillitis and pharyngitis. An erythematous rash is commonly present.
GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-13. Included under this heading are the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA2 which is a monomeric receptor and the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR TYPE II which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13.
Protein exotoxins from Staphylococcus aureus, phage type II, which cause epidermal necrolysis. They are proteins with a molecular weight of 26,000 to 32,000. They cause a condition variously called scaled skin, Lyell or Ritter syndrome, epidermal exfoliative disease, toxic epidermal necrolysis, etc.
An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.
Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
NAD+ Nucleosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) into nicotinamide and ADP-ribose, which plays a role in regulating NAD+ levels and modulating cellular signaling pathways.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
An independent Federal agency established in 1958. It conducts research for the solution of problems of flight within and outside the Earth's atmosphere and develops, constructs, tests, and operates aeronautical and space vehicles. (From U.S. Government Manual, 1993)
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

The rgg gene of Streptococcus pyogenes NZ131 positively influences extracellular SPE B production. (1/1506)

Streptococcus pyogenes produces several extracellular proteins, including streptococcal erythrogenic toxin B (SPE B), also known as streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B and streptococcal proteinase. Several reports suggest that SPE B contributes to the virulence associated with S. pyogenes; however, little is known about its regulation. Nucleotide sequence data revealed the presence, upstream of the speB gene, of a gene, designated rgg, that was predicted to encode a polypeptide similar to previously described positive regulatory factors. The putative Rgg polypeptide of S. pyogenes NZ131 consisted of 280 amino acids and had a predicted molecular weight of 33,246. To assess the potential role of Rgg in the production of SPE B, the rgg gene was insertionally inactivated in S. pyogenes NZ131, which resulted in markedly decreased SPE B production, as determined both by immunoblotting and caseinolytic activity on agar plates. However, the production of other extracellular products, including streptolysin O, streptokinase, and DNase, was not affected. Complementation of the rgg mutant with an intact rgg gene copy in S. pyogenes NZ131 could restore SPE B production and confirmed that the rgg gene product is involved in the production of SPE B.  (+info)

Extracellular cysteine protease produced by Streptococcus pyogenes participates in the pathogenesis of invasive skin infection and dissemination in mice. (2/1506)

The role of an extracellular cysteine protease encoded by the speB gene in group A Streptococcus (GAS) skin infection was studied with a mouse model. Mice were injected subcutaneously with a wild-type GAS serotype M3 strain or a cysteine protease-inactivated isogenic derivative grown to stationary phase. The mortality rate of mice injected with the M3 speB mutant strain was significantly decreased (P < 0.0008) compared to that of animals injected with the wild-type parental organism. The abscesses formed in animals infected with the cysteine protease mutant strain were significantly smaller (P < 0.0001) than those caused by the wild-type organism and slowly regressed over 3 to 4 weeks. In striking contrast, infection with the wild-type GAS isolate generated necrotic lesions, and in some animals the GAS disseminated widely from the injection site and produced extensive cutaneous damage. All of these animals developed bacteremia and died. GAS dissemination was accompanied by severe tissue and blood vessel necrosis. Cysteine protease expression in the infected tissue was identified by immunogold electron microscopy. These data demonstrate that cysteine protease expression contributes to soft tissue pathology, including necrosis, and is required for efficient systemic dissemination of the organism from the initial site of skin inoculation.  (+info)

Risk factors in the pathogenesis of invasive group A streptococcal infections: role of protective humoral immunity. (3/1506)

An impressive change in the epidemiology and severity of invasive group A streptococcal infections occurred in the 1980s, and the incidence of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome cases continues to rise. The reason for the resurgence of severe invasive cases remains a mystery-has there been a change in the pathogen or in host protective immunity? To address these questions, we have studied 33 patients with invasive infection caused by genotypically indistinguishable M1T1 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes who had different disease outcomes. Patients were classified as having severe (n = 21) and nonsevere (n = 12) invasive infections based on the presence or absence of shock and organ failure. Levels of anti-M1 bactericidal antibodies and of anti-streptococcal superantigen neutralizing antibodies in plasma were significantly lower in both groups than in age- and geographically matched healthy controls (P < 0.01). Importantly, the levels of these protective antibodies in plasma samples from severe and nonsevere invasive cases were not different. Together the data suggest that low levels of protective antibodies may contribute to host susceptibility to invasive streptococcal infection but do not modulate disease outcome. Other immunogenetic factors that regulate superantigen responses may influence the severity of systemic manifestations associated with invasive streptococcal infection.  (+info)

Biological effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III-secreted proteins on CHO cells. (4/1506)

A strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that fails to express known type III-secreted effector proteins was constructed as an expression host. Individual effectors were expressed in trans, and their biological effects on CHO cells were assessed in an acute cellular infection model. Intoxication with ExoS, ExoT, or ExoY resulted in alterations in cell morphology. As shown in previous genetic studies, ExoU expression was linked to acute cytotoxicity.  (+info)

Importance of the carboxyl terminus in the folding and function of alpha-hemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus. (5/1506)

The physical state of two model mutants of alpha-hemolysin (alphaHL), alphaHL(1-289), a carboxyl-terminal deletion mutant (CDM), and alphaHL(1-331), a carboxyl-terminal extension mutant (CEM), were examined in detail to identify the role of the carboxyl terminus in the folding and function of native alphaHL. Denatured alphaHL can be refolded efficiently with nearly total recovery of its activity upon restoration of nondenaturing conditions. Various biophysical and biochemical studies on the three proteins have revealed the importance of an intact carboxyl terminus in the folding of alphaHL. The CDM exhibits a marked increase in susceptibility to proteases as compared with alphaHL. alphaHL and CEM exhibit similar fluorescence emission maxima, and that of the CDM is red-shifted by 9 nm, which indicates a greater solvent exposure of the tryptophan residues of the CDM. In addition, the CDM binds 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS) and increases its fluorescence intensity significantly unlike alphaHL and CEM, which show marginal binding. The circular dichroism studies point that the CDM possesses significant secondary structure, but its tertiary structure is greatly diminished as compared with alphaHL. These data show that the CDM has several of the features that characterize a molten globule state. Experiments with freshly translated mutants, using coupled in vitro transcription and translation, have further supported our observations that deletion at the carboxyl terminus leads to major structural perturbations in the water-soluble form of alphaHL. The studies demonstrate a critical role of the carboxyl terminus of alphaHL in attaining the native folded state.  (+info)

Evidence for a structural motif in toxins and interleukin-2 that may be responsible for binding to endothelial cells and initiating vascular leak syndrome. (6/1506)

The dose-limiting toxicity of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and immunotoxin (IT) therapy in humans is vascular leak syndrome (VLS). VLS has a complex etiology involving damage to vascular endothelial cells (ECs), extravasation of fluids and proteins, interstitial edema, and organ failure. IL-2 and ITs prepared with the catalytic A chain of the plant toxin, ricin (RTA), and other toxins, damage human ECs in vitro and in vivo. Damage to ECs may initiate VLS; if this damage could be avoided without losing the efficacy of ITs or IL-2, larger doses could be administered. In this paper, we provide evidence that a three amino acid sequence motif, (x)D(y), in toxins and IL-2 damages ECs. Thus, when peptides from RTA or IL-2 containing this sequence motif are coupled to mouse IgG, they bind to and damage ECs both in vitro and, in the case of RTA, in vivo. In contrast, the same peptides with a deleted or mutated sequence do not. Furthermore, the peptide from RTA attached to mouse IgG can block the binding of intact RTA to ECs in vitro and vice versa. In addition, RTA, a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38-lys), and fibronectin also block the binding of the mouse IgG-RTA peptide to ECs, suggesting that an (x)D(y) motif is exposed on all three molecules. Our results suggest that deletions or mutations in this sequence or the use of nondamaging blocking peptides may increase the therapeutic index of both IL-2, as well as ITs prepared with a variety of plant or bacterial toxins.  (+info)

Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor interacts with mouse blastocysts independently of ErbB1: a possible role for heparan sulfate proteoglycans and ErbB4 in blastocyst implantation. (7/1506)

Blastocyst implantation requires molecular and cellular interactions between the uterine luminal epithelium and blastocyst trophectoderm. We have previously shown that heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is induced in the mouse luminal epithelium solely at the site of blastocyst apposition at 16:00 hours on day 4 of pregnancy prior to the attachment reaction (22:00-23:00 hours), and that HB-EGF promotes blastocyst growth, zona-hatching and trophoblast outgrowth. To delineate which EGF receptors participate in blastocyst activation, the toxicity of chimeric toxins composed of HB-EGF or TGF-(&agr;) coupled to Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) were used as measures of receptor expression. TGF-(&agr;) or HB-EGF binds to EGF-receptor (ErbB1), while HB-EGF, in addition, binds to ErbB4. The results indicate that ErbB1 is inefficient in mediating TGF-(&agr;)-PE or HB-EGF-PE toxicity as follows: (i) TGF-(&agr;)-PE was relatively inferior in killing blastocysts, 100-fold less than HB-EGF-PE, (ii) analysis of blastocysts isolated from cross-bred egfr+/- mice demonstrated that HB-EGF-PE, but not TGF-(&agr;)-PE, killed egfr-/- blastocysts, and (iii) blastocysts that survived TGF-(&agr;)-PE were nevertheless killed by HB-EGF-PE. HB-EGF-PE toxicity was partially mediated by cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), since a peptide corresponding to the heparin-binding domain of HB-EGF as well as heparitinase treatment protected the blastocysts from the toxic effects of HB-EGF-PE by about 40%. ErbB4 is a candidate for being an HB-EGF-responsive receptor since RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that day 4 mouse blastocysts express two different erbB4 isoforms and immunostaining with anti-ErbB4 antibodies confirmed that ErbB4 protein is expressed at the apical surface of the trophectoderm cells. It is concluded that (i) HB-EGF interacts with the blastocyst cell surface via high-affinity receptors other than ErbB1, (ii) the HB-EGF interaction with high-affinity blastocysts receptors is regulated by heparan sulfate, and (iii) ErbB4 is a candidate for being a high-affinity receptor for HB-EGF on the surface of implantation-competent blastocysts.  (+info)

Prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by elimination of recipient-reactive donor T cells with recombinant toxins that target the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor. (8/1506)

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), due to the presence of recipient-reactive T cells, limits the usefulness of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is a major contributor to patient mortality. To prevent GVHD, murine and human T cells were activated by antigen or mitogens and treated with a genetically engineered form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) directed against the IL-2 receptor. Treatment with the chimeric toxin eliminated alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) as determined by cytotoxicity and mixed lymphocyte culture assays. Precursor frequencies of alloreactive cytotoxic T cells and proliferative T cells were reduced up to 100-fold as shown by limiting dilution assays. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that treatment with the chimeric toxin completely eliminated CD25+ cells from the cultures. Toxin treatment had no significant effect on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells as determined in vitro by colony-forming assays and in vivo by long-term hematopoietic recovery after 950 rad irradiation. Toxin treatment decreased GVHD in transplanted mice to less than 10% (as compared to 88% in untreated controls). Thus, it is possible to prevent life-threatening GVHD after BMT by using a CD25 receptor-directed toxin to eliminate host-reactive T cells from bone marrow grafts.  (+info)

Exotoxins are a type of toxin that are produced and released by certain bacteria into their external environment, including the surrounding tissues or host's bloodstream. These toxins can cause damage to cells and tissues, and contribute to the symptoms and complications associated with bacterial infections.

Exotoxins are typically proteins, and they can have a variety of effects on host cells, depending on their specific structure and function. Some exotoxins act by disrupting the cell membrane, leading to cell lysis or death. Others interfere with intracellular signaling pathways, alter gene expression, or modify host immune responses.

Examples of bacterial infections that are associated with the production of exotoxins include:

* Botulism, caused by Clostridium botulinum
* Diphtheria, caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae
* Tetanus, caused by Clostridium tetani
* Pertussis (whooping cough), caused by Bordetella pertussis
* Food poisoning, caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus

Exotoxins can be highly potent and dangerous, and some have been developed as biological weapons. However, many exotoxins are also used in medicine for therapeutic purposes, such as botulinum toxin (Botox) for the treatment of wrinkles or dystonia.

ADP Ribose Transferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of ADP-ribose groups from donor molecules, such as NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), to specific acceptor molecules. This transfer process plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including DNA repair, gene expression regulation, and modulation of protein function.

The reaction catalyzed by ADP Ribose Transferases can be represented as follows:

Donor (NAD+ or NADP+) + Acceptor → Product (NR + ADP-ribosylated acceptor)

There are two main types of ADP Ribose Transferases based on their function and the type of modification they perform:

1. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs): These enzymes add multiple ADP-ribose units to a single acceptor protein, forming long, linear, or branched chains known as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). PARylation is involved in DNA repair, genomic stability, and cell death pathways.
2. Monomeric ADP-ribosyltransferases: These enzymes transfer a single ADP-ribose unit to an acceptor protein, which is called mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation. This modification can regulate protein function, localization, and stability in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, inflammation, and stress response.

Dysregulation of ADP Ribose Transferases has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these conditions.

Bacterial toxins are poisonous substances produced and released by bacteria. They can cause damage to the host organism's cells and tissues, leading to illness or disease. Bacterial toxins can be classified into two main types: exotoxins and endotoxins.

Exotoxins are proteins secreted by bacterial cells that can cause harm to the host. They often target specific cellular components or pathways, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Some examples of exotoxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism; diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria; and tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus.

Endotoxins, on the other hand, are components of the bacterial cell wall that are released when the bacteria die or divide. They consist of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and can cause a generalized inflammatory response in the host. Endotoxins can be found in gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bacterial toxins can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type of toxin, the dose, and the site of infection. They can lead to serious illnesses or even death if left untreated. Vaccines and antibiotics are often used to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of severe complications from bacterial toxins.

Virulence factors are characteristics or components of a microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, that contribute to its ability to cause damage or disease in a host organism. These factors can include various structures, enzymes, or toxins that allow the pathogen to evade the host's immune system, attach to and invade host tissues, obtain nutrients from the host, or damage host cells directly.

Examples of virulence factors in bacteria include:

1. Endotoxins: lipopolysaccharides found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that can trigger a strong immune response and inflammation.
2. Exotoxins: proteins secreted by some bacteria that have toxic effects on host cells, such as botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum or diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
3. Adhesins: structures that help the bacterium attach to host tissues, such as fimbriae or pili in Escherichia coli.
4. Capsules: thick layers of polysaccharides or proteins that surround some bacteria and protect them from the host's immune system, like those found in Streptococcus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
5. Invasins: proteins that enable bacteria to invade and enter host cells, such as internalins in Listeria monocytogenes.
6. Enzymes: proteins that help bacteria obtain nutrients from the host by breaking down various molecules, like hemolysins that lyse red blood cells to release iron or hyaluronidases that degrade connective tissue.

