Exotoxins: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Immunotoxins: Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; and ANTIGENS. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.Pyrogens: Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Superantigens: Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Peptide Elongation Factor 2: Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.Diphtheria Toxin: An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Scarlet Fever: Infection with group A streptococci that is characterized by tonsillitis and pharyngitis. An erythematous rash is commonly present.Monoglycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Receptors, Interleukin-13: Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-13. Included under this heading are the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA2 which is a monomeric receptor and the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR TYPE II which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13.Exfoliatins: Protein exotoxins from Staphylococcus aureus, phage type II, which cause epidermal necrolysis. They are proteins with a molecular weight of 26,000 to 32,000. They cause a condition variously called scaled skin, Lyell or Ritter syndrome, epidermal exfoliative disease, toxic epidermal necrolysis, etc.Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Menstrual Hygiene Products: Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Laurates: Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.NAD+ NucleosidaseMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Elongation Factor 2 Kinase: A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that specifically phosphorylates PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2. The enzyme lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE, however it is regulated by phosphorylation by PROTEIN KINASE A and through intramolecular autophosphorylation.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Scorpions: Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)IllinoisLipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Phosphopeptides14-3-3 Proteins: A large family of signal-transducing adaptor proteins present in wide variety of eukaryotes. They are PHOSPHOSERINE and PHOSPHOTHREONINE binding proteins involved in important cellular processes including SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; CELL CYCLE control; APOPTOSIS; and cellular stress responses. 14-3-3 proteins function by interacting with other signal-transducing proteins and effecting changes in their enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. The name 14-3-3 derives from numerical designations used in the original fractionation patterns of the proteins.OklahomaAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.

The rgg gene of Streptococcus pyogenes NZ131 positively influences extracellular SPE B production. (1/1506)

Streptococcus pyogenes produces several extracellular proteins, including streptococcal erythrogenic toxin B (SPE B), also known as streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B and streptococcal proteinase. Several reports suggest that SPE B contributes to the virulence associated with S. pyogenes; however, little is known about its regulation. Nucleotide sequence data revealed the presence, upstream of the speB gene, of a gene, designated rgg, that was predicted to encode a polypeptide similar to previously described positive regulatory factors. The putative Rgg polypeptide of S. pyogenes NZ131 consisted of 280 amino acids and had a predicted molecular weight of 33,246. To assess the potential role of Rgg in the production of SPE B, the rgg gene was insertionally inactivated in S. pyogenes NZ131, which resulted in markedly decreased SPE B production, as determined both by immunoblotting and caseinolytic activity on agar plates. However, the production of other extracellular products, including streptolysin O, streptokinase, and DNase, was not affected. Complementation of the rgg mutant with an intact rgg gene copy in S. pyogenes NZ131 could restore SPE B production and confirmed that the rgg gene product is involved in the production of SPE B.  (+info)

Extracellular cysteine protease produced by Streptococcus pyogenes participates in the pathogenesis of invasive skin infection and dissemination in mice. (2/1506)

The role of an extracellular cysteine protease encoded by the speB gene in group A Streptococcus (GAS) skin infection was studied with a mouse model. Mice were injected subcutaneously with a wild-type GAS serotype M3 strain or a cysteine protease-inactivated isogenic derivative grown to stationary phase. The mortality rate of mice injected with the M3 speB mutant strain was significantly decreased (P < 0.0008) compared to that of animals injected with the wild-type parental organism. The abscesses formed in animals infected with the cysteine protease mutant strain were significantly smaller (P < 0.0001) than those caused by the wild-type organism and slowly regressed over 3 to 4 weeks. In striking contrast, infection with the wild-type GAS isolate generated necrotic lesions, and in some animals the GAS disseminated widely from the injection site and produced extensive cutaneous damage. All of these animals developed bacteremia and died. GAS dissemination was accompanied by severe tissue and blood vessel necrosis. Cysteine protease expression in the infected tissue was identified by immunogold electron microscopy. These data demonstrate that cysteine protease expression contributes to soft tissue pathology, including necrosis, and is required for efficient systemic dissemination of the organism from the initial site of skin inoculation.  (+info)

Risk factors in the pathogenesis of invasive group A streptococcal infections: role of protective humoral immunity. (3/1506)

