Trail Making Test
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Task Performance and Analysis
Mild Cognitive Impairment
Social Control, Informal
Analysis of Variance
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Word Association Tests
Mental Status Schedule
Statistics as Topic
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Severity of Illness Index
Brain Damage, Chronic
Gait Disorders, Neurologic
Nerve Fibers, Myelinated
Higher Nervous Activity
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Activities of Daily Living
Diffusion Tensor Imaging
Chief Executive Officers, Hospital
Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale
Predictive Value of Tests
Brain Injury, Chronic
Motor Skills Disorders
Depressive Disorder, Major
Central Nervous System Stimulants
Pattern Recognition, Visual
Child Behavior Disorders
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Ocular Motility Disorders
Age-related slowing of task switching is associated with decreased integrity of frontoparietal white matter. (1/1281)(+info)
Differential effects of COMT on gait and executive control in aging. (2/1281)(+info)
Successful life outcome and management of real-world memory demands despite profound anterograde amnesia. (3/1281)(+info)
The primary cognitive deficit among males with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a dysexecutive syndrome. (4/1281)(+info)
The relationship between IQ, memory, executive function, and processing speed in recent-onset psychosis: 1-year stability and clinical outcome. (5/1281)(+info)
Schizophrenia patients show task switching deficits consistent with N-methyl-d-aspartate system dysfunction but not global executive deficits: implications for pathophysiology of executive dysfunction in schizophrenia. (6/1281)(+info)
Impaired modulation of attention and emotion in schizophrenia. (7/1281)(+info)
Executive control deficits in substance-dependent individuals: a comparison of alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine and of men and women. (8/1281)(+info)
Cognition disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to think, reason, remember, and learn. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, neurological disorders, genetic factors, and aging. Cognition disorders can manifest in different ways, depending on the specific area of the brain that is affected. For example, a person with a memory disorder may have difficulty remembering important information, while someone with a language disorder may have trouble expressing themselves or understanding what others are saying. Some common types of cognition disorders include: 1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurological disorder that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. 2. Dementia: A general term used to describe a decline in cognitive function that is severe enough to interfere with daily life. 3. Delirium: A sudden onset of confusion and disorientation that can be caused by a variety of factors, including illness, medication side effects, or dehydration. 4. Aphasia: A language disorder that affects a person's ability to speak, understand, or use language. 5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects a person's ability to focus, pay attention, and control impulses. 6. Learning disorders: A group of conditions that affect a person's ability to acquire and use knowledge and skills. Cognition disorders can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, and treatment options may include medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes. Early diagnosis and intervention are important for managing these conditions and improving outcomes.
Memory disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect an individual's ability to remember, learn, and recall information. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain injury, brain disease, or aging. Some common types of memory disorders include: 1. Amnesia: A condition characterized by the loss of memory, either temporary or permanent. 2. Dementia: A group of symptoms that include memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with daily activities, caused by a variety of factors such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and Lewy body dementia. 3. Anterograde amnesia: A type of amnesia that affects the ability to form new memories after the onset of the condition. 4. Retrograde amnesia: A type of amnesia that affects the ability to recall memories from before the onset of the condition. 5. Semantic dementia: A type of dementia that affects an individual's ability to understand and use language. 6. Temporal lobe epilepsy: A type of epilepsy that can cause memory loss and other cognitive problems. 7. Mild cognitive impairment: A condition characterized by mild memory loss and other cognitive problems that may progress to dementia. Memory disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and treatment options may include medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes.
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulty paying attention, excessive hyperactivity, and impulsivity. It is typically diagnosed in childhood and can persist into adulthood. Symptoms of ADHD can interfere with a person's ability to learn, socialize, and function in daily life. Treatment for ADHD may include medication, behavioral therapy, and lifestyle changes.
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a condition that is characterized by a decline in cognitive function that is greater than expected for a person's age, but is not severe enough to interfere with daily activities. MCI is often seen as a transitional stage between normal aging and dementia, and it is thought that some people with MCI may eventually develop Alzheimer's disease or other forms of dementia. Symptoms of MCI may include forgetfulness, difficulty with language or communication, problems with planning and organization, and changes in judgment or decision-making. These symptoms may be noticeable to others, but they are not severe enough to interfere with a person's ability to carry out their daily activities. MCI is typically diagnosed through a combination of cognitive testing, medical history, and physical examination. There is no cure for MCI, but there are treatments and lifestyle changes that may help to slow the progression of the condition and improve symptoms. These may include medications, cognitive training programs, and activities that promote brain health, such as regular exercise and a healthy diet.
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by a range of symptoms that affect a person's thoughts, emotions, and behavior. These symptoms can include hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that are not there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based in reality), disorganized thinking and speech, and problems with emotional expression and social interaction. Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that can last for a lifetime, although the severity of symptoms can vary over time. It is not caused by a single factor, but rather by a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Treatment for schizophrenia typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support from family and friends. While there is no cure for schizophrenia, with proper treatment, many people are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.
Dementia is a general term used to describe a group of symptoms that are caused by damage or disease in the brain. It is a progressive and irreversible condition that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. Dementia can be caused by a variety of factors, including Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and Lewy body dementia. These conditions can affect different parts of the brain and cause different symptoms. Some common symptoms of dementia include: - Memory loss - Difficulty with language and communication - Confusion and disorientation - Changes in mood and behavior - Difficulty with problem-solving and decision-making - Changes in physical abilities, such as balance and coordination Dementia can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and various tests, such as brain imaging and cognitive assessments. There is currently no cure for dementia, but treatments can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected.
