Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Breathing Exercises: Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration.Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Rest: Freedom from activity.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Dyspnea, Paroxysmal: A disorder characterized by sudden attacks of respiratory distress in at rest patients with HEART FAILURE and PULMONARY EDEMA. It usually occurs at night after several hours of sleep in a reclining position. Patients awaken with a feeling of suffocation, coughing, a cold sweat, and TACHYCARDIA. When there is significant WHEEZING, it is called cardiac asthma.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Anaerobic Threshold: The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.Muscle Stretching Exercises: Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Inspiratory Capacity: The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Exercise Movement Techniques: Methods or programs of physical activities which can be used to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).GlycogenRegional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Scopolamine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.Ergometry: Any method of measuring the amount of work done by an organism, usually during PHYSICAL EXERTION. Ergometry also includes measures of power. Some instruments used in these determinations include the hand crank and the bicycle ergometer.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Maximal Voluntary Ventilation: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be breathed in and blown out over a sustained interval such as 15 or 20 seconds. Common abbreviations are MVV and MBC.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Sweating: The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Bronchial DiseasesReference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Hemoptysis: Expectoration or spitting of blood originating from any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT, usually from hemorrhage in the lung parenchyma (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and the BRONCHIAL ARTERIES.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Tracheal NeoplasmsHand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Tracheal DiseasesHypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Expiratory Reserve Volume: The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Athletic Performance: Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Respiratory Dead Space: That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Pericardial Effusion: Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Hyperemia: The presence of an increased amount of blood in a body part or an organ leading to congestion or engorgement of blood vessels. Hyperemia can be due to increase of blood flow into the area (active or arterial), or due to obstruction of outflow of blood from the area (passive or venous).Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Intermittent Claudication: A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.Natriuretic Agents: Endogenous or exogenous chemicals that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body. They consist of peptides and non-peptide compounds.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Tai Ji: One of the MARTIAL ARTS and also a form of meditative exercise using methodically slow circular stretching movements and positions of body balance.Bed Rest: Confinement of an individual to bed for therapeutic or experimental reasons.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Respiratory Paralysis: Complete or severe weakness of the muscles of respiration. This condition may be associated with MOTOR NEURON DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; injury to the PHRENIC NERVE; and other disorders.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia: An interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, occurring between 21-80 years of age. It is characterized by a dramatic onset of a "pneumonia-like" illness with cough, fever, malaise, fatigue, and weight loss. Pathological features include prominent interstitial inflammation without collagen fibrosis, diffuse fibroblastic foci, and no microscopic honeycomb change. There is excessive proliferation of granulation tissue within small airways and alveolar ducts.
O'Donnell DE (2006). "Hyperinflation, Dyspnea, and Exercise Intolerance in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease". The ... The optimal exercise routine, use of noninvasive ventilation during exercise, and intensity of exercise suggested for people ... Hyperinflation from exercise is linked to shortness of breath in COPD, as breathing in is less comfortable when the lungs are ... They reduce shortness of breath, wheeze, and exercise limitation, resulting in an improved quality of life. It is unclear if ...
Additionally, BNP can be used to differentiate between causes of dyspnea due to heart failure from other causes of dyspnea. If ... Cardiopulmonary exercise testing involves measurement of exhaled oxygen and carbon dioxide during exercise. The peak oxygen ... The patient will have dyspnea (shortness of breath) on exertion and in severe cases, dyspnea at rest. Increasing breathlessness ... The consequences of this are dyspnea (shortness of breath), orthopnea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. ...
Symptoms include, primarily, increased respiratory effort and dyspnea, especially in response to strenuous exercise. In some ... In addition, a soft, moist cough may be seen, most commonly in association with exercise or eating. This cough may be ... cases (secondarily), the horse may present with acute severe dyspnea, such that it really struggles to inspire sufficient air. ...
