Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that were originally characterized as sodium dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporters. Vesicular glutamate transport proteins sequester the excitatory neurotransmitter GLUTAMATE from the CYTOPLASM into SECRETORY VESICLES in exchange for lumenal PROTONS.Amino Acid Transport System X-AG: A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2: A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found in ASTROCYTES and in the LIVER.Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Acidic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2: A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 1: A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in TELENCEPHALON of the BRAIN.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid: An IBOTENIC ACID homolog and glutamate agonist. The compound is the defining agonist for the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, AMPA). It has been used as a radionuclide imaging agent but is more commonly used as an experimental tool in cell biological studies.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Kainic Acid: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.Glutamate Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that couple the uptake of GLUTAMATE with the import of SODIUM ions and PROTONS and the export of POTASSIUM ions. In the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM they regulate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Outside the central nervous system they function as signal mediators and regulators of glutamate metabolism.Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate: Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.Synaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3: A neuronal and epithelial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Receptors, Kainic Acid: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for KAINIC ACID.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Dizocilpine Maleate: A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins: Membrane transport proteins found predominately in NEURONS and neuroendocrine cells that facilitate neurotransmitter transport. They include two distinct families of proteins that transport NEUROTRANSMITTERS across the PLASMA MEMBRANE and that transport NEUROTRANSMITTERS into SECRETORY VESICLES.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Receptors, Neurotransmitter: Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Plasma Membrane Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins: A family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that facilitate NEUROTRANSMITTER reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. They may play a role in regulating the intensity and duration of neurotransmission.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate: The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.Nerve Tissue ProteinsDopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.QuinoxalinesExcitatory Amino Acid Agents: Drugs used for their actions on any aspect of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter systems. Included are drugs that act on excitatory amino acid receptors, affect the life cycle of excitatory amino acid transmitters, or affect the survival of neurons using excitatory amino acids.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Synapsins: A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 1: A glial type glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein found predominately in ASTROCYTES. It is also expressed in HEART and SKELETAL MUSCLE and in the PLACENTA.Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Receptors, GABA-B: A subset of GABA RECEPTORS that signal through their interaction with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Kynurenic Acid: A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.Synaptotagmin I: A vesicular transport protein expressed predominately in NEURONS. Synaptotagmin helps regulate EXOCYTOSIS of SYNAPTIC VESICLES and appears to serve as a calcium sensor to trigger NEUROTRANSMITTER release. It also acts as a nerve cell receptor for certain BOTULINUM TOXINS.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Synaptic Potentials: The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Miniature Postsynaptic Potentials: Postsynaptic potentials generated from a release of neurotransmitters from a presynaptic nerve terminal in the absence of an ACTION POTENTIAL. They may be m.e.p.p.s (miniature EXCITATORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS) or m.i.p.p.s (miniature INHIBITORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS).Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Dendritic Spines: Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Receptors, Presynaptic: Neurotransmitter receptors located on or near presynaptic terminals or varicosities. Presynaptic receptors which bind transmitter molecules released by the terminal itself are termed AUTORECEPTORS.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Neocortex: The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Picrotoxin: A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25: A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.Synaptotagmins: A family of vesicular transport proteins characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane region and two C-terminal calcium-binding domains.Baclofen: A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Quisqualic Acid: An agonist at two subsets of excitatory amino acid receptors, ionotropic receptors that directly control membrane channels and metabotropic receptors that indirectly mediate calcium mobilization from intracellular stores. The compound is obtained from the seeds and fruit of Quisqualis chinensis.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)GABA-A Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Calcium Channels, N-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.GABAergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.CA1 Region, Hippocampal: One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.Spider Venoms: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.Glycine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE.Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Glycine Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that sequester the inhibitory neurotransmitters GLYCINE; GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID; and possibly GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE into SECRETORY VESICLES.Mice, Inbred C57BLReceptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Receptors, Serotonin: Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 4: A glutamate plasma membrane transporter protein that is primarily expressed in cerebellar PURKINJE CELLS on postsynaptic DENDRITIC SPINES.Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.SNARE Proteins: A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Purkinje Cells: The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Dentate Gyrus: GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Cycloleucine: An amino acid formed by cyclization of leucine. It has cytostatic, immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.GABA Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Astacoidea: A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide: A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).Calcium Channels, P-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal: Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Phosphinic Acids: Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins: A family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that are INTEGRAL MEMBRANE PROTEINS of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES. They are ANTIPORTERS that exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic NEUROTRANSMITTER and play an essential role in regulating neurotransmission.Lampreys: Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.GABA-B Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-B RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-B RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Synaptophysin: A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Calcium Channels, Q-Type: CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.R-SNARE Proteins: SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.GABA-B Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-B RECEPTORS.Syntaxin 1: A neuronal cell membrane protein that combines with SNAP-25 and SYNAPTOBREVIN 2 to form a SNARE complex that leads to EXOCYTOSIS.Serotonin Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Long-Term Synaptic Depression: A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Synaptotagmin II: A vesicular transport protein that was originally characterized as an inositol polyphosphate binding protein. Synaptotagmin II helps regulate EXOCYTOSIS of SYNAPTIC VESICLES and appears to serve as a calcium sensor to trigger NEUROTRANSMITTER release. It also acts as a nerve cell receptor for certain BOTULINUM TOXINS.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Myenteric Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)omega-Conotoxin GVIA: A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
Neurotransmitters. Amino acid-derived. *Major excitatory/inhibitory systems: Glutamate system: Agmatine. *Aspartic acid ( ... Monoamine neurotransmitters are neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that contain one amino group connected to an aromatic ... Monoamine neurotransmitter systems occur in virtually all vertebrates, where the evolvability of these systems has served to ... Unlike other monoamine neurotransmitters, the mechanism by which the brain's histamine content is regulated remains unclear. In ...