Brain injuries refer to any type of damage or trauma that affects the brain, which is the most complex and vital organ in the human body. Brain injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including physical trauma, such as a blow to the head, exposure to toxins, infections, or degenerative diseases. Brain injuries can range from mild to severe and can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a wide range of symptoms and complications. Some common types of brain injuries include concussion, contusion, hematoma, edema, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Symptoms of brain injuries can vary depending on the severity and location of the injury, but may include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in behavior or personality, seizures, and loss of consciousness. Treatment for brain injuries depends on the severity and type of injury, and may include medications, surgery, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy. In some cases, rehabilitation may be necessary to help individuals recover from the effects of a brain injury and regain their ability to function in daily life.
Catechol O-Methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of catecholamines, which are a group of neurotransmitters that include dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. COMT is primarily found in the liver, kidneys, and brain, where it converts catecholamines into their inactive metabolites. In the brain, COMT is involved in regulating the levels of dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter that plays a critical role in the reward and motivation systems of the brain. COMT helps to break down dopamine, which can help to prevent excessive dopamine activity and reduce the risk of conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. COMT is also involved in the metabolism of other neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and histamine, and has been implicated in the development of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and Parkinson's disease.
Amnesia is a medical condition characterized by the partial or complete loss of memory. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including head injury, stroke, brain tumors, infections, and degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. There are different types of amnesia, including anterograde amnesia, retrograde amnesia, and global amnesia. Anterograde amnesia refers to the inability to form new memories after the onset of the condition, while retrograde amnesia refers to the inability to recall memories from before the onset of the condition. Global amnesia refers to the complete loss of all memories, both recent and remote. Amnesia can have a significant impact on a person's daily life, as they may struggle to remember important information or events. Treatment for amnesia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, cognitive therapy, and lifestyle changes.
Learning disorders are a group of conditions that affect a person's ability to acquire, process, store, and retrieve information. These disorders can affect various aspects of learning, such as reading, writing, spelling, math, and language. Learning disorders are not caused by a lack of intelligence or motivation, but rather by neurological or developmental differences that affect the way the brain processes information. They can be diagnosed in children and adults and can range from mild to severe. Some common types of learning disorders include: 1. Dyslexia: A disorder that affects a person's ability to read and spell. 2. Dysgraphia: A disorder that affects a person's ability to write legibly. 3. Dyscalculia: A disorder that affects a person's ability to understand and perform mathematical calculations. 4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A disorder that affects a person's ability to focus and pay attention. 5. Auditory Processing Disorder (APD): A disorder that affects a person's ability to process and understand auditory information. Learning disorders can be diagnosed through a combination of standardized tests, evaluations by educational and medical professionals, and observation of a person's behavior and academic performance. Treatment for learning disorders typically involves a multi-disciplinary approach that may include special education, therapy, and medication.
Atrophy refers to the decrease in size, volume, or mass of a body part or organ due to a lack of use, injury, or disease. In the medical field, atrophy can occur in various parts of the body, including muscles, organs, and tissues. For example, muscle atrophy can occur when a person is bedridden or has a sedentary lifestyle, leading to a decrease in muscle mass and strength. Organ atrophy can occur in conditions such as kidney failure, where the kidneys become smaller and less functional over time. Brain atrophy, also known as neurodegeneration, can occur in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, where the brain's cells gradually die off, leading to a decline in cognitive function. Atrophy can also be a symptom of certain diseases or conditions, such as cancer, where the body's cells are damaged or destroyed, leading to a decrease in size and function of affected organs or tissues. In some cases, atrophy can be reversible with appropriate treatment, while in other cases, it may be permanent.
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. It is the most common cause of dementia, a condition characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities severe enough to interfere with daily life. The disease is named after Alois Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist who first described it in 1906. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal protein deposits in the brain, including amyloid-beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. These deposits disrupt the normal functioning of brain cells, leading to their death and the progressive loss of cognitive abilities. Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease typically begin with mild memory loss and gradually worsen over time. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience difficulty with language, disorientation, and changes in personality and behavior. Eventually, they may become unable to care for themselves and require around-the-clock care. There is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but treatments are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the disease. These treatments may include medications, lifestyle changes, and support from caregivers and healthcare professionals.
Leukoencephalopathies are a group of neurological disorders characterized by damage to the white matter of the brain. The white matter is made up of nerve fibers that transmit signals between different parts of the brain and spinal cord. Damage to these fibers can result in a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific type of leukoencephalopathy and the location of the affected white matter. There are many different types of leukoencephalopathies, including inherited disorders such as Alexander disease, Canavan disease, and Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, as well as acquired disorders such as multiple sclerosis, HIV-related encephalopathy, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Some leukoencephalopathies are progressive, meaning that the symptoms worsen over time, while others are static, meaning that the symptoms remain the same or improve slightly. Symptoms of leukoencephalopathy can vary widely depending on the specific disorder and the location of the affected white matter. Common symptoms include difficulty with movement, coordination, and balance, as well as cognitive and behavioral changes such as memory loss, difficulty with language and communication, and mood disorders. In some cases, leukoencephalopathy can also cause seizures, vision problems, and hearing loss.
