A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
The subject's ability to connect 25 numbered and lettered circles in sequence in a specific length of time. A score of 12 or below is suggestive of organic brain damage.
A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
Timed test in which the subject must read a list of words or identify colors presented with varying instructions and different degrees of distraction. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. 8th ed.)
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.
Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.
Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).
Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.
Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.
Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.
Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.
The ability to acquire general or special types of knowledge or skill.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Capacity that enables an individual to cope with and/or recover from the impact of a neural injury or a psychotic episode.
Physicians who serve in a medical and administrative capacity as head of an organized medical staff and who also may serve as liaison for the medical staff with the administration and governing board.
Any of various diseases affecting the white matter of the central nervous system.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
Manner or style of walking.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
Performance of complex motor acts.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Non-specific white matter changes in the BRAIN, often seen after age 65. Changes include loss of AXONS; MYELIN pallor, GLIOSIS, loss of ependymal cells, and enlarged perivascular spaces. Leukoaraiosis is a risk factor for DEMENTIA and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
A term used in Eastern European research literature on brain and behavior physiology for cortical functions. It refers to the highest level of integrative function of the brain, centered in the CEREBRAL CORTEX, regulating language, thought, and behavior via sensory, motor, and cognitive processes.
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.
An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)
Activities in which participants learn self-defense mainly through the use of hand-to-hand combat. Judo involves throwing an opponent to the ground while karate (which includes kung fu and tae kwon do) involves kicking and punching an opponent.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological changes during ADOLESCENCE, approximately between the age of 13 and 18.
The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
Individuals who have the formal authority to manage a hospital, including its programs and services, in accordance with the goals and objectives established by a governing body (GOVERNING BOARD).
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.
The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).
A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
A sexual disorder occurring in a person 16 years or older and that is recurrent with intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child (generally age 13 or younger). (from APA, DSM-IV, 1994).
Primarily non-verbal tests designed to predict an individual's future learning ability or performance.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)
The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
Congenital defects of closure of one or more vertebral arches, which may be associated with malformations of the spinal cord, nerve roots, congenital fibrous bands, lipomas, and congenital cysts. These malformations range from mild (e.g., SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA) to severe, including rachischisis where there is complete failure of neural tube and spinal cord fusion, resulting in exposure of the spinal cord at the surface. Spinal dysraphism includes all forms of spina bifida. The open form is called SPINA BIFIDA CYSTICA and the closed form is SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)
Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
Persons with no known significant health problems who are recruited to participate in research to test a new drug, device, or intervention as controls for a patient group. (from http://clinicalcenter.nih.gov/recruit/volunteers.html, accessed 2/14/2013)
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)

Age-related slowing of task switching is associated with decreased integrity of frontoparietal white matter. (1/1281)

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Differential effects of COMT on gait and executive control in aging. (2/1281)

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Successful life outcome and management of real-world memory demands despite profound anterograde amnesia. (3/1281)

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The primary cognitive deficit among males with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a dysexecutive syndrome. (4/1281)

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The relationship between IQ, memory, executive function, and processing speed in recent-onset psychosis: 1-year stability and clinical outcome. (5/1281)

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Schizophrenia patients show task switching deficits consistent with N-methyl-d-aspartate system dysfunction but not global executive deficits: implications for pathophysiology of executive dysfunction in schizophrenia. (6/1281)

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Impaired modulation of attention and emotion in schizophrenia. (7/1281)

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Executive control deficits in substance-dependent individuals: a comparison of alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine and of men and women. (8/1281)

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A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Francesco Craig,1 Francesco Margari,2 Anna R Legrottaglie,1 Roberto Palumbi,1 Concetta de Giambattista,1 Lucia Margari1 1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, 2Psychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy Abstract: Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. In light of findings from this review, the ASD + ADHD group appears to share impairment in both flexibility and planning with the ASD group, while it shares the response inhibition deficit with the ADHD group. Conversely, deficit in attention, working memory, preparatory processes, fluency, and
Teens with executive function deficits often need an extra nudge to get going. Help them get on the right track without starting a fight.
Eating Disorder research has highlighted the role of neuropsychological functioning, informing the treatment of Anorexia Nervosa. There is ambiguity in the data relating to cognitive impairment in Bulimia Nervosa, with the latest review providing inconclusive results. Executive function impairments in the area of set shifting and inhibition reported in BN are proposed to relate to traits of compulsivity and impulsivity. Other psychological disorders have also demonstrated executive function impairments. Among anxiety disorders, only PTSD and OCD have strong evidence of executive function deficits while a number of studies point towards executive function deficits in depression. This thesis aims to investigate the specificity of cognitive impairments seen in a group of female outpatients with bulimia nervosa, using a clinical comparison group of anxious and/or depressed female outpatients. Methods A systematic review was conducted to address a gap in the anxiety disorder literature and assess the ...
Media multitasking is an ever more popular form of media consumption, in particular among youth. The increasing prevalence of media multitasking is concerning because frequent media multitasking may be negatively related to childrens cognitive control abilities (i.e. executive function). This study investigated the relationship between media multitasking and executive function in 118 early adolescents (aged 11 to 13; 50% girls). The three central components of executive functions (i.e., working memory, shifting, and inhibition) were measured using self-reports on daily-life functioning, as well as experimental tasks (Digit Span, the Dots-Triangles Task, and the Eriksen Flankers Task). Regression analyses revealed that media multitasking significantly predicted self-reported measures of executive function. Adolescents who media multitask more frequently reported having more problems in the three domains of executive function. Media multitasking was however not related to the performance on the ...
This study examined the longitudinal associations of maternal and paternal warmth and hostility with child executive function problems. Data were collected for two consecutive years from 333 kindergarten children who resided in Hong Kong, China, as well as their mothers, fathers, and class teachers. At Time 1, the average age of children was 57.73 months, and 56% of them were girls. At Time 1, mothers and fathers rated their own parenting practices with their children. At Times 1 and 2, class teachers rated childrens problems in three aspects of executive functions, including updating/working memory, inhibition, and shifting/cognitive flexibility. As control variables, at Time 1, parents provided information on child and family demographic factors, and children completed verbal ability tasks. Multilevel modeling revealed that controlling for child and family demographic factors, child verbal abilities, and paternal parenting practices, maternal hostility, but not maternal warmth, was linked to ...
BACKGROUND:Specific domains of adaptive behaviours and academic achievement may, in part, depend on executive function capacities. Executive function deficits have been found to be associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), not Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD). METHOD:Using a sample of 110 adolescents, comprising four groups, ADHD only, co-morbid ADHD and ODD/CD, ODD/CD only, and a normal community control group, we assessed socialisation and communication skills with the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, along with reading ability, and executive functioning. RESULTS:Poorer adaptive communication skills were specifically associated with ADHD when compared with either ODD/CD or the control group, and the social competence of adolescents with ADHD was as low as the levels associated with ODD/CD. Presence of ADHD was associated with lower word recognition scores, while the reading levels of adolescents with ODD/CD were equivalent to those without ...
This study examined the reliability and validity of the Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT). The EFPT assesses executive function deficits in the performance of real-world tasks. It uses a structured cueing and scoring system to assess higher-level cognitive functions, specifically initiation, organization, sequencing safety and judgment, and task completion. Seventy-three participants with mild to moderate stroke and 22 age- and education-matched controls completed the 4 EFPT tasks (cooking, using the telephone, managing medications, and paying bills). Significant differences were found between participants with mild and moderate stroke and healthy control participants. The EFPT can help occupational therapists determine the level of support needed by people with cognitive impairments to perform complex instrumental tasks. Objective information derived from this assessment is an essential part of the process of determining whether the person can live independently and helping families ...
Currently, 25 states and Washington DC have enacted full medical marijuana (MMJ) programs while 18 states allow limited access to MMJ products. Limited access states permit low (or zero) tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and high cannabidiol (CBD) products to treat specified conditions such as uncontrolled epilepsy. Although MMJ products are derived from the same plant species as recreational MJ, they are often selected for their unique cannabinoid constituents and ratios, not typically sought by recreational users, which may impact neurocognitive outcomes. To date, few studies have investigated the potential impact of MMJ use on cognitive performance, despite a well-documented association between recreational marijuana (MJ) use and executive dysfunction. The current study assessed the impact of 3 months of MMJ treatment on executive function, exploring whether MMJ patients would experience improvement in cognitive functioning, perhaps related to primary symptom alleviation. As part of a larger longitudinal
The results from this approach are jaw-dropping: variance shared among each variety of executive function (inhibition, updating, and shifting) is nearly perfectly heritable: the contribution of the A component to those correlations is 99%. This heritable variance in the common executive function predicts nearly all of the genetic variance in the inhibition factor, consistent with the idea that those constructs are isomorphic from a heritability standpoint. Second, genetic influences on updating and shifting were roughly half due to the common executive function (43% and 44%, respectively) and half due to unique genetic influences (56% and 42%, respectively). Thus, the overall picture is that executive functions, in both their unity and diversity, are somewhere between 86 to 100% heritable ...
The BRIEFA captures views of an adults executive function and self-regulation in everyday environments, through both a self-report and an informant report.. Academic Therapy Publications publishes materials for learning disabilities and special education, tests, assessments, parent and teacher resources, hi lo readers, and visual perceptual aids.
The BRIEF-2 is a set of questionnaires for parents, teachers, and now older students (ages 11-18) designed to evaluate executive function from multiple perspectives.. Academic Therapy Publications publishes materials for learning disabilities and special education, tests, assessments, parent and teacher resources, hi lo readers, and visual perceptual aids.
The relationship between cortical thickness and performance on executive function measures was characterized by a double dissociation between the thickness of cortical regions hypothesized to be involved in executive control and distinct executive processes. Results indicate that fundamentally diffe …
Clearly school is often very difficult for students with attention deficits. However, when executive function deficits are also present, the accompanying problems are often overwhelming to the student and family. Unfortunately, some parents and teachers have had little awareness or sympathy for the challenges presented by these combined deficits. Hopefully, teachers and parents now realize that attention deficit disorder is often a very complex condition….when deficits in executive function and related learning problems are present, students can try their very best and still not succeed in school.. Read more ...
Psychophysiology published research on the effects of acute exercise on executive function in 20 healthy, 8-10, year old children. This study compared the effect of an acute bout of continuous or intermittent, moderate-intensity treadmill exercise on executive function in young children. Participants in the continuous exercise group ran at 90% of gas exchange threshold whereas the participants in the intermittent exercise group performed six consecutive 2.5 min blocks of exercise. The intermittent exercise block was designed to reflect childrens typical activity patterns, comprising 45 s at a heavy intensity, 33 s at a moderate intensity, 10 s at a severe intensity, and 62 s at a low intensity.. Read the Rest of this Abstract on Your Therapy Source. ...
Executive functions (EFs) regulate human behavior and allow individuals to interact and act in the world. EFs are sensitive to sociodemographic variables such as age, which promotes their decline, and to others that can exert a neuroprotective effect. Objective: To assess the predictive role of education, occupation and family income on decline in executive functions among a sample with a wide age range. Methods: A total of 925 participants aged 18-89 years with 1-28 years education were submitted to assessment of executive functions using the Card Sorting Test (CST), Phonemic Verbal Fluency (FAS) Task and Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) Task ...
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Objective: Children with a mental disability show delays of development in several areas, including executive functions. A lack of, or underdeveloped executive functions, can lead to behavioral problems. This study investigates the fitness of a training on an iPad, to improve the executive functions of children with a mental disability. Executive functions are all the cognitive processes that combined lead to efficient, planned behavior. Three executive functions that will be taken into account in this study are: working memory, inhibition and cognitive flexibility. The training used, developed by researchers of the University of Utrecht, consists of several iPad games and an additional non-electronic game. Method: 11 children (4 girls and 7 boys, mean age 5,2) from a health care institution for mentally disabled people, de Twentse Zorgcentra, participated in this study. Before and after training, they were assessed by neuropsychological testing of their executive functions. In addition, an ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM I69.014 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Free, official coding info for 2021 ICD-10-CM I69.114 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
The largest, but most mysterious, sub-region of prefrontal cortex is the rostral PFC (RPFC). As a proportion of whole-brain volume, some have estimated the human RPFC to be twice as large as the corresponding region in the chimpanzee brain. Yet curiously, patients with damage restricted to the RPFC often perform well on standard neuropsychological tests, including classical tests of executive function such as the Wisconsin card sorting test. Instead, patients with damage to this region seem to have particular difficulty in real-world multitasking situations, such as organising a shopping trip when there are few strict constraints - participants are relatively free to organise their behaviour however they like - but there are also multiple instructions to be remembered, rules to be followed, and potential distractions in the environment. Recent accounts have focused on the role of RPFC in the most high-level human abilities, such as combining two distinct cognitive operations in order to ...
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In a predominantly low-income population-based longitudinal sample of 1,292 children followed from birth, higher level of salivary cortisol assessed at ages 7, 15, and 24 months was uniquely associated with lower executive function ability and to a lesser extent IQ at age 3 years. Measures of positive and negative aspects of parenting and household risk were also uniquely
Change From Baseline in Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version Global Executive Composite T-score (BRIEF-A GEC T) at Week 9, Last Observation Carried Forward (LOCF ...