Aspartate and glutamate are excitatory neurotransmitters. At high doses (consumed either independently or in excess of other ... "Glutamate and Aspartate Are the Major Excitatory Transmitters in the Brain". NCBI. Retrieved 31 December 2015.. ... The most compelling evidence that glutamate and aspartate function as neurotransmitters came from the observation that at low ...
The excitatory neurotransmitter acetylcholine becomes less available in the brain.[9] Humans often maneuver to create a ... reciprocally influential neurotransmitter systems.[13] Sleep timing is controlled by the circadian clock, and in humans, to ... Neurotransmitter imbalance has been proposed as a cause of nightmares, as also affective network dysfunction- a model which ... research has shown that the hypothalamic region called ventrolateral preoptic nucleus produces the inhibitory neurotransmitter ...
... while one that releases excitatory neurotransmitters is an excitatory neuron. When the normal balance between inhibition and ... ineffective receptors for inhibitory neurotransmitters; insufficient breakdown of excitatory neurotransmitters leading to ... Neurotransmitters can inhibit impulse firing (primarily done by γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA) or they can excite the neuron ... The propagation of this impulse from one neuron to another is typically controlled by neurotransmitters, though there are also ...
Glutamate is the brain's primary excitatory neurotransmitter. The channel is normally blocked with a magnesium ion and requires ... Excitatory amino acids, such as glutamate and aspartate, are released in toxic amounts when the brain is deprived of blood and ... Oddly, it was discovered to decrease rabies virus production and is believed to be the first neurotransmitter antagonist to ...
Neurotransmitters can cause inhibitory or excitatory effects on the "target" cell they are affecting. Alcohol increases the ... Alcohol alters consciousness by shifting levels of neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that transmit ... Alcohol also decreases the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Suppressing this stimulant results in a similar type of ... Cocaine affects the neurotransmitters that nerves use to communicate with each other. Cocaine inhibits the reuptake of ...
GABA is an excitatory neurotransmitter during development. WNK1 has been implicated in the developmental switch from excitatory ... In the mature brain, the GABA neurotransmitter represents the major inhibitory signal used in neuronal signaling. GABA ...
They may reduce the amount of oxygen available to the brain, cause excitatory neurotransmitters to be released in excess, ... excessive release of excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate; damage to tissues caused by free radicals; and changes in ... excessive release of excitatory neurotransmitters, increased metabolic demands, and increased pressure within the intracranial ...
The major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain is glutamate; the major inhibitory neurotransmitter is GABA. ... • The most ... is an excitatory neurotransmitter involved in many aspects of brain function, including learning and memory. Based upon animal ... A review by Kramer and colleagues (2006) found that some neurotransmitter systems are affected by exercise in a positive way. A ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 5: Excitatory and Inhibitory Amino Acids". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular ...
Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS. NMDA receptors have a very important role in modulating long- ...
Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter has been implicated in OCD. MRS studies have observed decreased Glx in the striatum, ... Genetic and neurochemical studies implicate glutamate and monoamine neurotransmitters. The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo- ...
Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, is usually associated with excitatory postsynaptic potentials in synaptic ... GABA is a very common neurotransmitter used in IPSPs in the adult mammalian brain and retina.[1][6] GABA receptors are ... IPSPs can take place at all chemical synapses, which use the secretion of neurotransmitters to create cell to cell signalling. ... Inhibitory presynaptic neurons release neurotransmitters that then bind to the postsynaptic receptors; this induces a change in ...
