The act of BREATHING out.
Any tests done on exhaled air.
Ethane is an organic compound, specifically a hydrocarbon (aliphatic alkane), with the chemical formula C2H6, which consists of two carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms, and is the second simplest alkane after methane. However, it's important to note that ethane is not a medical term or concept; it's a basic chemistry term.
Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.
The act of BREATHING in.
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.
Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Elective haemodialysis increases exhaled isoprene. (1/562)

BACKGROUND: Uraemic odour is a characteristic feature of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, few investigations have been carried out into the composition of exhaled air in ESRD patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD). Increases of exhaled isoprene levels by a factor of up to 2.7 following HD have been reported. METHODS: We attempted to confirm these findings in 50 patients undergoing HD using haemophan (n=23) or polysulphone (n=27) dialysis membranes. Parallel evaluation of ambient air, calorie intake, medication and haemodynamic variables was performed. Samples were analysed using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). RESULTS: Significant changes in breath isoprene concentration were observed when comparing patients before [39.14+/-14.96 parts per billion (ppbv)] and after (63.54+/-27.59 ppbv) dialysis (P<0.001). The quotient of values before and after dialysis was 1.84 (SD 1.41). No significant differences in isoprene kinetics were found between the use of haemophan and polysulphone membranes. No significant correlations were observed between isoprene quotients and variations in blood pressure during HD, calorie intake, ingestion of lipid-lowering drugs or serum lipid levels. CONCLUSIONS: Isoprene concentration was higher in the exhaled air of patients after HD as compared with values before HD. Large interindividual variability existed in isoprene kinetics. Oxidative stress appears to be an unlikely cause for this rise. An alternative hypothesis is an influence of respiratory variables on isoprene exhalation based upon Henry's law constant. We therefore propose to perform online monitoring of isoprene exhalation by PTR-MS during the HD session to investigate the possible influence of respiratory variables.  (+info)

Upper airway extraluminal tissue pressure fluctuations during breathing in rabbits. (2/562)

Transmural pressure at any level in the upper airway is dependent on the difference between intraluminal airway and extraluminal tissue pressure (ETP). We hypothesized that ETP would be influenced by topography, head and neck position, resistive loading, and stimulated breathing. Twenty-eight male, New Zealand White, anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits breathed via a face mask with attached pneumotachograph to measure airflow and pressure transducer to monitor mask pressure. Tidal volume was measured via integration of the airflow signal. ETP was measured with a pressure transducer-tipped catheter inserted in the tissues of the lateral (ETPlat, n = 28) and anterior (ETPant, n = 21) pharyngeal wall. Head position was controlled at 30, 50, or 70 degrees, and the effect of addition of an external resistor, brief occlusion, or stimulated breathing was examined. Mean ETPlat was approximately 0.7 cmH2O greater than mean ETPant when adjusted for degree of head and neck flexion (P < 0.05). Mean, maximum, and minimum ETP values increased significantly by 0.7-0.8 cmH2O/20 degrees of head and neck flexion when adjusted for site of measurement (P < 0.0001). The main effect of resistive loading and occlusion was an increase in the change in ETPlat (maximum - minimum ETPlat) and change in ETPant at all head and neck positions (P < 0.05). Mean ETPlat and ETPant increased with increasing tidal volume at head and neck position of 30 degrees (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, ETP was nonhomogeneously distributed around the upper airway and increased with both increasing head and neck flexion and increasing tidal volume. Brief airway occlusion increased the size of respiratory-related ETP fluctuations in upper airway ETP.  (+info)

Purinergic signalling in the medullary mechanisms of respiratory control in the rat: respiratory neurones express the P2X2 receptor subunit. (3/562)

ATP is involved in central respiratory control and may mediate changes in the activity of medullary respiratory neurones during hypercapnia, thus playing an important role in central chemoreception. The main objective of this study was to explore further the role of ATP-mediated signalling in respiratory control and central chemoreception by characterising the profile of the P2X receptors expressed by physiologically identified respiratory neurones. In particular we determined whether respiratory neurones in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (VLM) express P2X2 receptor subunits of the ATP-gated ion channel, since ATP currents evoked at recombinant P2X2 receptors are potentiated by lowering extracellular pH. Experiments were performed on anaesthetised (pentobarbitone sodium 60 mg kg-1 I.P., then 10 mg kg-1 I.V. as required), gallamine-triethiodide-treated (10 mg kg-1 I.V., then 2-4 mg kg-1 h-1 I.V.) and artificially ventilated rats. The VLM respiratory neurones were classified according to the timing of their discharge pattern in relation to that of the phrenic nerve and by the exclusion of pump cells from the study population; these were labelled with Neurobiotin using the juxtacellular method, and visualised with fluorescence microscopy. It was found that a substantial proportion of the VLM respiratory neurones express the P2X2 receptor subunit. P2X2 receptor subunit immunoreactivity was detected in approximately 50 % (six out of 12) of expiratory neurones and in approximately 20 % (two out of 11) of neurones with inspiratory-related discharge (pre-inspiratory and inspiratory). In contrast, no Neurobiotin-labelled VLM respiratory neurones (n = 19) were detectably immunoreactive for the P2X1 receptor subunit. Microionophoretic application of ATP (0.2 M, 20-80 nA for 40 s) increased the activity of approximately 80 % (13 out of 16) of expiratory neurones and of approximately 30 % (five out of 18) of VLM neurones with inspiratory-related discharge. These effects were abolished by the P2 receptor blocker suramin (0.02 M, 80 nA), which also reduced the baseline firing in some expiratory neurones. These data indicate that modulation of P2X2 receptor function, such as that evoked by acidification of the extracellular environment during hypercapnia, may contribute to the changes in activity of the VLM respiratory neurones that express these receptors.  (+info)

Resting discharge of human muscle spindles is not modulated by increases in sympathetic drive. (4/562)

There is evidence in experimental animals that, in addition to receiving fusimotor drive, muscle spindles are subject to modulation by the sympathetic nervous system. We examined the validity of this idea in human subjects by recording from muscle spindles in the relaxed ankle and toe extensor muscles during a strong and sustained physiological activation of muscle sympathetic outflow. Unitary recordings were made from 20 primary and 17 secondary muscle spindle afferents via a tungsten microelectrode inserted percutaneously into the peroneal nerve in 10 awake, healthy subjects seated with the legs supported in the extended position. ECG, blood pressure, respiration and calf circumference were also recorded. The majority of the muscle spindles were spontaneously active at rest; a background discharge was induced in four silent spindles by vibrating the tendon. A sustained increase in muscle vasoconstrictor activity, an increase in calf volume and a fall in pulse pressure were produced by subjects performing a 30-40 s maximal inspiratory breath-hold. Despite this strong increase in muscle sympathetic outflow no significant changes occurred in the discharge of either primary or secondary muscle spindle afferents, measured as a change in mean frequency and variability over sequential 5 s epochs and compared with the preceding period of rest. Strong chemoreceptor-driven sympathetic bursts during sustained expiratory breath-holds also failed to modulate the firing of 14 spindle endings. We conclude that a sustained, physiological increase in muscle sympathetic activity causes no detectable change in muscle spindle firing, lending no support to the concept that the sympathetic nervous system can influence the sensitivity of human muscle spindles directly.  (+info)

Assessment of nasal and sinus nitric oxide output using single-breath humming exhalations. (5/562)

Nasal nitric oxide (NO) levels increase greatly during humming compared to silent exhalation. In this study, the physiological and anatomical factors that regulate NO release during humming have been characterised in 10 healthy subjects and in a model of the sinus and the nose. Single-breath humming caused a large initial peak in nasal NO output, followed by a progressive decline. The NO peak decreased in a step-wise manner during repeated consecutive humming manoeuvres but recovered completely after a silent period of 3 min. Topical nasal application of an NO synthase inhibitor reduced nasal NO by >50% but had no effect on the increase evoked by humming. Silently exhaled nasal NO measured immediately after repeated humming manoeuvres was between 5-50% lower than basal silent NO exhalation, suggesting variable continuous contribution from the sinuses to nasal NO. Among the factors known to influence normal sinus ventilation, ostium size was the most critical during humming, but humming frequency was also of importance. In conclusion, humming results in a large increase in nasal nitric oxide, which is caused by a rapid gas exchange in the paranasal sinuses. Combined nasal nitric oxide measurement with and without humming could be of use to estimate sinus ventilation and to better separate nasal mucosal nitric oxide output from sinus nitric oxide in health and disease.  (+info)

Sputum induction leads to a decrease of exhaled nitric oxide unrelated to airflow. (6/562)

Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and analysis of induced sputum are both established noninvasive methods for studying airway inflammation in asthma. Both methods are often used sequentially within short time frames. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of sputum induction on eNO in adults and to follow the kinetics of airway eNO production after induction in relation to forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). eNO and FEV1 were measured in 41 adult patients (aged 29 (range 23-50) yrs, 56% male) with asymptomatic atopy or mild asthma (mean FEV1 97.2+/-3% predicted) prior to and immediately after sputum induction with hypertonic saline (4%). Sputum induction with isotonic saline was also performed in 13 subjects (control group). Repeatability of eNO decrease after sputum induction was also studied in 27 patients on separate occasions and kinetics of eNO production after sputum induction were followed over 24 h in another 10 patients. Sputum induction with hypertonic, but not isotonic, saline led to a marked decrease in eNO (log) immediately after the procedure (pre: 3.85+/-0.13 parts per billion (ppb); post: 3.24+/-0.14 ppb). This decrease was shown to be highly reproducible and not related to a fall in FEV1 following sputum induction. While FEV1 returned to baseline within 1 h, decreased eNO levels were observed over 4 h and returned to baseline after 24 h. Hypertonic saline sputum induction leads to a prolonged reduction in exhaled nitric oxide in adult atopics that is reproducible within subjects and not related to a reduction in airflow following sputum induction. This methodological interference should be taken into account when sputum induction and exhaled nitric oxide measurements are performed in the same subject.  (+info)

Spinal stiffness changes throughout the respiratory cycle. (7/562)

Posteroanterior stiffness of the lumbar spine is influenced by factors, including trunk muscle activity and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). Because these factors vary with breathing, this study investigated whether stiffness is modulated in a cyclical manner with respiration. A further aim was to investigate the relationship between stiffness and IAP or abdominal and paraspinal muscle activity. Stiffness was measured from force-displacement responses of a posteroanterior force applied over the spinous process of L2 and L4. Recordings were made of IAP and electromyographic activity from L4/L2 erector spinae, abdominal muscles, and chest wall. Stiffness was measured with the lung volume held at the extremes of tidal volume and at greater and lesser volumes. Stiffness at L4 and L2 increased above base-level values at functional residual capacity (L2 14.9 N/mm and L4 15.3 N/mm) with both inspiratory and expiratory efforts. The increase was related to the respiratory effort and was greatest during maximum expiration (L2 24.9 N/mm and L4 23.9 N/mm). The results indicate that changes in trunk muscle activity and IAP with respiratory efforts modulate spinal stiffness. In addition, the diaphragm may augment spinal stiffness via attachment of its crural fibers to the lumbar vertebrae.  (+info)

Respiratory muscle strength training with nonrespiratory maneuvers. (8/562)

The diaphragm and abdominal muscles can be recruited during nonrespiratory maneuvers. With these maneuvers, transdiaphragmatic pressures are elevated to levels that could potentially provide a strength-training stimulus. To determine whether repeated forceful nonrespiratory maneuvers strengthen the diaphragm, four healthy subjects performed sit-ups and biceps curls 3-4 days/wk for 16 wk and four subjects served as controls. The maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure was measured at baseline and after 16 wk of training. Maximum static inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures and diaphragm thickness derived from ultrasound were measured at baseline and 8 and 16 wk. After training, there were significant increases in diaphragm thickness [2.5 +/- 0.1 to 3.2 +/- 0.1 mm (mean +/- SD) (P < 0.001)], maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure [198 +/- 21 to 256 +/- 23 cmH2O (P < 0.02)], maximum static inspiratory pressure [134 +/- 22 to 171 +/- 16 cmH2O (P < 0.002)], maximum static expiratory pressure [195 +/- 20 to 267 +/- 40 cmH2O (P < 0.002)], and maximum gastric pressure [161 +/- 5 to 212 +/- 40 cmH2O (P < 0.03)]. These parameters were unchanged in the control group. We conclude that nonrespiratory maneuvers can strengthen the inspiratory and expiratory muscles in healthy individuals. Because diaphragm thickness increased with training, the increase in maximal pressures is unlikely due to a learning effect.  (+info)

Exhalation is the act of breathing out or exhaling, which is the reverse process of inhalation. During exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes and moves upwards, while the chest muscles also relax, causing the chest cavity to decrease in size. This decrease in size puts pressure on the lungs, causing them to deflate and expel air.

Exhalation is a passive process that occurs naturally after inhalation, but it can also be actively controlled during activities such as speaking, singing, or playing a wind instrument. In medical terms, exhalation may also be referred to as expiration.

A breath test is a medical or forensic procedure used to analyze a sample of exhaled breath in order to detect and measure the presence of various substances, most commonly alcohol. The test is typically conducted using a device called a breathalyzer, which measures the amount of alcohol in the breath and converts it into a reading of blood alcohol concentration (BAC).

In addition to alcohol, breath tests can also be used to detect other substances such as drugs or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may indicate certain medical conditions. However, these types of breath tests are less common and may not be as reliable or accurate as other diagnostic tests.

Breath testing is commonly used by law enforcement officers to determine whether a driver is impaired by alcohol and to establish probable cause for arrest. It is also used in some healthcare settings to monitor patients who are being treated for alcohol abuse or dependence.

Ethane is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is part of the human environment. Ethane is a hydrocarbon, which means it contains only hydrogen and carbon atoms. Specifically, ethane is made up of two carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms (C2H6). It is a colorless gas at room temperature and has no smell or taste.

In the context of human health, ethane is not considered to be harmful in small amounts. However, exposure to high levels of ethane can cause respiratory irritation and other symptoms. Ethane is also a greenhouse gas, which means that it contributes to global warming when released into the atmosphere.

Ethane is produced naturally during the breakdown of organic matter, such as plants and animals. It is also produced in small amounts during the digestion of food in the human body. However, most ethane used in industry is extracted from natural gas and petroleum deposits. Ethane is used as a fuel and as a raw material in the production of plastics and other chemicals.

Respiratory Protective Devices (RPDs) are personal protective equipment items designed to protect the user from inhalation of hazardous substances or harmful levels of airborne contaminants in the environment. These devices create a physical barrier between the user's respiratory system and the surrounding air, filtering out or purifying the air before it is breathed in.

RPDs can be categorized into two main types:

1. **Air-purifying Respirators (APRs):** These devices use filters, cartridges, or canisters to remove contaminants from the surrounding air. They are further divided into several subcategories, including filtering facepiece respirators, half-mask elastomeric respirators, full-facepiece elastomeric respirators, and powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs).
2. **Supplied-Air Respirators (SARs):** These devices deliver clean breathing air from an external source, either through a compressor or compressed air cylinder. They are further divided into two subcategories: self-contained breathing apparatuses (SCBAs) and supplied-air respirators with escape provisions.

The choice of RPD depends on the nature and concentration of the airborne contaminants, the user's physiological and psychological capabilities, and the work environment. Proper selection, fitting, use, maintenance, and training are crucial to ensure the effectiveness and safety of Respiratory Protective Devices.

Inhalation is the act or process of breathing in where air or other gases are drawn into the lungs. It's also known as inspiration. This process involves several muscles, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles between the ribs, working together to expand the chest cavity and decrease the pressure within the thorax, which then causes air to flow into the lungs.

In a medical context, inhalation can also refer to the administration of medications or therapeutic gases through the respiratory tract, typically using an inhaler or nebulizer. This route of administration allows for direct delivery of the medication to the lungs, where it can be quickly absorbed into the bloodstream and exert its effects.

Radioactive soil pollutants refer to radioactive substances that contaminate and negatively impact the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil. These pollutants can arise from various sources such as nuclear accidents, industrial activities, agricultural practices, and military testing. They include radionuclides such as uranium, plutonium, cesium-137, and strontium-90, among others.

Exposure to radioactive soil pollutants can have serious health consequences for humans and other living organisms. Direct contact with contaminated soil can result in radiation exposure, while ingestion or inhalation of contaminated soil particles can lead to internal radiation exposure. This can increase the risk of cancer, genetic mutations, and other health problems.

Radioactive soil pollutants can also have negative impacts on the environment, such as reducing soil fertility, disrupting ecosystems, and contaminating water sources. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and regulate radioactive soil pollution to protect human health and the environment.

In a medical context, masks are typically used as personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect the wearer from inhaling airborne particles and contaminants. They can also help prevent the spread of respiratory droplets from the wearer to others, which is particularly important in clinical settings where patients may have infectious diseases.