Understanding virulence factors is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

"Pseudomonas aeruginosa" is a medically important, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely found in the environment, such as in soil, water, and on plants. It's an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it usually doesn't cause infection in healthy individuals but can cause severe and sometimes life-threatening infections in people with weakened immune systems, burns, or chronic lung diseases like cystic fibrosis.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants due to its intrinsic resistance mechanisms and the acquisition of additional resistance determinants. It can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, dermatitis, and severe bloodstream infections known as sepsis.

The bacterium produces a variety of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxins, proteases, and pigments like pyocyanin and pyoverdine, which aid in iron acquisition and help the organism evade host immune responses. Effective infection control measures, appropriate use of antibiotics, and close monitoring of high-risk patients are crucial for managing P. aeruginosa infections.

Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive, beta-hemolytic streptococcus bacterium that causes various suppurative (pus-forming) and nonsuppurative infections in humans. It is also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS) due to its ability to produce the M protein, which confers type-specific antigenicity and allows for serological classification into more than 200 distinct Lancefield groups.

S. pyogenes is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, erysipelas, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. In rare cases, it can lead to invasive diseases such as necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS).

The bacterium is typically transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected skin lesions. Effective prevention strategies include good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing and avoiding sharing personal items, as well as prompt recognition and treatment of infections to prevent spread.

Immunotoxins are biomolecules that combine the specificity of an antibody with the toxicity of a toxin. They are created by chemically linking a monoclonal antibody (that recognizes and binds to a specific cell surface antigen) to a protein toxin (that inhibits protein synthesis in cells). The immunotoxin selectively binds to the target cell, gets internalized, and releases the toxin into the cytosol, leading to cell death. Immunotoxins have been explored as potential therapeutic agents for targeted cancer therapy and treatment of other diseases.

Pyrogens are substances that can induce fever, or elevate body temperature above the normal range of 36-37°C (96.8-98.6°F). They can be either exogenous (coming from outside the body) or endogenous (produced within the body). Exogenous pyrogens include bacterial toxins, dead bacteria, and various chemicals. Endogenous pyrogens are substances produced by the immune system in response to an infection, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). These substances act on the hypothalamus, a part of the brain that regulates body temperature, to raise the set point for body temperature, leading to an increase in body temperature.

Biological toxins are poisonous substances that are produced by living organisms such as bacteria, plants, and animals. They can cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment. Biological toxins can be classified into different categories based on their mode of action, such as neurotoxins (affecting the nervous system), cytotoxins (damaging cells), and enterotoxins (causing intestinal damage).

Examples of biological toxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani bacteria, ricin toxin from the castor bean plant, and saxitoxin produced by certain types of marine algae.

Biological toxins can cause a range of symptoms depending on the type and amount of toxin ingested or exposed to, as well as the route of exposure (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, skin contact). They can cause illnesses ranging from mild to severe, and some can be fatal if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prevention and control measures for biological toxins include good hygiene practices, vaccination against certain toxin-producing bacteria, avoidance of contaminated food or water sources, and personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling or working with potential sources of toxins.

Superantigens are a unique group of antigens that can cause widespread activation of the immune system. They are capable of stimulating large numbers of T-cells (a type of white blood cell) leading to massive cytokine release, which can result in a variety of symptoms such as fever, rash, and potentially life-threatening conditions like toxic shock syndrome. Superantigens are often produced by certain bacteria and viruses. They differ from traditional antigens because they do not need to be processed and presented by antigen-presenting cells to activate T-cells; instead, they directly bind to the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and the T-cell receptor's variable region, leading to polyclonal T-cell activation.

Antitoxins are substances, typically antibodies, that neutralize toxins produced by bacteria or other harmful organisms. They work by binding to the toxin molecules and rendering them inactive, preventing them from causing harm to the body. Antitoxins can be produced naturally by the immune system during an infection, or they can be administered artificially through immunization or passive immunotherapy. In a medical context, antitoxins are often used as a treatment for certain types of bacterial infections, such as diphtheria and botulism, to help counteract the effects of the toxins produced by the bacteria.

Enterotoxins are types of toxic substances that are produced by certain microorganisms, such as bacteria. These toxins are specifically designed to target and affect the cells in the intestines, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. One well-known example of an enterotoxin is the toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, which can cause food poisoning. Another example is the cholera toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae, which can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration. Enterotoxins work by interfering with the normal functioning of intestinal cells, leading to fluid accumulation in the intestines and subsequent symptoms.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Septic shock is a serious condition that occurs as a complication of an infection that has spread throughout the body. It's characterized by a severe drop in blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism, which can lead to organ failure and death if not promptly treated.

In septic shock, the immune system overreacts to an infection, releasing an overwhelming amount of inflammatory chemicals into the bloodstream. This leads to widespread inflammation, blood vessel dilation, and leaky blood vessels, which can cause fluid to leak out of the blood vessels and into surrounding tissues. As a result, the heart may not be able to pump enough blood to vital organs, leading to organ failure.

Septic shock is often caused by bacterial infections, but it can also be caused by fungal or viral infections. It's most commonly seen in people with weakened immune systems, such as those who have recently undergone surgery, have chronic medical conditions, or are taking medications that suppress the immune system.

Prompt diagnosis and treatment of septic shock is critical to prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes. Treatment typically involves aggressive antibiotic therapy, intravenous fluids, vasopressors to maintain blood pressure, and supportive care in an intensive care unit (ICU).

Peptide Elongation Factor 2 (PEF2), also known as Elongation Factor-G (EF-G) in prokaryotes or Translation Elongation Factor 2 (TEF2) in eukaryotes, is a vital protein involved in the elongation phase of protein synthesis, specifically during translation. It facilitates the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A-site to the P-site of the ribosome, thereby enabling the addition of new amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain.

During this process, PEF2/EF-G/TEF2 binds to the ribosome and utilizes the energy from GTP hydrolysis to induce a conformational change in the ribosome, leading to the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA and mRNA. After completing the translocation step, PEF2/EF-G/TEF2 is released from the ribosome and can be reused in subsequent elongation cycles.

In summary, Peptide Elongation Factor 2 (PEF2) is a crucial player in protein synthesis that facilitates the movement of peptidyl-tRNA within the ribosome during translation, allowing for the continuous addition of amino acids to the nascent polypeptide chain.

Diphtheria toxin is a potent exotoxin produced by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes the disease diphtheria. This toxin is composed of two subunits: A and B. The B subunit helps the toxin bind to and enter host cells, while the A subunit inhibits protein synthesis within those cells, leading to cell damage and tissue destruction.

The toxin can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the site of infection. In respiratory diphtheria, it typically affects the nose, throat, and tonsils, causing a thick gray or white membrane to form over the affected area, making breathing and swallowing difficult. In cutaneous diphtheria, it infects the skin, leading to ulcers and necrosis.

Diphtheria toxin can also have systemic effects, such as damage to the heart, nerves, and kidneys, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Fortunately, diphtheria is preventable through vaccination with the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP or Tdap) vaccine.

Pseudomonas infections are infections caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa or other species of the Pseudomonas genus. These bacteria are gram-negative, opportunistic pathogens that can cause various types of infections, including respiratory, urinary tract, gastrointestinal, dermatological, and bloodstream infections.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients with weakened immune systems, chronic lung diseases, or those who are hospitalized for extended periods. The bacteria can also infect wounds, burns, and medical devices such as catheters and ventilators.