In this longitudinal study, we examined the stability of the association between executive functions and externalizing behavior problems, and the developmental change of executive functions in a predominately clinically diagnosed preschool sample (N = 200). Inhibition and working memory performance were assessed three times in 18 months. Across time, poorer ... read more inhibition performance in young children was associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), and poorer working memory performance was associated with ADHD. Inhibition and working memory performance increased over time, especially in the early preschool period. The improvement of inhibition performance was more pronounced in the clinically diagnosed children compared to the TD children. show less ...
Although cognitive functions affect the health related quality of life (QoL), the relationship between perceived QoL and cognition including executive functions has not been studied adequately. Available studies show moderate to weak correlations. We evaluated the association of cognition and executive functions, namely working memory (WM) and inhibitory control (IC) with the perceived QoL of a sample of elderly people dwelling in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) in Southern Province of Sri Lanka. Cognition was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), while verbal WM (VWM), visuo-spatial WM (VSWM) and IC (interference control, inhibition of pre potent and ongoing responses) were assessed using VWM, VSWM tasks, colour word Stroop (CWS), go/no-go (GNG) and stop signal (SS) tasks respectively. WHOQoL-Bref (Total score and domain scores) were used to assess QoL. The relationship was analysed using Pearson correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Study included 237
METHODS: Participants included 132 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who sustained a complicated mild to severe TBI within 1 to 6 months before study enrollment. Study design was a multisite, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Study sites included 3 tertiary pediatric hospitals and 2 tertiary general medical centers. The main outcome measure was primary caregiver Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function Global Executive Composite at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Generalized linear models that controlled for baseline scores were used to compare the CAPS and IRC scores. ...
In addition to its role in developing cardiovascular disease and stroke, hypertension is also a risk factor for cognitive impairment [1-5] Although blood pressure tends to decline around the time of onset of clinical cognitive impairment[3], hypertension leads to accelerated decline in those with cognitive impairment or dementia[6, 7] Of all the cognitive domains, executive function is more vulnerable to the effects of hypertension [8-10] Executive function is defined as the set of cognitive skills that are responsible for the planning, initiation, sequencing, and monitoring of complex goal-directed behavior[11] Seniors suffering from executive dysfunction have significant impairment in following medical advise [12] and are more likely to develop disability[13, 14] It is estimated that close to 30% of the elderly population have executive function abnormalities and are generally undetected[15, 16] No prior research has evaluated the effect of hypertension treatment on executive function or ...
Objective: The NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NTCB) is a brief computerized method for evaluating neuropsychological functions in children, adolescents, and adults. We examined how performance on the 2 executive function measures of cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control was related to perform
Tsinghua University School of Economics and Management (Tsinghua SEM) is to start a 20 day global executive program to meet this need - Opportunity in Diversity: Decoding the Dynamic Chinese Economy.
Deficits in executive function correlate with the symptomatology of adult ADHD. Participate in this activity to understand the role of executive function in ADHD and learn which symptoms and characteristics can differentiate adult ADHD from other disorders.
This study used the attention network test (ANT) to evaluate the alerting, orienting, and executive network efficiencies of attention related to indigenous residents who were born and raised until early adulthood in different high-altitude areas (2900-m, 3700-m, and 4200-m) at the same location (3700-m) where these residents had been living for approximately 2 years in Tibet. We further applied the event-related potential (ERP) method to identify the underlying neurophysiological basis. Based on the ANT, we found that, in the 4200-m residents, executive function was increased but the orienting function was decreased, and the executive and orienting network scores were oppositely correlated ...
Choose D-REF Delis-Rating of Executive Function for a quick measure of an individuals behaviors related to executive function difficulties.
Executive coaches and leadership coaches perform similar roles within the business world, yet these two coaching careers do have some subtle differences. Understanding how they are different is important when deciding how to steer your career or choose a coach to move your business or organization forward. So, what is the difference between the two? Here is a closer look at executive coaching, leadership coaching, and how they differ.. What Is Executive Coaching?. An executive coach will work to help leaders improve their performance and their organization as a whole. Executive coaches serve as neutral sounding boards to clients, giving organizational leaders a listening ear when their working through decisions or seeking personal improvement by supporting them to gain more awareness about how to reach their goals.. Often, executive coaching professionals work with C-suite executives or vice-presidents, helping them as they make decisions in a fast-paced business world. Executive coaches can ...
The BlueSteps Career Management Blog is written with a C-level audience in mind on career management topics ranging from executive compensation, executive resumes, and interview tips to networking, executive job search, and gaining visibility as a professional in ones industry.. The BlueSteps Executive Search Blog links senior executive candidates to actual retained search recruitment insights from AESC member executive recruiters, BlueSteps career advisors and other guest writers.. BlueSteps is an exclusive service of the Association of Executive Search and Leadership Consultants, the voice of excellence for executive search and leadership consultants worldwide. Confidentiality is a cornerstone of AESCs mission, and only AESC member firms and consultants have access to BlueSteps members resume info. Click here to learn more about the additional benefits of becoming a BlueSteps member. ...
A Comprehensive List Of Obamas Worst Executive Orders. JUNE 15, 2012 BY LAURIE ROTH. There have been over 900 Executive Orders put forth from Obama, and he is not even through his first term yet. He is creating a martial law Disney Land of control covering everything imaginable. Some of the executive orders he has signed recently have been exposed thanks to Friends of Conservative Action Alerts. They have compiled a choice list of Emergency Powers, Martial law executive orders: Get your headache medication out while you still can without a prescription.. [EET ]. * Executive Order 10990 allows the Government to take over all modes of transportation and control of highways and seaports.. * Executive Order 10995 allows the government to seize and control the communication media.. * Executive Order 10997 allows the government to take over all electrical power, gas, petroleum, fuels, and minerals.. * Executive Order 11000 allows the government to mobilize civilians into work brigades under ...
Executive processes, that is high-level cognitive functions involved in control and direction of action, including planning, monitoring, initiating, and switching, have been described by Lezak as being the heart of all socially useful, personally enhancing, constructive and creative activities[1]. Thus, impairments of executive function can have the most devastating impact on everyday life because of their super ordinate role in behavioural and cognitive processing[2]. Considerable attention has been directed at developing and testing interventions to manage these impairments; in the past six years, four systematic reviews and one meta-analysis related to treatment for executive dysfunction have been published[3]-[6].. The majority of studies in this area use some form of problem-solving or metacognitive strategy instruction. Meta-cognitive strategy instruction has roots in cognitive-, educational- and neuro-psychology[7]-[9]. Luria, in his seminal work, was perhaps the first to hypothesize ...
Two studies have tested the moderators between acute exercise and executive function gains. In study 1, 60 participants were assigned to 2 groups and performed a handgrip squeezing task at 30% of their maximal voluntary contraction or a stepping task to the cadence of a metronome. Rate of perceived exertions (RPE) and heart rate were measured at 30 s intervals. Trail-making test (TMT) was administered prior to task performance, following RPE = 6 and RPE = 9. In study 2, 83 participants were assigned to 1 of 5 groups. They performed either a handgrip squeezing task or a stepping task up to RPE = 6 or RPE = 9. Participants in the control group have not been engaged in any exercise tasks. Measures of executive function were administered at rest, immediately following exercise tasks, and after 15 min delay. Results from study 1 revealed that both the handgrip squeezing and stepping tasks improved TMT scores after RPE = 9 (p , .001). In study 2, executive function scores improved following the ...
The purpose of this study was to test the transient hypofrontality theory (Dietrich, 2003) by examining the influence of exercise intensity on executive control processes during and following submaximal exercise. Thirty participants (13 female) exercised for 30 min at ventilatory threshold (VT) or at 75% of VT. The Contingent Continuous Performance Task (CPT) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were used as measures of executive control. They were administered before, during, immediately following, and 20 min after exercise. An increase in false alarms and unique errors (p ≤ .05) occurred during both conditions. False alarms for the CPT and total and perseverative errors for the WCST remained elevated immediately following exercise at VT, but not at exercise below VT (p ≤ .01). The decreased executive control function during exercise can be explained by the transient hypofrontality theory. Following VT, executive control performance remained poor possibly owing to an additional amount of ...
Parents or legal guardians complete the PedsQL-MFS, the Conners Parent Reported Scale (CPR-3), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) at baseline and after completion of study therapy.. Clinical and/or research staff administer the Systematic Assessment for Treatment Emergency Events (SAFTEE), a semi-structured interview designed to elicit adverse events, at baseline and periodically during study.. After completion of study therapy, participants are followed up for 30 days. ...
Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function... PDF On Aug 21, 2015, Nolwenn Poquet and others published The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relationship between baseline brain metabolism measured using [18F]FDG PET and memory and executive function in prodromal and early Alzheimers disease. AU - Habeck, Christian. AU - Risacher, Shannon. AU - Lee, Grace J.. AU - Glymour, M. Maria. AU - Mormino, Elizabeth. AU - Mukherjee, Shubhabrata. AU - Kim, Sungeun. AU - Nho, Kwangsik. AU - DeCarli, Charles. AU - Saykin, Andrew J.. AU - Crane, Paul K.. PY - 2012/11/26. Y1 - 2012/11/26. N2 - Differences in brain metabolism as measured by FDG-PET in prodromal and early Alzheimers disease (AD) have been consistently observed, with a characteristic parietotemporal hypometabolic pattern. However, exploration of brain metabolic correlates of more nuanced measures of cognitive function has been rare, particularly in larger samples. We analyzed the relationship between resting brain metabolism and memory and executive functioning within diagnostic group on a voxel-wise basis in 86 people with AD, 185 people with mild cognitive ...
Few people have heard of executive dysfunction. but is part of many mental illnesses. Learn about executive dysfunction and its impact on relationships.
José Luis Ivorra, Olga Rivero, Javier Costas, Raquel Iniesta, Manuel Arrojo, Ramón Ramos-Ríos, Ángel Carracedo, Tomas Palomo, Roberto Rodriguez-Jimenez, Jorge Cervilla, Blanca Gutiérrez, Esther Molina, Celso Arango, Mar Álvarez, Juan C. Pascual, Víctor Pérez, Pilar Alejandra Saiz, María Paz García-Portilla, Julio Bobes, Ana González-Pinto, Iñaki Zorrilla, Josep María Haro, Miguel Bernardo, Enrique Baca-García, José Carlos González, Janet Hoenicka, María Dolores Moltó, Julio Sanjuán, Replication of previous genome-wide association studies of psychiatric diseases in a large schizophrenia case-control sample from Spain, Schizophrenia Research, 2014, 159, 1, ...
its going to be a line, its not going be a report on the GCS, its going to say GCS 9. And you got to look for it. So if you dont know to look for it, youll never ask for it. So when it comes in ...
Objective: Using a population-based sample of 9-year-old children, this study examined whether the relation between symptoms of ADHD and executive functions (EFs) depended on socioeconomic status (SES; indexed by parental education). Method: Parents and teachers rated the childrens ADHD symptoms, and parents also indicated their educational level in a questionnaire. The children performed a comprehensive set of EF tasks. Results: Whereas working memory was similarly related to ADHD symptoms in the lower and higher parental education group, the relations of inhibition and mental set-shifting with ADHD symptoms were generally stronger in the higher educational group, a pattern that was supported by several significant group differences in correlations. Conclusion: This suggests that the EF pathway in contemporary multiple pathway models of ADHD etiology may be particularly relevant in higher SES parts of the population.. ...
Facility Executive is your one-stop source for information on quality operation, design and maintenance of facilities. Facility Executive offers a shared community of facility management experts who explore and analyze issues that affect your facility and its environment.. Facility Executive is a specialized trade publication written and edited for corporate facility executives in all industry and service sectors whose responsibilities include purchasing, planning and approving products, services and materials for facility operations.. This Web site is brought to you by Group C Media, Inc., publishers of Business Facilities and Facility Executive; and producers of both the Facility Executive Live! Conference & Business Facilities LiveXchange - The Premier Event for Corporate Site Selectors. ...
Executive defense provides executives with the tools to avoid and survive a kidnap attempt using brutally simple and easy effective techniques. The aim of executive defense is usually to escape, not to fight the kidnappers. The ideal strategy to executive defense is to learn how kidnap situations develop as well as to avoid them. If, however, the kidnap situation is unavoidable, then using simple physical techniques will provide you with the advantage required to escape. Proficiency during these techniques enables increased safety by disabling a kidnapper for a couple seconds to make an escape with an established safe haven. If this becomes necessary, why wait? An improved chance for escape may never come; a strategy quickly executed now is better than the perfect plan next week.. If prevention fails, the normal logic is that if attacked, escape. Of course, if trapped, stay alive. Use only executive defense for self-defense. Attack the eyes, nose groin or throat. Make an effort to memorize ...
Looking for online definition of executive function in the Medical Dictionary? executive function explanation free. What is executive function? Meaning of executive function medical term. What does executive function mean?