They have an insidious onset of cough, progressive dyspnea, fatigue, and weight loss. This is associated with partial to ... In addition, many patients have hypoxemia at rest, and all patients desaturate with exercise. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis ... Patients with subacute HP gradually develop a productive cough, dyspnea, fatigue, anorexia, weight loss, and pleurisy. Symptoms ... Symptoms include fever, chills, malaise, cough, chest tightness, dyspnea, rash, swelling and headache. Symptoms resolve within ...
In the late phase of disease, IPF patients tend to discontinue physical activity due to increasing dyspnea. Whenever possible, ... In selected cases of particularly severe dyspnea morphine could be considered. It can reduce dyspnea, anxiety and cough without ... and dyspnea on exertion. Typical programs of rehabilitation include exercise training, nutritional modulation, occupational ... non-productive cough on exertion Progressive exertional dyspnea (shortness of breath with exercise) Dry, inspiratory bibasilar ...
Dyspnea (painful breathing or difficulty breathing) is commonly seen, and tolerance for exercise may be lowered. Rapid ... In some cases, dyspnea persists for an indefinite period. Contusion can also permanently reduce the compliance of the lungs. ... Fibrosis of the lungs can occur, resulting in dyspnea (shortness of breath), low blood oxygenation, and reduced functional ...
O'Donnell DE (2006). "Hyperinflation, Dyspnea, and Exercise Intolerance in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease". The ... Mahler DA (2006). "Mechanisms and measurement of dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". Proceedings of the American ... "A systematic review of the effects of bronchodilators on exercise capacity in patients with COPD". Chest. 121 (2): 597-608. ...
Randomized trials have demonstrated that pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) can improve dyspnea, exercise tolerance, and health- ... An overview of these new approaches being an adjunct to exercise training is reviewed. Although the role of exercise training ... It gets harder to eat or exercise, and breathing takes much more energy. People often lose weight and get weaker. Deep vein ... The essential components of PR include behavior change, patient self-management and prescriptive exercise. In the last decade ...
These episodes of dyspnea can be recurrent and symptoms can range from mild to severe and prolonged in some cases. Agitation ... Physical exercise (including, but not limited to, competitive athletics) is one of the major triggers for VCD episodes, leading ... A VCD incidence rate of 2% has been reported among patients whose primary complaint was either asthma or dyspnea; the same ... While using Botox in VCD has limited reports, those that are available report successful resolution of exercise-induced VCD ...
Signs may include exercise intolerance, but often there is only a heart murmur. Ventricular septal defect* is a hole in the ... Signs include a continuous heart murmur, bounding (strong) femoral pulse, tachypnea (increased breathing rate), dyspnea ( ... Most cases are physiologic (caused by exercise) or reactive (secondary to some cancers, blood loss, or certain drugs). Rarely ... Signs include a left basilar systolic heart murmur, weak femoral pulse, fainting and exercise intolerance. Dogs with severe SAS ...
This is the sole muscle responsible for opening the vocal cords, and paralysis may cause difficulty breathing (dyspnea) during ... physical activity. Injury to both the right and left nerve may result in more serious damage, such as the inability to speak. ...
Chronic, coughing, exercise intolerance, dyspnoea and tachypnoea in young dogs is due to blood vessels being blocked by adults ...
The BODE index, for Body-mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise, is a multidimensional scoring system and ... The Body-Mass Index, Airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise Capacity Index in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ... and the modified MRC dyspnea scale. Significant weight loss is a bad sign. Results of spirometry are also good predictors of ...
Adults with an uncorrected ASD present with symptoms of dyspnea on exertion (shortness of breath with minimal exercise), ... Symptoms are typically decreased exercise tolerance, easy fatigability, palpitations, and syncope. Complications of an ...
60% of these victims complained of chest pain, dyspnoea or feeling unwell before or during the dive. Cardiac causes are ... The associated triggers include exercise, drugs, hypoxia from salt water aspiration, cardio-pulmonary reflexes, respiratory ...
For example, physiological causes of tachypnea include exercise. Amongst pathophysiological causes, tachypnea can be a symptom ... See pronunciation information at dyspnea. ...