Language disorders refer to a range of conditions that affect a person's ability to communicate effectively using language. These disorders can affect various aspects of language, including speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Language disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic, neurological, developmental, and environmental factors. Some common examples of language disorders include: 1. Specific Language Impairment (SLI): A disorder characterized by difficulty with language development that is not due to hearing loss, intellectual disability, or global developmental delay. 2. Dyslexia: A learning disorder that affects a person's ability to read and spell. 3. Aphasia: A neurological disorder that affects a person's ability to communicate using language. 4. Stuttering: A speech disorder characterized by involuntary repetitions, prolongations, or blocks of sounds, syllables, or words. 5. Apraxia of Speech: A neurological disorder that affects a person's ability to plan and execute the movements necessary for speech. 6. Auditory Processing Disorder (APD): A disorder characterized by difficulty processing auditory information, which can affect a person's ability to understand spoken language. 7. Nonverbal Learning Disorder (NLD): A disorder characterized by difficulty with nonverbal communication, such as social cues and body language. Treatment for language disorders typically involves a combination of speech therapy, language therapy, and other interventions, depending on the specific disorder and the individual's needs.
Leukoaraiosis is a condition characterized by the presence of small white spots or areas of decreased signal intensity on brain imaging scans, such as MRI or CT scans. These white spots are caused by the accumulation of small, fatty deposits called lipids in the brain's white matter, which is the area responsible for transmitting signals between different parts of the brain. Leukoaraiosis is a common finding in older adults and is often associated with age-related changes in the brain, such as small vessel disease or hypertension. It is also more common in people with certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. While leukoaraiosis is usually asymptomatic and does not cause any noticeable symptoms, it can be a sign of underlying health problems and may increase the risk of developing cognitive decline, dementia, and stroke. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to monitor the progression of leukoaraiosis and manage any underlying risk factors to prevent complications.
Chronic brain damage refers to a type of damage that occurs over a prolonged period of time, typically months or years, and can result from a variety of causes such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases, infections, or substance abuse. Chronic brain damage can lead to a range of cognitive, emotional, and physical impairments, including memory loss, difficulty with language and communication, mood disorders, motor dysfunction, and changes in personality. The severity and extent of the damage can vary depending on the location and extent of the injury, as well as the individual's age, overall health, and other factors. Treatment for chronic brain damage typically involves a combination of medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes to manage symptoms and improve quality of life. In some cases, rehabilitation may also be necessary to help individuals regain lost skills and function.
Gait disorders, neurologic refer to a group of conditions that affect the way a person walks due to a neurological disorder. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including damage to the nervous system, muscle weakness or spasticity, and problems with balance or coordination. Some common examples of neurologic gait disorders include Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injuries, and stroke. These disorders can cause a range of symptoms, such as shuffling gait, difficulty with balance, tripping or falling, and changes in stride length or cadence. Treatment for neurologic gait disorders typically involves a combination of physical therapy, medication, and assistive devices, such as canes or walkers. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to address underlying neurological issues or to improve mobility.
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition characterized by extreme mood swings that include episodes of mania or hypomania (abnormally elevated or irritable mood) and depression. These mood swings can be severe and can significantly impact a person's daily life, relationships, and ability to function. Bipolar disorder is typically diagnosed based on a person's symptoms, medical history, and a physical examination. There are several different types of bipolar disorder, including bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, cyclothymic disorder, and other specified bipolar and related disorders. Treatment for bipolar disorder typically involves a combination of medication and therapy. Medications used to treat bipolar disorder may include mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Therapy may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, and family-focused therapy. It is important to note that bipolar disorder is a serious medical condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. With proper treatment, many people with bipolar disorder are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.
Dementia, Vascular, also known as vascular dementia, is a type of dementia that results from damage to the brain's blood vessels. It is caused by a series of small strokes or blockages in the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain, leading to a gradual decline in cognitive function and memory. Vascular dementia is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer's disease, and it is more common in older adults, particularly those with high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol. Symptoms of vascular dementia can include difficulty with memory, confusion, difficulty with language and communication, mood changes, and problems with balance and coordination. These symptoms can gradually worsen over time, and they may be accompanied by physical symptoms such as weakness, numbness, and difficulty with walking. Diagnosis of vascular dementia typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment may include medications to manage underlying health conditions, lifestyle changes such as exercise and a healthy diet, and cognitive and behavioral therapies to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.
Perceptual disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to perceive and interpret sensory information from the environment. These disorders can affect any of the five senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch. Perceptual disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, neurological disorders, genetic factors, and exposure to toxins or drugs. They can also be caused by psychological factors, such as anxiety or depression. Symptoms of perceptual disorders can vary depending on the type of disorder and the sense that is affected. For example, individuals with visual perceptual disorders may experience difficulty distinguishing colors, shapes, or movement, while those with auditory perceptual disorders may have trouble distinguishing speech sounds or understanding conversations in noisy environments. Treatment for perceptual disorders depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medications or other medical interventions may be used to address the underlying condition. In other cases, therapy or counseling may be recommended to help individuals learn coping strategies or adapt to their perceptual limitations.
Psychotic disorders are a group of mental illnesses characterized by a loss of contact with reality. People with psychotic disorders may experience hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that are not there), delusions (firmly held beliefs that are not based in reality), disorganized thinking or speech, and other symptoms that significantly impair their ability to function in daily life. Psychotic disorders can be further classified into several subtypes, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, and brief psychotic disorder. These disorders can affect people of all ages and genders, and their symptoms can range from mild to severe. Psychotic disorders are typically treated with a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or family therapy. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of relapse.
Pedophilia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a primary or exclusive sexual attraction to prepubescent children, typically under the age of 13. It is important to note that pedophilia itself is not a crime, but it is illegal to act on those attractions in any way that involves a child, such as sexual contact or grooming. In the medical field, pedophilia is typically diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is the standard classification system for mental health disorders. The DSM-5 defines pedophilia as a disorder of sexual preference, and it is classified as a paraphilia, which is a sexual orientation that is not considered normal or socially acceptable. Treatment for pedophilia typically involves psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which aims to help individuals change their thoughts and behaviors related to their attraction to children. In some cases, medication may also be used to help manage related symptoms, such as anxiety or depression. However, it is important to note that there is currently no cure for pedophilia, and individuals with this disorder are at a higher risk of committing sexual offenses involving children.