We report on the case of middle-aged right-handed woman with central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) revealed by high resolution structural T2-weighted FLAIR MRI imaging. There was a general flattening of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition subtest scores which were 1 standard deviation below expected values. In contrast Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition visual and auditory memory scores remained within the normal range. Verbal working memory appeared mildly impaired while nonverbal working memory was not. Scores on the Advanced Clinical Solutions Social Perception battery were all in the normal range as were academic skills measured by the Wide Range Achievement Test-Fourth Edition. Performance was impaired on the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function Systems counterpart of the Trail-Making Test: Part B. Similarly, on the Draw-A-Person Test there was a discrepancy in that our patients standard score was 76 compared to her estimated premorbid FSIQ in the average range. She also displayed
Executive function declines with age, but engaging in aerobic exercise may attenuate decline. One mechanism by which aerobic exercise may preserve executive function is through the up-regulation of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), which also declines with age. The present study examined BDNF as a mediator of the effects of a 1-year walking intervention on executive function in 90 older adults (mean age = 66.82). Participants were randomized to a stretching and toning control group or a moderate intensity walking intervention group. BDNF serum levels and performance on a task-switching paradigm were collected at baseline and follow-up. We found that age moderated the effect of intervention group on changes in BDNF levels, with those in the highest age quartile showing the greatest increase in BDNF after 1-year of moderate intensity walking exercise (p = .036). The mediation analyses revealed that BDNF mediated the effect of the intervention on task-switch accuracy, but did so as a function of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fertility treatment and child intelligence, attention, and executive functions in 5-year-old singletons. T2 - a cohort study. AU - Bay, B. AU - Mortensen, E L. AU - Kesmodel, U S. N1 - © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.. PY - 2014/12. Y1 - 2014/12. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of fertility treatment and subfertility with offspring intelligence, attention, and executive functions in 5-year-old singletons.DESIGN: Follow-up study.SETTING: Denmark 2003-2008.POPULATION: A cohort of 1782 children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort.METHODS: The children were tested with a neuropsychological battery at age five. In addition to tests of intelligence, attention and executive functions, the follow up included extensive information on important covariates. The analyses were conducted using multiple linear regression and adjusted for parental educational level, maternal intelligence, age, parity, body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, alcohol ...
Authors declare no conflict of interest.. References. Anderson, V. A., Anderson, P., Northam, E., Jacobs, R., & Catroppa, C. (2001). Development of executive functions through late childhood and adolescence in an Australian sample. Developmental neuropsychology, 20(1), 385-406.. Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological bulletin, 121(1), 65-94.. Blakemore, S.-J., & Mills, K. L. (2014). Is adolescence a sensitive period for sociocultural processing? Annual review of psychology, 65, 187-207.. Blakemore, S. J., & Choudhury, S. (2006). Development of the adolescent brain: implications for executive function and social cognition. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(3‐4), 296-312.. Boyer, B. E., Geurts, H. M., Prins, P. J., & Van der Oord, S. (2015). Two novel CBTs for adolescents with ADHD: the value of planning skills. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(9), 1075-1090.. Bruhn, ...
Background/Aim: Developmental neurotoxicity of fluoride has been demonstrated in animal studies. Additionally, fluoride exposure during prenatal development, infancy, middle-to-late childhood and adolescence has been associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes among children in Mexico and/or Canada. However, potential impacts of chronic low-level fluoride exposure in early childhood on brain structure and neurodevelopment remain relatively unexamined. We conducted the first United States (US) study to examine associations of early childhood urinary fluoride levels with measures of attention and executive function, as well as changes in white matter (WM) microstructure in the brain.. Methods: This community-based sample included 31 children ages 4-6-years recruited from New York City. Executive function was assessed with the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and attention and behavior were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We assessed whole brain WM ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An fNIRS examination of executive function in bilingual young children. AU - Xie, Sha. AU - Wu, Dandan. AU - Yang, Jinfeng. AU - Luo, Jiutong. AU - Chang, Chunqi. AU - Li, Hui. PY - 2021/6/1. Y1 - 2021/6/1. N2 - Aims: The present study aims to examine: (1) the relationship between young childrens bilingualism and their performance in the Dimensional Card Change Sort (DCCS) task; and (2) whether prefrontal activation was associated with childrens bilingualism and executive function. Methodology: Children performed three sessions of the DCCS and their brain activity during the task was measured using functional nearinfrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Data and analysis: A sample of bilingual children (N = 49) was recruited from a preschool with an English immersion program. We examined whether childrens performance in the DCCS was related to their bilingualism and whether the changes in oxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal regions were related to their bilingualism and performance ...
Research indicates that executive functioning is a multidimensional construct in school-age children (Korkman, Kemp, & Kirk, 2001; Welsh & Pennington, 1988). Executive dysfunction is primarily associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; Barkley, 2003). This association is because of a `core deficit in inhibitory control found in ADHD-Combined Type (ADHD-C; Barkley, 1997); however, inhibitory control is only one component of executive functioning. Children with dyslexia are thought to demonstrate a `core deficit in phonological awareness (Wagner & Torgesen, 1987). However, little consideration is given to the potential executive deficits that may exist in children with dyslexia. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to test for convergent and divergent executive functioning deficits in 8-to 12-year-old children with ADHD or dyslexia using a comprehensive battery of executive measures. On neuropsychological measures when intelligence (IQ) was used as a covariate, the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hot and cool executive function and body mass index in young children. AU - Beck, Danielle M.. AU - Eales, Lauren. AU - Carlson, Stephanie M.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the U.S. National Institutes of Health [ RO1HD051495 ] to SMC. Publisher Copyright: © 2020 Elsevier Inc. Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2020/4/1. Y1 - 2020/4/1. N2 - There is a need in the literature to investigate the cognitive components that play a role in obesity, particularly in early childhood. The current study investigated executive function (EF) in healthy-weight (n = 63) and overweight/obese (n = 20) 4- to 5-year-old children. No significant correlations were found between childrens body mass index (BMI) and cool (non-reward based) EF. However, a significant interaction demonstrated that children who were overweight/obese made more delayed/larger food choices for themselves than healthy-weight children but made similar choices for others ...
To determine if patients with extracranial carotid stenosis have improved blood flow and cognitive function following carotid revascularization.
Chief Executive Officer & Publisher. Jim Garrettson founded Executive Mosaic in 2001 in an effort to build an exclusive forum and cross media platform exclusively for top-tier executives in the greater Washington D.C. market. His efforts produced an array of highly specialized internet-based media properties, publications and event driven executive peer groups. Sensing the continued growth of the Government Contracting community and consolidation of the mid-tier companies, Garrettson evolved his models and efforts to strategically pursue this key market segment. Today, he has created a prestigious series of private networking communities for top executives, and serves as publisher for the growing number of Executive Mosaic online and print media outlets.. In addition to Executive Mosaic, Garrettson also founded the Potomac Officers Club (POC) as a 501(c) 6 non-profit organization whose mission is to weave an executive fabric that benefits our local business community. That organization and ...
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent conditions among school children. Executive function deficits representing difficulties in maintaining an appropriate problem set for the attainment of future goals are reported to be the major deficit in ADHD populations. There is a high rate of co-morbidity of learning disabilities and ADHD, with empirical evidence indicating an association with math and reading difficulties, but there is little research on the written expression of this population. There is a body of emergent research indicating that written expression is mediated by executive function. Written expression is a complex task that is affected by motivation, working memory, cognitive processes and long term memory, factors which are reported to be compromised in ADHD populations. This study evaluated the working memory and fluid reasoning in children with (combined and predominantly inattentive types) and without ADHD. Second, it explored the ...
The Luria Neuroscience Institute is pleased to introduce the webinar Executive Functions and Frontal Lobes in Health and Disease. Executive functions represent the highest level of cognitive control and involve goal formation, planning, mental flexibility, impulse control, working memory. Executive functions are mediated by the prefrontal cortex and related structures. In this webinar we will examine their cognitive composition, neural mechanisms, changes throughout the lifespan, and gender differences. We will also examine how executive functions become impaired in a wide range of neurological, neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental, and neurogeriatric disorders ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A topography of executive functions and their interactions revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. AU - Fassbender, Catherine. AU - Murphy, K.. AU - Foxe, J. J.. AU - Wylie, G. R.. AU - Javitt, D. C.. AU - Robertson, I. H.. AU - Garavan, H.. PY - 2004/7/1. Y1 - 2004/7/1. N2 - We used fMRI to study the brain processes involved in the executive control of behavior. The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART), which allows unpredictable and predictable NOGO events to be contrasted, was imaged using a mixed (block and event-related) fMRI design to examine tonic and phasic processes involved in response inhibition, error detection, conflict monitoring and sustained attention. A network of regions, including right ventral prefrontal cortex (PFC), left dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) and right inferior parietal cortex, was activated for successful unpredictable inhibitions, while rostral anterior cingulate was implicated in error processing and the pre-SMA in conflict ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Childhood Executive Functioning Predicts Young Adult Outcomes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome. AU - Albert, Avery B.. AU - Abu-Ramadan, Tamara. AU - Kates, Wendy R.. AU - Fremont, Wanda. AU - Antshel, Kevin M.. PY - 2018/10/1. Y1 - 2018/10/1. N2 - Objective: While individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) are at increased risk for a variety of functional impairments and psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, not all individuals with 22q11DS experience negative outcomes. Efforts to further understand which childhood variables best predict adult functional outcomes are needed, especially those that investigate childhood executive functioning abilities. Methods: This longitudinal study followed 63 individuals with 22q11DS and 43 control participants over 9 years. Childhood executive functioning ability was assessed using both rater-based and performance-based measures and tested as predictors of young adult outcomes. Results: Childhood global executive functioning ...
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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder is one of the most prevalent developmental disorders in childhood and adolescents. Individuals with ADHD is found to be at risk for social and academic impairments. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Executive Functions (EF) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in preschool-aged children. Deficits in EFs are currently considered to represent an important weakness in this clinical group. To extend our knowledge about the relative contribution such functions have for the development of ADHD, it is essential to investigate whether this association is detectable during the preschool-years. More knowledge about the early signs and symptoms of ADHD can contribute to early detection of children at risk for developing the disorder and intervention procedures can be implemented to limit the associated negative life outcomes ...
Our latest paper entitled Investigating the impact of a musical intervention on preschool childrens executive function is now available in the open-access journal Frontiers in Psychology - you can read the paper here.. We conducted the research with the UCL Institute of Education and arts charity Creative Futures to investigate the effect of weekly musicianship training on the executive function abilities of 3-to-4-year-old children at a London preschool. The findings from the study contribute to current debates about the potential cognitive benefit of musical interventions, including important issues regarding intervention duration, experimental design, target age groups, executive function testing, and task novelty - all of which we discuss in the paper. You can read more about the study on our Projects page!. ...
From a recent article: Is It Executive Function Disorder (EFD) or ADHD? Children and adults with executive function disorder (EFD) have problems with organizing and schedules. They may also have ADHD and/or learning disabilities, but not always - its a common misdiagnosis for those who are actually living with EFD. This is new hot topic.…
From a recent article: Is It Executive Function Disorder (EFD) or ADHD? Children and adults with executive function disorder (EFD) have problems with organizing and schedules. They may also have ADHD and/or learning disabilities, but not always - its a common misdiagnosis for those who are actually living with EFD. This is new hot topic.…
Despite executives important positions in organizations, their attitute have not received much research attention. In an attempt to remedy this deficiency, the present study tested a hypothesized model of executive attitudes involving job satisfaction, life satisfaction, job stress, and work-family conflict. Using data gathered from a large, representative sample of male executives (due to the small number of female executives in the study, the analyses were confined to males only), LISREL results indicated support for the overall model and the specific relationships within the model. These results are the first to simultaneously consider job and life satisfaction, job stress, and work-family conflict, and also constitute the most comprehensive evidence to date on executive attitudes. The meaning and contributions of the findings are discussed ...
Mounting evidence indicates that regular engagement in aerobic exercise improves executive functioning and cerebrovascular health in older adulthood. Recent evidence also points toward some similar benefits in young adults, despite presumed optimal brain health in that population. The present study sought to clarify which specific cognitive functions are linked to regular exercise in young adults (18-30 years), and to gain insight into the possible mechanisms underlying such links. To this end, the current study examined performance on a wide variety of executive function tasks in relation to aerobic fitness, self-reported habitual physical activity, and cerebrovascular health (as measured by resting cerebral blood flow, which was indexed by blood flow velocity through the middle cerebral artery; and cerebrovascular reactivity to carbon dioxide - the most potent regulatory stimulus of the cerebrovasculature). Multiple regression analyses revealed that more frequent physical activity, but not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The measurement of executive function in early childhood. AU - Blair, Clancy. AU - Zelazo, Philip David. AU - Greenberg, Mark T.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=25444503227&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=25444503227&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1207/s15326942dn2802_1. DO - 10.1207/s15326942dn2802_1. M3 - Article. C2 - 16144427. AN - SCOPUS:25444503227. VL - 28. SP - 561. EP - 571. JO - Developmental Neuropsychology. JF - Developmental Neuropsychology. SN - 8756-5641. IS - 2. ER - ...