There are several types of masks used in medical settings, including:

1. Medical Masks: These are loose-fitting, disposable masks that create a physical barrier between the mouth and nose of the wearer and potential contaminants in the immediate environment. They are commonly used by healthcare professionals during medical procedures to protect themselves and patients from respiratory droplets and aerosols.
2. N95 Respirators: These are tight-fitting masks that can filter out both large droplets and small aerosol particles, including those containing viruses. They offer a higher level of protection than medical masks and are recommended for use in healthcare settings where there is a risk of exposure to airborne contaminants, such as during certain medical procedures or when caring for patients with infectious diseases like tuberculosis or COVID-19.
3. Surgical N95 Respirators: These are a specialized type of N95 respirator designed for use in surgical settings. They have a clear plastic window that allows the wearer's mouth and nose to be visible, which is useful during surgery where clear communication and identification of the wearer's facial features are important.
4. Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs): These are motorized masks that use a fan to draw air through a filter, providing a continuous supply of clean air to the wearer. They offer a high level of protection and are often used in healthcare settings where there is a risk of exposure to highly infectious diseases or hazardous substances.

It's important to note that masks should be used in conjunction with other infection prevention measures, such as hand hygiene and social distancing, to provide the best possible protection against respiratory illnesses.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

Respiratory mechanics refers to the biomechanical properties and processes that involve the movement of air through the respiratory system during breathing. It encompasses the mechanical behavior of the lungs, chest wall, and the muscles of respiration, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

Respiratory mechanics includes several key components:

1. **Compliance**: The ability of the lungs and chest wall to expand and recoil during breathing. High compliance means that the structures can easily expand and recoil, while low compliance indicates greater resistance to expansion and recoil.
2. **Resistance**: The opposition to airflow within the respiratory system, primarily due to the friction between the air and the airway walls. Airway resistance is influenced by factors such as airway diameter, length, and the viscosity of the air.
3. **Lung volumes and capacities**: These are the amounts of air present in the lungs during different phases of the breathing cycle. They include tidal volume (the amount of air inspired or expired during normal breathing), inspiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be inspired beyond the tidal volume), expiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be exhaled beyond the tidal volume), and residual volume (the air remaining in the lungs after a forced maximum exhalation).
4. **Work of breathing**: The energy required to overcome the resistance and elastic forces during breathing. This work is primarily performed by the respiratory muscles, which contract to generate negative intrathoracic pressure and expand the chest wall, allowing air to flow into the lungs.
5. **Pressure-volume relationships**: These describe how changes in lung volume are associated with changes in pressure within the respiratory system. Important pressure components include alveolar pressure (the pressure inside the alveoli), pleural pressure (the pressure between the lungs and the chest wall), and transpulmonary pressure (the difference between alveolar and pleural pressures).

Understanding respiratory mechanics is crucial for diagnosing and managing various respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

In medical terms, "ether" is an outdated term that was used to refer to a group of compounds known as diethyl ethers. The most common member of this group, and the one most frequently referred to as "ether," is diethyl ether, also known as sulfuric ether or simply ether.

Diethyl ether is a highly volatile, flammable liquid that was once widely used as an anesthetic agent in surgical procedures. It has a characteristic odor and produces a state of unconsciousness when inhaled, allowing patients to undergo surgery without experiencing pain. However, due to its numerous side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and respiratory depression, as well as the risk of explosion or fire during use, it has largely been replaced by safer and more effective anesthetic agents.

It's worth noting that "ether" also has other meanings in different contexts, including a term used to describe a substance that produces a feeling of detachment from reality or a sense of unreality, as well as a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of an ether group (-O-, a functional group consisting of an oxygen atom bonded to two alkyl or aryl groups).

Work of breathing (WOB) is a term used in respiratory physiology to describe the amount of energy expended by the respiratory muscles to overcome the elastic and resistive forces in the lungs and chest wall during breathing. It is usually measured in joules per liter (J/L) or in breaths per minute (BPM).

WOB can be increased in various lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and interstitial lung disease, due to increased airway resistance or decreased lung compliance. Increased WOB can lead to respiratory muscle fatigue, decreased exercise tolerance, and reduced quality of life.

WOB can be measured noninvasively using techniques such as esophageal pressure monitoring or transdiaphragmatic pressure measurement, or invasively through the use of indwelling catheters in the pleural space or within the airways. These measurements are often used in research settings to evaluate the effectiveness of various treatments for respiratory disorders.

Radioactive air pollutants refer to radioactive particles or gases that are present in the atmosphere and can have harmful effects on human health and the environment. These pollutants can originate from a variety of sources, including nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons testing, industrial processes, and natural events such as volcanic eruptions.

Radioactive air pollutants emit ionizing radiation, which has the ability to damage living tissue and DNA. Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation can increase the risk of cancer, genetic mutations, and other health problems. Even low levels of exposure over a long period of time can have harmful effects on human health.

Some common radioactive air pollutants include radon gas, which is produced by the decay of uranium in soil and rocks and can seep into buildings through cracks in the foundation; and cesium-137 and iodine-131, which were released into the atmosphere during nuclear weapons testing and accidents at nuclear power plants.

Efforts to reduce radioactive air pollution include stricter regulations on nuclear power plants and other industrial sources of radiation, as well as efforts to reduce emissions from nuclear weapons testing and cleanup of contaminated sites.

Mechanical Ventilators are medical devices that assist with breathing by providing mechanical ventilation to patients who are unable to breathe sufficiently on their own. These machines deliver breaths to the patient through an endotracheal tube or a tracheostomy tube, which is placed in the windpipe (trachea). Mechanical Ventilators can be set to deliver breaths at specific rates and volumes, and they can also be adjusted to provide varying levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to help keep the alveoli open and improve oxygenation.

Mechanical ventilation is typically used in critical care settings such as intensive care units (ICUs), and it may be employed for a variety of reasons, including respiratory failure, sedation, neuromuscular disorders, or surgery. Prolonged use of mechanical ventilation can lead to complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia, muscle weakness, and decreased cardiac function, so the goal is usually to wean patients off the ventilator as soon as possible.

Acetone is a colorless, volatile, and flammable liquid organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2CO. It is the simplest and smallest ketone, and its molecules consist of a carbonyl group linked to two methyl groups. Acetone occurs naturally in the human body and is produced as a byproduct of normal metabolic processes, particularly during fat burning.

In clinical settings, acetone can be measured in breath or blood to assess metabolic status, such as in cases of diabetic ketoacidosis, where an excess production of acetone and other ketones occurs due to insulin deficiency and high levels of fatty acid breakdown. High concentrations of acetone can lead to a sweet, fruity odor on the breath, often described as "fruity acetone" or "acetone breath."

The nasal cavity is the air-filled space located behind the nose, which is divided into two halves by the nasal septum. It is lined with mucous membrane and is responsible for several functions including respiration, filtration, humidification, and olfaction (smell). The nasal cavity serves as an important part of the upper respiratory tract, extending from the nares (nostrils) to the choanae (posterior openings of the nasal cavity that lead into the pharynx). It contains specialized structures such as turbinate bones, which help to warm, humidify and filter incoming air.

Airway resistance is a measure of the opposition to airflow during breathing, which is caused by the friction between the air and the walls of the respiratory tract. It is an important parameter in respiratory physiology because it can affect the work of breathing and gas exchange.

Airway resistance is usually expressed in units of cm H2O/L/s or Pa·s/m, and it can be measured during spontaneous breathing or during forced expiratory maneuvers, such as those used in pulmonary function testing. Increased airway resistance can result from a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, and bronchiectasis. Decreased airway resistance can be seen in conditions such as emphysema or after a successful bronchodilator treatment.

Respiratory dead space is the portion of each tidal volume (the amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs during normal breathing) that does not participate in gas exchange. It mainly consists of the anatomical dead space, which includes the conducting airways such as the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles, where no alveoli are present for gas exchange to occur.

Additionally, alveolar dead space can also contribute to respiratory dead space when alveoli are perfused inadequately or not at all due to conditions like pulmonary embolism, lung consolidation, or impaired circulation. In these cases, even though air reaches the alveoli, insufficient blood flow prevents efficient gas exchange from taking place.