Parkinson's disease is a chronic and progressive neurological disorder that affects movement. It is caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra, a region of the brain that plays a crucial role in controlling movement. The symptoms of Parkinson's disease typically develop gradually and may include tremors, stiffness, slow movement, and difficulty with balance and coordination. Other common symptoms may include loss of smell, constipation, sleep disturbances, and cognitive changes. Parkinson's disease is usually diagnosed based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and neuroimaging tests. There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease, but medications and other treatments can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for people with the condition.
Amphetamine-related disorders refer to a group of conditions that result from the use of amphetamines, a class of drugs that stimulate the central nervous system. These disorders can include both physical and psychological symptoms and can range from mild to severe. The most common amphetamine-related disorders include: 1. Amphetamine use disorder: This is a condition characterized by a pattern of compulsive use of amphetamines, despite negative consequences. It can be diagnosed as mild, moderate, or severe. 2. Amphetamine intoxication: This is a condition that occurs when someone takes too much amphetamine, leading to symptoms such as agitation, confusion, hallucinations, and rapid heart rate. 3. Amphetamine withdrawal: This is a condition that occurs when someone stops using amphetamines after a period of regular use. Symptoms can include fatigue, depression, anxiety, and cravings. 4. Amphetamine-induced psychosis: This is a condition that occurs when someone takes amphetamines and experiences symptoms of psychosis, such as hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking. Amphetamine-related disorders can have serious consequences for a person's physical and mental health, as well as their social and occupational functioning. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support from family and friends.
Chronic brain injury refers to a type of brain injury that persists over a long period of time, typically lasting for more than six months. It can result from a variety of causes, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, or neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. Chronic brain injury can have a wide range of effects on a person's cognitive, physical, and emotional functioning. These effects can vary depending on the severity and location of the injury, as well as the individual's age, overall health, and other factors. Symptoms of chronic brain injury may include memory loss, difficulty with concentration and attention, mood changes, physical weakness or coordination problems, and changes in speech or language. Treatment for chronic brain injury typically involves a combination of medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes to manage symptoms and improve functioning.
Developmental disabilities are a group of conditions that begin during early childhood and affect a person's ability to learn, communicate, and function independently. These disabilities can affect various areas of development, including cognitive, physical, and social-emotional development. Developmental disabilities are typically caused by genetic or environmental factors that occur before a person reaches the age of 21. They can range from mild to severe and can affect a person's ability to perform daily activities, such as dressing, feeding, and toileting. Examples of developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Treatment for developmental disabilities typically involves a combination of therapies, such as speech therapy, occupational therapy, and physical therapy, as well as educational and social support.
Motor skills disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect an individual's ability to perform coordinated movements using their muscles. These disorders can affect both voluntary and involuntary movements and can range from mild to severe. Some common motor skills disorders include: 1. Dyspraxia: A developmental coordination disorder that affects an individual's ability to plan and execute motor tasks. 2. Parkinson's disease: A progressive neurological disorder that affects movement, balance, and coordination. 3. Cerebral palsy: A group of neurological disorders that affect movement and muscle tone due to damage to the brain before, during, or after birth. 4. Spina bifida: A birth defect that affects the development of the spinal cord and can lead to motor skills disorders. 5. Muscular dystrophy: A group of genetic disorders that affect muscle strength and function. 6. Multiple sclerosis: A neurological disorder that affects the central nervous system and can lead to motor skills disorders. Motor skills disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's daily life, including their ability to perform basic tasks such as dressing, eating, and grooming. Treatment for motor skills disorders may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, medication, and surgery, depending on the specific disorder and its severity.
Sleep deprivation is a condition that occurs when an individual does not get enough sleep, either in terms of duration or quality. It is a common problem that can have serious consequences on a person's physical and mental health. In the medical field, sleep deprivation is defined as a lack of sufficient sleep that affects a person's ability to function normally. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends that adults should aim for 7-9 hours of sleep per night, and that children and adolescents need even more. Sleep deprivation can be caused by a variety of factors, including lifestyle habits such as irregular sleep schedules, exposure to bright light at night, and the use of electronic devices before bedtime. It can also be caused by underlying medical conditions such as sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, and narcolepsy. The effects of sleep deprivation can range from mild to severe and can include fatigue, irritability, difficulty concentrating, memory problems, and an increased risk of accidents and injuries. In severe cases, sleep deprivation can lead to more serious health problems such as high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes. Treatment for sleep deprivation typically involves addressing the underlying cause and making lifestyle changes to improve sleep habits. In some cases, medication or other medical interventions may be necessary to treat underlying sleep disorders.
Depressive Disorder, Major, also known as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), is a mental health condition characterized by persistent and severe feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities that were once enjoyable. People with MDD may also experience changes in appetite and sleep patterns, feelings of fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide. MDD is a common disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. It can occur at any age and can be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. MDD can have a significant impact on a person's daily life, including their ability to work, socialize, and take care of themselves. Treatment for MDD typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). It is important for people with MDD to seek professional help as soon as possible to receive appropriate treatment and support.