Simple classroom strategies can assist students with deficits in executive function skills like time management and active listening.
As long as governmental institutions have existed, efforts have been undertaken to reform them. This research examines a particular strategy, coercive controls, exercised through a particular instrument, executive orders, by a singular reformer, the president of the United States. The presidents studied- Johnson, Nixon, Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton-are those whose campaigns for office were characterized to varying degrees as against Washington bureaucracy and for executive reform. Executive order issuance is assessed through an examination of key factors for each president including political party affiliation, levels of political capital, and legislative experience. A classification typology is used to identify the topical dimensions and levels of coerciveness. The portrayal of the federal government is analyzed through examination of public, media, and presidential attention. The results show that executive orders are significant management tools for the president. Executive orders also
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Executive Office Seating : APEX POSTURE AP1-A4 - Task Chairs Operator Chairs Executive Chairs Executive Leather Chair Designer Leather Chairs Designer Mesh Chairs 24/7 Chairs Tub Chairs Reception Seating Cafe Chairs Glass Tables Meeting Room Chairs Industrial Chairs Ergonomic Chairs White Leather Office Chairs Executive Office Seating, leather chairs, office chairs, cafe chairs
Vladimir Putin signed Executive Order On Amendments to Executive Order of the President of the Russian Federation No. 21 of January 21, 2020 On the Structure of Federal Executive Bodies and to the structure of federal executive bodies approved by that Executive Order.
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Nominate a Loaned Executive. An immersive leadership program, United Ways Loaned Executive Program is designed to be a rewarding opportunity for your organization, employees, United Way and, most importantly, our community. United Way calls on you, our corporate parters, to lend your best and brightest employees this year to help in all aspects of community engagement while they gain experience in project management, communication, public speaking, professional networking, relationship building and corporate social responsibility impact. Loaned Executives (LEs) assist United Way in fundraising, engaging volunteers and event planning. In return, United Way provides ongoing professional development that focuses directly on executive skill building.. ...
Over the last couple of decades, several studies have found a link between bilingualism and improved performance on tasks measuring the core executive functions inhibition, shifting, and updating. However, results are inconsistent, and the existence of this proposed bilingual advantage is highly debated. This thesis investigates the hypothesis that bilingualism could be one of the contributors to the enhancement of executive functions (EF). The primary focus is the exploration of bilingualism as a continuum over two axes: use and proficiency, and further, to test whether L2 use is a better predictor of EF abilities than L2 proficiency. The data for this study comes from 82 Norwegian academics of similar age and socio-economic status, but who are differing in degree of bilingualism. Correlation and linear regression models were used to compare their performance on tasks measuring shifting (the trail-making task and the plus-minus task) and inhibition (two Stroop tasks and a Flanker task), as well ...
Study Purpose: The study was designed to elucidate underlying neuropsychological and emotional regulatory mechanisms in variable responses to a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program among prison inmates. The purpose of this project was to assess (1) the role of neuropsychological and emotional deficits in behavioral problems and misconduct among inmates, (2) the usefulness of neuropsychological and emotional regulatory measures in characterizing recalcitrant and unresponsive inmates, and (3) the ability of these measures to predict treatment response in prison. Study Design: This study tested the hypotheses that performance deficits in executive cognitive function (ECF) tasks and emotional responses will characterize aggressive and disruptive inmates and predict treatment response. All subjects were examined using noninvasive behavioral, psychological, ECF, and hormone tests. Adjustments were made for age in all analyses.. The data contain a total of 232 cases. Inmates volunteering to ...
Study Purpose: The study was designed to elucidate underlying neuropsychological and emotional regulatory mechanisms in variable responses to a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) program among prison inmates. The purpose of this project was to assess (1) the role of neuropsychological and emotional deficits in behavioral problems and misconduct among inmates, (2) the usefulness of neuropsychological and emotional regulatory measures in characterizing recalcitrant and unresponsive inmates, and (3) the ability of these measures to predict treatment response in prison. Study Design: This study tested the hypotheses that performance deficits in executive cognitive function (ECF) tasks and emotional responses will characterize aggressive and disruptive inmates and predict treatment response. All subjects were examined using noninvasive behavioral, psychological, ECF, and hormone tests. Adjustments were made for age in all analyses.. The data contain a total of 232 cases. Inmates volunteering to ...
Persons with intellectual disability have been found to perform more poorly on tasks, demanding the use of executive functions like planning, than their peers. This study investigated difficulties with planning, and how problems with planning ability can be supported by using cognitive artifacts to help performance on activities in everyday life, for adolescents with intellectual disability. The approach taken is one of situated cognition, where the natural environment plays a big role, to see if the same difficulties arise as results from traditional research has shown. The traditional view focuses a lot on executive functions, and experimental studies in controlled settings and often suggests interventions and practice of certain functions to get better abilities. Another way is to focus on the use of cognitive artifact, to support problematic abilities, and to get a well-rounded understanding of how the problems actually appear in everyday life, the alternative view of situated cognition is a ...
BECKERT, Michele; IRIGARAY, Tatiana Quarti and TRENTINI, Clarissa Marceli. Quality of life, cognition and performance of executive functions in the elderly. Estud. psicol. (Campinas) [online]. 2012, vol.29, n.2, pp.155-162. ISSN 1982-0275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-166X2012000200001.. The relationship between quality of life and cognitive function in the elderly has been neglected by research. The aim of this study was to examine the association between quality of life, cognition and the performance of executive functions in elderly people. Eighty eight elderly people participated in the study and the convenience sampling method was used. All the participants answered questions on socio-demographic conditions, quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Group-Bref), cognitive function (MiniMental State Examination and Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Instrument) and executive functions (Wisconsin Card Sort Test). The data retrieved showed an important association between ...
By offering a direct comparison between the three major EF, these results showed that alcohol-related executive deficits extend beyond the classically described inhibition impairment. This impairment encompasses each EF subcomponent, as ALC actually presented stronger deficits for updating and shift …
Executive functioning is made up of a broad range of capabilities including the ability to pay attention, the ability to transfer ones attention from one thing to another, the ability to hold information in ones working memory, and planning. People who suffer from anxiety and depression often have problems with their ability to concentrate and inhibit their impulses making some scientists think that they have problems with their executive functioning. However, it is not known whether these problems with executive functioning come before or after the onset of anxiety or depression i.e. whether they are a cause or a symptom of mental-health problems. Researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital studied 147 children. Some of their parents had depression, others had anxiety and the rest formed an unaffected control group. The idea was that any genetic tendency towards poorer executive functioning in people at risk from depression and anxiety would be reflected in children whose parents ...
Brain Injury Services, a community-based nonprofit headquartered in Springfield, VA, has selected Denise Hyater-Lindenmuth as the new Executive Director to replace outgoing Executive Director Karen Brown. Ms. Brown has served as Executive Director since 1999 having previously served as the Director of Programs since 1996. This will be the third Executive Director selected to serve in the last 28 years since the organizations inception. The Chair of Brain Injury Services Board of Directors Rick Ferraro stated, The warm and effective working relationship that I have watched quickly blossom between Denise and Karen and the whole BIS team shows that this will be a smooth transition of leadership.. ...
Case Study: Executive in a Fortune 100 Company. After selling his business to a tech giant and joining their team as a senior executive,. the client wanted to make his presence felt immediately. Goals: To help the client become a dominant force in his company. He transitioned from being the chief decision maker in his business to being just one of hundreds of senior executives in the new firm.. Actions: Rewrote the executives profile to clearly communicate his achievements and value, posted timely content to position him at the cutting edge of his specialty, expanded his network of influential contacts, engaged directly with his V.I.P. connections, and initiated insightful professional discussions.. Results: A 15% spike in connections in his already massive professional network, a substantial increase in recognition within his company and industry, and a smooth transition to his new leadership role. Combining LinkedIn with an integrated Twitter program, we achieved the clients goal of being a ...

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  • First of all, it is arguable that every task involves some amount of executive function, whether it is coordination, planning, strategizing, inhibition, or any of the variety of processes mentioned in the definitions of executive function reviewed at the beginning of this post. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Executive functions include basic cognitive processes such as attentional control , cognitive inhibition , inhibitory control , working memory , and cognitive flexibility . (wikipedia.org)
  • [9] Associated cognitive functions include inhibition of inappropriate responses, decision making and motivated behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basis of 'higher-level' cognitive functions such as inhibition, flexibility of thinking, problem solving, planning, impulse control, concept formation, abstract thinking, and creativity often arise from much simpler, 'lower-level' forms of cognition and behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • This heritable variance in the common executive function predicts nearly all of the genetic variance in the inhibition factor, consistent with the idea that those constructs are isomorphic from a heritability standpoint. (gnxp.com)
  • Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. (springer.com)
  • The three central components of executive functions (i.e., working memory, shifting, and inhibition) were measured using self-reports on daily-life functioning, as well as experimental tasks (Digit Span, the Dots-Triangles Task, and the Eriksen Flankers Task). (uva.nl)
  • A battery of executive function tasks measuring inhibition, working memory and planning was administered on recruitment and one year later. (bl.uk)
  • Executive functions represent a range of higher cognitive capacities enabling goal-directed behavior including inhibition, cognitive flexibility, planning, or decision-making [ 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Importantly, impairments in general executive functions in individuals with obesity, for example, reduced inhibition and planning, were linked to unsuccessful weight-loss related behavior, such as poor dietary quality and less success in weight loss therapies [ 8 , 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The idea here is that deficits in executive function --things like planning, organization, and inhibition --these are known in an extensive literature to be really strongly associated with ADHD, and executive function deficits link well with hoarding disorder as well," Dr. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If you look at what predicts how well children will do later in school, more and more evidence is showing that executive functions -- working memory and inhibition -- actually predict success better than IQ tests. (huffpost.com)
  • AAS users performed worse than controls on measures of executive inhibition and executive control. (uio.no)
  • Furthermore, this investigation provides evidence that AAS users display lower levels of executive inhibition and control, but not flexibility. (uio.no)
  • Carrying out activities of daily living, ambulation, and even eating can be made more difficult by problems with initiation, inhibition, judgment, and other aspects of executive function. (continuingeducation.com)
  • Formal and informal assessments are used by different disciplines to challenge various components of executive function, including mental flexibility, initiation, inhibition, judgment, abstract reasoning, and concrete reasoning. (continuingeducation.com)
  • This individual differences study examined the separability of three often postulated executive functions-mental set shifting ('Shifting'), information updating and monitoring ('Updating'), and inhibition of prepotent responses ('Inhibition')-and their roles in complex 'frontal lobe' or 'executive' tasks. (psu.edu)
  • Executive inhibition includes processes of intentional control or response inhibition in relation to long-term goals that can be assessed through Stroop Paradigms. (scirp.org)
  • It identifies one potential source of this variability, namely, autistic children's emerging "executive function" (EF), those higher-order processes, closely associated with the prefrontal cortex, which are necessary for regulating and controlling behavior (see Table 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Experts believe executive function is regulated by the frontal lobe of the brain-the prefrontal cortex. (edutopia.org)
  • These tools, the neural networks that control executive functions, develop in the prefrontal cortex and do so most profoundly during the school years. (edutopia.org)
  • As the executive function control centers are activated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) children are more able to consider and voluntarily control their thinking, emotional responses, and behavior. (edutopia.org)
  • It has been proposed that two types of working memory processes, which are executive control processes, are observed in distinct cortical structures located in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and modality-specific buffers located in more posterior regions [ 4 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Executive development happens primarily in the prefrontal cortex, a region of the brain more sensitive to stress than any other. (psychcentral.com)
  • Even mild stress can flood the prefrontal cortex with the neurotransmitter dopamine, causing executive functioning to shut down (Diamond, 2010). (psychcentral.com)
  • Neuroimaging and lesion studies have identified the functions which are most often associated with the particular regions of the prefrontal cortex and associated areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • These areas, the supplementary motor area, the pre-supplementary area and the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, are known to be linked to executive function. (eurekalert.org)
  • Executive functions are mediated by the prefrontal cortex and related structures. (eventbrite.com)
  • The primary outcome is to assess the effects of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on the executive functions of patients with autism without mental retardation or with Asperger syndrome. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The UCLA study reveals that teen nicotine addiction negatively affects brain function, specifically activity in prefrontal cortex. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • All of these functions take place in the prefrontal cortex of the brain in concert with other parts of the brains. (huffpost.com)
  • Executive function (EF) comprises a set of cognitive control processes, mainly supported by the prefrontal cortex, which regulates lower level processes (eg, perception, motor responses) and thereby enables self-regulation and self-directed behavior toward a goal, allowing us to break out habits, make decisions and evaluate risks, plan for the future, prioritize and sequence our actions, and cope with novel situations. (dovepress.com)
  • A voxel-level analysis of these data revealed that the executive function-FA association was particularly strong and regionally delineated over 2 continuous, bilateral areas extending from the prefrontal cortex to the parietal lobe, with projections to the anterior portions of the thalamus. (ajnr.org)