... the principal excitatory neurotransmitter) into GABA (the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter).[42][43] ... Thus, GABA is considered the major excitatory neurotransmitter in many regions of the brain before the maturation of ... ˈæsɪd/, or GABA /ˈɡæbə/, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Its principal role ... In 2007, an excitatory GABAergic system was described in the airway epithelium. The system is activated by exposure to ...
Glutamate, though usually excitatory, functions here as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. In the cone pathway glutamate: ... As the calcium level in the photoreceptor cell drops, the amount of the neurotransmitter glutamate that is released by the cell ... An increased intracellular concentration of Ca2+ causes vesicles containing glutamate, a neurotransmitter, to merge with the ...
Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS. Taken together, the findings that barbiturates ... At higher concentration, they inhibit the Ca2+-dependent release of neurotransmitters such as glutamate via an effect on P/Q- ... GABA is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Barbiturates bind to the GABAA ... potentiate inhibitory GABAA receptors and inhibit excitatory AMPA receptors can explain the superior CNS-depressant effects of ...
AChE is an enzyme that hydrolyzes acetylcholine, an excitatory neurotransmitter. When acetylcholine is released into the ...
It may work by decreasing release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate from pre-synaptic neurons.[10] The most common ... In ALS, there are decreased levels of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), which is the main transporter that removes ... nerve cell death caused by high levels of intracellular calcium due to excessive stimulation by the excitatory neurotransmitter ...
... is a structural analog of kainic acid, proline, and endogenous excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate.[8] Ohfune and ... Domoic acid is an excitatory amino acid analogue of glutamate; a neurotransmitter in the brain that activates glutamate ...
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in vertebrate nervous systems. Evidence for the involvement of ... γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. The GABAergic system may be involved in schizophrenia due to ... Dopamine is a monoamine neurotransmitter which is involved in other diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. There is evidence ... These involve the manipulation of various neurotransmitter systems, including dopamine, glutamate, serotonin, and GABA. Lesion ...
Glutamate is the most abundantly used excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS. After being released into the synapse for ...
Neurotransmitters can cause inhibitory or excitatory effects on the "target" cell they are affecting.[29] Alcohol increases the ... Alcohol alters consciousness by shifting levels of neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that transmit ... Alcohol also decreases the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Suppressing this stimulant results in a similar type of ... "Neurotransmitter" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary *^ Altarriba, Jeanette (2012). "Emotion and Mood: Over 120 Years of ...
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate nervous system. At chemical synapses, glutamate is ... The glutamate neurotransmitter plays the principal role in neural activation. This anion is also responsible for the savory ... Glutamate is also a neurotransmitter (see below), which makes it one of the most abundant molecules in the brain. Malignant ... Meldrum, B. S. (2000). "Glutamate as a neurotransmitter in the brain: Review of physiology and pathology". The Journal of ...
Gekel I, Neher E (Aug 2008). "Application of an Epac activator enhances neurotransmitter release at excitatory central synapses ... In neurons, Epac is involved in neurotransmitter release in glutamatergic synapses from calyx of Held and in crayfish ...
Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate nervous system. Increased glutamate excitatory ... "Neurotransmitters". The Brain from Top to Bottom. Retrieved 29 April 2013. Tallman, J F; Gallager, D W (1985). "The Gaba-Ergic ... Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system; roughly one-quarter to ... Meldrum, Brian S. (2000). "Glutamate as a Neurotransmitter in the Brain: Review of Physiology and Pathology". Journal of ...
α-Ketoglutarate is transaminated, along with glutamine, to form the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Glutamate can then ... be decarboxylated (requiring vitamin B6) into the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. It is reported that high ammonia and/or ...
Together these neurons make up an intrinsic network that is capable of being regulated by a vast range of neurotransmitters, ... This is due to the reduction of excitatory synaptic transmission in a nucleus and increased excitability in motor neurons ... P/Q-type calcium channels are mainly responsible for the release of neurotransmitters that excite, or activate, postsynaptic ... It is often coreleased with other neurotransmitters. Substance P activates the inspiratory frequency at the level of the ...
Neurotransmitters are either excitatory (i. e. They stimulate the firing of a neuron) or inhibitory ... is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. In fact, it's the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain&period ... GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is a non-protein amino acid that functions as a neurotransmitter (a chemical that ...