Autistic Disorder, also known as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication, social interaction, and behavior. It is characterized by difficulties in social communication and interaction, repetitive patterns of behavior, and restricted interests or activities. Individuals with ASD may have difficulty understanding and interpreting social cues, such as facial expressions and body language, and may struggle to initiate and maintain conversations. They may also engage in repetitive behaviors, such as hand-flapping or rocking, and have a restricted range of interests or activities. The diagnosis of ASD is typically made by a team of healthcare professionals, including pediatricians, psychologists, and speech therapists, based on a combination of clinical observation, standardized assessments, and medical history. There is currently no cure for ASD, but early intervention and ongoing support can help individuals with ASD develop skills and strategies to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) is a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders that affect the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. These lobes are responsible for personality, behavior, language, and social skills. FTD can cause a range of symptoms, including changes in behavior, personality, language, and cognitive abilities. There are three main types of FTD: behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD), and progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA). BvFTD is characterized by changes in behavior and personality, while SD is characterized by problems with language and memory. PNFA is characterized by difficulty speaking and understanding language. FTD is caused by the degeneration of nerve cells in the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. The exact cause of FTD is not known, but it is believed to be related to genetic and environmental factors. FTD is a rare disorder, affecting only about 10-15% of people with dementia. There is currently no cure for FTD, but treatments can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for people with the disorder.
Spinal dysraphism is a group of birth defects that affect the development of the spinal cord and the surrounding tissues. These defects can occur anywhere along the length of the spine, from the base of the skull to the coccyx (tailbone). The most common type of spinal dysraphism is spina bifida, which occurs when the spinal cord fails to close properly during fetal development. Other types of spinal dysraphism include meningomyelocele, myelomeningocele, and lipomyelomeningocele. These conditions can cause a range of symptoms, including weakness or paralysis, loss of sensation, and problems with bladder and bowel control. Treatment for spinal dysraphism typically involves surgery to repair the defect and manage any associated complications.
Child behavior disorders are a group of conditions that affect a child's ability to behave appropriately in social situations and at home. These disorders can cause significant distress for both the child and their family, and can interfere with the child's ability to learn and function in daily life. Child behavior disorders can be classified into two main categories: internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders. Internalizing disorders include conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, and eating disorders, which are characterized by feelings of distress, withdrawal, and avoidance. Externalizing disorders, on the other hand, include conditions such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD), which are characterized by impulsivity, aggression, and defiance. Child behavior disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry, environmental factors, and trauma. Treatment for child behavior disorders typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and support from parents, teachers, and other caregivers. Early intervention and treatment can help children with behavior disorders to develop the skills they need to manage their symptoms and lead healthy, fulfilling lives.
Mood disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in mood, emotions, and behavior. These disorders are typically classified into two main categories: depressive disorders and bipolar disorders. Depressive disorders include major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and dysthymia. These disorders are characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyable. Symptoms may also include changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating. Bipolar disorders, on the other hand, are characterized by extreme mood swings that alternate between periods of mania or hypomania (elevated or irritable mood, increased energy, and decreased need for sleep) and periods of depression. The most common bipolar disorder is bipolar I disorder, which is characterized by at least one manic episode, while bipolar II disorder is characterized by at least one hypomanic episode and one major depressive episode. Other mood disorders include seasonal affective disorder (SAD), which is a type of depression that occurs during the winter months, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), which is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) that affects mood and behavior. Mood disorders can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, relationships, and ability to function in daily activities. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes.
In the medical field, gambling refers to the addictive behavior of repeatedly risking money or something of value on an uncertain outcome with the intention of winning. This behavior can lead to significant financial, social, and psychological problems for the individual, and may be diagnosed as a gambling disorder or problem gambling. Gambling disorder is a mental health condition that is characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior that causes significant impairment in personal, family, social, or occupational functioning. It is classified as a behavioral addiction, along with substance use disorders, and is recognized by the World Health Organization as a mental health disorder. Symptoms of gambling disorder may include preoccupation with gambling, a strong urge or need to gamble, unsuccessful attempts to control gambling behavior, and continued gambling despite negative consequences. Treatment for gambling disorder typically involves a combination of therapy, support groups, and medication to manage underlying mental health conditions such as depression or anxiety.
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects (PEDs) refer to the long-term health effects that can occur in an individual as a result of exposure to environmental or genetic factors during pregnancy. PEDs can manifest in a variety of ways, including physical, behavioral, and cognitive impairments, and can occur even if the exposure occurred many years before the individual's birth. PEDs can result from exposure to a wide range of substances, including drugs, alcohol, tobacco, pollutants, and infections. These exposures can affect the developing fetus in various ways, including disrupting normal growth and development, altering gene expression, and causing damage to organs and systems. PEDs can also result from genetic factors, such as inherited disorders or mutations. These genetic factors can increase the risk of developing certain health conditions, such as autism, ADHD, and learning disabilities, even if the individual was not exposed to any environmental factors during pregnancy. Overall, PEDs highlight the importance of taking steps to protect pregnant women and their developing fetuses from exposure to harmful substances and environmental factors, as well as the need for ongoing monitoring and support for individuals who may be at risk for PEDs.
Ocular motility disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect the movement of the eyes. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including damage to the nerves or muscles that control eye movement, problems with the brain's ability to coordinate eye movements, or abnormalities in the shape or position of the eyes or orbit. Symptoms of ocular motility disorders can include double vision, difficulty tracking objects with the eyes, limited ability to move the eyes in certain directions, and a sensation of the eyes being stuck or unable to move. These symptoms can be caused by a variety of conditions, including muscle weakness or paralysis, nerve damage, or problems with the brain's control of eye movement. Diagnosis of ocular motility disorders typically involves a comprehensive eye examination, including tests of eye movement and coordination, as well as imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment options for ocular motility disorders depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, physical therapy, or surgery. In some cases, corrective lenses or other optical aids may also be helpful in improving vision and reducing symptoms.