  • ADHD is now attributed to an atypical balance in the neurotransmitters (brain chemicals) responsible for regulating the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for higher cortical (cognitive) functioning, also known as executive functions. (adhdeurope.eu)
  • If there are in fact distinct sources of variance underlying performance on complex tasks that are not accounted for by variation in age and "non-executive" processes (such as visual skill, speed of processing, etc), then executive function may be a valid construct. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Autism is a common and often highly debilitating neurodevelopmental condition, whose core behavioral features are believed to be rooted in disrupted neurocognitive processes, including especially "executive function. (hindawi.com)
  • Executive function is an umbrella term in neuroscience to describe the neurological processes involving mental control and self-regulation. (edutopia.org)
  • What my field of neurology has called "executive functions" for over 100 years, are the highest cognitive processes -- they are sometimes called higher order thinking or critical thinking. (edutopia.org)
  • These findings suggest that acute bouts of cardiovascular exercise affect neuroelectric processes underlying executive control through the increased allocation of neuroelectric resources and through changes in cognitive processing and stimulus classification speed. (nih.gov)
  • These functions generally are referred to as "supervisory" cognitive processes because they involve higher level organization and execution of complex thoughts and behavior. (nih.gov)
  • Although conceptualizations vary regarding what mental processes actually constitute the "executive function" construct, there has been a historical linkage of these "higher-level" processes with the frontal lobes. (nih.gov)
  • Executive functions are the high-level cognitive processes that enable people to quickly process and retain information, regulate their behaviors, make good choices, solve problems, plan and adjust to changing mental demands. (eurekalert.org)
  • Self-regulation, which is one of the major achievements in early childhood, is facilitated through a variety of processes which are referred to as executive functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, several aspects of executive functioning like inhibitory, shifting and updating processes seem impaired in dual-diagnosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Executive function (EF) is the set of mental processes that help us plan, organize, strategize, pay attention to details, and manage time. (amle.org)
  • Executive functions are especially important in this respect, because they can be considered organisational processes involved in many of levels of learning (Guralnick, 2011) . (scirp.org)
  • Various authors define executive function differently, but most agree that the executive functions include a range of interrelated processes that are responsible for goal-directed behaviour. (scirp.org)
  • This series of studies investigates the links between mindfulness and executive functions and higher-order cognitive processes for people with neurological conditions. (city.ac.uk)
  • For example, a child must use several executive processes to stop playing with toys and start cleaning their room. (jove.com)
  • Target specific high-level cognitive processes in your clients with executive function disorder with activities that can be individualized to their needs and interests. (linguisystems.com)
  • Deficits in executive functioning involve both discrete skills and the processes that control the use of these skills (Cicerone et al. (linguisystems.com)
  • Executive functions (EF) have been defined as a series of higher-order cognitive processes which allow the control of thought, behavior and affection according to the achievement of a goal. (isciii.es)
  • Executive functions (EF) is an umbrella term which clusters different cognitive processes that allow the control of thought, behavior and affection according to the achievement of a goal (Zelazo & Carlson, 2012). (isciii.es)
  • Dr. Stixrud, a psychologist, described executive functioning as a set of processes that include "planning, organisational skill, maintaining a mental set, selective attention, and inhibitory control - for which the prefrontal regions of the brain are specialised" (Eberle, 2003). (ukessays.com)
  • Executive-functioning skills are the processes and abilities that allow us to act in thoughtful, planned ways to achieve our goals. (child-encyclopedia.com)
  • In order to function, humans use internal mental processes (e.g., attention, memory, planning, etc.) to adapt to the demands of their environment (Eyesneck& Keane, 2007). (adhdeurope.eu)
  • The results showed that many putative measures of "Executive Function" are strongly related to reasoning ability (as measured through Raven's Progressive Matrices) and processing speed (as measured through extremely simple tasks involving replacing number words with digits, etc). (scienceblogs.com)
  • The vast majority of putative executive function measures did not share variance with age that was not also present in the simpler tasks. (scienceblogs.com)
  • January 13, 2019 from 6:00-8:00 pm at North Park Elementary School (2017 W. Montrose Ave., Chicago, IL 60618) Executive function skills are the core set of cognitive skills required for planning, completing and evaluating the completion of tasks, as well as overseeing our communication exchanges. (google.com)
  • The Executive Functions Test-Elementary: Normative Update (EFT-E: NU) measures language skills that affect executive functions, such as working memory, problem solving, inferring, predicting outcomes, and shifting tasks. (superduperinc.com)
  • The Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire, a battery of Executive Functioning tasks and the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment will be used. (city.ac.uk)
  • This study examined memory and executive functions of switching and distributing attention in 25 Alzheimer patients (AD), 9 patients with frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (fvFTD), and 25 healthy older people, as a control group, in three tasks: verbal digit span, Brown-Peterson (B-P) task, and dual-task. (scribd.com)
  • Executive function disorder is a difficulty in high-level thinking - organizing and sequencing tasks, multi-tasking, managing time, planning, problem solving. (gemmlearning.com)
  • For children with auditory processing and working memory difficulties , the development of executive functioning is delayed, as concentration is diverted by basic tasks such as listening comprehension and reading decoding. (gemmlearning.com)
  • As long as these tasks are not automatic, the overloaded mind is not fully free to practice and master executive functioning skills. (gemmlearning.com)
  • Executive Function (EF) is the cognitive process that regulates an individual's ability to organise thoughts and activities, prioritise tasks, manage time efficiently and make decisions (American Heritage Medical Dictionary, 2007). (ukessays.com)
  • Examples of executive functions are planning what one will do tomorrow or deciding things in the environment to pay attention to or deciding how to respond to a challenging task, that is, students need to learn how to plan ahead, how to gather appropriate materials for school tasks, how to prioritise the steps to complete an assignment and how to keep track of their work (Lerner & Johns, 2009). (ukessays.com)
  • Executive functioning skills are the basis for planning, organizing, initiating, and following through will all tasks, assignments, and problems inside and outside of school. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • One hundred thirty-seven college students performed a set of relatively simple experimental tasks that are considered to predominantly tap each target executive function as well as a set of frequently used executive tasks: the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Tower of Hanoi (TOH), random number generation (RNG), operation span, and dual tasking. (psu.edu)
  • In their article, "Neuropsychological Functioning in College Students With and Without ADHD," Drs. Weyandt, Anastopoulos, and DuPaul examined the relationship between ADHD diagnosis and performance on executive functioning and intellectual tasks as part of a multiyear and multisite study. (apags.org)
  • Salivary cortisol levels of 70 children aged 9 or 10 years were measured before and after performing tasks designed to assess memory and executive functions. (scielo.br)
  • High cortisol levels were associated with poorer working memory and worse performance in tasks involving executive functions, and were also associated with high scores for maternal psychopathology (during early childhood and school age) and family dysfunction. (scielo.br)
  • Executive dysfunction occurs in many clinical conditions and has significant impact on multiple facets of life. (ovid.com)
  • Drawing together clinical, neurobiological and developmental viewpoints, the authors summarize the latest research findings in practical and applied terms, and review conceptual approaches to assessing and identifying executive function and dysfunction. (ovid.com)
  • Several chapters are devoted to practical aspects of executive dysfunction, including research-based treatment strategies, educational implications, forensic cautions and intervention resources. (ovid.com)
  • However, the mechanisms through which executive dysfunction promotes obesity are currently unclear. (aappublications.org)
  • Qualitative analysis of errors in the B-P task indicated that both ADs and fvFTDs presented a higher number of omissions and perseverations, interpreted in this study as an index of executive dysfunction, compared to the control group. (scribd.com)
  • The loss of executive function (called executive dysfunction) is a common finding in patients with dementia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Executive dysfunction is also among the most common and disabling aspects of cognitive impairment following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and may include deficits in reasoning, planning, concept formation, mental flexibility, aspects of attention and awareness, and purposeful behaviour (McDonald, Flashman & Saykin, 2002). (ukessays.com)
  • Disorganization: The forgotten executive dysfunction in high-functioning autism (HFA) spectrum disorders. (iancommunity.org)
  • Executive dysfunction in autism. (iancommunity.org)
  • The goal of this executive function impairment interprofessional continuing education course is to provide an overview of the roles and interactions among a nurse, physical therapist, occupational therapist, and speech-language pathologist as they address the complex rehabilitation and medical needs of an older adult who has experienced neurological dysfunction. (continuingeducation.com)
  • Executive dysfunction is a common consequence of acquired brain injury (ABI), causing significant disability in daily life. (cambridge.org)
  • Seventy patients with a verified ABI and executive dysfunction were randomly allocated to GMT ( n =33) or a psycho-educative active control condition, Brain Health Workshop (BHW) ( n =37). (cambridge.org)
  • The results indicate that GMT combined with external cueing is an effective metacognitive strategy training method, ameliorating executive dysfunction in daily life for patients with chronic ABI. (cambridge.org)
  • Furthermore, these findings show that executive dysfunction can be improved years after the ABI. (cambridge.org)
  • Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (dovepress.com)
  • In response the authors' statement "Balance issues result in patients' difficulty to follow physical post-stroke home treatments, inevitably increasing their executive dysfunction", as previously outlined in our article, this is a cross-sectional study and inferences regarding causal effect are not backed up by the data. (csp.org.uk)
  • We welcome the authors' point regarding the need for cognitive interventions to target executive dysfunction (ED) post-stroke. (csp.org.uk)
  • Recent findings Accumulating evidence shows that interventions that work with patients on developing insight and strategies to offset executive impairments can produce significant benefits. (medscape.com)
  • Executive function and social cognition interventions are highly relevant to progressive neurological, developmental, and psychiatric conditions, but these fall outside our scope. (medscape.com)
  • Remediating deficits in executive functions may have added value over interventions that only attempt to remediate deficits in academic skills, even interventions targeting academic skills deficits across multiple domains. (aera.net)
  • Use EFT-E: NU to identify children who have executive-functioning deficits, plan interventions, and represent executive functioning in research studies. (superduperinc.com)
  • Nurses and rehabilitation therapists must understand executive functions to modify interventions and work with all members of the rehabilitation team to optimize patient outcomes. (continuingeducation.com)
  • As a parent of a teen with ADHD, you may ask yourself: "When it comes to executive skills, what are your teen's weaknesses? (additudemag.com)
  • Listen to "Organized and Motivated: Executive Function Fixes for Teens with ADHD" with Sharon Saline, Psy.D. (additudemag.com)
  • Our results may also have implications for children and adults who are struggling with executive functioning, such as children with ADHD or [the] elderly," says Gaab. (eurekalert.org)
  • While neurofeedback can be used to improve executive function , it's also used to treat ADD and ADHD, depression, autism, seizures, traumatic brain injuries and post-traumatic-stress disorder. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • College-bound rising high school juniors , seniors , and gap year students who struggle with learning primarily due to a learning disability (such as dyslexia), ADHD, autism, and executive function challenges who are seeking to gain the skills necessary for a successful transition to college. (landmark.edu)
  • The normative sample included children with developmental and acquired neurological disorders (reading disorder, ADHD subtypes, traumatic brain injury, Tourettes disorder, mental retardation, localized brain lesions, and high functioning autism). (academictherapy.com)
  • There has been a lot of talk recently about executive function issues and ADHD. (adhdmarriage.com)
  • What are "executive functions" and how are they related to ADHD? (adhdmarriage.com)
  • There are five areas of executive functioning that are impacted when you have ADHD. (adhdmarriage.com)
  • Unfortunately, some patients with ADHD find that they still have difficult with executive functioning even after they've gotten some relief from ADHD symptoms with medication and habit changes. (adhdmarriage.com)
  • This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. (dovepress.com)
  • In this descriptive study, we examined the associations between results on an EF rating scale, a CPT and ERP components in ADHD as a function of age. (dovepress.com)
  • The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Executive Functions (EF) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in preschool-aged children. (uio.no)
  • To extend our knowledge about the relative contribution such functions have for the development of ADHD, it is essential to investigate whether this association is detectable during the preschool-years. (uio.no)
  • Executive function challenges are also associated with certain disabilities, including ADHD, autism, and learning disabilities. (cue.org)
  • Home // Publications & Databases // Highlights in Psychological Research // APA Journals Dialogue // Effects of ADHD on Executive. (apags.org)
  • In this episode of APA Journals Dialogue, Drs. Lisa Weyandt, Arthur Anastopoulos, and George DuPaul discuss the differences in executive functioning in college students with and without ADHD. (apags.org)
  • Neuropsychological functioning in college students with and without ADHD. (apags.org)
  • So TRAC was a project (and it's really the first project) to examine very comprehensively how ADHD and its associated features and its associated impairments unfold across multiple domains of functioning during the college years. (apags.org)
  • Thomas Browns (2004) vividly constructed metaphor provides an illustrative example for executive function defects in those with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), with their function being likened to or represented as the 'conductor' of the "symphony of the brain" (p. 22). (adhdeurope.eu)
  • Results support the hypothesis that poorer executive functioning predicts weight gain from middle childhood through adolescence in girls, and that this effect may be partially explained by binge-eating behaviors in early adolescence. (aappublications.org)
  • 10 - 13 Yet there is a lack of sufficient prospective data linking executive functioning to excess weight status and weight changes in childhood and adolescence. (aappublications.org)
  • Although it has been argued that the structure of executive function (EF) may change developmentally, there is little empirical research to examine this view in middle childhood and adolescence. (plos.org)
  • Xu F, Han Y, Sabbagh MA, Wang T, Ren X, Li C (2013) Developmental Differences in the Structure of Executive Function in Middle Childhood and Adolescence. (plos.org)
  • Mounting evidence indicates that regular engagement in exercise can confer a benefit for some of the executive functions known to develop late (throughout childhood and adolescence) and to deteriorate early in the course of healthy aging (see, e.g. (springer.com)