Pseudomonas infections can be difficult to treat due to the bacteria's resistance to many antibiotics. Treatment typically involves the use of multiple antibiotics that are effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In severe cases, intravenous antibiotics or even hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention measures include good hand hygiene, contact precautions for patients with known Pseudomonas infections, and proper cleaning and maintenance of medical equipment.

Scarlet Fever is a bacterial illness that mainly affects children and is characterized by a bright red rash on the body, high fever, and a sore throat. It's caused by Group A Streptococcus bacteria (Strep throat) and is treatable with antibiotics. The distinctive red rash associated with Scarlet Fever is due to toxins produced by the bacteria, which can also cause other symptoms such as flushed face, strawberry tongue, and a pale ring around the mouth. If left untreated, Scarlet Fever can lead to serious complications like kidney damage or rheumatic fever.

Medical Definition of Monoglycerides:

Monoglycerides are types of glycerides that contain one molecule of fatty acid combined with a glycerol molecule through an ester linkage. They are often used as food additives, serving as emulsifiers to help blend together water and oil-based ingredients in foods such as baked goods, ice cream, and chocolate. Monoglycerides can also be found naturally in some foods, including certain vegetable oils.

In the context of human physiology, monoglycerides can serve as a source of energy and can also play a role in the absorption and transport of fatty acids in the body. However, they are not typically considered to be a major nutrient or component of the human diet.

Staphylococcus aureus is a type of gram-positive, round (coccal) bacterium that is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals and humans. It is a facultative anaerobe, which means it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen.

Staphylococcus aureus is known to cause a wide range of infections, from mild skin infections such as pimples, impetigo, and furuncles (boils) to more severe and potentially life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and sepsis. It can also cause food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome.

The bacterium is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, including methicillin, which has led to the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains that are difficult to treat. Proper hand hygiene and infection control practices are critical in preventing the spread of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA.

Streptococcal infections are a type of infection caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria (Streptococcus pyogenes). These bacteria can cause a variety of illnesses, ranging from mild skin infections to serious and potentially life-threatening conditions such as sepsis, pneumonia, and necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease).

Some common types of streptococcal infections include:

* Streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat) - an infection of the throat and tonsils that can cause sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes.
* Impetigo - a highly contagious skin infection that causes sores or blisters on the skin.
* Cellulitis - a bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause redness, swelling, pain, and warmth in the affected area.
* Scarlet fever - a streptococcal infection that causes a bright red rash on the body, high fever, and sore throat.
* Necrotizing fasciitis - a rare but serious bacterial infection that can cause tissue death and destruction of the muscles and fascia (the tissue that covers the muscles).

Treatment for streptococcal infections typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria causing the infection. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect a streptococcal infection, as prompt treatment can help prevent serious complications.

Adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR) is a molecule that plays a role in various cellular processes, including the modification of proteins and the regulation of enzyme activity. It is formed by the attachment of a diphosphate group and a ribose sugar to the adenine base of a nucleotide. ADPR is involved in the transfer of chemical energy within cells and is also a precursor in the synthesis of other important molecules, such as NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). It should be noted that ADPR is not a medication or a drug, but rather a naturally occurring biomolecule.

Interleukin-13 (IL-13) receptors are protein molecules found on the surface of various cells that bind to and mediate the effects of the cytokine IL-13. IL-13 is a signaling protein secreted by immune cells, including Th2 cells, mast cells, and eosinophils, and plays important roles in the regulation of inflammation, allergic responses, and tissue remodeling.

There are two main types of IL-13 receptors: type I and type II. Type I IL-13 receptor is a heterodimer composed of an IL-13Rα1 chain and a IL-4Rα chain, which also forms the type II IL-4 receptor when combined with the IL-4Rγ chain. Type II IL-13 receptor, on the other hand, consists of an IL-13Rα2 chain and an IL-4Rα chain.

Type I IL-13 receptor is responsible for most of the physiological effects of IL-13, including the induction of allergic inflammation, mucus production, and airway hyperresponsiveness. Type II IL-13 receptor has a higher affinity for IL-13 than type I receptor but its role in IL-13 signaling is less well understood. It has been suggested to act as a decoy receptor that modulates IL-13 activity by preventing it from binding to the type I receptor.

Abnormalities in IL-13 and its receptors have been implicated in various diseases, including asthma, allergies, fibrosis, and cancer. Therefore, targeting IL-13 or its receptors has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for these conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Exfoliatins" is not a recognized medical term or a known medical condition. It seems like there might be a spelling mistake or a mix-up with the terminology. Exfoliation refers to the natural process of shedding dead skin cells from the surface of the skin. If you have any specific concerns about skin issues or other health problems, I would recommend consulting a healthcare professional for accurate information and advice tailored to your situation.

Interleukin-13 receptor alpha1 subunit (IL-13Rα1) is a protein that forms part of a type II cytokine receptor complex. This receptor complex binds the cytokine IL-13, which is involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. The IL-13Rα1 subunit combines with the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Rα) to form the type II IL-13 receptor, which is expressed on a variety of cell types including epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and immune cells. The binding of IL-13 to this receptor complex triggers intracellular signaling pathways that lead to various biological responses, such as the regulation of inflammation, immunity, and tissue remodeling.

Defects in the gene encoding IL-13Rα1 have been associated with some immune-related diseases, including asthma and allergies. Additionally, IL-13Rα1 has been identified as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these conditions, due to its role in mediating the effects of IL-13 in the body.

Menstrual hygiene products are items used by menstruating individuals to absorb or collect blood and maintain cleanliness and comfort during menstruation. These products typically include sanitary napkins, tampons, menstrual cups, and reusable cloth pads. They are designed to be safe, comfortable, and effective in managing menstrual flow and preventing leakage, while also being convenient and discreet to use. It is essential to maintain proper menstrual hygiene to prevent discomfort, skin irritation, and infection during menstruation.

Toxoids are inactivated bacterial toxins that have lost their toxicity but retain their antigenicity. They are often used in vaccines to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against certain diseases without causing the harmful effects associated with the active toxin. The process of converting a toxin into a toxoid is called detoxication, which is typically achieved through chemical or heat treatment.

One example of a toxoid-based vaccine is the diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DT) or diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis toxoids (DTaP or TdaP) vaccines. These vaccines contain inactivated forms of the diphtheria and tetanus toxins, as well as inactivated pertussis toxin in the case of DTaP or TdaP vaccines. By exposing the immune system to these toxoids, the body learns to recognize and mount a response against the actual toxins produced by the bacteria, thereby providing immunity and protection against the diseases they cause.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Hemolysins are a type of protein toxin produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and plants that have the ability to damage and destroy red blood cells (erythrocytes), leading to their lysis or hemolysis. This results in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding environment. Hemolysins can be classified into two main categories:

1. Exotoxins: These are secreted by bacteria and directly damage host cells. They can be further divided into two types:
* Membrane attack complex/perforin-like proteins (MACPF): These hemolysins create pores in the membrane of red blood cells, disrupting their integrity and causing lysis. Examples include alpha-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus and streptolysin O from Streptococcus pyogenes.
* Enzymatic hemolysins: These hemolysins are enzymes that degrade specific components of the red blood cell membrane, ultimately leading to lysis. An example is streptolysin S from Streptococcus pyogenes, which is a thiol-activated, oxygen-labile hemolysin.
2. Endotoxins: These are part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and can cause indirect hemolysis by activating the complement system or by stimulating the release of inflammatory mediators from host cells.