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- These areas, the supplementary motor area, the pre-supplementary area and the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, are known to be linked to executive function. (sciencedaily.com)
- The prefrontal dorsolateral cortex, the prefrontal ventromedial cortex, the prefrontal orbitofrontal cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex are the brain areas most related to cognitive functions. (cognifit.com)
- Executive dysfunction is a result of an underdeveloped or injured prefrontal cortex. (stowellcenter.com)
- The part of the brain responsible for Executive Function tasks, the prefrontal cortex, is the very last part of the brain to fully develop. (stowellcenter.com)
- Although some people naturally have more difficulty with executive functions-for example, those with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, whose prefrontal cortexes regulate attention less well than the "average brain"-anyone can improve these skills with practice. (schoolytics.com)
- This study tests the factor structure, measurement invariance, and correlates of the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI) with a large and diverse sample of 3- to 5-year-olds (n=844). (rti.org)
- Any mediation relating to disputes arising under the licence shall be conducted in accordance with the mediation rules of the World Intellectual Property Organization (http://www.wipo.int/amc/en/mediation/rules). (who.int)
- Our results may also have implications for children and adults who are struggling with executive functioning, such as children with ADHD or [the] elderly," says Gaab. (sciencedaily.com)
- Remembering everything for school is a matter of executive functioning, which is challenged in children with ADHD. (additudemag.com)
- If your son has attention deficit disorder ( ADHD or ADD ), then he will also have executive functioning challenges. (additudemag.com)
- That's why I love the new view that is being talked about more and more: ADHD as a problem with Executive Functions . (totallyadd.com)
- People with ADHD often have trouble shapes how the brain develops and functions. (medlineplus.gov)
- Some research suggests that people with ADHD have differences in the structure and function of their brains. (medlineplus.gov)
- This is responsible for executive functions: such as planning, organizing, to differences in what ADHD symptoms look like in boys and paying attention. (medlineplus.gov)
- Self-directed executive function develops mostly during childhood, the researchers write, and it includes any mental processes that help us work toward achieving goals-like planning, decision making, manipulating information, switching between tasks, and inhibiting unwanted thoughts and feelings. (edweek.org)
- Within this body of work, several studies have provided evidence in support to the hypothesis that bilingualism enhances executive control, a set of brain and cognitive processes that include inhibition (the ability to inhibit irrelevant information), working memory (the ability to simultaneously hold and manipulate information in mind) and switching (the skill to flexibly switch between different tasks). (europa.eu)
- Finally, correlations between CHEXI scores, examiner reports of child behavior, and child performance on a battery of executive function (EF) tasks were investigated. (rti.org)
- Executive function and self-regulation skills are the mental processes that enable us to plan, focus attention, remember instructions, and juggle multiple tasks successfully. (stowellcenter.com)
- Incorporate strategies into daily tasks to make executive functioning a daily skill set through practice, practice, and more practice! (theottoolbox.com)
- Executive functions can be trained and improved with practice and cognitive training. (cognifit.com)
- Having worked with many kids like Sam, I've found that the best way to address executive function challenges is repeated practice of simple strategies that can meet changing needs over time. (understood.org)
- Both the supporting and executive functioning skills can be developed through targeted training, practice, and repetition just like learning how to throw a baseball. (stowellcenter.com)
- Children of course learn and practice executive function skills at home with their families, especially siblings. (schoolytics.com)
- Most people don't realize that Executive Functioning develops as you age. (stowellcenter.com)
- At the end of the week, the researchers tested the children on skills like vocabulary and verbal fluency to measure their executive function. (edweek.org)
- But where are the opportunities for students to build executive functioning skills? (edutopia.org)
- Executive functioning skills aren't inherent for maturing preteen and high school students, and the added challenges they're facing further disrupt their ability to build these skills. (edutopia.org)
- While executive functioning skills aren't innate and aren't taught in one explicit lesson, they're foundational for the academic and personal success of our students. (edutopia.org)
- Executive functions are the set of cognitive skills necessary for controlling and self-regulating your behavior . (cognifit.com)
- What cognitive skills make up our executive functions? (cognifit.com)
- While there is some discussion as to what executive functions are, there is a general consensus about which skills make up our cognitive functions. (cognifit.com)
- Facilitating Executive Functioning Skills in Children with Autism,' will address areas of executive functioning frequently affected in children with autism. (thespiralfoundation.org)
- Identify and support executive functioning skills utilizing cognitive-social thinking principles. (thespiralfoundation.org)
- Identify and engage children in activities that support executive functioning skills. (thespiralfoundation.org)
- In the present meta-analysis we examined the near- and far-transfer effects of training components of children's executive functions skills: working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility. (ed.ac.uk)
- By showing the absence of benefits that generalize beyond the trained components, we question the practical relevance of training specific executive function skills in isolation. (ed.ac.uk)
- The term executive functions refers to the higher-level cognitive skills you use to control and coordinate your other cognitive abilities and behaviors. (stowellcenter.com)
- Executive Function skills are higher-level mental skills that allow us to self-monitor and manage our own attention and behavior. (stowellcenter.com)
- Subscribe to our weekly newsletter to download the Learning Skills Continuum and gain free access to more guides on Executive Function. (stowellcenter.com)
- Most people assume that Executive Function skills are automatically in place for everyone by early childhood, but in reality, these skills are tied to brain development and supported by many underlying neurodevelopmental/processing skills. (stowellcenter.com)
- But there has also been a growing push for teachers and schools to help kids improve their executive function skills because they help not only with learning in a school environment, but they also serve as preparation for employment and general life success in adulthood. (schoolytics.com)