The sum of anatomical and alveolar dead space is referred to as physiological dead space. An increased respiratory dead space can lead to ventilation-perfusion mismatch and impaired oxygenation, making it a critical parameter in assessing respiratory function, particularly during mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pentanes" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to a group of five-carbon alkane hydrocarbons, including n-pentane and iso-pentane. These substances can be used in medical settings as anesthetics or for medical research, but "Pentanes" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Pulmonary gas exchange is the process by which oxygen (O2) from inhaled air is transferred to the blood, and carbon dioxide (CO2), a waste product of metabolism, is removed from the blood and exhaled. This process occurs in the lungs, primarily in the alveoli, where the thin walls of the alveoli and capillaries allow for the rapid diffusion of gases between them. The partial pressure gradient between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries drives this diffusion process. Oxygen-rich blood is then transported to the body's tissues, while CO2-rich blood returns to the lungs to be exhaled.

Siloxanes are a group of synthetic compounds that contain repeating units of silicon-oxygen-silicon (Si-O-Si) bonds, often combined with organic groups such as methyl or ethyl groups. They are widely used in various industrial and consumer products due to their unique properties, including thermal stability, low surface tension, and resistance to water and heat.

In medical terms, siloxanes have been studied for their potential use in medical devices and therapies. For example, some siloxane-based materials have been developed for use as coatings on medical implants, such as catheters and stents, due to their ability to reduce friction and prevent bacterial adhesion.

However, it's worth noting that exposure to high levels of certain types of siloxanes has been linked to potential health effects, including respiratory irritation and reproductive toxicity. Therefore, appropriate safety measures should be taken when handling these compounds in a medical or industrial setting.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Pulmonary diffusing capacity, also known as pulmonary diffusion capacity, is a measure of the ability of the lungs to transfer gas from the alveoli to the bloodstream. It is often used to assess the severity of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary fibrosis.

The most common measurement of pulmonary diffusing capacity is the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), which reflects the transfer of carbon monoxide from the alveoli to the red blood cells in the capillaries. The DLCO is measured during a spirometry test, which involves breathing in a small amount of carbon monoxide and then measuring how much of it is exhaled.

A reduced DLCO may indicate a problem with the lung's ability to transfer oxygen to the blood, which can be caused by a variety of factors including damage to the alveoli or capillaries, thickening of the alveolar membrane, or a decrease in the surface area available for gas exchange.

It is important to note that other factors such as hemoglobin concentration, carboxyhemoglobin level, and lung volume can also affect the DLCO value, so these should be taken into account when interpreting the results of a diffusing capacity test.

Spirometry is a common type of pulmonary function test (PFT) that measures how well your lungs work. This is done by measuring how much air you can exhale from your lungs after taking a deep breath, and how quickly you can exhale it. The results are compared to normal values for your age, height, sex, and ethnicity.

Spirometry is used to diagnose and monitor certain lung conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory diseases that cause narrowing of the airways. It can also be used to assess the effectiveness of treatment for these conditions. The test is non-invasive, safe, and easy to perform.

Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule made up of one nitrogen atom and one oxygen atom. In the body, it is a crucial signaling molecule involved in various physiological processes such as vasodilation, immune response, neurotransmission, and inhibition of platelet aggregation. It is produced naturally by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from the amino acid L-arginine. Inhaled nitric oxide is used medically to treat pulmonary hypertension in newborns and adults, as it helps to relax and widen blood vessels, improving oxygenation and blood flow.

Respiratory physiological phenomena refer to the various mechanical, chemical, and biological processes and functions that occur in the respiratory system during breathing and gas exchange. These phenomena include:

1. Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs, which is achieved through the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
2. Gas Exchange: The diffusion of oxygen (O2) from the alveoli into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the bloodstream into the alveoli.
3. Respiratory Mechanics: The physical properties and forces that affect the movement of air in and out of the lungs, such as lung compliance, airway resistance, and chest wall elasticity.
4. Control of Breathing: The regulation of ventilation by the central nervous system through the integration of sensory information from chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors in the respiratory system.
5. Acid-Base Balance: The maintenance of a stable pH level in the blood through the regulation of CO2 elimination and bicarbonate balance by the respiratory and renal systems.
6. Oxygen Transport: The binding of O2 to hemoglobin in the red blood cells and its delivery to the tissues for metabolic processes.
7. Defense Mechanisms: The various protective mechanisms that prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens and foreign particles into the respiratory system, such as mucociliary clearance, cough reflex, and immune responses.

Pulmonary alveoli, also known as air sacs, are tiny clusters of air-filled pouches located at the end of the bronchioles in the lungs. They play a crucial role in the process of gas exchange during respiration. The thin walls of the alveoli, called alveolar membranes, allow oxygen from inhaled air to pass into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide from the bloodstream to pass into the alveoli to be exhaled out of the body. This vital function enables the lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body and remove waste products like carbon dioxide.

Radiation monitoring is the systematic and continuous measurement, assessment, and tracking of ionizing radiation levels in the environment or within the body to ensure safety and to take appropriate actions when limits are exceeded. It involves the use of specialized instruments and techniques to detect and quantify different types of radiation, such as alpha, beta, gamma, neutron, and x-rays. The data collected from radiation monitoring is used to evaluate radiation exposure, contamination levels, and potential health risks for individuals or communities. This process is crucial in various fields, including nuclear energy production, medical imaging and treatment, radiation therapy, and environmental protection.

Helium is not a medical term, but it's a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2. It's a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas that heads the noble gases section of the periodic table. In medicine, helium is sometimes used in medical settings for its unique properties, such as being less dense than air, which can help improve the delivery of oxygen to patients with respiratory conditions. For example, heliox, a mixture of helium and oxygen, may be used to reduce the work of breathing in patients with conditions like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. Additionally, helium is also used in cryogenic medical equipment and in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines to cool the superconducting magnets.

Pulmonary ventilation, also known as pulmonary respiration or simply ventilation, is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange. It involves two main phases: inhalation (or inspiration) and exhalation (or expiration). During inhalation, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract, causing the chest volume to increase and the pressure inside the chest to decrease, which then draws air into the lungs. Conversely, during exhalation, these muscles relax, causing the chest volume to decrease and the pressure inside the chest to increase, which pushes air out of the lungs. This process ensures that oxygen-rich air from the atmosphere enters the alveoli (air sacs in the lungs), where it can diffuse into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide-rich air from the bloodstream in the capillaries surrounding the alveoli is expelled out of the body.

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

"Inhalation administration" is a medical term that refers to the method of delivering medications or therapeutic agents directly into the lungs by inhaling them through the airways. This route of administration is commonly used for treating respiratory conditions such as asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and cystic fibrosis.

Inhalation administration can be achieved using various devices, including metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs), nebulizers, and soft-mist inhalers. Each device has its unique mechanism of delivering the medication into the lungs, but they all aim to provide a high concentration of the drug directly to the site of action while minimizing systemic exposure and side effects.

The advantages of inhalation administration include rapid onset of action, increased local drug concentration, reduced systemic side effects, and improved patient compliance due to the ease of use and non-invasive nature of the delivery method. However, proper technique and device usage are crucial for effective therapy, as incorrect usage may result in suboptimal drug deposition and therapeutic outcomes.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

The Respiratory System is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to facilitate the process of breathing, which involves the intake of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. This system primarily includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm.

The nostrils or mouth take in air that travels through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea into the lungs. Within the lungs, the trachea divides into two bronchi, one for each lung, which further divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of these bronchioles are tiny air sacs known as alveoli where the exchange of gases occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled out of the body.

The diaphragm, a large muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, plays a crucial role in breathing by contracting and relaxing to change the volume of the chest cavity, thereby allowing air to flow in and out of the lungs. Overall, the Respiratory System is essential for maintaining life by providing the body's cells with the oxygen needed for metabolism and removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

Skin absorption, also known as percutaneous absorption, refers to the process by which substances are taken up by the skin and pass into the systemic circulation. This occurs when a substance is applied topically to the skin and penetrates through the various layers of the epidermis and dermis until it reaches the capillaries, where it can be transported to other parts of the body.

The rate and extent of skin absorption depend on several factors, including the physicochemical properties of the substance (such as its molecular weight, lipophilicity, and charge), the concentration and formulation of the product, the site of application, and the integrity and condition of the skin.

Skin absorption is an important route of exposure for many chemicals, drugs, and cosmetic ingredients, and it can have both therapeutic and toxicological consequences. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms and factors that influence skin absorption is crucial for assessing the safety and efficacy of topical products and for developing strategies to enhance or reduce their absorption as needed.

Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV) is a medical term used to describe the volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled from the lungs in one second. It is often measured during pulmonary function testing to assess lung function and diagnose conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

FEV is typically expressed as a percentage of the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), which is the total volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after taking a deep breath in. The ratio of FEV to FVC is used to determine whether there is obstruction in the airways, with a lower ratio indicating more severe obstruction.