Hemolysins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis, contributing to tissue damage, impaired immune responses, and disease progression.

"Laureates" is not a medical term. However, if you are referring to "laurates" as a salt or ester of lauric acid, then here's the definition:

Laurates are organic compounds that contain a laurate group, which is the anion (negatively charged ion) derived from lauric acid. Lauric acid is a saturated fatty acid with a 12-carbon chain, and its anion has the chemical formula CH3(CH2)10COO-.

Laurates can be formed by reacting lauric acid with a base to form a salt (e.g., sodium laurate, potassium laurate) or by reacting it with an alcohol to form an ester (e.g., methyl laurate, ethyl laurate). These compounds have various applications in industry, including as surfactants, emulsifiers, and solubilizers in personal care products, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.

Cytotoxins are substances that are toxic to cells. They can cause damage and death to cells by disrupting their membranes, interfering with their metabolism, or triggering programmed cell death (apoptosis). Cytotoxins can be produced by various organisms such as bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, and they can also be synthesized artificially.

In medicine, cytotoxic drugs are used to treat cancer because they selectively target and kill rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells. Examples of cytotoxic drugs include chemotherapy agents such as doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate. However, these drugs can also damage normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, hair loss, and immune suppression.

It's important to note that cytotoxins are not the same as toxins, which are poisonous substances produced by living organisms that can cause harm to other organisms. While all cytotoxins are toxic to cells, not all toxins are cytotoxic. Some toxins may have systemic effects on organs or tissues rather than directly killing cells.

"Pseudomonas" is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely found in soil, water, and plants. Some species of Pseudomonas can cause disease in animals and humans, with P. aeruginosa being the most clinically relevant as it's an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat. It can cause a range of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, it can also cause external ear infections and eye infections.

Prompt identification and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are crucial for managing Pseudomonas infections, although the increasing antibiotic resistance poses a significant challenge in treatment.

NAD+ nucleosidase, also known as NMN hydrolase or nicotinamide mononucleotide hydrolase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) to produce nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is a crucial coenzyme involved in various redox reactions in the body, and its biosynthesis involves several steps, one of which is the conversion of nicotinamide to NMN by the enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT).

The hydrolysis of NMN to nicotinamide and PRPP by NAD+ nucleosidase is a rate-limiting step in the salvage pathway of NAD+ biosynthesis, which recycles nicotinamide back to NMN and then to NAD+. Therefore, NAD+ nucleosidase plays an essential role in maintaining NAD+ homeostasis in the body.

Deficiencies or mutations in NAD+ nucleosidase can lead to various metabolic disorders, including neurological and cardiovascular diseases, as well as aging-related conditions associated with decreased NAD+ levels.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Medical Definition:

Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) is a standard measurement in toxicology that refers to the estimated amount or dose of a substance, which if ingested, injected, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin by either human or animal, would cause death in 50% of the test population. It is expressed as the mass of a substance per unit of body weight (mg/kg, μg/kg, etc.). LD50 values are often used to compare the toxicity of different substances and help determine safe dosage levels.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Environmental health is a branch of public health that focuses on the study of how environmental factors, including physical, chemical, and biological factors, impact human health and disease. It involves the assessment, control, and prevention of environmental hazards in order to protect and promote human health and well-being.

Environmental health encompasses a wide range of issues, such as air and water quality, food safety, waste management, housing conditions, occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and climate change. It also involves the promotion of healthy behaviors and the development of policies and regulations to protect public health from environmental hazards.

The goal of environmental health is to create safe and healthy environments that support human health and well-being, prevent disease and injury, and promote sustainable communities. This requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves collaboration between various stakeholders, including policymakers, researchers, healthcare providers, community organizations, and the public.

The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is not a medical term or organization, but rather the civilian space agency of the U.S. federal government. It is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and space research. However, NASA has made significant contributions to medicine and health through its research and technological developments. For example, it has developed medical technologies for use in space that have also been applied to patient care on Earth, such as improved imaging techniques and telemedicine systems. Additionally, NASA's studies of the effects of space travel on the human body have led to advances in understanding and treating various health conditions, including bone loss, muscle atrophy, and radiation exposure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Government Agencies" is a very broad term and does not have a specific medical definition. Government agencies are administrative bodies of a government that carry out certain legislated functions, and these can cover a wide range of areas, including public health, environmental protection, workplace safety, and many others.

However, if you're interested in learning about government agencies that deal with health-related matters, here are a few examples:

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): A federal agency in the United States that conducts and supports public health activities to decrease preventable diseases, injuries, and disabilities.
2. National Institutes of Health (NIH): A US government agency responsible for biomedical and health-related research. It comprises 27 institutes and centers focusing on various disease areas and other health issues.
3. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): A US government agency that oversees the safety of food, dietary supplements, medications, vaccines, cosmetics, medical devices, and radiation-emitting products.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): A US government agency responsible for protecting human health and the environment by enforcing regulations related to air and water quality, hazardous waste disposal, pesticides, and other environmental concerns.
5. World Health Organization (WHO): An international organization that coordinates global health initiatives, sets international health standards, and provides technical assistance to member countries in addressing various health issues.

These are just a few examples of government agencies that deal with health-related matters. If you have a specific agency or area of interest, I'd be happy to help provide more information!

The European Union (EU) is not a medical term or organization, but rather a political and economic union of 27 European countries. It is primarily involved in matters related to policy, law, and trade, and does not have a direct role in the provision or regulation of healthcare services, except in certain specific areas such as pharmaceutical regulations and cross-border healthcare directives.

Therefore, there is no medical definition for "European Union."

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Pharyngitis is the medical term for inflammation of the pharynx, which is the back portion of the throat. This condition is often characterized by symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and scratchiness in the throat. Pharyngitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections (such as the common cold), bacterial infections (such as strep throat), and irritants (such as smoke or chemical fumes). Treatment for pharyngitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include medications to relieve symptoms or antibiotics to treat a bacterial infection.

Streptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, spherical bacteria that typically form pairs or chains when clustered together. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are non-motile and do not produce spores.

Streptococcus species are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some strains are part of the normal flora of the body, while others can cause a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and toxic shock syndrome.

The pathogenicity of Streptococcus species depends on various virulence factors, including the production of enzymes and toxins that damage tissues and evade the host's immune response. One of the most well-known Streptococcus species is Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), which is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and rheumatic fever.

It's important to note that the classification of Streptococcus species has evolved over time, with many former members now classified as different genera within the family Streptococcaceae. The current classification system is based on a combination of phenotypic characteristics (such as hemolysis patterns and sugar fermentation) and genotypic methods (such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing).

The pharynx is a part of the digestive and respiratory systems that serves as a conduit for food and air. It is a musculo-membranous tube extending from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.

The pharynx has three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is the uppermost region, which lies above the soft palate and is connected to the nasal cavity. The oropharynx is the middle region, which includes the area between the soft palate and the hyoid bone, including the tonsils and base of the tongue. The laryngopharynx is the lowest region, which lies below the hyoid bone and connects to the larynx.

The primary function of the pharynx is to convey food from the oral cavity to the esophagus during swallowing and to allow air to pass from the nasal cavity to the larynx during breathing. It also plays a role in speech, taste, and immune defense.