- Educators are therefore looking for tools and ideas on ways to support students as they build executive function skills. (schoolytics.com)
- This helps them manage their workload better and develop those much-needed executive functioning skills. (schoolytics.com)
- We know that executive function skills are valuable for students and that these skills are teachable and learnable. (schoolytics.com)
- Schoolytics is just one way to empower students to increase executive function, build organizational skills, and increase agency. (schoolytics.com)
- The Executive Functioning Skills Activity Guide retails for $8. (theottoolbox.com)
- Don't wait, get this Executive Function Skills Activity Guide at 50% off. (theottoolbox.com)
- After memory loss occurs, patients may also experience language disorders (eg, anomic aphasia or anomia) and impairment in their visuospatial skills and executive functions. (medscape.com)
- These disorders impair development of personal, social, academic, and/or occupational functioning and typically involve difficulties with the acquisition, retention, or application of specific skills or sets of information. (msdmanuals.com)
- On cognitive testing, adult musicians and musically trained children showed enhanced performance on several aspects of executive functioning. (sciencedaily.com)
- The aim of this study was to develop a dog executive function scale (DEFS) for adult dogs. (springer.com)
- In an adult context, executive functioning helps people cooperate, solve problems, and work together-all key elements of job performance and productivity. (schoolytics.com)
- Early in the course of AD, patients may have preserved insight into the course of their ailment with preserved social and occupational functioning. (medscape.com)
- While it's already clear that musical training relates to cognitive abilities, few previous studies have looked at its effects on executive functions specifically. (sciencedaily.com)
- The researchers note that children who study music may already have executive functioning abilities that somehow attract them to music and predispose them to stick with their lessons. (sciencedaily.com)
- Executive functions (EF) constitute a large conglomerate of cognitive abilities that, as their name indicates, carry out decisive actions in decision-making and human behavior. (gob.ec)
- However, it is yet not clear from this research whether bilingualism affects specific executive control processes (e.g. inhibition) or whether it has a broader effect across executive control components. (europa.eu)
- These techniques aim at instrumentalizing the patient to face conflicts, developing some important functions such as: attention, planning and problem solving, directly related to executive functions, which are precarious in patients who present with attention deficits. (bvsalud.org)
- This systematic review of executive function (EF) interventions is the largest such review thus far, including 179 studies from all over the world, reported in 193 papers. (researchgate.net)
- This systematic review aims to examine growing evidence linking cognitive-executive functions with addiction treatment outcomes, and to discuss significant cognitive predictors drawing upon addiction neuroscience theory. (monash.edu)
- Children with higher executive function will be healthier, wealthier, and more socially stable throughout their lives. (edweek.org)
- That is, it's possible that children with better executive functioning may prefer to participate in less-structured activities more often, they write, while children with worse executive functioning may be more likely to seek out activities already structured for them. (edweek.org)
- A controlled study using functional MRI brain imaging reveals a possible biological link between early musical training and improved executive functioning in both children and adults, report researchers. (sciencedaily.com)
- To establish that musical training influences executive function, and not the other way around, they hope to perform additional studies that follow children over time, assigning them to musical training at random. (sciencedaily.com)
- Describe at least 4 areas of executive functioning which may require facilitation in children with autism. (thespiralfoundation.org)
- Ice Cream: new virtual reality tool for the assessment of executive functions in children and adolescents: a normative study. (bvsalud.org)
- Obtained normative data are relevant for evaluating executive functions in children and adolescents in a more ecological way. (bvsalud.org)
- There is evidence that prenatal exposure to individual chemicals may adversely impact executive functions in children, but few studies have explored the association of co-exposure to multiple chemicals with cognitive flexibility specifically among adolescents. (cdc.gov)
- Executive function (EF) refers to the higher-order cognitive control process for the attainment of a specific goal. (frontiersin.org)
- Executive functions are the high-level cognitive processes that enable people to quickly process and retain information, regulate their behaviors, make good choices, solve problems, plan and adjust to changing mental demands. (sciencedaily.com)
- In this context, NeuroBid aimed to closely examine the effect of bilingualism and bi-dialectalism on executive control. (europa.eu)
- Although cognitive assessments cannot replace a diagnosis based on a clinical examination, they are useful to examine the association of cognitive functioning with the many medical conditions and risk factors measured during the NHANES examination. (cdc.gov)
- serves as executive director of learning development at Understood. (understood.org)
- Individuals with executive functioning challenges are, on average, approximately 30 percent behind their peers in executive age. (additudemag.com)
- In the first year of the COVID-19, there was a significant drop in working memory and executive function in older individuals, which is linked to known dementia risk factors including increased alcohol use and a more sedentary lifestyle. (medscape.com)
- Cognitive flexibility, the ability to smoothly adapt to changing circumstances, is a skill that is vital to higher-level executive functions such as problem-solving, planning, and reasoning. (cdc.gov)
- Specifically, using Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) and multivariable regression analyses, we investigated the association of biomarkers of prenatal exposure to organochlorines (DDE, HCB, PCBs) and metals (lead, manganese) with cognitive flexibility, measured with four subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. (cdc.gov)
- Inhibitory control (the ability to ignore distracting information and focus on work-related information) and working memory (the ability to maintain and manipulate information for a short period are two important components of executive functions . (researchgate.net)
- The study uses functional MRI of brain areas associated with executive function, adjusting for socioeconomic factors. (sciencedaily.com)
- The study, appearing online June 17 in the journal PLOS ONE , uses functional MRI of brain areas associated with executive function, adjusting for socioeconomic factors. (sciencedaily.com)