One such breathing exercise is a 5-2-5 count. Using the stomach (or diaphragm)-and not the chest-inhale (feel the stomach come ... A panic attack is a response of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The most common symptoms include trembling, dyspnea ( ... Breathing retraining exercise helps to rebalance the oxygen and CO2 levels in the blood. David D. Burns recommends breathing ... Increased and regimented aerobic exercise such as running have been shown to have a positive effect in combating panic anxiety ...
Dyspnoea and chest pain commonly occurs during daily activities. Sometimes, syncope may happen. On physical examination, ... Chest pain that radiates to one or both shoulders or arms, chest pain that occurs with physical activity, chest pain associated ... Chest pain usually happens during physical activity. Syncope is a late symptom. Signs and symptoms of heart failure may also ... In children, the most common causes for chest pain are musculoskeletal (76-89%), exercise-induced asthma (4-12%), ...
In heart failure patients, fosinopril increases exercise tolerance and lowers the frequency of events associated with worsening ... heart failure, such as dyspnea, the need for supplemental diuretics, fatigue, and hospitalizations. In a study examining the ... Fosinopril attenuates clinical deterioration and improves exercise tolerance in patients with heart failure. Fosinopril ...
They are recommended before exercise in those with exercise induced symptoms. Anticholinergic medications, such as ipratropium ... Shiber J. R., Santana J. (May 2006). "Dyspnea". Med. Clin. North Am. 90 (3): 453-79. doi:10.1016/j.mcna.2005.11.006. PMID ... Exercise can trigger bronchoconstriction both in people with or without asthma. It occurs in most people with asthma and up to ... Overall, exercise is beneficial in people with stable asthma. Yoga could provide small improvements in quality of life and ...
If the individual wishes to begin an exercise regimen, an exercise stress test may have added benefit. Pharmacologic management ... Up to 80% of individuals with ARVD present have symptoms like syncope and dyspnea.The remainder frequently present with ... Screening tests include: Echocardiogram EKG Signal averaged EKG Holter monitoring Cardiac MRI Exercise stress test The ... Ventricular arrhythmias are usually exercise-related, suggesting that they are sensitive to catecholamines. The ventricular ...
... and exercise dyspnea), performance and exercise tolerance test, and ejection fraction". Phytochemicals found in hawthorn ... The third, including 32 subjects (900 mg/day) for 8 weeks, found improved exercise tolerance, as well as a reduction in the " ... Several earlier pilot studies assessed the ability of hawthorn to help improve exercise tolerance in people with NYHA class II ... The second study, including 78 subjects (600 mg/day) for 8 weeks, found "significant improvement in exercise tolerance" and ...
... such as decreased exercise ability, decreased muscle mass, fatigue/dyspnea and cachexia. Physiological testosterone is crucial ...
... paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea and orthopnea, exercise intolerance, fatigue, elevated jugular venous pressure, and edema. ... This is undertaken because perturbations in diastole are exaggerated during the increased demands of exercise. Exercise ... and is associated with improved aerobic exercise capacity. The benefit patients seem to derive from exercise does not seem to ... The former is the result of stress, such as exercise, while the later is the result of reduced coronary flow. HFpEF and Aging ...
Symptoms associated with IST include: Frequent or sustained palpitations Dyspnea (shortness of breath) and palpitations on ... exertion Pre-syncope (feeling as if about to faint) Fatigue (physical) Dizziness Exercise intolerance Occasional paresthesia ...
Baldwin, Jennifer; Cox, Jaclyn (September 2016). "Treating Dyspnea". Medical Clinics of North America. 100 (5): 1123-1130. doi: ... and suggested the possibility for positive resolution of anxiety through the self-conscious exercise of responsibility and ...
Orthopnea: a kind of dyspnea in which the person can only breathe properly when he is standing or sitting erect. ... Fitness & Exercise. *Womens Health. *Mental Well-Being. *Pain Management. *Cancer Causes and Prevention ...
The body-mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity index in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.. Celli ... and dyspnea (D), and exercise capacity (E), measured by the six-minute-walk test. We used these variables to construct the BODE ...