Streptococcal vaccines are immunizations designed to protect against infections caused by Streptococcus bacteria. These vaccines contain antigens, which are substances that trigger an immune response and help the body recognize and fight off specific types of Streptococcus bacteria. There are several different types of streptococcal vaccines available or in development, including:

1. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV): This vaccine protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae, a type of bacteria that can cause pneumonia, meningitis, and other serious infections. PCV is recommended for all children under 2 years old, as well as older children and adults with certain medical conditions.
2. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV): This vaccine also protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae, but it is recommended for adults 65 and older, as well as younger people with certain medical conditions.
3. Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine: This vaccine is being developed to protect against Group A Streptococcus (GAS), which can cause a variety of infections, including strep throat, skin infections, and serious diseases like rheumatic fever and toxic shock syndrome. There are several different GAS vaccine candidates in various stages of development.
4. Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine: This vaccine is being developed to protect against Group B Streptococcus (GBS), which can cause serious infections in newborns, pregnant women, and older adults with certain medical conditions. There are several different GBS vaccine candidates in various stages of development.

Overall, streptococcal vaccines play an important role in preventing bacterial infections and reducing the burden of disease caused by Streptococcus bacteria.

In medical terms, gases refer to the state of matter that has no fixed shape or volume and expands to fill any container it is placed in. Gases in the body can be normal, such as the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen that are present in the lungs and blood, or abnormal, such as gas that accumulates in the digestive tract due to conditions like bloating or swallowing air.

Gases can also be used medically for therapeutic purposes, such as in the administration of anesthesia or in the treatment of certain respiratory conditions with oxygen therapy. Additionally, measuring the amount of gas in the body, such as through imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, can help diagnose various medical conditions.