  • Executive Function in Adolescence: Associations with Child and Family Risk Factors and Self-Regulation in Early Childhood. (cogstate.com)
  • This study uses data from the only existing longitudinal RCT of foster care for institutionally reared children to examine trajectories of memory and executive functioning from childhood to adolescence. (pnas.org)
  • The increasingly competent executive functioning of childhood and adolescence enable children to plan and act in a way that makes them good students, classroom citizens, and friends. (harvard.edu)
  • The rationale was that if the target variables represent something different from the cognitive abilities included in the model, then the variables not only should have relatively weak relations to those abilities but also should have significant unique (direct) relations with an individual-difference variable such as age if they are reliably influenced by another construct, such as executive functioning, that is related to age. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Executive brain functions constitute a person's mental ability to govern other abilities and behavior. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • and decision-making, eg, Iowa Gambling Task performance) and excess weight status, 14 - 17 only 1 study, conducted in a sample of preschool-age children, has demonstrated prospective associations, 18 showing that poorer executive functioning at age 4 (as measured by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities) predicted overweight status at age 6. (aappublications.org)
  • Executive skills are the cognitive and mental abilities that help people set and achieve goals. (additudemag.com)
  • While it's already clear that musical training relates to cognitive abilities, few previous studies have looked at its effects on executive functions specifically. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers note that children who study music may already have executive functioning abilities that somehow attract them to music and predispose them to stick with their lessons. (eurekalert.org)
  • The increasing prevalence of media multitasking is concerning because frequent media multitasking may be negatively related to children's cognitive control abilities (i.e. executive function). (uva.nl)
  • Intelligence and cognitive abilities, including executive functions (EF), have been addressed by psychometrics and cognitive psychology, respectively. (scirp.org)
  • Psychometrics has traditionally studied intelligence, while cognitive abilities, including the so-called executive functions (EF), have been addressed by cognitive psychology and neuropsychology. (scirp.org)
  • Ages of the children and family demographics (parental education, job status, income, etc.) were also factored in by matching children as best as possible, since these can also play a role in brain functioning abilities. (growingyourbaby.com)
  • The study authors did point out, however, that the children participating in the study may have already have had higher executive functioning abilities, which may be fuel behind their musical interests. (growingyourbaby.com)
  • Executive functions are high-level abilities that influence more basic abilities like attention, memory and motor skills (Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders, 2010). (ukessays.com)
  • Executive functions are the cognitive abilities needed to control our thoughts, emotions and actions. (child-encyclopedia.com)
  • EF has received extensive attention in the autism literature for many years largely due to the influential proposal that the inherent rigidity and invariance of autistic behaviors could be explained by a primary impairment in executive control [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Executive functions control and regulate cognitive and social behaviors like controlling impulses, paying attention, remembering information, planning and organizing time and materials, and responding appropriately to social situations and stressful situations. (edutopia.org)
  • We propose that traditional models of cognition are incomplete characterizations of EF and that procedural learning and "automatic" behaviors are the most basic, bottom-up functions that support all EF. (nih.gov)
  • Delis-Rating of Executive Functions (D-REF) lets you quickly and easily administer, score, and report the frequency of observed behaviors that identify executive function problems in children and adolescents. (pearsonassessments.com)
  • Such behaviors as the ability to stop and start a certain action, the ability to "see oneself" through the eyes of others (i.e. exhibit feelings of empathy), change current behavior based on insight, and to plan any further behavior are the domain of executive brain function. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • Executive brain functions are related to high-level thinking that can govern more basic behaviors such as the ability to pay attention, move the body appropriately to certain stimuli (i.e. motor skills), as well as the ability to recall information in an efficient and clear manner. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • Because executive brain functions are related to so many basic behaviors, they have been notoriously difficult to determine and study. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • The current study aimed to further explore the longitudinal relationship between executive functioning and changes in body weight and to determine whether binge eating behaviors mediate this relationship. (aappublications.org)
  • The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) is an assessment of executive function behaviors at home and at school for children and adolescents ages 5-18. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because it is not disorder-specific, the BRIEF may be used to assess executive function behaviors in children and adolescents experiencing a wide range of difficulties, such as those related to learning, attention, brain injuries, developmental disorders, and various psychiatric conditions and medical issues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability to control impulses and regulate behaviors and emotions is a critical function to build into early childhood education, ensuring children's success in both gaining knowledge and learning life skills. (eurekalert.org)
  • Executive function is defined as the cognitive mechanisms in the brain that are responsible for processing and retaining information, decision making, problem solving, regulating behaviors, and planning and/or adjusting to changing mental demands. (growingyourbaby.com)
  • Poorer executive functioning, characterized in part by difficulties self-regulating or inhibiting one's behavior, has been associated with obesity and with obesigenic eating patterns, including disinhibited eating. (aappublications.org)
  • however, some of these measures are new indices of executive functions (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • These predictors included several indices of executive functioning within children, depression symptoms and education level of mothers, and inhibitory control (IC) of siblings. (springer.com)
  • We consider recent developments made in the rehabilitation of executive function and social cognition following adult acquired brain injury (ABI). (medscape.com)
  • Unlike other parts of the brain and body that develop automatically over time, the circuits that direct executive function require appropriate stimuli to develop appropriate response capabilities. (edutopia.org)
  • A within-subjects design was used to assess the P3 component of an event-related brain potential (ERP) and behavioral performance using a task that varied the amount of executive control required. (nih.gov)
  • Despite the fact that a substantial number of school age children struggle with both reading and math acquisition, the brain mechanisms of the overlapping aspects of reading and math skills, thought in part to be linked via executive functions (EF), have not been unpacked. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As an executive function (EF), working memory refers to the brain system that stores and manipulates information over brief periods and represents a key process for cognitive functions such as planning, reasoning, and problem solving [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This means that both frontal and non-frontal brain regions are necessary for intact executive functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Probably the frontal lobes need to participate in basically all of the executive functions, but it is not the only brain structure involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • So when people start talking about the Executive Functions of the brain, I start looking over my shoulder. (wikiversity.org)
  • To understand how a simple switching system can double for an executive function, we need to understand Motivation as it works in the brain. (wikiversity.org)
  • Therefore, the ability for a human being to formulate concepts and think abstractly is inherent in executive brain function. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • For this reason, patients may suffer from multiple disorders resulting from weak executive brain functions. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • Although there is no concrete scientific evidence to suggest either for or against the exact area in the brain where the executive functions are governed, it is usually believed that it lies in cortex in the front part of the brain. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • BOSTON (June 17, 2014)--A controlled study using functional MRI brain imaging reveals a possible biological link between early musical training and improved executive functioning in both children and adults, report researchers at Boston Children's Hospital. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study, appearing online June 17 in the journal PLOS ONE , uses functional MRI of brain areas associated with executive function, adjusting for socioeconomic factors. (eurekalert.org)
  • Among these studies, results have been mixed and limited by a lack of objective brain measurements, examination of only a few aspects of executive function, lack of well-defined musical training and control groups, and inadequate adjustment for factors like socioeconomic status. (eurekalert.org)
  • Executive function in the pre-frontal cortex of the adolescent brain is intermittent at best. (amle.org)
  • Fasting plasma fatty acids, executive function (by Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making Test), and brain volume were measured. (dsm.com)
  • However, a new study, conducted by Boston Children's Hospital, MA, has taken a look at executive brain functioning. (growingyourbaby.com)
  • Noting the lack of consensus concerning definition, component skills, and location within the brain, The Myth of Executive Functioning calls basic assumptions, prominent theories, commonly used test methods, and even the phrase executive functioning into question. (worldcat.org)
  • Executive function deficits, including weakness in the areas of self-awareness, goal setting, and strategic thinking, are often among the most debilitating problems following brain injury (ASHA, 2003). (linguisystems.com)
  • Finally, interindividual differences in brain activity relate to memory and EF across ages, thus highlighting one potential biological pathway through which early neglect impacts long-term cognitive functioning. (pnas.org)
  • Because executive function impairment is considered to be one of the most critical cognitive dysfunctions, it is of importance to investigate the brain functional networks in SZ patients during an executive function task. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Remediation for Executive Functioning issues is relatively difficult, but brain-based learning and cognitive enhancement programs can increase skills such as auditory processing, visual discrimination, processing speed, phonological awareness, planning, sequencing, attention to detail, etc (Learning Abled Kids, 2010). (ukessays.com)
  • I am sharing the story Adele Diamond of the University of British Columbia because she has been a critically important pioneer in studying what scientists call the executive functions of the brain. (huffpost.com)
  • These are the brain functions we use to manage our attention, our emotions, and our behavior in pursuit of our goals. (huffpost.com)
  • Neurologist and educator Judy Willis on the importance of igniting and developing students' executive function -- a part of the brain that controls critical thinking, creativity, and complex decision-making. (diigo.com)
  • AAS have recently been shown to lead to neurochemical alterations in brain areas important for the regulation of aggression, as well as frontal areas important for executive functions. (uio.no)
  • This signature influences how or whether that genetic potential is expressed in the brain circuits that underlie the executive function capacities children will rely on throughout their lives. (harvard.edu)
  • In the brain, this air traffic control mechanism is called executive function. (harvard.edu)
  • Executive function impairment may result from a variety of medical conditions, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, and dementia. (continuingeducation.com)
  • You can think of executive function skills collectively as the director inside your student's brain-it has many jobs, running simultaneously, and if it's missing a part, things aren't done well or sometimes aren't done at all. (cue.org)
  • In fact, as an adolescent brain develops, the frontal lobe of the brain (most closely associated with executive function) is one of the last components to develop. (cue.org)
  • Neuropsychology publishes primarily original, empirical research on the relation between brain and human cognitive, emotional and behavioral function. (apags.org)
  • Both the brain and an orchestra contain a number of individual parts which may be viewed as functioning separately. (adhdeurope.eu)
  • Amiri, M. , Rabiei, M. and Donyavi, V. (2016) Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training in Enhancing Executive Function and Decreasing Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science , 6 , 329-336. (scirp.org)
  • Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings and investigate whether a causal relationship exists between exercise and improved executive function in persons with PD, and how these impact motor performance and quality of life measures.Video Abstract available (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A43) for more insights from the authors. (nih.gov)
  • Executive and social cognition impairments are common consequences of ABI that are linked with poor functional outcome. (medscape.com)
  • We assessed changes in executive function in an aerobic exercise intervention in 2 people with cognitive impairments due to PD. (nih.gov)
  • Our outcomes provide preliminary evidence of improved executive function following aerobic exercise in people with PD with cognitive impairments. (nih.gov)
  • On the basis of neurocognitive endophenotype, the common co-occurrence of executive function deficits seems to reflect an additive comorbidity, rather than a separate condition with distinct impairments. (dovepress.com)
  • Join NPES for the opportunity to hear Sarah Ward, renowned expert in executive function skill support, share immediately applicable strategies that will leave you energized for the second semester of school and beyond. (google.com)
  • However, despite the early onset of this developmental disorder, little work has explored the executive functioning of pre-school children with autism, hi a developmental context, the executive function hypothesis would predict early executive deficits for children with autistic spectrum disorders, an association between executive function skill and symptom severity, and a relationship between the developmental trajectories of executive function and behavioural profiles. (bl.uk)
  • ACTIVATE works on eight cognitive skill areas most often associated with improved executive function, self-regulation and attention stamina. (gemmlearning.com)
  • Executive functioning is a practiced higher level skill. (gemmlearning.com)
  • The academic level of a child's achievement can be enhanced by increasing the functioning of any cognitive skill area. (ukessays.com)
  • Use this free executive functioning poster to highlight each specific executive functioning skill. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • The program's uniqueness derives from having a course advisor, a support structure that scaffolds executive function skill building. (landmark.edu)
  • In the upcoming blog series, I will be outlining how to identify which executive functions are most impacting your students as well as how to fill those skill gaps using direct teaching and mindful coaching. (cue.org)
  • The current review provides a critical analysis of lesion and neuroimaging studies using three popular executive function measures (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Phonemic Verbal Fluency, and Stroop Color Word Interference Test) in order to examine the validity of the executive function construct in terms of its relation to activation and damage to the frontal lobes. (nih.gov)
  • Historically, the executive functions have been seen as regulated by the prefrontal regions of the frontal lobes, but it is still a matter of ongoing debate if that really is the case. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frontal lobes and large-scale networks (Central Executive, Default Mode, and others). (eventbrite.com)
  • These functions are crucial for human survival and depend largely on the frontal lobes, with support from temporal and parietal cortices (reviewed in Miyake et al. (springer.com)