Exercise testing that reproduces symptoms while monitoring cardiac and respiratory physiology … ... Exercise-induced dyspnea in children and adolescents: if not asthma then what? Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005 Mar;94(3):366- ... Background: Exercise-induced dyspnea (EID) in children and adolescents is a common manifestation of asthma and is therefore ... Symptoms of EID were reproduced during exercise testing in 117 patients. EIA was identified as the cause of EID in only 11 of ...
During CWR exercise, as FEV(1) quartile worsened, peak minute ventilation ($$\dot{\mathrm{V}}$$e) and tidal volume (Vt) ... on Vt expansion and a sharp increase in dyspnea to intolerable levels at a progressively lower ventilation during exercise. ... Decline of resting inspiratory capacity in COPD: the impact on breathing pattern, dyspnea, and ventilatory capacity during ... To better understand the interrelationships among disease severity, inspiratory capacity (IC), breathing pattern, and dyspnea, ...
Dyspnea is a common complaint in obese patients. The mechanisms behind this dyspnea and the effects of weight loss on dyspnea ... Baseline dyspnea was assessed using the baseline dyspnea index.The effect of weight loss on dyspnea was assessed using the ... Exercise Capacity and Dyspnea in Obese Patients With Metabolic Syndrome: Effects of Weight Loss. The safety and scientific ... Pulmonary function, exercise performance and dyspnea results for normal weight controls were compared against the results for ...
Dyspnea / etiology*. Ebstein Anomaly / diagnosis*, pathology. Exercise*. Exercise Tolerance*. Humans. Hypertension, Pulmonary ... Exercise capacity at sea level was normal, as were oxygen saturation at rest and maximal exercise. We think that the patients ... 4061578 - Maximal exercise capacity in adolescent european and amerindian high-altitude natives.. 12324188 - Work at high ... 15033968 - Chronic intermittent hypoxia and incremental cycling exercise independently depress mus.... ...
Exercise-induced dyspnea and cough in a physically fit nonsmoker Case and analysis by Erin Sciacchetano, PA-C, and Claire B. ... Close more info about Exercise-induced dyspnea and cough in a physically fit nonsmoker ... Close more info about Exercise-induced dyspnea and cough in a physically fit nonsmoker ... However, they may give rise to cough, dyspnea, or chest pain if they compress the bronchial tree or superior vena cava or if ...
Changes in exercise parameters, measured at rest, isotime and peak exercise on days 0, 21 and 42 from pretreatment exercise ... Three main time-points were used for evaluation of exercise parameters, i.e. pre-exercise rest, isotime and peak exercise. " ... dyspnoea and exercise tolerance in COPD. D.E. ODonnell, T. Flüge, F. Gerken, A. Hamilton, K. Webb, B. Aguilaniu, B. Make, H. ... exercise data were assessed during the third 30‐s period of each 2‐min interval of loaded exercise; and 3) end of exercise " ...
Visual Analogue Scaling of Exercise Dyspnoea in Patients with Chronic Lung Disease J. W. Reed J. W. Reed ... J. W. Reed, C. M. Sprake, J. E. Cotes; Visual Analogue Scaling of Exercise Dyspnoea in Patients with Chronic Lung Disease. Clin ... A comparison of the visual analogue scale and modified Borg scale for the measurement of dyspnoea during exercise Clin Sci ( ... Relationship between spontaneous dyspnoea and lability of airway obstruction in asthma Clin Sci (Lond) (June, 1992) ...
SAT0370 Evaluations of exertion dyspnea in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD) by CPET (cardiopulmonary exercise ... SAT0370 Evaluations of exertion dyspnea in patients with connective tissue disease (CTD) by CPET (cardiopulmonary exercise ... 8 cases, with decreased peak VO2 but normal VE/VCO2, were regarded that muscle weakness mainly induced exertion dyspnea, and ... Objectives We performed CPET in patients who complained of exertion dyspnea and tried to detect early PV. ...
