Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Hemochromatosis: A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Chelation Therapy: Therapy of heavy metal poisoning using agents which sequester the metal from organs or tissues and bind it firmly within the ring structure of a new compound which can be eliminated from the body.Phlebotomy: The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Iron Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.beta-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Corynebacterium diphtheriae: A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.Hemosiderosis: Conditions in which there is a generalized increase in the iron stores of body tissues, particularly of liver and the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM, without demonstrable tissue damage. The name refers to the presence of stainable iron in the tissue in the form of hemosiderin.Iron-Dextran Complex: A complex of ferric oxyhydroxide with dextrans of 5000 to 7000 daltons in a viscous solution containing 50 mg/ml of iron. It is supplied as a parenteral preparation and is used as a hematinic. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1292)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Iron Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of iron in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)Siderosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of iron in the mining dust or welding fumes.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.HemosiderinThalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pyridones: Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Iron Carbonyl Compounds: Complex of iron atoms chelated with carbonyl ions.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Bloodletting: Puncture of a vein to draw blood for therapeutic purposes. Bloodletting therapy has been used in Talmudic and Indian medicine since the medieval time, and was still practiced widely in the 18th and 19th centuries. Its modern counterpart is PHLEBOTOMY.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Erythrocyte Transfusion: The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.CeruloplasminFerrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Iron-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.Anemia, Sideroblastic: Anemia characterized by the presence of erythroblasts containing excessive deposits of iron in the marrow.Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Apoferritins: The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.TriazolesMyocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Iron-Regulatory Proteins: Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Porphyria Cutanea Tarda: An autosomal dominant or acquired porphyria due to a deficiency of UROPORPHYRINOGEN DECARBOXYLASE in the LIVER. It is characterized by photosensitivity and cutaneous lesions with little or no neurologic symptoms. Type I is the acquired form and is strongly associated with liver diseases and hepatic toxicities caused by alcohol or estrogenic steroids. Type II is the familial form.Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Iron Regulatory Protein 1: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Ferrocyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Mononuclear Phagocyte System: Mononuclear cells with pronounced phagocytic ability that are distributed extensively in lymphoid and other organs. It includes MACROPHAGES and their precursors; PHAGOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS; HISTIOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and MICROGLIA. The term mononuclear phagocyte system has replaced the former reticuloendothelial system, which also included less active phagocytic cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 2d ed.)HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Iron Regulatory Protein 2: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.Mice, Inbred C57BLEthyl EthersBiopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
  • Treatment of an underlying liver problem may result in the resolution of PCT and may include reducing alcohol consumption, stopping oestrogen or hormone treatment, avoiding excessive iron intake, or antiviral treatment for underlying hepatitis C. (dermnetnz.org)
  • This study reveals a completely novel pathway in which sgk-1 plays a central role to synergistically regulate iron and lipid homeostasis, offering not only experimental evidence supporting a previously unverified link between iron and obesity, but also novel insights into the pathogenesis of iron and obesity-related human metabolic diseases. (genetics.org)
  • However elevated levels of liver iron are now often associated with metabolic diseases including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. (businesswire.com)
  • The benefits of iron as a metabolic enhancer may not outweigh its potential negative characteristics. (drlam.com)
  • The use of iron as a cofactor in basic metabolic pathways is essential to both pathogenic microorganisms and their hosts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Authors: Deugnier Y, Bardou-Jacquet É, Lainé F Abstract Dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS) corresponds to mild increase in both liver and body iron stores associated with various components of metabolic syndrome in the absence of any identifiable cause of iron excess. (medworm.com)
  • 1,2 dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one) is an orally active iron chelator investigated in various clinical trials since 1987. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • When iron levels in the blood were reduced using an iron chelator, levels of beta-amyloid and phosphorylated tau protein - which disrupt the ability of neurons to conduct electrical signals - both reverted back to normal. (mercola.com)
  • Several trials found combining desferrioxamine and deferiprone removed more excess iron than using just one iron chelator. (cochrane.org)
  • A drug used to treat hypertension may be the key to preventing excess iron from entering the heart, pancreas and pituitary gland in individuals with iron overload, according to researchers at U of T and Toronto General Hospital. (utoronto.ca)
  • The bioenergetic circuit - too much iron can build-up in the liver and pancreas, both of which are part of this NEM circuit. (drlam.com)
  • Iron concentrations in other tissues were compared. (bmj.com)
  • 2 One of the most important roles of iron is to provide hemoglobin (the protein in red blood cells) a mechanism through which it can bind to oxygen and carry it throughout your tissues. (mercola.com)
  • This is problematic, as iron is a potent oxidizer, capable of damaging tissues, including your vascular system and brain, thereby raising your risk for both heart disease and dementia. (mercola.com)
  • [ 12 ] Unlike ferritin, it does not circulate in blood but is deposited in tissues and is unavailable when cells need iron. (medscape.com)
  • Hepcidin gene transcription is regulated by iron levels, a rise on the iron level in plasma induce upregulation hepcidin mRNAs ( 10 ), in contrast, when iron level are restricted expression of hepcidin is inhibited and, therefore, iron is released from tissues ( 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In iron overload the excess iron which is deposited in the tissues causes damage. (springer.com)
  • Researchers believe that HH originated at least 40,000 years ago in the area we now know as Ireland with a single ancestor whose genes mutated to over-absorb iron from what was then a very poor iron diet and famine conditions. (sott.net)
  • Heme iron is easier to absorb while non-heme iron needs the aid of vitamin C or other organic acids for optimal absorption. (drlam.com)
  • For example, anemic individuals tend to absorb iron more efficiently, as do people who are growing or exercising vigorously. (livestrong.com)
  • People with haemochromatosis absorb too much iron from their diet. (haemochromatosis.org.au)
  • It is caused by a single gene mutation that makes the gut absorb as much iron as possible, when normally we stop absorbing it at times when we don't need it. (lubbockonline.com)
  • For instance, if you drink wine with your steak, you will likely absorb more iron than you need. (mercola.com)
  • These genes cause the stomach and intestines to absorb too much iron. (epnet.com)
  • sgk-1 positively regulates the expression of acs-20 and vit-2 , genes encoding homologs of the mammalian FATP1/4 fatty acid transport proteins and yolk lipoproteins, respectively, to facilitate lipid uptake and translocation for storage under iron overload. (genetics.org)
  • While 1 out of every 10 people with a northern European ancestry can carry the genes for iron overload, any adult of any age can be affected. (jacksonville.com)
  • There are two types of iron that you can get from your diet: heme iron, which is only found in animal products like red meat, and non-heme iron, which comes from both plant and animal sources. (drlam.com)
  • If you are suffering from the former, you may need to up your intake of heme iron and consider ingesting supplemental vitamin C along with non-heme iron sources. (drlam.com)
  • Iron absorption is either performed from the diet (as heme or free-iron) or efficiently recycled from senescent circulating erythrocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • It has the ability to bind with non-heme iron, which is found in plant foods. (healthline.com)
  • Another problem, heme iron is associated with a huge increase in colon cancer. (vegkitchen.com)
  • Eating foods with high levels of vitamin C can enhance the availability of non-heme iron up to six-fold. (vegkitchen.com)
  • Standard tea or Ceylon tea as it is often called in SA (not rooibos) should be consumed with meals to reduce iron uptake. (news24.com)
  • As a resident of early endosomal phagosomes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is connected to the iron uptake system of the host macrophage. (nih.gov)