  • Executive functions cover a variety of skills that allow one to organize behavior in a purposeful, coordinated manner, and to reflect on or analyze the success of the strategies employed. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Simple classroom strategies can assist students with deficits in executive function skills like time management and active listening. (edutopia.org)
  • Executive functions can be thought of as the skills that would make a corporate executive successful -- the ability to be flexible, interpretive, creative, and have multidimensional thinking. (edutopia.org)
  • Students will then practice executive functioning skills such as organization, planning, and time management to design a lesson on a chosen topic using their learning style, and will present to the class on the final day. (active.com)
  • Discover your teen's strongest and weakest executive skills - plus get more parenting strategies from ADDitude via email. (additudemag.com)
  • Executive skills weaknesses can make it difficult for teens to complete assignments, study for tests, and meet the standards required to graduate high school. (additudemag.com)
  • Use the two questionnaires in this download to create an executive skills profile for your teen, and make a plan together for how to overcome weak spots. (additudemag.com)
  • Using Tools of the Mind, teachers organize and manage instruction so that children build self-regulation skills through interactions with classmates, supporting the development of executive functions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Despite the consensus in the developmental literature regarding the role of executive function (EF) skills in supporting the development of language skills during the preschool years, we know relatively little about the associations between these EF skills, their components, and language skills among preschool- aged children. (scirp.org)
  • The Executive Function hypothesis proposes that the behavioural aspects of autism can be explained by impairment in executive function skills. (bl.uk)
  • The term 'executive function' refers to several cognitive skills including inhibitor)'control, generation of novel responses, working memory and planning. (bl.uk)
  • Executive functions are important higher-order cognitive skills for goal-directed thought and action. (cogstate.com)
  • Executive functions are a group of cognitive skills localized in the frontal lobe structures. (linguisystems.com)
  • Teach skills that support memory such as identifying relevant information and organizing information, then progress to practical memory strategies that help clients function in daily living, including the classroom. (linguisystems.com)
  • As an executive function protocol, ACTIVATE works more directly on the skills that go into better functioning both academically and behaviorally. (gemmlearning.com)
  • Exercises specific executive functioning skills , targeting working memory, selective attention, sequencing and reasoning. (gemmlearning.com)
  • Our executive function treatment adds to these gains by also exercising the specific cognitive skills - particularly working memory - that define executive function skills. (gemmlearning.com)
  • Executive functioning skills are required to participate in everyday life activities to formulate goals, to plan strategies to achieve those goals and to self-evaluate during these activities (Lezak, 1982, as cited in Rocke, Hays, Edwards & Berg, 2008). (ukessays.com)
  • Post this page up as a reminder for adults and kids about the importance of executive functioning skills. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • Why Teach Executive Functioning Skills? (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • Many students who forget assignments, are disorganized, can't complete long-term assignments, have trouble focusing, and experience difficulty with change often have weak executive functioning skills. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • Simply put, executive functioning skills are necessary life skills. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • Need MORE Executive Functioning Skills? (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • Target executive functioning and study skills necessary for academic success at the middle and high school level. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • The bundle includes over 300 pages full of lessons, templates, and workbook pages to teach study strategies and ways to improve executive functioning skills. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • It includes many of my executive functioning and study skills materials in one place. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • Detailed information, examples, practice, and fun activities are included for every executive functioning skills. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • Promoting Cognitive and Executive Functioning Skills focuses on curriculum construction so that children develop cognitive skills, those related to exploration, numeracy, science, executive function, and social studies. (wmcc.edu)
  • Learn more about the basics of building executive function skills, and learn strategies that can help build them. (harvard.edu)
  • Just as we rely on our well-developed personal "air traffic control system" to make it through our complex days without stumbling, young children depend on their emerging executive function skills to help them as they learn to read and write, remember the steps in performing an arithmetic problem, take part in class discussions or group projects, and enter into and sustain play with other children. (harvard.edu)
  • Based on this new understanding, the following common misconceptions about the development of executive function skills can be laid to rest. (harvard.edu)
  • The evidence is clear that, by 12 months of age, a child's experiences are helping to lay the foundation for the ongoing development of executive function skills. (harvard.edu)
  • This goal of this study was to examine differences in the executive functioning skills of children from lower-income families compared to their more affluent peers. (ufl.edu)
  • Executive functions underlie cognitive skills that are necessary for learning in academic development. (ufl.edu)
  • These results indicate that children from lower-income families may benefit from executive skills training to better prepare them for school entry, thus results were discussed in terms of implications for early intervention programs. (ufl.edu)
  • Executive skills allow us to organize our behavior over time and override immediate demands in favor of longer-term goals. (jewishpress.com)
  • Executive skills enable us to manage our emotions and monitor our thoughts in order to work more efficiently and effectively. (jewishpress.com)
  • If your daughter's teacher is saying that she has trouble with executive skills, consider looking into Executive Function Disorder. (jewishpress.com)
  • Executive function is a set of skills that are utilized in everyday student and adult lives. (cue.org)
  • Many present truly novel approaches to financial education--such as focusing on improving executive function in young children (critical despite lacking apparent "financial content"), emphasizing financial attitude development through dual-generation financial modeling for elementary and middle school students and their parents, or intentionally teaching financial heuristics and other practical skills to later adolescents and young adults. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This article is not specific to X and Y conditions but it does present useful information about executive skills and how challenges in this area can impact kids in school. (genetic.org)
  • Weak executive function is the hallmark of many developmental disorders in children, as well as psychiatric disorders in adults. (brainandspinalcord.org)
  • The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) is a neuropsychological test used to measure a variety of verbal and nonverbal executive functions for both children and adults (ages 8-89 years). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System™ (D-KEFS™) is the first nationally standardized set of tests to evaluate higher level cognitive functions in both children and adults. (pearsonassessments.com)
  • In light of the developmental time course of executive functions, we consider separately children, young adults, and older adults. (springer.com)
  • In young adults, working memory updating is the main executive function shown to benefit from regular exercise, but cross-sectional data further suggest that task-switching and posterror performance may also benefit. (springer.com)
  • Although more research investigating exercise-related benefits for specific components of executive functioning is clearly needed in young adults and children, when considered across the age groups, ample evidence indicates that regular engagement in aerobic exercise can provide a simple means for healthy people to optimize a range of executive functions. (springer.com)
  • 2000 ). While the majority of the data to date supporting exercise-related benefits in executive functioning within healthy populations have involved older adults, evidence is beginning to emerge that regular engagement in aerobic exercise might also be beneficial for such functioning in young adulthood, despite executive functioning peaking developmentally in that age group (Åberg et al. (springer.com)
  • Acute bouts of moderate aerobic exercise have been shown to improve cognitive function in healthy adults. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study aimed to investigate food addiction (FA) and binge-eating disorder (BED) in their association to executive dysfunctions in adults with obesity. (mdpi.com)
  • The BRIEFA captures views of an adults executive function and self-regulation in everyday environments, through both a self-report and an informant report. (academictherapy.com)
  • Acute cardiovascular exercise effects on cognitive function were examined using an executive control task by comparing neuroelectric and behavioral performance at baseline with post-exercise in 20 undergraduates. (nih.gov)
  • These theoretically and statistically derived scales form two indexes: a) Behavioral Regulation (three scales) and b) Metacognition (five scales), as well as a Global Executive Composite score which takes into account all of the clinical scales and represents the child's overall executive function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence for the convergent and divergent aspects of the BRIEF's validity comes through its correlation with other measures of emotional and behavioral functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ten days after the end of tDCS treatment, patients are assessed for executive functions and behavioral dysexecutive functions (EC2R and ISCD). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The reading span test (RST) was developed and implemented to behaviorally measure individual differences in verbal working memory capacity employed by processing and storage functions during reading [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • After blood sampling, the children all completed a standardized test of executive function that cuts across potential cultural biases and differences. (nutraingredients.com)
  • and 2) the differences among groups with average, superior and very superior intelligence in regard to cognitive and executive functions. (scirp.org)
  • The study will first investigate whether there are differences in executive function between visually impaired students and a normative sample of sighted children, and whether visually impaired students at mainstream schools differ in their executive function from visually impaired students at specialized schools. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Executive and social cognition sequelae are associated with poor outcome. (medscape.com)
  • Executive function (EF) is the ability to monitor and regulate different types of cognition and behavior to achieve specific internal goals [1] - [2] . (plos.org)
  • Parkinson disease (PD) affects cognition, specifically executive function. (nih.gov)
  • Agent-centered cognition and frontal-lobe functions. (eventbrite.com)
  • Primary outcome measures will assess mindfulness, executive functioning, attention regulation, actively open-minded thinking and need for cognition. (city.ac.uk)
  • Using the ACS software, examiners can compare performance on these two subtests with performance on the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV, which allows for a more integrated assessment of functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome in Children is a scientifically valid and reliable battery of tests of executive functioning. (pearsonassessments.com)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/876048565 Title: The myth of executive functioning : missing elements in conceptualization, evaluation, and assessment Author: Leonard F Koziol Publisher: Cham : Springer, 2014. (worldcat.org)
  • The results of this study demonstrated that reduced scoring on the Behavioural Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome was independently associated with reduced balance function, measured using the Berg Balance Scale, among this sample of people with stroke. (csp.org.uk)
  • Moreover, to our knowledge, the prospective relationship between executive functioning and body weight has not been characterized among older children and adolescents. (aappublications.org)
  • Adolescents who media multitask more frequently reported having more problems in the three domains of executive function. (uva.nl)
  • Executive (dys-)function is currently even seen as a shared underlying key component of most mental disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • We will also examine how executive functions become impaired in a wide range of neurological, neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental, and neurogeriatric disorders. (eventbrite.com)
  • Executive deficit in neurological disorders. (eventbrite.com)
  • This manual provides a structured framework for therapists to guide the evaluation process and treatment of patients with executive function disorders. (linguisystems.com)
  • The Source for Executive Function Disorders incorporates these principles and is also based on expert professional practice. (linguisystems.com)
  • In turn, according to views based in neuropsychology, behavior is based on three major functional systems that, in addition to emotional aspects related to personality and emotion variables, include cognitive and executive functions (Lezak, Howieson, & Loring, 2004) . (scirp.org)
  • To assess whether cognitive and/or neural metrics of executive function and neural metrics of academic achievement predict academic ability at the same time point. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Executive functioning: we measure it, assess it, document its development in youth, track its decline in age, and use it as a basis for diagnoses, treatment planning, and--of course--theories. (worldcat.org)
  • This video demonstrates how to assess executive function in children-ages 3 to 5 years-by discussing the steps required to set-up and run an experiment involving the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task, as well as how to analyze the data and interpret the results. (jove.com)
  • Rating scales and neuropsychological tests including continuous performance tests (CPTs) are widely used to assess executive functions (EFs). (dovepress.com)
  • Parents' reactions can, in this way, become an additional impediment to children's executive functioning. (psychcentral.com)
  • An educational approach focused on the development of children's executive functions - the ability to avoid distractions, focus attention, hold relevant information in working memory, and regulate impulsive behavior - improved academic learning in and beyond kindergarten, according to a new study by researchers at NYU's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development. (eurekalert.org)
  • Research suggests that regular aerobic exercise has the potential to improve executive functioning, even in healthy populations. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this review is to consider which components of executive functioning have been shown to improve with regular aerobic exercise in healthy populations. (springer.com)
  • In addition, we focus on aerobic exercise, rather than resistance or other types of training, because aerobic exercise is readily accessible, requires no specialist knowledge or equipment, and is more directly linked to cardiovascular fitness, which has also been linked to executive function capabilities. (springer.com)
  • To evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise with dual-task on the motor function in patients with Parkinson's disease. (termedia.pl)
  • Specifically, an Executive Function Index cutoff score of 94 resulted in a sensitivity of .76, a specificity of .79, and a receiver operating characteristic/area under the curve of .89 in differentiating students with autism spectrum disorder from typically developing students. (superduperinc.com)
  • Cross-sectional group comparisons revealed little evidence for an executive deficit in children with autism at either age. (bl.uk)
  • Pilot Study Investigating the Effects of Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Executive Functions of Patients With Autism Without Mental Retardation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 4 Also, the gap between the students with autism and their peers widens in executive functioning during the teen years. (iancommunity.org)
  • The BRIEF2 is a set of questionnaires for parents, teachers, and now older students (ages 1118), designed to evaluate executive function from multiple perspectives. (academictherapy.com)