Reproducibility of the Relationship between Dyspnoea and Ventilation during Exercise in Pink Puffers R.D. Stark R.D. Stark ... R.D. Stark, S.A. Gambles, S.S. Chatterjee; Reproducibility of the Relationship between Dyspnoea and Ventilation during Exercise ... Effects of sympathetic inhibition on exertional dyspnoea, ventilatory and metabolic responses to exercise in normotensive ... Relationship between spontaneous dyspnoea and lability of airway obstruction in asthma Clin Sci (Lond) (June, 1992) ...
Factor analysis of exercise capacity, dyspnoea ratings and lung function in patients with severe COPD. RE Wegner, RA Jorres, DK ... Factor analysis of exercise capacity, dyspnoea ratings and lung function in patients with severe COPD ... Factor analysis of exercise capacity, dyspnoea ratings and lung function in patients with severe COPD ... Factor analysis of exercise capacity, dyspnoea ratings and lung function in patients with severe COPD ...
There is a strong correlation between the intensity of dyspnea at a standardized point during exercise, the end-expiratory lung ... allows greater Vt expansion for a given inspiratory effort during exercise with consequent improvement in dyspnea and exercise ... Long-acting bronchodilators have recently been shown to reduce hyperinflation during both rest and exercise in moderate to ... but dyspnea (breathlessness) is its most prominent and distressing symptom. Acute dynamic lung hyperinflation, which refers to ...
Reducing hyperinflation and dyspnea is essential for improving physical activity endurance and overall physical activity in ... In addition to evaluating hyperinflation, ADLs, physical activity, exercise capacity, and dyspnea should all be assessed in ... The impact of lung hyperinflation and dyspnea on physical activity in COPD Figure 3. Five-year survival according to (A) ... Dyspnea and hyperinflation are closely interrelated with physical activity limitation, 16,29,30 and so can be viewed as ...
... lung disease the assessment of exercise induced dyspnoea by means of a visual analogue scale during a progressive exercise test ... measured during high intensity or progressive exercise, was studied. RESULTS: The mean (SE) rates of increase of dyspnoea with ... for high intensity exercise); it was 2.59 (0.25) for the initial burst of high intensity exercise when the data on this were ... Dyspnoea assessed by visual analogue scale in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease during progressive and high ...
Physical activity, symptoms of chest pain and dyspnea in patients with ischemic heart disease in relation to age before and two ... To -describe lim-i-ta-tion of phys-i-cal activ-ity, -cause of lim-i-ta-tion of phys-i-cal activ-ity -and symp-toms of dysp-nea ...
Exercise-induced dyspnea is a problem among the general adolescent population. Respir Med. 2014;108(6):852-8. PubMed ID: ... Does dynamic hyperinflation contribute to dyspnoea during exercise in patients with COPD? Eur Respir J. 2012;40(2):322-9. ... Exercise Testing in Children. London: WB Saunders; 1974.. Godfrey. S. . Exercise Testing in Children. . London. : WB Saunders. ... Dalhousie dyspnea scales: pictorial scales to measure dyspnea during induced bronchoconstriction. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2006;41(12 ...
Efficient Use of Simple Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Challenge Testing in Pediatric Exercise-Induced Dyspnea. Rajeev ... Efficient Use of Simple Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Challenge Testing in Pediatric Exercise-Induced Dyspnea ... Efficient Use of Simple Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Challenge Testing in Pediatric Exercise-Induced Dyspnea ... Efficient Use of Simple Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Challenge Testing in Pediatric Exercise-Induced Dyspnea ...
The 6-minute walking distance test (6MWD) was done in order to assess exercise tolerance. Level of dyspnea was measured with ... nutritional status and state of peripheral skeletal muscles on exercise tolerance and development of dyspnea in COPD patients. ... CONCLUSION Exercise tolerance in COPD patients depends on severity of bronchoobstruction, lung hyperinflation and MTCSA. ... limitation and lung hyperinflation had significant impact on development of dyspnea at rest and especially after exercise. ...
Dyspnoea at baseline and after exercise and oxygen saturation (SpO2) during exercise was measured. ... Dyspnoea at baseline and after exercise and oxygen saturation (SpO2) during exercise was measured. ... dyspnoea during 6MWT, or exercise oxygenation and blood desaturation during exercise. ... dyspnoea during 6MWT, or exercise oxygenation and blood desaturation during exercise. ...