There are different types of FEV measurements, including FEV1 (the volume of air exhaled in one second), FEV25-75 (the average volume of air exhaled during the middle 50% of the FVC maneuver), and FEV0.5 (the volume of air exhaled in half a second). These measurements can provide additional information about lung function and help guide treatment decisions.

Volatilization, in the context of pharmacology and medicine, refers to the process by which a substance (usually a medication or drug) transforms into a vapor state at room temperature or upon heating. This change in physical state allows the substance to evaporate and be transferred into the air, potentially leading to inhalation exposure.

In some medical applications, volatilization is used intentionally, such as with essential oils for aromatherapy or topical treatments that utilize a vapor action. However, it can also pose concerns when volatile substances are unintentionally released into the air, potentially leading to indoor air quality issues or exposure risks.

It's important to note that in clinical settings, volatilization is not typically used as a route of administration for medications, as other methods such as oral, intravenous, or inhalation via nebulizers are more common and controlled.

Vital capacity (VC) is a term used in pulmonary function tests to describe the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled after taking a deep breath. It is the sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume. In other words, it's the total amount of air you can forcibly exhale after inhaling as deeply as possible. Vital capacity is an important measurement in assessing lung function and can be reduced in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other respiratory disorders.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Nebulizer: A nebulizer is a medical device that delivers medication in the form of a mist to the respiratory system. It is often used for people who have difficulty inhaling medication through traditional inhalers, such as young children or individuals with severe respiratory conditions. The medication is placed in the nebulizer cup and then converted into a fine mist by the machine. This allows the user to breathe in the medication directly through a mouthpiece or mask.

Vaporizer: A vaporizer, on the other hand, is a device that heats up a liquid, often water or essential oils, to produce steam or vapor. While some people use vaporizers for therapeutic purposes, such as to help relieve congestion or cough, it is important to note that vaporizers are not considered medical devices and their effectiveness for these purposes is not well-established.

It's worth noting that nebulizers and vaporizers are different from each other in terms of their purpose and usage. Nebulizers are used specifically for delivering medication, while vaporizers are used to produce steam or vapor, often for non-medical purposes.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Positive-pressure respiration is a type of mechanical ventilation where positive pressure is applied to the airway and lungs, causing them to expand and inflate. This can be used to support or replace spontaneous breathing in patients who are unable to breathe effectively on their own due to conditions such as respiratory failure, neuromuscular disorders, or sedation for surgery.

During positive-pressure ventilation, a mechanical ventilator delivers breaths to the patient through an endotracheal tube or a tracheostomy tube. The ventilator is set to deliver a specific volume or pressure of air with each breath, and the patient's breathing is synchronized with the ventilator to ensure proper delivery of the breaths.

Positive-pressure ventilation can help improve oxygenation and remove carbon dioxide from the lungs, but it can also have potential complications such as barotrauma (injury to lung tissue due to excessive pressure), volutrauma (injury due to overdistention of the lungs), hemodynamic compromise (decreased blood pressure and cardiac output), and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Therefore, careful monitoring and adjustment of ventilator settings are essential to minimize these risks and provide safe and effective respiratory support.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. It is toxic to hemoglobic animals when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm. This compound is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter, and is a major component of automobile exhaust.

Carbon monoxide is poisonous because it binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells much more strongly than oxygen does, forming carboxyhemoglobin. This prevents the transport of oxygen throughout the body, which can lead to suffocation and death. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and disorientation. Prolonged exposure can lead to unconsciousness and death.

Carbon monoxide detectors are commonly used in homes and other buildings to alert occupants to the presence of this dangerous gas. It is important to ensure that these devices are functioning properly and that they are placed in appropriate locations throughout the building. Additionally, it is essential to maintain appliances and heating systems to prevent the release of carbon monoxide into living spaces.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The airway obstruction in asthma is usually reversible, either spontaneously or with treatment.

The underlying cause of asthma involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in hypersensitivity of the airways to certain triggers, such as allergens, irritants, viruses, exercise, and emotional stress. When these triggers are encountered, the airways constrict due to smooth muscle spasm, swell due to inflammation, and produce excess mucus, leading to the characteristic symptoms of asthma.

Asthma is typically managed with a combination of medications that include bronchodilators to relax the airway muscles, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and leukotriene modifiers or mast cell stabilizers to prevent allergic reactions. Avoiding triggers and monitoring symptoms are also important components of asthma management.

There are several types of asthma, including allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma, exercise-induced asthma, occupational asthma, and nocturnal asthma, each with its own set of triggers and treatment approaches. Proper diagnosis and management of asthma can help prevent exacerbations, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Luminescent measurements refer to the quantitative assessment of the emission of light from a substance that has been excited, typically through some form of energy input such as electrical energy or radiation. In the context of medical diagnostics and research, luminescent measurements can be used in various applications, including bioluminescence imaging, which is used to study biological processes at the cellular and molecular level.

Bioluminescence occurs when a chemical reaction produces light within a living organism, often through the action of enzymes such as luciferase. By introducing a luciferase gene into cells or organisms, researchers can use bioluminescent measurements to track cellular processes and monitor gene expression in real time.

Luminescent measurements may also be used in medical research to study the properties of materials used in medical devices, such as LEDs or optical fibers, or to develop new diagnostic tools based on light-emitting nanoparticles or other luminescent materials.

In summary, luminescent measurements are a valuable tool in medical research and diagnostics, providing a non-invasive way to study biological processes and develop new technologies for disease detection and treatment.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