  • Neuropsychological tests and self-reported questionnaires of executive functioning were administered pre-intervention, immediately after intervention, and at 6 months follow-up. (cambridge.org)
  • There is growing evidence that structured training in awareness and strategy application can help patients manage the consequences of executive impairment in everyday life. (medscape.com)
  • The ability of patients to achieve goals, including rehabilitation goals, may be compromised by executive function impairment. (continuingeducation.com)
  • [2] Both neuropsychological tests (e.g., the Stroop test ) and rating scales (e.g., the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function ) are used to measure executive functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to provide targeted treatment options for executive dysfunctions, the specification of neuropsychological profiles in the obesity spectrum is warranted [ 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The concept of executive function is neuropsychological in origin, moreover, by definition it refers to the brains ability to regulate itself. (adhdeurope.eu)
  • Encouraging results from the adaptive training of specific executive capacities such as working memory merit further investigation. (medscape.com)
  • Deficits in executive functions, especially in working memory, predict kindergarten children's risk of experiencing repeated academic difficulties from first to third grade. (aera.net)
  • Kindergarten children with working memory deficits had odds of experiencing repeated academic difficulties that were about 10 times greater than children without working memory deficits, controlling for whether children had other types of deficits in executive functions. (aera.net)
  • Of these specific types of deficits in executive functions, working memory deficits were the most strongly predictive. (aera.net)
  • For example, the odds that kindergarten children with working memory deficits would experience repeated science difficulties were twice as large as for those without working memory deficits, controlling for prior achievement, age, race/ethnicity, gender, and family socioeconomic status, as well as other types of deficits in executive functions. (aera.net)
  • Executive functions represent the highest level of cognitive control and involve goal formation, planning, mental flexibility, impulse control, working memory. (eventbrite.com)
  • Working memory and the ability to control attention, both important components of executive functions, enable children to focus and process information more efficiently. (eurekalert.org)
  • Kindergartners in the Tools of the Minds classrooms were also better at paying attention in the face of distractions, had better working memory and executive functions, and processed information more efficiently. (eurekalert.org)
  • The aim of this study was to examine the relationship among various aspects of executive functions (inhibitory control, working memory, planning and cognitive flexibility) and language comprehension in preschool children. (scirp.org)
  • 2013). Further, various types of mindfulness meditation seem to positively influence cognitive functions, like focused attention, selective and executive attention, working memory and other executive functions (Chiesa et al. (city.ac.uk)
  • mainly related to the central executive, according to the working memory model of Baddeley ( 1986), as well as to action planning,or problem solving, among others. (scribd.com)
  • Executive function , working memory and learning]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Family functioning and maternal psychopathology in early and middle childhood and children's stress levels were associated with children's working memory and executive functioning. (scielo.br)
  • Binge eating, which involves consuming an objectively large amount of food while experiencing a sense of loss of control while eating, 19 is associated with both obesity 20 and poorer executive functioning 11 , 12 and may be a potential pathway to elevated weight status among those with preexisting executive function difficulties. (aappublications.org)
  • They also found that higher levels of omega-6s were associated with poorer executive function as well as lower scores on the MMSE. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Learning difficulties involving executive functioning are neurologically based, but executive functioning is sensitive to and impeded by stress. (psychcentral.com)
  • Kindergarten children with deficits in executive functions were also at risk of experiencing repeated science difficulties. (aera.net)
  • Children experiencing psychosocial deprivation as a result of early institutional rearing demonstrate many difficulties with memory and executive functioning (EF). (pnas.org)
  • It was the minors who were victims of physical neglect that showed the greatest difficulties in their executive functions. (safetylit.org)
  • Memory and executive functioning (EF) are cognitive faculties that underlie children's capacity to regulate behavior and emotion. (pnas.org)
  • Given the increasingly sedentary disposition of Western society (World Health Organization, 2012a , 2012b ) and the rapidly aging population (United Nations Population Division, 2009 ), it is in the interests of health providers and the public that the links between exercise and executive functioning across the lifespan be thoroughly examined. (springer.com)
  • Oscar Chang, Executive Vice President of Global Security Service and Response, will assume Chen's responsibilities of leading Trend Micro's Research & Development organization and will ensure its successful transition to support these newly formed business units. (trendmicro.com)
  • Many people with ASDs appear to have impaired executive function, 1 especially as regards planning, organization, and mental flexibility. (iancommunity.org)
  • In practical terms, problems with executive function translate into issues with organization and flexibility. (iancommunity.org)
  • 1998) to consider that fvFTD patients, according to diagnostic criteria, suffer an important deterioration of the executive functions (see the review of Grossman, 2002). (scribd.com)
  • Home / Test Division / Reference Database / 2000 to 2009 / 2002 / Chronic alcoholism and the frontal lobe: which executive functions are impaired? (umn.edu)
  • Another strategy for addressing deficits in executive function is using metacognitive language. (edutopia.org)
  • Long-term assignments can be particularly challenging for students with deficits in executive function. (edutopia.org)
  • Teacher behavior is also influential in supporting students who may have deficits in executive function. (edutopia.org)
  • Hopefully, teachers and parents now realize that attention deficit disorder is often a very complex condition….when deficits in executive function and related learning problems are present, students can try their very best and still not succeed in school. (genetic.org)
  • Executive functions gradually develop and change across the lifespan of an individual and can be improved at any time over the course of a person's life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent advances in neuroscience suggest that focusing on self-regulation - which includes executive functions and regulating one's emotions - can enhance children's engagement in learning and put them on an upward academic trajectory. (eurekalert.org)
  • Primary outcome measures examined executive function, and secondary measures examined disease severity, quality of life, and walking function. (nih.gov)
  • In attempting to experimentally define executive functions in terms of their relationship to age, reasoning and perceptual speed, Timothy Salthouse reviewed the variety of verbal definitions given to construct of "executive function. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Therefore, it is unreasonable to expect to find a task in which there is no relationship with executive function (except, perhaps, simple reaction time measures, which were not included here). (scienceblogs.com)
  • This study examined the relationship between neural activity and executive function (EF) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). (hindawi.com)
  • Results reveal mixed evidence that does not support a one-to-one relationship between executive functions and frontal lobe activity. (nih.gov)
  • Executive functioning and excess weight have been associated in cross-sectional and prospective studies, but mechanisms explaining this relationship are unclear. (aappublications.org)
  • Anterior cingulate cortex mediates the relationship between O3PUFAs and executive functions in APOE e4 carriers. (dsm.com)
  • Welsh, Nix, Blair, Bierman, & Nelson, 2010) , but this research is less intensive than research on the relationship between executive functions and the theory of mind (and the theory of mind and language). (scirp.org)
  • Moreover, executive function performance did not change reliably across individuals over the year, nor was there any consistent relationship for individual children between performance on one executive function task and one behavioural domain. (bl.uk)
  • Since executive functioning issues often impact planning and parsing things out, this can create increased tension in a relationship. (adhdmarriage.com)
  • We demonstrate a relationship between FA and a measure of executive function-a core cognitive component that is a key feature of cognitive aging. (ajnr.org)
  • Copy and delay organisation scores, surrogates for executive functions, were developed for ROCF-C and ROCF-DR. We used multiple regression analyses to examine the relationship between TWA and ROCF performance, organisational scores, and the interaction of organisational scores and TWA after adjusting for relevant covariates. (bmj.com)
  • Organisational strategies, a component of executive functions, served as effect modifiers of the relationship between lead exposure and non-verbal memory. (bmj.com)
  • To investigate the relationship between family environment, salivary cortisol measurements and children's memory and executive function performance. (scielo.br)
  • Executive function in preschool children: test-retest reliability. (springer.com)
  • Although EF is traditionally understood as a cognitive function dependent upon top-down cortical control, we challenge this model. (nih.gov)
  • Salthouse's First Conclusion: These findings are "inconsistent with the interpretation that [Executive Function] represents a distinct construct" from the other non-executive measures. (scienceblogs.com)
  • [5] Even though articles on prefrontal lobe lesions commonly refer to disturbances of executive functions and vice versa, a review found indications for the sensitivity but not for the specificity of executive function measures to frontal lobe functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both participants demonstrated improvements in all measures of executive function and quality of life. (nih.gov)
  • Regression analyses revealed that media multitasking significantly predicted self-reported measures of executive function. (uva.nl)
  • The ANOVA revealed the groups' significant effect (VSI, SI, AI), that is, the VSI and SI groups tended to perform better on the WISC subtests, in the cognitive measures of the PPVT, Rey CF, and in executive measure (FAS). (scirp.org)
  • This active-controlled mixed factorial experiment study will investigate the effects of a 20-minute guided mindfulness meditation on the primary measures of executive function and attention regulation. (city.ac.uk)
  • This research analyzes the executive functions in minors between 7 and 16 years of age who have suffered physical abuse and neglect, as well as minors in residential care centers with other measures of protection. (safetylit.org)
  • This study aims to identify whether the consequences of child abuse for the executive functions are different for those minors who have been victims of physical abuse and neglect, in comparison with minors with other protective measures. (safetylit.org)
  • Questionnaire measures indicated significant improvement of everyday executive functioning in the GMT group, with effects lasting at least 6 months post-treatment. (cambridge.org)
  • The strongest effects were seen on self-report measures of executive functions 6 months post-treatment, suggesting that strategies learned in GMT were applied and consolidated in everyday life after the end of training. (cambridge.org)
  • A strong association has been demonstrated between subcortical white matter hyperintensities ("lesions") and measures of cognitive function in the elderly. (ajnr.org)
  • 19 - 23 These associations are particularly strong for measures of executive function and processing speed. (ajnr.org)
  • During the last decade, research on the causal and maintaining factors of obesity has focused on executive functioning and neural characteristics [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Essential reading for those working directly in the cognitive sciences or in related specialist areas, "Research Trends in Behavior and Executive Function" provides an instant overview of current thinking for both experts and newcomers to cognitive sciences. (novapublishers.com)
  • Therefore Fast ForWord is an executive function treatment that builds learning efficiency, creating a foundation for the development of self talk, which regulates behavior and executive function. (gemmlearning.com)
  • Although there are some encouraging early results, more information on the clinical significance of change for everyday function is required. (medscape.com)
  • A controversial presentation with the potential to change clinical practice and training, The Myth of Executive Functioning will be read, debated, and learned from by neuropsychologists, clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, cognitive neuroscientists, and rehabilitation specialists. (worldcat.org)
  • In conclusion, medial temporal and-parietal FDG-PET and executive function show a clinically acceptable accuracy for predicting clinical progression in elderly HC subjects. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • This groundbreaking book offers a comprehensive theory of executive functioning (EF) with important clinical implications. (guilford.com)
  • The importance of executive functions to children's education begins in early childhood and continues throughout development. (cogstate.com)
  • A randomised active-controlled double-blinded trial will examine the effects of an online mindfulness intervention on executive control, attention regulation and memory specificity for people with neurological conditions. (city.ac.uk)
  • The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness training in enhancing executive function and decreasing symptoms of depression and anxiety in multiple sclerosis patients. (scirp.org)
  • Generally, the results of this research showed positive effects of mindfulness training on reducing anxiety and depression among patients with MS and ineffectiveness of mindfulness training on their executive function. (scirp.org)
  • Some students do not develop executive functions to the same degree as their peers. (edutopia.org)
  • Young children with the highest levels of omega-3s in their blood outperformed their peers on a measure of executive function, according to new research conducted in West Africa. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Developmental delays in executive function from 3 to 5 years of age predict kindergarten academic readiness. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Stroop performance in multiple sclerosis: Information processing, selective attention, or executive functioning? (cambridge.org)
  • For these students with deficits, additional support in the classroom may improve their development of executive function. (edutopia.org)
  • From movement to thought: the development of executive function. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, most 5-year-olds do not have a problem transitioning to the new game, which suggests their emerging development of executive function. (jove.com)
  • Cognitive models of executive functions development. (isciii.es)
  • It is when these inefficiencies impede development of higher level thinking that "executive function" and other diagnoses start to emerge. (gemmlearning.com)
  • Staged effectively, business functions can contribute to a company's success, standing, profitability and business development. (wiley.com)
  • Can reactivity to stress and family environment explain memory and executive function performance in early and middle childhood? (scielo.br)
  • Acute cardiovascular exercise and executive control function. (nih.gov)
  • 10 ]. Such activation represents the attention control system of the central executive system. (hindawi.com)
  • A latent variable approach to executive control in healthy ageing. (novapublishers.com)
  • Este estudio examinó la memoria y las funciones ejecutivas de cambiar y distribuir la atención en 25 pacientes Alzheimer (EA), 9 pacientes con demencia frontotemporal en su variante frontal (DFTvf), y 25 ancianos sanos, como grupo control (C), en tres pruebas: amplitud verbal, tarea de Brown-Peterson (B-P), y una tarea doble. (scribd.com)
  • Philip David Zelazo of the University of Minnesota, also a leading expert in executive functions, defines them as "the deliberate, goal-directed control of behavior. (huffpost.com)
  • That's the beauty and the purpose of executive functions: they enable us to control ourselves, to reflect deeply, and to consider things from multiple points of view. (huffpost.com)
  • Executive functions help you exhibit control over your actions so that you can get to a specific goal you wish to achieve. (adhdmarriage.com)
  • The conductor of an orchestra is much like executive functions, not in control of how each functions, but responsible for their activation, regulation, and integration as a whole. (adhdeurope.eu)

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