An impressive change in the epidemiology and severity of invasive group A streptococcal infections occurred in the 1980s, and the incidence of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome cases continues to rise. The reason for the resurgence of severe invasive cases remains a mystery-has there been a change in the pathogen or in host protective immunity? To address these questions, we have studied 33 patients with invasive infection caused by genotypically indistinguishable M1T1 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes who had different disease outcomes. Patients were classified as having severe (n = 21) and nonsevere (n = 12) invasive infections based on the presence or absence of shock and organ failure. Levels of anti-M1 bactericidal antibodies and of anti-streptococcal superantigen neutralizing antibodies in plasma were significantly lower in both groups than in age- and geographically matched healthy controls (P < 0.01). Importantly, the levels of these protective antibodies in plasma samples from severe and nonsevere invasive cases were not different. Together the data suggest that low levels of protective antibodies may contribute to host susceptibility to invasive streptococcal infection but do not modulate disease outcome. Other immunogenetic factors that regulate superantigen responses may influence the severity of systemic manifestations associated with invasive streptococcal infection.  (+info)

Biological effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III-secreted proteins on CHO cells. (4/1506)

A strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that fails to express known type III-secreted effector proteins was constructed as an expression host. Individual effectors were expressed in trans, and their biological effects on CHO cells were assessed in an acute cellular infection model. Intoxication with ExoS, ExoT, or ExoY resulted in alterations in cell morphology. As shown in previous genetic studies, ExoU expression was linked to acute cytotoxicity.  (+info)

Importance of the carboxyl terminus in the folding and function of alpha-hemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus. (5/1506)

The physical state of two model mutants of alpha-hemolysin (alphaHL), alphaHL(1-289), a carboxyl-terminal deletion mutant (CDM), and alphaHL(1-331), a carboxyl-terminal extension mutant (CEM), were examined in detail to identify the role of the carboxyl terminus in the folding and function of native alphaHL. Denatured alphaHL can be refolded efficiently with nearly total recovery of its activity upon restoration of nondenaturing conditions. Various biophysical and biochemical studies on the three proteins have revealed the importance of an intact carboxyl terminus in the folding of alphaHL. The CDM exhibits a marked increase in susceptibility to proteases as compared with alphaHL. alphaHL and CEM exhibit similar fluorescence emission maxima, and that of the CDM is red-shifted by 9 nm, which indicates a greater solvent exposure of the tryptophan residues of the CDM. In addition, the CDM binds 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS) and increases its fluorescence intensity significantly unlike alphaHL and CEM, which show marginal binding. The circular dichroism studies point that the CDM possesses significant secondary structure, but its tertiary structure is greatly diminished as compared with alphaHL. These data show that the CDM has several of the features that characterize a molten globule state. Experiments with freshly translated mutants, using coupled in vitro transcription and translation, have further supported our observations that deletion at the carboxyl terminus leads to major structural perturbations in the water-soluble form of alphaHL. The studies demonstrate a critical role of the carboxyl terminus of alphaHL in attaining the native folded state.  (+info)

Evidence for a structural motif in toxins and interleukin-2 that may be responsible for binding to endothelial cells and initiating vascular leak syndrome. (6/1506)

The dose-limiting toxicity of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and immunotoxin (IT) therapy in humans is vascular leak syndrome (VLS). VLS has a complex etiology involving damage to vascular endothelial cells (ECs), extravasation of fluids and proteins, interstitial edema, and organ failure. IL-2 and ITs prepared with the catalytic A chain of the plant toxin, ricin (RTA), and other toxins, damage human ECs in vitro and in vivo. Damage to ECs may initiate VLS; if this damage could be avoided without losing the efficacy of ITs or IL-2, larger doses could be administered. In this paper, we provide evidence that a three amino acid sequence motif, (x)D(y), in toxins and IL-2 damages ECs. Thus, when peptides from RTA or IL-2 containing this sequence motif are coupled to mouse IgG, they bind to and damage ECs both in vitro and, in the case of RTA, in vivo. In contrast, the same peptides with a deleted or mutated sequence do not. Furthermore, the peptide from RTA attached to mouse IgG can block the binding of intact RTA to ECs in vitro and vice versa. In addition, RTA, a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38-lys), and fibronectin also block the binding of the mouse IgG-RTA peptide to ECs, suggesting that an (x)D(y) motif is exposed on all three molecules. Our results suggest that deletions or mutations in this sequence or the use of nondamaging blocking peptides may increase the therapeutic index of both IL-2, as well as ITs prepared with a variety of plant or bacterial toxins.  (+info)

Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor interacts with mouse blastocysts independently of ErbB1: a possible role for heparan sulfate proteoglycans and ErbB4 in blastocyst implantation. (7/1506)

Blastocyst implantation requires molecular and cellular interactions between the uterine luminal epithelium and blastocyst trophectoderm. We have previously shown that heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is induced in the mouse luminal epithelium solely at the site of blastocyst apposition at 16:00 hours on day 4 of pregnancy prior to the attachment reaction (22:00-23:00 hours), and that HB-EGF promotes blastocyst growth, zona-hatching and trophoblast outgrowth. To delineate which EGF receptors participate in blastocyst activation, the toxicity of chimeric toxins composed of HB-EGF or TGF-(&agr;) coupled to Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) were used as measures of receptor expression. TGF-(&agr;) or HB-EGF binds to EGF-receptor (ErbB1), while HB-EGF, in addition, binds to ErbB4. The results indicate that ErbB1 is inefficient in mediating TGF-(&agr;)-PE or HB-EGF-PE toxicity as follows: (i) TGF-(&agr;)-PE was relatively inferior in killing blastocysts, 100-fold less than HB-EGF-PE, (ii) analysis of blastocysts isolated from cross-bred egfr+/- mice demonstrated that HB-EGF-PE, but not TGF-(&agr;)-PE, killed egfr-/- blastocysts, and (iii) blastocysts that survived TGF-(&agr;)-PE were nevertheless killed by HB-EGF-PE. HB-EGF-PE toxicity was partially mediated by cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), since a peptide corresponding to the heparin-binding domain of HB-EGF as well as heparitinase treatment protected the blastocysts from the toxic effects of HB-EGF-PE by about 40%. ErbB4 is a candidate for being an HB-EGF-responsive receptor since RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that day 4 mouse blastocysts express two different erbB4 isoforms and immunostaining with anti-ErbB4 antibodies confirmed that ErbB4 protein is expressed at the apical surface of the trophectoderm cells. It is concluded that (i) HB-EGF interacts with the blastocyst cell surface via high-affinity receptors other than ErbB1, (ii) the HB-EGF interaction with high-affinity blastocysts receptors is regulated by heparan sulfate, and (iii) ErbB4 is a candidate for being a high-affinity receptor for HB-EGF on the surface of implantation-competent blastocysts.  (+info)

Prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by elimination of recipient-reactive donor T cells with recombinant toxins that target the interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor. (8/1506)

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), due to the presence of recipient-reactive T cells, limits the usefulness of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is a major contributor to patient mortality. To prevent GVHD, murine and human T cells were activated by antigen or mitogens and treated with a genetically engineered form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE) directed against the IL-2 receptor. Treatment with the chimeric toxin eliminated alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) as determined by cytotoxicity and mixed lymphocyte culture assays. Precursor frequencies of alloreactive cytotoxic T cells and proliferative T cells were reduced up to 100-fold as shown by limiting dilution assays. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that treatment with the chimeric toxin completely eliminated CD25+ cells from the cultures. Toxin treatment had no significant effect on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells as determined in vitro by colony-forming assays and in vivo by long-term hematopoietic recovery after 950 rad irradiation. Toxin treatment decreased GVHD in transplanted mice to less than 10% (as compared to 88% in untreated controls). Thus, it is possible to prevent life-threatening GVHD after BMT by using a CD25 receptor-directed toxin to eliminate host-reactive T cells from bone marrow grafts.  (+info)