An exotoxin is a toxin secreted by bacteria. An exotoxin can cause damage to the host by destroying cells or disrupting normal ... Exotoxins are susceptible to antibodies produced by the immune system, but some exotoxins are so toxic that they may be fatal ... Media related to Exotoxin at Wikimedia Commons Exotoxins at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... these exotoxins are the bacterial equivalent of antibiotics such as clindamycin.) Some exotoxins act directly at the ribosome ...
The Pseudomonas exotoxin (or exotoxin A) is an exotoxin produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Vibrio cholerae produces a similar ... Hafkemeyer P, Brinkmann U, Brinkmann E, Pastan I, Blum HE, Baumert TF (May 2008). "Pseudomonas exotoxin antisense RNA ... Media related to Pseudomonas exotoxin at Wikimedia Commons P11439 (eta) in InterPro domain view (Articles with short ... "Structure-function analysis of water-soluble inhibitors of the catalytic domain of exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa". The ...
Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins also known as erythrogenic toxins, are exotoxins secreted by strains of the bacterial species ... Pyrogenic exotoxins are implicated as the causative agent of scarlet fever and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. There is no ... SpeB is known as streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B, streptopain and streptococcal cysteine proteinase as a result of its ... All superantigenic streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins contain two major conserved protein domains that are linked by an α-helix ...
Depending on the strain, S. aureus is capable of secreting several exotoxins, which can be categorized into three groups. Many ... Medical Laboratory Manual For Tropical Countries vol two Dinges MM, Orwin PM, Schlievert PM (January 2000). "Exotoxins of ... Exfoliative toxins Exfoliative toxins are exotoxins implicated in the disease staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), ...
TSST-1 is a bacterial exotoxin found in patients who have developed toxic shock syndrome (TSS), which can be found in ... Dinges MM, Orwin PM, Schlievert PM (January 2000). "Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 13 (1 ...
Streptococcal exotoxins are produced by Streptococcus pyogenes. These toxins share the ability to bind to the major ... Rotavirus (NSP4) Endotoxin Exotoxin "enterotoxin" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Carlton Gyles, Magdalene So, Stanley Falkow, ... An enterotoxin is a protein exotoxin released by a microorganism that targets the intestines. They can be chromosomally or ... Dinges, M. M.; Orwin, P. M.; Schlievert, P. M. (2000). "Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 13 ...
Dinges MM, Orwin PM, Schlievert PM (January 2000). "Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 13 (1 ...
Dinges, MM; Orwin, PM; Schlievert, PM (January 2000). "Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 13 ( ...
S. saprophyticus produces no exotoxins. Patients with urinary tract infections caused by S. saprophyticus usually present with ...
... are bacterial exotoxins which share common features regarding their domain architecture. Each family of PTs ...
One such exotoxin is alpha toxin, which is produced by C. perfringens and is the key virulence factor in its pathogenesis. ... Bacteria often possess the ability to create exotoxins to assist them in competing with other microbes in their natural ... Alongside such rapid proliferation is a corresponding mass-production of exotoxin that causes severe damage to local tissue in ... Bacteria cause myonecrosis by specific exotoxins. These microorganisms are opportunistic and, in general, enter the body ...
Bacteria toxins which can be classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. Exotoxins are generated and actively secreted; ... Exotoxins are also relatively specific to the bacteria that produce it; for example, diphtheria toxin is only produced by ... Exotoxin activity can be separated into specific cytotoxic activity or broad cytotoxic activity based on whether the toxin ... Botulinum toxins, exotoxins of Clostridium botulinum, are the most toxic naturally occurring substances known to man. Proft T ( ...
SIB: Viral exotoxin. Expasy: ViralZone. Accessed 2 Feb 2021 Oteo, Jesús; Aracil, Belén; Ignacio Alós, Juan; Luis Gómez-Garcés, ... The virulent and toxigenic strains produce an exotoxin formed by two polypeptide chains, which is itself produced when a ...
Bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins (bAREs) covalently transfer an ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ to target proteins of infected ... Krueger, KM; Barbieri, JT (January 1995). "The family of bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. ... exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa; pertussis toxin of B. pertussis; C3 toxin of C. botulinum; and diphtheria toxin of ...
Exotoxins are extremely immunogenic meaning that they trigger the humoral response (antibodies target the toxin). Exotoxins are ... Exotoxins are actively secreted by some bacteria and have a wide range of effects including inhibition of certain biochemical ... Exotoxins are also produced by a range of other bacteria including Escherichia coli; Vibrio cholerae (causative agent of ... These are divided into two groups: endotoxins and exotoxins. Endotoxin is a component (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) of the cell ...
Bacterial exotoxins that act as superantigens also may cause sepsis. Superantigens simultaneously bind major histocompatibility ...
L. P. Johnson, M. A. Tomai, P. M. Schlievert: Bacteriophage Involvement in Group A Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin A ... Accessed 18 Feb 2021 SIB: Viral exotoxin. Expasy: ViralZone. Accessed 18 Feb 2021 Julie K. Segman, ed. (2006). Stedman's ...
Kim, Yoon Berm; Watson, Dennis W. (1970). "A Purified Group a Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin". Journal of Experimental ... "Nonspecific and specific immunological mitogenicity by group a streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins". Infection and Immunity. 22 ( ...
... belong to the polymorphic toxin category of bacterial exotoxins. Rhs proteins are widespread and can be produced by ...
One of the exotoxins is encoded on the bacterial chromosome, while the other is encoded on a plasmid. These exotoxins are ... Clindamycin is sometimes also used because of its inhibition of exotoxins.[citation needed] The prognosis of SSSS in children ... The syndrome is induced by epidermolytic exotoxins (exfoliatin) A and B, which are released by S. aureus and cause detachment ... it is thought not to be different from scarlet fever caused by staphylococcal exotoxin after Keith Powell proposed equating it ...
Exotoxins encoded by prophages cause pathogenic outcomes in agriculture and aquaculture. Menouni, R; Hutinet, G; Petit, MA; ...
Likewise, Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A inactivates EF-2. Parker, J. (2001). "Elongation Factors; Translation". ...
Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins - SPEs A, B, C. and F have been identified. The pyrogenic exotoxins, also called erythrogenic ... Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (speA) is probably the best studied of these toxins. It is carried by the bacteriophage T12 ... Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin A, speA, is the one most commonly associated with cases of scarlet fever that are complicated ... The rash occurs as a result of capillary damage by exotoxins produced by S.pyogenes. On darker-pigmented skin the rash may be ...
He also showed that the bacillus produces an exotoxin.[citation needed] In 1885, Joseph P. O'Dwyer introduced the O'Dwyer tube ... as the lethality and symptoms themselves are caused by the exotoxin produced by the bacteria. Diagnosis can often be made based ...
Nair, G. Balakrish; Narain, Jai P. (2010). "From endotoxin to exotoxin: De's rich legacy to cholera". Bulletin of the World ...
... are exotoxins secreted by pathogenic Neisseria species (including meningococcus and gonococcus). MafB toxins belong ...
The exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is another example of an AB toxin that targets the eukaryotic elongation factor 2. The ... PA forms the "B" part of the exotoxin and allows passage of the "A" moiety (consisting of EF or LF) into target cells. PA ... "Bacterial Pathogenesis: Bacterial Factors that Damage the Host - Producing Exotoxins - A-B Toxins". Archived from the original ...
Avigad, Lois S. (1974). "Partial Characterization of Aerolysin, a Lytic Exotoxin from Aeromonas hydrophila". Infection and ...
It carries the speA gene which codes for erythrogenic toxin A. speA is also known as streptococcal pyogenic exotoxin A, scarlet ... L. P. Johnson; M. A. Tomai; P. M. Schlievert (1986). "Bacteriophage involvement in group a streptococcal pyogenic exotoxin a ... L. McKane; J. J. Ferretti (December 1981). "Phage-host interactions and the production of type A streptococcal exotoxin in ... Johnson LP, Schlievert PM (1984). "Group a streptococcal phage T12 carries the structural gene for pyrogenic exotoxin type A". ...
2002). "Pfiesteria shumwayae kills fish by micropredation not exotoxin secretion". Nature. 418 (6901): 967-70. doi:10.1038/ ...
An exotoxin is a toxin secreted by bacteria. An exotoxin can cause damage to the host by destroying cells or disrupting normal ... Exotoxins are susceptible to antibodies produced by the immune system, but some exotoxins are so toxic that they may be fatal ... Media related to Exotoxin at Wikimedia Commons Exotoxins at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ( ... these exotoxins are the bacterial equivalent of antibiotics such as clindamycin.) Some exotoxins act directly at the ribosome ...
The effects of exotoxin A (EXA) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa on polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNLs) were studied in a mouse ... Role of exotoxin A in inducing severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in mice J Med Microbiol. 1995 Sep;43(3):169-75. doi: ... The effects of exotoxin A (EXA) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa on polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNLs) were studied in a mouse ...
by Brenda Watson , Mar 21, 2017 , Adults, Cancer, Chronic Disease, Constipation, Diarrhea, Digestive Health, Enzymes, Heart Disease, Heartburn, Immune System, Indigestion, Inflammation, Liver, Preventable Issues, Uncategorized. As we move into the third week of Colon Cancer Awareness Month its time to discuss what can go wrong in your gut. Last week I presented a very brief overview of how a healthy gut works. This week Id like to help you recognize signs of digestive dysfunction. The ...
GtrS and GltR form a two-component system: the central role of 2-ketogluconate in the expression of exotoxin A and glucose ... In addition, the GtrS/GltR pair regulates the expression of toxA that encodes exotoxin A, the primary virulence factor. ...
Protein target information for Exotoxin type A (Streptococcus pyogenes MGAS8232). Find diseases associated with this biological ...
... *Authors: *Nihal Karakaş ... Wolf P and Elsasser-Beile U: Pseudomonas exotoxin A: From virulence factor to anti-cancer agent. Int J Med Microbiol. 299:161- ... Weldon JE and Pastan I: A guide to taming a toxin-recombinant immunotoxins constructed from Pseudomonas exotoxin A for the ... Karakaş N, Stuckey D, Revai‑Lechtich E and Shah K: IL13Rα2‑ and EGFR‑targeted pseudomonas exotoxin potentiates the TRAIL‑ ...