Browse Sigma-Aldrichs Excitatory Amino Acids to find products in AMPA/Kainate Agonists, AMPA/Kainate Antagonists, AMPA/Kainate ... Other, Metabotropic Agonists, Metabotropic Antagonists, NMDA Agonists, NMDA Antagonists, Neurotransmitters, Other Excitatory ...
Lateral diffusion of surface neurotransmitter receptors has emerged as a key pathway to... ... Groc L., Heine M., Cognet L., Lounis B., Choquet D. (2006) Lateral Diffusion of Excitatory Neurotransmitter Receptors During ... Lateral Diffusion Neurotransmitter Receptor Extrasynaptic Receptor Synaptic Area Lateral Diff These keywords were added by ... The neurotransmitter receptor lateral diffusion depends on several factors, such as interactions with other proteins highly ...
Excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, somatostatin and degenerate cortical neurons in Alzheimers disease. P. T. FRANCIS, S ... Excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, somatostatin and degenerate cortical neurons in Alzheimers disease ... Excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, somatostatin and degenerate cortical neurons in Alzheimers disease ... Excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, somatostatin and degenerate cortical neurons in Alzheimers disease ...
Glutamate may be the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous. March 3, 2019. c-Raf ... Glutamate may be the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous program (CNS) and it is a major participant in ... the power of mGluR7 to modulate these excitatory Streptozotocin inputs could be indicative of the antipsychotic potential of ...
Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2020 Elsevier B.V "We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Log in to Pure. ...
Antagonists of Excitatory Amino Acid Neurotransmitters: A comparison of their effects on global versus focal ischemia. ... Antagonists of Excitatory Amino Acid Neurotransmitters: A comparison of their effects on global versus focal ischemia. ... Antagonists of Excitatory Amino Acid Neurotransmitters: A comparison of their effects on global versus focal ischemia. ...
Neurotransmiter (pl); Neurotransmitter, Neurotransmittor (nb); นิวโรทรานสมิตเตอร์, Neurotransmitter (th); nervesignalstoff, ... neurotransmitter (nl); neurotransmitter (sco); Neurotransmiter (sr-el); Neurotransmiteri (sh); สารสื่อประสาท (th); ... neurotransmiter (cs); Neurotransmiter (bs); নিউরোট্রান্সমিটার (bn); neurotransmetteur (fr); Neurotransmiter (hr); chất dẫn ... Neurotransmitter (de); Néaratharchuradóir (ga); Նեյրոտրանսմիտեր (hy);
EXCITATORY NEUROTRANSMITTER Norepinephrine, also known as Nor-Adrenaline, is widely distributed throughout your brain and body ... NOREPINEPHRINE: EXCITATORY NEUROTRANSMITTER. Norepinephrine, also known as Nor-Adrenaline, is widely distributed throughout ...
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers in the nervous system. They influence mood, muscle movement, heart rate, and many ... Excitatory neurotransmitters encourage a target cell to take action.. *Inhibitory neurotransmitters decrease the chances of the ... It is an excitatory neurotransmitter.. Low levels of acetylcholine are linked with issues with memory and thinking, such as ... Key types of neurotransmitters. Share on Pinterest. Many bodily functions need neurotransmitters to help communicate with the ...
Neurotransmitters come in two types, excitatory and inhibitory. Anderson talks about which neurotransmitters fall under each ... Excitatory or Inhibitory Neurotransmitters (21:25). Anderson uses slides to explain the processes and structure of a nerve cell ... It discusses neurotransmitters and receptors, looking at how medications work in the brain; examines different classes of ... Anderson gives a general overview of which medications influence which neurotransmitters. Psychopharmacologists are getting ...
Opened by excitatory Opened by inhibitory neurotransmitter neurotransmitter ... Glutamate Excitatory neurotransmitter. Secreted in -presynaptic nerve terminal of sensory pathways entering CNS -many areas of ... excitatory Or dec in Inhibitory or dec in inhibitory receptors Excitatory receptors ... GABA Inhibitory neurotransmitter. Secreted in nerve terminals in -cerebellum -spinal cord -basal ganglia -many areas of ...
Glutamate: excitatory neurotransmitter.. *Haemodynamic: blood movement.. *Hallucinations: sensory impression having no basis in ... Dopamine: a neurotransmitter involved in the control of movement, thinking, motivation and reward. Top of page. *Dopamine ... Norepinephrine: a neurotransmitter secreted by the adrenal glands promoting energy and alertness.. *Occupational use: drug use ... Monoamine neurotransmitters: mood regulating substances produced by the body such as serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine.. * ...