  • Endotoxins are the associated cell toxins whereas exotoxins are the extracellular diffusible toxins. (difference.wiki)
  • Immune reactions get weak when endotoxins attack the cell and have high enzymatic activity but poor antigenicity whereas immune responses get stronger in the case of exotoxins but with no enzymatic activity and high antigenicity. (difference.wiki)
  • A lack of therapeutics for both exotoxin and endotoxin induced shock and implicated diseases, as well as an interest in further understanding these molecular interactions, guided my studies and development of high affinity agents to neutralize these toxins. (illinois.edu)
  • The production and secretion of protein toxins (exotoxins) is a most common strategy among microbial pathogens. (asmblog.org)
  • We constructed several ITs using two enzymatic toxins both able to block protein translation, one of bacterial origin (a truncated version of Pseudomonas exotoxin A, PE40) endowed with EF-2 ADP-ribosylation activity, the other being the plant ribosome-inactivating protein saporin, able to specifically depurinate 23/26/28S ribosomal RNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among three types of exotoxins, membrane-disrupting toxins are the toxins that cause damage to host cells by breaking down the structure of their plasma membranes or by forming protein channels or by disrupting the phospholipids. (microbialfacts.com)
  • Endotoxins are the associated cell toxins whereas exotoxins are the extracellular diffusible toxins. (difference.wiki)
  • In brief, endotoxin, enterotoxin, and exotoxin are three types of toxins produced by pathogenic bacteria. (pediaa.com)
  • Exotoxins are toxins that are released by living bacteria cells. (prezi.com)
  • The extent of the transfer of the adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose (ADPR) moiety of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide onto elongation factor 2 (EF-2) catalyzed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PA-toxin) was dependent upon the presence of a reducing agent, dithiotheritol (DTT). (osu.edu)
  • Refined crystallographic structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and its implications for the molecular mechanism of toxicity. (nature.com)
  • At least one of the modified forms (pJH8) of the exotoxin exhibits low toxicity to human or mouse cells by itself but retains its enzymatic activity and makes a very active cell specific immunotoxin with very low nonspecific cytotoxicity. (justia.com)
  • Exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa asserts its cellular toxicity through ADP-ribosylation of translation elongation factor 2, predicated on binding to specific cell surface receptors and intracellular trafficking via a complex pathway that ultimately results in translocation of an enzymatic activity into the cytoplasm. (proteopedia.org)
  • The data demonstrate that S aureus-released exotoxins can modulate disease severity and dermal T-cell infiltration. (nih.gov)
  • This coagulopathy was most likely caused by S. aureus exotoxins forming inhibitory complexes with coagulation factor Xa. (ejcrim.com)
  • A multicopy plasmid carrying the P. aeruginosa fur gene restores manganese susceptibility and wild-type regulation of exotoxin A and siderophore production in these Fur mutants. (asm.org)
  • Differential regulation of exotoxin production dependent on the environmental conditions surrounding the microbe suggests that it may be possible to identify agents that downregulate exotoxin production in the host, even if the microbe cannot be effectively killed. (asm.org)
  • Prokaryotic exotoxin A catalyses the transfer of ADP ribose from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to elongation factor-2 in eukaryotic cells, with subsequent inhibition of protein synthesis [ PMID: 8692916 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Here, we describe four structures of a catalytically active complex between a fragment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (ETA) and its protein substrate, translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2). (nature.com)
  • Some organisms secrete exotoxins steadily, while others produce them as needed, and in some cases they are only released during lysis, when a cell breaks up as an organism dies. (wisegeek.com)
  • To adapt to the reduced environmental oxygen (EO) and iron-limited conditions within the CF mucus, P. aeruginosa likely alters the production of its virulence factors such as pyoverdine and exotoxin A (ETA). (tdl.org)
  • Even if the patient's infection can be treated, lingering complications may occur as a result of the damage caused by the exotoxin. (wisegeek.com)
  • Produce exotoxin that can cause foodborne infection… rapid onset of nausea, acute vomiting, diarrhea. (coursehero.com)
  • Among these, the redox active exotoxin pyocyanin (PCN) is produced in concentrations up to 100 μmol/L during infection of CF and other bronchiectatic airways. (illinois.edu)
  • 3. Morrison AV, Popovich VI, Morrison VV Pseudomonas infection: exotoxin A effect (review). (ssmj.ru)
  • This is the first report of an environmental reservoir of a bacterial exotoxin gene in an atypical host. (hindawi.com)
  • Coordinate regulation of siderophore and exotoxin A production: molecular cloning and sequencing of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa fur gene. (asm.org)
  • Aslani M M, Hahsemipour M, Nikbin V S, Shahcheraghi F, Eidi A, Sharafi Z. PCR identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on two outermembrane lipoprotein oprI, oprL, and exotoxin A gene. (ac.ir)
  • The aim of this research was to PCR identification of P. aeruginosa isolated from tracheal samples based on the amplification of I lipoprotein (oprI) for detection of genus and L lipoprotein (oprL) for detection of species and Exotoxin A (toxA) gene. (ac.ir)