Role of Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxins A and B (SpeA and SpeB) Mutation in Streptococcus pyogenes Virulence All Restricted. ...
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2012) Structural changes in freshwater fish and chironomids exposed to bacterial exotoxins. Ecotoxicology and Environmental ...
This is predominantly associated with M types 1 and 3 that produce pyrogenic exotoxin A, exotoxin B, or both. [6] ... The rash of scarlet fever is caused by the pyrogenic exotoxins (ie, SPE A, B, C, and F). The rash highly depends on toxin ... The family of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPEs) includes SPEs A, B, C, and F. These toxins are responsible for the rash ... The extracellular components responsible for the disease process include invasins and exotoxins. The outermost capsule is ...
On a broader scale, toxins may be classified as either exotoxins, excreted by an organism, or endotoxins, which are released ...
Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, disease caused by an exotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. It is ... C. tetani produces two exotoxins, tetanolysin and tetanospasmin. Tetanospasmin is a neurotoxin and causes the clinical ...
Exotoxin. Cytotoxic, TLR4 agonist, complement activator. [24,25]. PspA. Surface Protein. Inhibits the activation of the ...
Pseudomonas Exotoxin A-Based Immunotherapy Targeting CCK2R-Expressing Colorectal Malignancies: An In Vitro and In Vivo ... Pseudomonas Exotoxin A-Based Immunotherapy Targeting CCK2R-Expressing Colorectal Malignancies: An In Vitro and In Vivo ...
Dive into the research topics of Recombinant protein composed of Pseudomonas exotoxin A, outer membrane proteins I and F as ... Recombinant protein composed of Pseudomonas exotoxin A, outer membrane proteins I and F as vaccine against P. aeruginosa ...
T2 - Molecular evolution of a highly variable chromosomal region encoding the staphylococcal exotoxin-like family of proteins ... designated staphylococcal exotoxin-like (SET) proteins. In the present study, RD13 was found in all 63 S. aureus isolates of ... designated staphylococcal exotoxin-like (SET) proteins. In the present study, RD13 was found in all 63 S. aureus isolates of ... designated staphylococcal exotoxin-like (SET) proteins. In the present study, RD13 was found in all 63 S. aureus isolates of ...
Characterization of the B Cell Epitopes Associated with a Truncated Form of Pseudomonas Exotoxin (PE38) Used to Make ...
The aim of this study was to produce anti-VEGFR2/rPE (Pseudomonas exotoxin) 38 IT to test its cytotoxic activity and mechanism ... The aim of this study was to produce anti-VEGFR2/rPE (Pseudomonas exotoxin) 38 IT to test its cytotoxic activity and mechanism ... Cytotoxic Effect of Immunotoxin Containing The Truncated Form of Pseudomonas Exotoxin A and Anti-VEGFR2 on HUVEC and MCF-7 Cell ... "Cytotoxic Effect of Immunotoxin Containing The Truncated Form of Pseudomonas Exotoxin A and Anti-VEGFR2 on HUVEC and MCF-7 Cell ...
Hence, exotoxin A may prevent VE-cadherin resynthesis and thus preclude reconstruction of the junctions. Hence, exotoxin A may ... VE-cadherin proteolysis also facilitates the action of type III exotoxins in endothelial cells. This cleavage mechanism is ... TAK-071 injectisome through which the bacterium injects exotoxins inducing cytoskeleton collapse and apoptosis. also delivers ...
Lethal shock induced by streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A in mice transgenic for human leukocyte antigen-DQ8 and human CD4 ... Dive into the research topics of Lethal shock induced by streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A in mice transgenic for human ... Lethal shock induced by streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A in mice transgenic for human leukocyte antigen-DQ8 and human CD4 ... Lethal shock induced by streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A in mice transgenic for human leukocyte antigen-DQ8 and human CD4 ...
exotoxin. Oct 22, 2012. Showing threads 121 to 136 of 136 Thread Display Options. Sort threads by:. Last message time. Thread ...
Exotoxins are released by microorganisms and act at the surface (more...). As we learned in Chapter 2, for a pathogen to invade ...
humans. Some toxins, called exotoxins, are proteins secreted by. the pathogen once established in the host. By contrast, ... exotoxin can kill an adult human (Arnon et al., 2001). See also: ... Bacterial exotoxins are among the most potent toxins known.. ...
This hospitalized neonate is displaying a bodily rigidity produced by Clostridium tetani exotoxin. This serious, often fatal, ...
Michael Jewetts lab contains the insert Exotoxin A and is published in Sci Adv. 2021 Feb 3;7(6). pii: 7/6/eabe9444. doi: ... Exotoxin A with internal DNNNS and DQNRT glycosylation sites was originally described by Cuccui, et al. doi.org/10.1098/rsob. ... In vitro expression of P. aeruginosa exotoxin A with DNNNS and DQNRT internal glycosylation sites ...
14.3.d T cell receptor beta chain; Exotoxin type A. Oligo-state. hetero-1-1-mer. ... 14.3.d T cell receptor beta chain; Exotoxin type A. Oligo-state. hetero-1-1-mer. ...
gram-positive bacteria= exotoxins, superantigens (toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA ... exotoxins, superantigens (toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST), streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA)), enterotoxins, ... These bacterial products (gram-negative bacteria= endotoxin, formyl peptides, exotoxins, and proteases, gram-positive bacteria ... gram-negative bacteria= endotoxin, formyl peptides, exotoxins, and proteases. * ...
Staphylococcus aureus exotoxins and their detection in the dairy industry and mastitis. Toxins. (2020) 12:537. doi: 10.3390/ ...
  • Scarlet fever occurs when group A streptococcal pharyngitis is caused by a lysogenic strain of the streptococcus bacteria that produce a pyrogenic exotoxin (erythrogenic toxin), which causes the rash. (jrank.org)
  • Streptococcus pyogenes, produce a pyrogenic exotoxin, obtained by lysogenic conversion, which causes fever and a scarlet-red rash, scarlet fever. (wazeesupperclub.com)
  • Exotoxins may be secreted, or, similar to endotoxins, may be released during lysis of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endotoxins are not secreted but are released only when the cells are disrupted, they are less potent and less specific than the exotoxins and do not form toxoids. (vivadifferences.com)
  • These can be endotoxins (those produced by live organisms) or exotoxins (those produced when microorganisms die off). (drlwilson.com)
  • AB toxins include Shiga toxin (ST) from Escherichia coli strains such as O157:H7, cholera toxin (CT) from Vibrio cholerae, heat-labile toxin (LT) from enterotoxigenic E. coli, diphtheria toxin (DT) from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, exotoxin A (ETA) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and ricin from the plant Ricinus communis. (usda.gov)
  • Diphtheria is a severe respiratory or cutaneous infectious disease, caused by exotoxin producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae , C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • 19. Chimeric fusion proteins--Pseudomonas exotoxin-based. (nih.gov)
  • Intervention: The function of IL-13Rα2 in these tumor cells was examined by evaluating tumor sensitivity to a recombinant IL-13-Pseudomonas exotoxin (IL-13PE). (eur.nl)
  • Exotoxins, taxoids can be made by treating with formaldehyde but treated toxins show immunogenicity. (vivadifferences.com)
  • Exotoxin-toxins released. (7song.com)
  • Exotoxins are toxins released by a living bacterial cell into its surroundings. (nih.gov)
  • 2007). Systemic macrophage and neutrophil destruction by secondary necrosis induced by a bacterial exotoxin in a Gram-negative septicaemia . (up.pt)
  • ABC transporters in general are transmembrane proteins that actively extrude endo- and exotoxins as well as xenobiotics, thereby protecting cells and organs. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Streptococcal pyrogenic is a good example of an exotoxin existing in several antigenic types and causing fever, the rash of scarlet fever, organ damage, increased blood-brain barrier permeability and alterations in immune response. (vivadifferences.com)
  • Current research suggests that the erythrogenic toxin produced by the bacteria is actually one of three exotoxins, called streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins A, B, and C. Some people possess a neutralizing antibody to the toxin and are protected from the disease. (jrank.org)
  • Tetanus is an acute, often fatal, disease caused by an exotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani . (cdc.gov)
  • It is caused by the exotoxin (tetanospasmin) of Clostridium tetani , which is a Grampositive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus. (scielo.org.za)
  • Synthesis of exotoxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis . (cas.cz)
  • C. tetani produces two exotoxins, tetanolysin and tetanospasmin. (cdc.gov)
  • The clinical manifestations result from the local infection especially in the upper airways as well as the potent exotoxin which can have long term effect on the heart and nervous system. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Exotoxins are susceptible to antibodies produced by the immune system, but some exotoxins are so toxic that they may be fatal to the host before the immune system has a chance to mount defenses against them. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecular basis of PTSAg toxicity is presented in the context of two diseases known to be caused by these exotoxins: toxic shock syndrome and staphylococcal food poisoning. (nih.gov)
  • The toxic properties of most exotoxins can be inactivated by heat or chemical treatment to produce a toxoid. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article reviews the literature regarding the structure and function of two types of exotoxins expressed by Staphylococcus aureus, pyrogenic toxin superantigens (PTSAgs) and hemolysins. (nih.gov)
  • [ 17 , 61 ] This observation implies that inadequate use of β-lactams, for example, in the case of MRSA infections, may enhance tissue damage associated with the infection by increased production of exotoxins. (medscape.com)
  • Indeed, its presence in food represents a serious health problem as it can produce a wide range of virulence factors such as enzymes and exotoxins that cause food poisoning [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • and exotoxins are unique in that they are pyrogenic in action (i.e. they produce fever in their host). (microbiologyclass.net)
  • An exotoxin can cause damage to the host by destroying cells or disrupting normal cellular metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exotoxins are poisons released by live bacteria. (xshotpix.com)
  • Multiple exotoxins are sometimes produced by staphylococci. (msdmanuals.com)
  • LMB-2 can be an immunotoxin made up of a truncated type of exotoxin A (PE) fused towards the adjustable region of the antibody that binds the Interleukin 2 Receptor (IL2R) α-string (also called anti-Tac antibody) which serves as the binding area (Body 1C) [1] [2]. (tam-receptor.com)