Finally, we show that excitatory neurotransmitters increase Tf receptor transcytosis, whereas inhibitory neurotransmitters ... Transcytosis is influenced by the addition of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. In the previous sections we ... In the CNS, iron is a key component of systems responsible for myelination and the synthesis of several neurotransmitters ( ... Contrary to the effect of the excitatory agonists, activation of inhibitory receptors by GABA decreases axonal TfR. In the ...
Is Aspartate an Excitatory Neurotransmitter?. Herring BE, Silm K, Edwards RH, Nicoll RA. ... A slow excitatory postsynaptic current mediated by a novel metabotropic glutamate receptor in CA1 pyramidal neurons. ... CaMKII phosphorylation of neuroligin-1 regulates excitatory synapses.. Bemben MA, Shipman SL, Hirai T, Herring BE, Li Y, Badger ... SynDIG1 promotes excitatory synaptogenesis independent of AMPA receptor trafficking and biophysical regulation. ...
... adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and adjusts excitatory neurotransmitters and inhibitory neurotransmitters, as shown in Additional file ... Central blockade NLRP3 regulates PVN excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and plasma norepinephrine and GABA. Compared ... Central blockade NLRP3 regulates PVN excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. a A representative immunohistochemistry image ... which resulted in an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, increase of sympathetic excitability and ...
Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters dont act alone; they work in concert with one another. While Dr ... in that they put the brake on the excitatory stimuli. The primary excitatory neurotransmitters are: glutamate, aspartate, ... Eventually, excitatory neurotransmitters are also depleted. Many adults with depression and chronic fatigue have low serotonin ... Generally, one can classify neurotransmitters as excitatory, in the sense that they rev up various physiologic functions, or ...
However, even though neurotransmitter specificity is one of the most important and defining properties of a neuron we still do ... Even Tlx1 and Tlx3, which specify the excitatory fates of dI3 and dI5 spinal neurons work at least in part by down-regulating ... We demonstrate that Evx1 and Evx2 are expressed by spinal cord V0v cells and we show that these cells develop into excitatory ( ... While we know a few transcription factors that specify the neurotransmitter fates of particular neurons, there are still many ...
In contrast, drowning that is associated with prolonged hypoxia or ischemia is likely to lead to both significant primary injury and secondary injury, especially in older patients who cannot rapidly a... more
Aspartate and glutamate are excitatory neurotransmitters. At high doses (consumed either independently or in excess of other ... "Glutamate and Aspartate Are the Major Excitatory Transmitters in the Brain". NCBI. Retrieved 31 December 2015.. ... The most compelling evidence that glutamate and aspartate function as neurotransmitters came from the observation that at low ...
Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter [34] and is naturally high in some nutritious foods such as bone broth, soups, and ... 34] excitatory neurotransmitter: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00018-015-1937-8 ... Glycine is considered an "inhibitory neurotransmitter [12]," and can act in the brain similarly to an antidepressant, without ... 12] inhibitory neurotransmitter: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11396606. [13] does this: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/ ...
... excitatory or inhibitory. A neurotransmitter influences trans-membrane ion flow either to increase (excitatory) or to decrease ... Excitatory and inhibitory[edit]. A neurotransmitter can influence the function of a neuron through a remarkable number of ... Binding of neurotransmitters may influence the postsynaptic neuron in either an inhibitory or excitatory way. This neuron may ... for that neurotransmitter. When neurotransmitter syntheses are blocked, the amount of neurotransmitters available for release ...
In peripheral neurons NA is an excitatory neurotransmitter; in the central nervous system it appears primarily to be inhibitory ... and inactivation of neurotransmitters. Von Euler discovered that norepinephrine serves as a neurotransmitter at the nerve ... Like many neurotransmitters, NA is packaged in axon terminals in synaptic vesicles, membrane-bound granules that fuse with the ... Noradrenaline (NA) was the second substance discovered to meet the classic criteria on being a neurotransmitter. (Acetylcholine ...
... glutamate may be the main excitatory neurotransmitter. As well as aspartate, glutamate may be the main excitatory ...
... glutamate may be the main excitatory neurotransmitter. As well as aspartate, glutamate may be the main excitatory ...
  • Epinephrine (Adrenaline) - an excitatory neurotransmitter that stimulates the "fight or flight" reaction by the body by increasing the heart rate and blood pressure. (cellsignal.com)
  • While mentioning the positive roles that glutamate plays when not present in amounts needed to produce excitotoxicity, its role as an excitatory neurotransmitter is subtlety mentioned and goosed over. (truthinlabeling.org)