- Among these studies, results have been mixed and limited by a lack of objective brain measurements, examination of only a few aspects of executive function, lack of well-defined musical training and control groups, and inadequate adjustment for factors like socioeconomic status. (sciencedaily.com)
- Recently, research on how bilingualism affects cognitive and brain functioning has seen a steep increase. (europa.eu)
- First, at the brain level, we conducted a critical review of past research that investigated the effect of bilingualism on executive control using the Event-Related Potentials (ERP) method from cognitive neuroscience. (europa.eu)
- The majority of these studies focused on the N2 and P3, two brain measures associated with executive control. (europa.eu)
- It turns out that there are parts of your brain that handle the Executive Functions. (totallyadd.com)
- Developing executive function is all about connecting regions in the brain with neural pathways so that they can function together and more effectively. (schoolytics.com)
- Brain anatomy and function. (medlineplus.gov)
- On the positive note, there is evidence that life-style changes and improved health management can positively influence mental functioning," study co-author Dag Aarsland, MD, PhD, professor of old-age psychiatry at King's College London Institute, England, said in a press release . (medscape.com)
- Recent studies have identified the stages of the sleep cycle across the night, and the important effects of sleep on people's daily functioning as well as our physical and mental well-being. (cdc.gov)
- However, almost every student with an executive-function deficit will exhibit some oppositional or defiant behaviors (Barkley). (hollygraves.com)
- We conducted a systematic search to identify studies using measures of general cognition and executive functions in patients with substance use disorders for the purpose of predicting two treatment outcomes: therapeutic adherence and relapse. (monash.edu)
- Underdeveloped executive functioning in our students has a domino effect that leads to academic challenges and higher needs for intervention, and it ultimately necessitates more-individualized support from teachers. (edutopia.org)
- Executive function challenges are tough. (understood.org)
- One of my teen students - let's call him Sam - had significant executive function challenges. (understood.org)
- Decline in cognitive functioning has been associated with quality of life, personal relationships, and independence resulting in increased health care needs, as well as major caregiving and financial challenges (3). (cdc.gov)
- Performance history included mild depression treated with a selective on most memory tests and tests of executive function serotonin reuptake inhibitor. (cdc.gov)
- Scores have been shown to discriminate between persons with normal cognitive functioning compared with those with mild cognitive impairment and more severe forms of cognitive impairment, such as Alzheimer's disease (10-12). (cdc.gov)
- Psychologists at the University of Colorado and the University of Denver studied the schedules of 70 six-year olds , and they found that the kids who spent more time in less-structured activities had more highly-developed self-directed executive function. (edweek.org)
- This set of cognitive functions make up part of our everyday lives, and help us successfully and efficiently get through daily activities. (cognifit.com)
- I need activities to help someone with Executive Functioning! (theottoolbox.com)
- have difficulty with these executive functions. (medlineplus.gov)
- There is evidence in the specialized literature that the application of these techniques suggests gains in the development of executive functions. (bvsalud.org)
- Advice the Regional Director on policies for research for health and development in the Region, in accordance with directives provided by governing bodies (World Health Assembly, Executive Board and Regional Committees) and within the framework of the global WHO policy. (who.int)
- WHO will provide technical support, capacity development and secretariat functions to the network. (who.int)
- The Animal Fluency test examines categorical verbal fluency, a component of executive function (9). (cdc.gov)
- Executive functions (EFs) are cognitive processes that are used to effortfully self-regulate behaviour and might be important for dogs' success in working and pet roles. (springer.com)
- We observed significant methodological differences across studies, resulting in substantial variability in the relationships between cognitive-executive domains and treatment outcomes. (monash.edu)
- A confirmatory factor analysis showed the suitability of the 3 factors established as measured of three differentiated executive functions . (bvsalud.org)
- Further studies are needed to determine sensitivity and specificity of Ice Cream VR test to measure executive functions in different clinical populations . (bvsalud.org)
- Since executive functioning is a strong predictor of academic achievement, even more than IQ, we think our findings have strong educational implications," says study senior investigator Nadine Gaab, PhD, of the Laboratories of Cognitive Neuroscience at Boston Children's. (sciencedaily.com)
- This study focuses on the obtention of normative data for participants between 8 and 16 years old who were administered the Ice Cream test, a virtual reality tool designed to evaluate executive functions . (bvsalud.org)
- Your Executive Functions Are Weak. (additudemag.com)
- Participants will learn about potential problems in this area, as well as strategies that can be used at home and at school to promote functioning and success. (thespiralfoundation.org)
- Additionally, physical activity has been linked to improved academic performance, including better grades, higher test scores, and enhanced cognitive function [18, 19]. (researchgate.net)
- They also felt that there should be more connection between the Board and the regional committees, and that the Board should exercise more fully its function of ensuring follow-up to resolutions and decisions of the Health Assembly. (who.int)
- There is a widespread impression in Western societies that monolingualism is the norm, but in fact most people function in multilingual and/or bi-dialectal settings. (europa.eu)
- The major growth in Executive Functioning does not begin until about 11 - 12 years of age and continues until about age 25. (stowellcenter.com)
- If you'd like to learn more about executive functioning, check out our one-hour " Late, Lost and Lagging Behind " video, chock-full of information on executive functioning. (additudemag.com)
- The link between general cognition and treatment adherence is consistent with emerging evidence linking limited cognitive-executive resources with less ability to benefit from talk therapies. (monash.edu)
- In doing so, we also wanted to establish the neurocognitive profile of bi-dialectals as compared to multilinguals and monolinguals (focusing on executive control) and to determine whether the typological distance between the languages spoken by bilinguals (smaller for bi-dialectals) modulates the bilingual advantage. (europa.eu)