Artificial respiration is an emergency procedure that can be used to provide oxygen to a person who is not breathing or is breathing inadequately. It involves manually forcing air into the lungs, either by compressing the chest or using a device to deliver breaths. The goal of artificial respiration is to maintain adequate oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs until the person can breathe on their own or until advanced medical care arrives. Artificial respiration may be used in conjunction with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in cases of cardiac arrest.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Look up exhalation or expiration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Exhalation at the U.S. National Library of Medicine ... Exhalation (or expiration) is the flow of the breath out of an organism. In animals, it is the movement of air from the lungs ... RV is the amount of air left in the lungs after a forced exhalation. The average RV in men is 1200 ml and women 1100 ml. VC is ... Exhalation takes longer than inhalation and it is believed to facilitate better exchange of gases. Parts of the nervous system ...
... title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Exhalation By Ted Chiang - Publisher Penguin ... Exhalation: Stories is a collection of short stories by American writer Ted Chiang. The book was initially released on May 7, ... The stories in "Exhalation" are mostly not so magically inventive as those in Chiang's first collection, but each is still ... Exhalation: Stories contains nine stories exploring such issues as humankind's place in the universe, the nature of humanity, ...
... s (EDS) deliver medications to the internal nose. Developed in 2006, EDS devices use the patient's ... "Efficacy of fluticasone exhalation delivery system in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis: what is the evidence?". ...
Audio version of Exhalation read by Tom Dheere Audio podcast of the story published by Escape Pod. v t e (Articles with short ... "Exhalation" is a science fiction short story by American writer Ted Chiang, about the Second Law of Thermodynamics. It was ... "Exhalation" won the 2009 Hugo Award for Best Short Story. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific called it a "wonderful ... In 2019, the story was included in the collection of short stories Exhalation: Stories. The story is epistolary in nature, ...
Exhalation: Stories, 2019 "Anxiety Is the Dizziness of Freedom", Exhalation: Stories, 2019 "It's 2059, and the Rich Kids are ... "Exhalation by Ted Chiang". Penguin Random House. "The ED SF Project: "Frankenstein's Daughter" by Maureen McHugh: An ... "Exhalation". Lightspeed Magazine. April 29, 2014. Retrieved May 6, 2019. "Subterranean Press Fiction: The Lifecycle of Software ... "Exhalation" (2009); a Hugo Award and Locus Award for his novella "The Lifecycle of Software Objects" (2010); a Locus Award for ...
Výdech [Exhalation]. Brno: Host, 2020. Chiang, Ted. "Když se vám líbí, co vidíte: Dokument." In Příběhy vašeho života [Stories ...
"Exhalation: Stories". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved 20 May 2019. Johnson, Greg L. (2004). "Stories of Your Life and Others". SF ... Chiang's second collection, Exhalation: Stories was released in 2019. "Tower of Babylon" (originally published in Omni, ...
Neither during exhalation nor inhalation should one hear with one's ears the sound of the breathing, and one should make sure ... A wild goose feather may be placed in front of the nose and mouth, and during exhalation this should not show any movement. ... With internal breathing there is no exhalation through the nose or mouth, but all pores on the body are breathing. A person who ... inhalation and exhalation"). Generally speaking, the air was to be inhaled through the nose, retained as long as possible with ...
Exhalation is passive. Jet ventilators utilize various I:E ratios-between 1:1.1 and 1:12-to help achieve optimal exhalation. ... High-frequency ventilation (active) - HFV-A is notable for the active exhalation mechanic included. Active exhalation means a ... In HFJV exhalation is passive (depends on passive lung and chest-wall recoil) whereas in HFOV gas movement is caused by in-and- ... The types of HFV are characterized by the delivery system and the type of exhalation phase. High-frequency ventilation may be ...
Hummmm... is the sound of exhalation, and is remembered in the mind along with that exhalation. Soham is also considered a ... The teaching of Ham on inhalation and sa on exhalation is allegedly alluded to in a text of Kaśmir Śaivism, the Vijnana ... ISBN 978-81-85787-08-4. Listen carefully to your breath; you will hear the sound So with inhalation and Ham with exhalation. ... The Shiva Svarodaya scripture's verse 51 says, "The process of exhalation is said to contain the letter ham, and the inhalation ...
Sheehan, Jason (May 10, 2019). "Take A Breath And Dive Into 'Exhalation'". NPR. Retrieved 11 May 2021. "2020 Locus Awards ... Lohier, Patrick (October 4, 2019). "Exhalation by Ted Chiang". Harvard Review. Retrieved 11 May 2021. ... initially published in 2019 collection Exhalation: Stories. The novella's name quotes a proverb by Danish philosopher Søren ...
Counting after every exhalation. In the Sōtō school of Zen, counting breath (susoku) was considered by Dogen a holdover from ... In Rinzai Zen, the usual method is counting every exhalation up to ten and again from one, starting up again from one if losing ... The practitioner must fix the mind upon the inhalation and exhalation, without giving consideration to the state of his body or ... It focuses on drawing mental attention to breathing by counting numerically inhalation and exhalation. It is part of the six ...
During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided ... a controlled exhalation period (phonation); and a recovery period. These stages must be under conscious control by the singer ...
"An Exhalation of Disease" lyrics". SongLyrics. (Articles with topics of unclear notability from July 2022, All articles with ... An Exhalation of Disease. Swedish metal band Ghost (known as Ghost B.C. in the United States) in the leading single off their ...
The parvocellular nuclei regulate exhalation. The reticular formation is essential for governing some of the basic functions of ...
Parasympathetic influence increases during exhalation. Startle response interrupts and disengages the organism from ongoing ...
They may have exhalation valves. Full-face versions of elastomeric respirators seal better and protect the eyes. Fitting and ... It is possible to seal some unfiltered exhalation valves or to cover it with an additional surgical mask; this might be done ... Unfiltered-exhalation valves are sometimes found in both filtering facepiece and elastomeric respirators; PAPRs cannot by ... During the COVID-19 pandemic, masks with unfiltered-exhalation valves did not meet the requirements of some mandatory mask ...
Further exhalation requires muscular work. Inhalation is an active process requiring work. Some of this work is to overcome ... Exhalation flow rate is limited by effort independent turbulent flow. Once this occurs further attempts to increase flow rate ... In some cases the person may resort to coughing exhalation to try to increase flow. This effect can be delayed by using lower ... A higher gas density requires more effort to accelerate the gas in the transitions between inhalation and exhalation. To ...
Tlow - Time set for exhalation. iT - Inspiratory Time Chatburn RL, Volsko TA, Hazy J, Harris LN, Sanders S (2011). "Determining ... In some pressure controlled modes on ventilators with an active exhalation valve, spontaneous breaths may occur during ... Pressure applied to exhalation IPAP - Pressure applied to inhalation Phigh - Highest pressure attained, similar to Pip; this is ...
At the end of inspiration, the alveolar pressure returns to atmospheric pressure (zero cmH2O). During exhalation, the opposite ...
Minor changes to the exhalation valve. Hard plastic, integrated exhalation valve and speech diaphragm. This model has been ... Similar to the United States M9 gas mask, except for the changed exhalation valve, this licensed copy was the first of the ...
Externally, the elements of the body are balanced; internally, inhalation and exhalation are absent. One arrives at the meaning ...
... exhalation, steam, mist, fog; feverish heat, fever; warmth, anger, wrath ... Indian poultry industry yearbook, S. Gupta., 1994 ...
Long exhalation creates a relaxed pose. Making the temple of head and the upper lips relaxed helps keep a relaxed state. In ...
Alternatively people sometimes also count the exhalation: "1, 2, 3,...", on both the inhalation and exhalation. If the count is ... With internal breathing there is no exhalation through the nose or mouth, but all pores on the body are breathing. A person who ... Traditional anāpānasati teaches to observe inhalation and exhalation by focusing on the air coming in and out the nostrils, but ... The Ānāpānasati Sutta prescribes mindfulness of inhalation and exhalation as an element of mindfulness of the body, and ...
"Sati" means mindfulness; "ānāpāna" refers to inhalation and exhalation. Anapanasati means to feel the sensations caused by the ...
5. Slow exhalation is done and steps 1-4 are repeated if another dose of medication is required after waiting for a few minutes ... 6. Complete exhalation is done again. If multiple puffs of the medicine have to be taken, steps 1-5 are repeated after waiting ... 3. Once complete exhalation is done, mouth is placed over mouthpiece. 4. As inhalation begins, the canister is pressed down to ... 4. Breath is held for 5-10 seconds and then slow exhalation is done. 5. After waiting for a few minutes, steps 1-4 are repeated ...
"Orkan Telhan: 'The Museum of Exhalation'". Retrieved 2023-09-03. "Istanbul Design Biennial". Retrieved 2018-12 ...
It reopens automatically when exhalation decreases. Besides that, the hands-free HME enables easy removal in case of coughing, ...
Exhalation is usually silent, except at high respiratory rates. The respiratory centre in the medulla and pons of the brainstem ... The pattern of motor stimuli during breathing can be divided into an inhalation stage and an exhalation stage. Inhalation shows ... Coordinates speed of inhalation and exhalation Sends inhibitory impulses to the inspiratory area Involved in fine tuning of ... apneustic center Coordinates speed of inhalation and exhalation. Sends stimulatory impulses to the inspiratory area - activates ...
Look up exhalation or expiration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Exhalation at the U.S. National Library of Medicine ... Exhalation (or expiration) is the flow of the breath out of an organism. In animals, it is the movement of air from the lungs ... RV is the amount of air left in the lungs after a forced exhalation. The average RV in men is 1200 ml and women 1100 ml. VC is ... Exhalation takes longer than inhalation and it is believed to facilitate better exchange of gases. Parts of the nervous system ...