... and exercise performance have been shown to improve after exercise training in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary ... there are no published descriptions of the changes in dyspnea intensity or dyspnea-related anxiet ... BackgroundDyspnea (SOB), dyspnea-related anxiety (DA), and exercise performance have been shown to improve after exercise ... and exercise performance during 12 exercise training sessions with and without nurse coaching.MethodsForty-five dyspnea-limited ...
... and Exercise Capacity (BODE) Index in Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer ... Prognostic Validation of the Body Mass Index, Airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise Capacity (BODE) Index in Inoperable ...
1978) Dyspnoea, disability and distance walked: comparison of estimates of exercise performance in respiratory disease. BMJ 2: ... 34 MRC grade 4 dyspnoea, and 34 MRC grade 5 dyspnoea. Patients with MRC grades 1 and 2 dyspnoea were not included in the study ... Age and exercise tolerance were significantly different between patients with grades 4 and 5 dyspnoea. ... MRC DYSPNOEA SCALE. Patients were asked about their perceived breathlessness and were then classified into MRC dyspnoea grades ...
Impaired Exercise Tolerance & Meralgia Paresthetica Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Obesity. Check the full list of ... 17] Evaluation[edit] mMRC breathlessness scale Grade Degree of dyspnea 0 no dyspnea except with strenuous exercise 1 dyspnea ... 17] Evaluation[edit] mMRC breathlessness scale Grade Degree of dyspnea 0 no dyspnea except with strenuous exercise 1 dyspnea ... DOI: INTRODUCTION Dyspnoea on exertion, impaired exercise tolerance, and fatigue are most often due to common cardiac and ...
Exercise capacity will be directly assessed following an incremental cycle exercise test. The exercise capacity was defined as ... Measurement of Exertional Dyspnea in the Primary Care Setting in Patients With COPD, Phase III: Sensitivity of the Step Test to ... Dyspnea. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Respiration Disorders. Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory. Signs and Symptoms. Albuterol. ... Symptom perception [ Time Frame: change from baseline in Borg Scale at 3 min of exercise ]. Patients will be asked to score ...
  • Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea results from increased left ventricular filling pressures (due to nocturnal fluid redistribution and enhanced renal reabsorption) and therefore has a greater sensitivity and predictive value. (bmj.com)
  • excessive shortness of breath after exercise. (drugs.com)
  • Basically, the combination of and balance between these factors can lead to overconsumption, excessive calorie intake, insufficient exercise, or some combination of these. (petwave.com)
  • The previous prescreening algorithms could result in excessive referrals to physicians for medical clearance, creating a potential barrier to adopting an exercise program. (acefitness.org)
  • Description of the changes in dyspnea and the affective response during training need to be expanded, while studying the type and timing of strategies to enhance the improvement in dyspnea and dyspnea-related anxiety. (ovid.com)
  • This essay expounds on fundamental, quantitative elements of the exercise ventilation in children, which was the subject of the Tom Rowland Lecture given at the NASPEM 2018 Conference. (humankinetics.com)
  • In the most recent edition of ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM, 2018) revamped its preparticipation health-screening recommendations. (acefitness.org)
  • Many people skip this step, thinking the time to journal exercise less important than actually doing the exercise, but making and keeping a record of your progress is wonderful incentive to continue on those days when you just don't feel like exercising. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Progressive reduction of the resting IC with increasing disease severity was associated with the appearance of critical constraints on Vt expansion and a sharp increase in dyspnea to intolerable levels at a progressively lower ventilation during exercise. (nih.gov)
  • Dyspnea is a subjective phenomenon based on the variation in severity for a given degree of functional impairment. (aafp.org)
  • The severity of disease is usually graded by the degree of problems with exercise. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alveolar-arterial pressure difference widens progressively with increasing exercise, leading to reduced hemoglobin saturation at altitude, with an increase in the risk and severity of AMS. (news-medical.net)