The Exhalation Valve Filter is designed to help filter the exhaled breath of the respirator wearer and provides source control ... Exhalation Valve Filter 604 is designed to mount on the valve cover of the 3M™ Reusable Respirator Half Facepiece 6000 Series. ... The 3M™ Exhalation Valve Filter 604 is designed to mount on the valve cover of the 3M™ Reusable Respirator Half Facepiece 6000 ... The 3M™ Exhalation Valve Filter 604 is designed to help filter the exhaled breath of the respirator wearer and provides source ...
Masks with exhalation valves do not slow the spread of the disease. Now, new videos from the National Institute of Standards ... Exhalation valves, which make masks easier to breathe through and more comfortable, are appropriate when the mask is meant to ... Why Masks With Exhalation Valves Dont Slow COVID-19 Spread. News Published: November 11, 2020 ... Reference: Staymates M. Flow visualization of an N95 respirator with and without an exhalation valve using schlieren imaging ...
Two new howardevansite-group minerals were discovered in the exhalations of fumaroles related to two volcanoes in Kamchatka, ... Two new howardevansite-group minerals were discovered in the exhalations of fumaroles related to two volcanoes in Kamchatka, ... two new howardevansite-group minerals from volcanic exhalations Igor V. Pekov; Igor V. Pekov * ... two new howardevansite-group minerals from volcanic exhalations. European Journal of Mineralogy 2014;; 26 (5): 667-677. doi: ...
Since the FRPD exhalation valves are very close to workers nose and mouth, they represent a source of exposure to bioburden by ... Since the FRPD exhalation valves are very close to workers nose and mouth, they represent a source of exposure to bioburden by ... Since the FRPD exhalation valves are very close to workers nose and mouth, they represent a source of exposure to bioburden by ... Since the FRPD exhalation valves are very close to workers{\textquoteright} nose and mouth, they represent a source of exposure ...
Exhalation tests. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) levels correlate with eosinophilic airway inflammation and are reduced by ... What is the role of exhalation tests in the workup of asthma? ...
Be the first to review "Exhalation: Stories" Cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a review. ... Exhalation: Stories gives readers plenty to think about. ...
Make your exhalation longer than your inhalation at times throughout your day. Take moments during your day, either with eyes ... By slowing down our exhalation we stop the stress loop of the sympathetic nervous system aka the fight or flight mode; helping ...
Exhalation tests. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) levels correlate with eosinophilic airway inflammation and are reduced by ... What is the role of exhalation tests in the workup of asthma? ...
Children Exhalation Valve helps reduce heat build-up inside the respirator. Welcome to contact us! ... Children Exhalation Valve, Respiratory Protection System Component. We will send the quotation to you within 24 hours.. All ... Exhalation Valve. Inhalation Valve, Silicone. Dust Mask Accessories. Non-woven. Contact Us ... What a exhalation valve can do on the respirators and face masks? ... Logos on Exhalation Valves or Breather Valves. *Surgical Face ...
ENAATMPT - Total number of exhalation attempts. Variable Name: ENAATMPT. SAS Label: Total number of exhalation attempts. ... If the reproducibility criteria were not met within the first two exhalations, a participant had 2 additional exhalations to ... exhalations that were either too strong or too weak, or any other reasons for failing to achieve a successful exhalation were ... Trial 1: Status of Exhalation Attempt Target: Both males and females 6 YEARS - 79 YEARS. Code or Value. Value Description. ...
Leave a review:8511 N95 Respirator with Cool Flow™ Exhalation Valve. Your Rating:. Quality. 1 star 2 stars 3 stars 4 stars 5 ... Fitted with a 3M™ Cool Flow™ Exhalation Valve, this respirator is ideally suited for work situations involving heat, humidity, ... MMM8511- 8511 N95 Particulate Respirator with Cool Flow Exhalation Valve SpecSheet -1707856041 ...
":"Exhalation by Jessica Roark","requires_shipping":true,"taxable":true,"featured_image":null,"available":true,"name":" ... "Exhalation by Jessica Roark - Landscape","public_title":null,"options":["Default Title"],"price":147500,"weight":0,"compare_at_ ...
But coming to Magic Exhalation, you dont just stop at those simple gifts. We will suggest unique 2 year anniversary gift as ... Therefore, whats special for 2 year anniversary gift at Magic Exhalation? We are proud to announce that we have the most unique ... Choose your mother or grandma a gift from Magic Exhalation. Show your love and appreciation with a thoughtful gift she is sure ...
Exhalation. Exhalation is generally a passive process, however active or forced exhalation is achieved by the abdominal and the ... During forced exhalation, as when blowing out a candle, expiratory muscles including the abdominal muscles and internal ... Exhalation follows, thereby ridding the body of the carbon dioxide and completing the cycle of respiration. ... ventilation (V) (positive pressure) - breath (inhalation, exhalation) -respiratory rate - respirometer - pulmonary surfactant ...
Exhalation. Ted Chiang Price: $18.00. Add to cart. * Neuromancer. William Gibson Price: $19.00. Add to cart ...
Tags: Exhalation, Hugo award winner, Knopf, Nebula award winner, sci-fi stories, Ted Chiang, Ted Chiang author tour, Ted Chiang ... "But arguably the most profound story is Exhalation (which won the 2009 Hugo Award for Best Short Story), a heart-rending ... Posted in Media Center, Not on Homepage , Comments Off on Exhalation by Ted Chiang ...
Exhalation Valve? No Self Rescuer? No Is the approval obsolete? No Private Label ...
This MM-VA18 exhalation valve can be welded to a dust mask and respirator using an ultrasonic machine. ... Prev Product :MM-VA17 Exhalation Valve Next Product :MM-VA1 Exhalation Valve ... This MM-VA18 exhalation valve can be welded to a dust mask and respirator using an ultrasonic machine, Can be used with ... Applications: this exhalation valve is suitable for all kinds of Dust Masks, also be called as breather valve, dust mask ...
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is elevated in asthma and reflects eosinophilic airway inflammation. The aim of this prospective, randomized, single-blind study was to examine whether the inclusion of repeated FeNO measurements into asthma monitoring leads to an improvement in asthma outcome. …
Exhalation: Stories, Ted Chiang (5/7) Ted Chiangs latest short story collection asks readers to reconsider how the world they ...
Position of exhalation port and mask design affect CO2 rebreathing during noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Crit Care ... When monitoring NIV using polygraphy, the mode of exhalation used and the position of the flow sensor (in relation to the ... Ventilatory modality, mode of triggering, pressurisation slope, use or not of PEEP and type of exhalation as well as ventilator ... Influence of type of exhalation device and connecting circuits. Whereas ICU ventilators classically use a double circuit with ...
CONTACT US Product Details Exhalation Valve is designed to release hot, humid exhaled breath quickly, helping prevent an ... FH-VC602 Exhalation Valve is designed to release hot, humid exhaled breath quickly, helping prevent an unpleasant build up of ... Dust Mask Exhalation ValveV-bank Sub-HEPA Air Filter FramePlastic Net Shell For Dust MaskOther Respirator AccessoriesReusable ... Dust Mask Exhalation ValveV-bank Sub-HEPA Air Filter FramePlastic Net Shell For Dust MaskOther Respirator AccessoriesReusable ...
Masks with exhalation valves or vents. *Masks made from either loosely woven fabric or materials that are hard to breath ...
Measurements of radon exhalation rate from fly ash samples collected from kolaghat thermal power plant West Bengal, India. ... 8.0 mBq m−2 h−1 whereas the radon mass exhalation rate varied from 2.1  0.2 to 3.6  0.3 mBq kg-1h-1. There seems a positive ... Radon activity was found to vary from 182.9  18.6 to 262.9  22.3 and the exhalation rate lies in the range 62.3  6.2 to 95 ... "Sealed Can technique" with LR-115 type II plastic track detector was used for the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the ...
... paying attention to the inhalation and exhalation process. By bringing complete awareness to the breath, individuals begin ... In the serene realm of meditation, the technique of Awareness of Inhalation and Exhalation serves as a vital gateway. Here, the ... By being fully present in the inhalation and exhalation, practitioners learn to silence the chatter of the mind, paving the way ... At its core, Awareness of Inhalation and Exhalation is an invitation to presence. In the gentle cadence of each breath, ...
In exhalation, the diaphragm moves upward and the chest wall muscles relax, causing the chest cavity to get smaller and push ...
  • The 3M™ Exhalation Valve Filter 604 is designed to mount on the valve cover of the 3M™ Reusable Respirator Half Facepiece 6000 Series. (
  • The Exhalation Valve Filter is designed to help filter the exhaled breath of the respirator wearer and provides source control when worn with the 3M 6000 Series Half Facepiece Reusable Respirator. (
  • Users should replace the Exhalation Valve Filter if damaged, if the filter media becomes soiled, or if breathing becomes difficult. (
  • Previous results regarding microbial contamination found on FRPD interior layer raised the question of whether microbial contamination from the exhalation valve would also have cytotoxicity effects. (
  • Exhalation Valve helps reduce heat build-up inside the respirator. (
  • Fitted with a 3M™ Cool Flow™ Exhalation Valve, this respirator is ideally suited for work situations involving heat, humidity, or long periods of wear. (
  • This MM-VA18 exhalation valve can be welded to a dust mask and respirator using an ultrasonic machine, Can be used with automatic mask machines. (
  • this exhalation valve is suitable for all kinds of Dust Masks, also be called as breather valve, dust mask breating valve. (
  • Exhalation has a complementary relationship to inhalation which together make up the respiratory cycle of a breath. (
  • Exhalation takes longer than inhalation and it is believed to facilitate better exchange of gases. (
  • It is during exhalation that the olfaction contribution to flavor occurs in contrast to that of ordinary smell which occurs during the inhalation phase. (
  • Since the FRPD exhalation valves are very close to workers' nose and mouth, they represent a source of exposure to bioburden by inhalation. (
  • The contamination present in the FRPD exhalation valves presented some cytotoxicity on epithelial lung cells, suggesting the inhalation route as a potential route of exposure through the use of FRPD in the waste-sorting industry. (
  • Make your exhalation longer than your inhalation at times throughout your day. (
  • In this Vigyan Bhairav Tantra technique, the practitioner observes the natural flow of breath, paying attention to the inhalation and exhalation process. (
  • Among these, the practice of 'Awareness of Inhalation and Exhalation' serves as a foundational pillar, guiding practitioners into the depths of meditation. (
  • In the serene realm of meditation, the technique of Awareness of Inhalation and Exhalation serves as a vital gateway. (
  • Here, the practitioner delves into the natural ebb and flow of breath, observing the inhalation and exhalation process with profound attention. (
  • The inhalation, symbolizing life's vitality, and the exhalation, representing release and renewal, mirror the cyclical nature of existence. (
  • At its core, Awareness of Inhalation and Exhalation is an invitation to presence. (
  • By being fully present in the inhalation and exhalation, practitioners learn to silence the chatter of the mind, paving the way for profound introspection. (
  • In the realm of meditation, the Vigyan Bhairav Tantra's techniques, especially the Awareness of Inhalation and Exhalation, offer a profound and transformative odyssey. (
  • Other tests require forced inhalation or exhalation after a deep breath. (
  • Exhalation should last three to four times as long as inhalation. (
  • However, masks with exhalation valves do not slow the spread of the disease, and now, new videos from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) show why. (
  • The videos, which show airflow patterns through masks with and without exhalation valves, were created by NIST research engineer Matthew Staymates. (
  • Exhalation valves, which make masks easier to breathe through and more comfortable, are appropriate when the mask is meant to protect the wearer. (
  • This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the microbial contamination present in the FRPD exhalation valves. (
  • Half-maximal (50%) inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were lower for FRPD interior layer than exhalation valves in lung cells, with overall cytotoxicity lower in exhalation valves when compared to interior layer (z = −4.455, p = 0.000). (
  • As the thoracic diaphragm relaxes during exhalation it causes the tissue it has depressed to rise superiorly and put pressure on the lungs to expel the air. (
  • During forced exhalation, as when blowing out a candle, expiratory muscles including the abdominal muscles and internal intercostal muscles generate abdominal and thoracic pressure, which forces air out of the lungs. (
  • FRC is the amount of air left in the lungs after normal exhalation. (
  • But arguably the most profound story is 'Exhalation' (which won the 2009 Hugo Award for Best Short Story), a heart-rending message and warning from a scientist of a highly advanced, but now extinct, race of mechanical beings from another universe. (
  • Exhalation (or expiration) is the flow of the breath out of an organism. (
  • Most evidential breath-alcohol analyzers are designed to capture the last portion of a prolonged exhalation, which is thought to reflect the alcohol concentration in. (
  • The contact-free method of sampling breath means that a mouthpiece is unnecessary and the test subject does not need to make a continuous end exhalation. (
  • 3s breath-hold, active exhalation to functional residual capacity, cough or forced expiration (huff) in a predefined cycle are all part of the Acapella treatment. (
  • Send carbon dioxide out (called expiration , or exhalation ). (
  • The main reason for exhalation is to rid the body of carbon dioxide, which is the waste product of gas exchange in humans. (
  • There seems a positive correlation between uranium concentration and radon exhalation rates. (
  • Sealed Can technique" with LR-115 type II plastic track detector was used for the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the fly ash samples. (
  • Assessment Technique, Applied to Exhalation, Air-cleninng and Arctic air. (
  • In Chiang's latest collection with two never-before-published short stories, Exhalation: Stories gives readers plenty to think about. (
  • In exhalation , the diaphragm moves upward and the chest wall muscles relax, causing the chest cavity to get smaller and push air out of respiratory system through the nose or mouth. (
  • Radon activity was found to vary from 182.9  18.6 to 262.9  22.3 and the exhalation rate lies in the range 62.3  6.2 to 95. (
  • 8.0 mBq m−2 h−1 whereas the radon mass exhalation rate varied from 2.1  0.2 to 3.6  0.3 mBq kg-1h-1. (
  • But coming to Magic Exhalation , you don't just stop at those simple gifts. (
  • The standard exhalation time, as specified by the manufacturer, was 10 seconds for examinees who were at or above 130 cm in height, and 6 seconds for those below 130 cm. (
  • Ventilatory modality, mode of triggering, pressurisation slope, use or not of positive end expiratory pressure and type of exhalation as well as ventilator performances may all have physiological consequences. (
  • Some types of respirators include an exhalation valve that opens to allow exhaled air to escape through the valve and closes to force inhaled air through the filter. (
  • 18-23 Of growing concern is the use of N95 respirators or face coverings that include an exhalation valve, as these are designed to allow exhaled air to pass through the mask unfiltered. (
  • In filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and elastomeric half mask respirators (EHMRs), exhalation valves typically include a membrane composed of natural rubber, silicone, or neoprene. (
  • Respirators with exhalation valves are thought to provide more comfort and may be better suited for longer periods of use. (
  • To examine the related knowledge gaps and critical research needs, NIOSH is conducting research to determine the potential for respirators with exhalation valves to contribute to source control-i.e., their ability to filter respiratory secretions to prevent disease transmission to others-as described below. (
  • The use of EHMRs, FFRs, other NIOSH-approved respirators, and unregulated masks with exhalation valves as source control needs to be evaluated. (
  • To investigate these topics, NIOSH has a research portfolio to address respiratory droplet generation, emission through respirators and masks with and without exhalation valves, and transmission through the air. (
  • Which size particles do not pass through the exhalation valve, and how does the size distribution change over distance with different respirators and respirator modification strategies? (
  • Results also suggest that N95 respirators with exhalation valves are not appropriate as a source control strategy for reducing the proliferation of infectious diseases that spread via respiratory droplets. (
  • How does respirator fit affect exhalation efficiency? (
  • In Exhalation , Ted Chiang addresses the most fundamental of issues - What is the nature of the universe? (
  • Exhalation by Ted Chiang is a collection of short stories that will make you think, grapple with big questions, and feel more human. (
  • Most exhalation valves consist of a small flexible tab that acts as a one-way check valve, opening upon exhalation and closing upon inspiration. (
  • The bioaccumulation of D4 in the body is unlikely, due to the effective elimination through metabolism and exhalation (Plotzke et al. (
  • Research is needed to understand respiratory droplet size and composition, transmission through the exhalation valve, changes in composition and viability in ambient air, deposition within the human body, and infectious dose for different types of cells. (
  • 2017a) found that, in rats, following oral administration D4 exhibited a rapid uptake and distribution, and was then quickly depurated via exhalation and excretion of metabolites. (
  • Cite this: Coronavirus Is Aerosolized Through Talking, Exhalation, New Report Says - Medscape - Apr 04, 2020. (
  • Her series, Exhalation/Transmissions , Passages Botaniques , considers commonalities between plants and humans, highlighting the arbitrary quality of the boundaries we place between ourselves and other living beings. (
  • How effective is filtering exhalation exhaust from EHMRs and how do filters affect breathing with respect to exhalation resistance and CO 2 and O 2 concentrations? (
  • After passing through an exhalation valve, what is the fate of dry particles and droplets with respect to distance and environmental conditions? (
  • The report noted that recent research has found that "exhalations, sneezes, and coughs not only consist of mucosalivary droplets following short-range semiballistic emission trajectories but, importantly, are primarily made of a multiphase turbulent gas (a puff) cloud that entrains ambient air and traps and carries within it clusters of droplets with a continuum of droplet sizes. (
  • Results of these qualitative experiments show that an N95 respirator without an exhalation valve is effective at blocking most droplets from penetrating through the mask material. (
  • What percentage of exhaled particles flow through an FFR exhalation valve (i.e., "outward" filtration efficiency)? (
  • What percentage of exhaled particles flow through the exhalation valve (i.e., exhalation efficiency) for sinusoidal breathing patterns? (
  • An expert committee has concluded that the novel coronavirus is aerosolized through talking or exhalation, but it's not yet clear if the viral particles are viable and emitted in doses sufficient to cause infection. (
  • In contrast, rapid exhalation had little effect on the measured concentration. (
  • 20. 131I exhalation by patients undergoing therapy of thyroid diseases. (
  • The standard exhalation time, as specified by the manufacturer, was 10 seconds for examinees who were at or above 130 cm in height, and 6 seconds for those below 130 cm. (
  • This work demonstrates the qualitative fluid flow characteristics of a standard N95 respirator with and without an exhalation valve. (
  • Two fluid flow visualization techniques were used to qualitatively visualize the flow dynamics of an N95 filtering facepiece respirator with and without an exhalation valve. (
  • With robotic exhalation, reusable molds, efficient material usage, non-subtractive fabrication methods, and readily adaptable tools all come together for a low-cost, minimally wasteful means of creating a unique concrete facade system. (
  • If the reproducibility criteria were not met within the first two exhalations, a participant had 2 additional exhalations to satisfy the criteria (up to a total of 4 trials). (

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