Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate: A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Nasal Sprays: Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Dry Powder Inhalers: A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Dioctyl Sulfosuccinic Acid: All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Pentanes: Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Laboratory Infection: Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Krypton: A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Copying Processes: Reproduction of data in a new location or other destination, leaving the source data unchanged, although the physical form of the result may differ from that of the source.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Industrial Oils: Oils which are used in industrial or commercial applications.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Physical Phenomena: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.ManikinsOvalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Pasteurella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Sneezing: The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Inhalation Spacers: A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedSnow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Oxocins: Compounds based on an 8-membered heterocyclic ring including an oxygen. They can be considered medium ring ethers.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Metaproterenol: A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Forensic Ballistics: The science of studying projectiles in motion, ballistics, being applied to law. Ballistics on firearm projectiles, such as bullets, include the study of what happens inside the weapon, during the flight of the projectile, and when the projectile strikes the target, such as body tissue.Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Mice, Inbred BALB CSolar System: The group of celestial bodies, including the EARTH, orbiting around and gravitationally bound by the sun. It includes eight planets, one minor planet, and 34 natural satellites, more than 1,000 observed comets, and thousands of lesser bodies known as MINOR PLANETS (asteroids) and METEOROIDS. (From Academic American Encyclopedia, 1983)Burkholderia mallei: A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Polyethyleneimine: Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.Respiratory System Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Hydrodynamics: The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.Plutonium: Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.Respiratory Transport: The processes of diffusion across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER, and the chemical reactions coupled with diffusion that effect the rate of PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE, generally at the alveolar level.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Harmful Algal Bloom: An algal bloom where the algae produce powerful toxins that can kill fish, birds, and mammals, and ultimately cause illness in humans. The harmful bloom can also cause oxygen depletion in the water due to the death and decomposition of non-toxic algae species.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Piperaceae: A family of flowering plants in the order Piperales best known for the black pepper widely used in SPICES, and for KAVA and Betel used for neuroactive properties.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Hemiterpenes: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Francisella tularensis: The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Respiratory Tract DiseasesConvection: Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Paranasal Sinuses: Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Pentetic Acid: An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Peptones: Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.PaintCarbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Serratia marcescens: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.WeldingRespiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nedocromil: A pyranoquinolone derivative that inhibits activation of inflammatory cells which are associated with ASTHMA, including eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, monocytes, and platelets.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Glanders: A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.HydrocarbonsPharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Mice, Inbred C57BLPregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Tularemia: A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium: A plant species of the genus CHRYSANTHEMUM, family ASTERACEAE. The flowers contain PYRETHRINS, cinerolones, and chrysanthemines which are powerful contact insecticides. Most in the old Pyrethrum genus are reclassified to TANACETUM; some to other ASTERACEAE genera.
An aerosol is a suspension of tiny particles of liquid, solid, or both within a gas. For example, water has a critical ... For example, water has a critical temperature of 374 °C (647 K), which is the highest temperature at which liquid water can ... E-Cigarettes allow users to inhale "e-liquid" aerosol/vapor, rather than cigarette smoke. Since it is in the gas phase, the ... A vapor is different from an aerosol. ...
... s are available in creams, ointments, aerosols, sprays, lotions, and jellies. Examples include benzocaine, ... for example by stealing them at their ophthalmologist or optometrist, by forging medical prescriptions or by trying to order it ... for example SSRIs or the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline). Even very small amounts of an anticonvulsant and/or an ...
A common example for closure experiments are aerosol studies. Aerosols can be studied from space, from aircraft, and from the ... An aerosol closure experiment might look like this: Individual aerosol particles are sampled, and their size and shape are ... Quinn, P. K., and D. J. Coffman (1998), Local closure during the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1): Aerosol ... The sunlight attenuated by the aerosol is measured by a sun photometer, yielding the optical depth of the aerosol layer; the ...
Proposed methods include increasing the planetary albedo, for example using stratospheric sulfate aerosols. Their principal ... Aerosols affect the formation of clouds, especially cirrus clouds. These projects seek to modify the atmosphere, either by ... Injecting reflective aerosols into the stratosphere is the proposed solar radiation management method that has received the ... Broadly speaking, stratospheric aerosol injection is seen as a relatively more credible climate engineering technique[by whom ...
For example, the direct radiative effect of a mass of methane is about 84 times stronger than the same mass of carbon dioxide ... "changes in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, land cover and solar radiation alter the energy balance ... For example, the mole fraction of carbon dioxide has increased from 280 ppm to 400 ppm, or 120 ppm over modern pre-industrial ... An example is the mixing of atmospheric gases into the oceans. a chemical change at the interface between the atmosphere and ...
Less volatile aerosols of Ba, Ce, La, Sr, and other fission products are formed during this phase and introduced into the ... Some reactor building designs, for example, the EPR, incorporate dedicated corium spread areas (Core Catchers), where the melt ... The gaseous compounds may be adsorbed on the surface of the aerosol particles. The composition of corium depends on the design ... Aerosols released during this phase are primarily based on concrete-originating silicon compounds; otherwise volatile elements ...
The name electrospray is used for an apparatus that employs electricity to disperse a liquid or for the fine aerosol resulting ... Electrospray may be used in nanotechnology, for example to deposit single particles on surfaces. This is done by spraying ... The solvent evaporates, leaving an aerosol stream of single particles of the desired type. The ionizing property of the process ... Particulate suspended in air can be charged by the electrospray aerosol electrospray, manipulated by an electric field, and ...
There is an example of an HIV-positive physician who was infected while attending a course on tropical microbiology. He did not ... It is presumed he contracted the infection by inhaling aerosol containing P. marneffei conidia. This shows that airborne ...
Other human effects are relevant-for example, sulphate aerosols are believed to have a cooling effect. Natural factors also ... to aerosols, which are small particles or droplets suspended in the atmosphere. Key sources to which anthropogenic aerosols are ... For example, a single factor (like greenhouse gases) or a set of factors can be varied, and the response of the modelled ... Two examples include: a joint statement made in 2005 by the national science academies of the G8, and Brazil, China and India; ...
For example, Pardon et al. show sampling of aerosols down to a microfluidic air-liquid interface, and Ladhani et al., show ... ESPs charge and remove incoming aerosol particles from an air stream by employing a non-uniform electrostatic field between two ... This creates a region of high density ions, a corona discharge, which charges incoming aerosol droplets, and the electric field ... Bioaerosols (short for biological aerosols) are a subcategory of particles released from terrestrial and marine ecosystems into ...
Examples of automatic systems include fire sprinkler system, gaseous fire suppression, and condensed aerosol fire suppression. ... Examples include large marine and land vehicle applications, server rooms, public and private buildings, industrial paint lines ...
... s are emitted by forests and form aerosols that can serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Such aerosols can ... A classic example is the cyclization of geranyl pyrophosphate to form limonene. The terpinenes, phellandrenes, and terpinolene ... Iridoid Sesquiterpene Diterpene Triterpene D. V. Spracklen; B. Bonn; K. S. Carslaw (2008). "Boreal forests, aerosols and the ... Camphor, borneol and eucalyptol are examples of bicyclic monoterpenoids containing ketone, alcohol, and ether functional groups ...
Common examples are solvent-containing aerosol consumer products such as spray paint or hairspray. Less-volatile fuels can also ...
They are usually built to fit the shape of the toilet bowl: two examples of this being the elongated bowl and the regular bowl ... Some people also close the lid to prevent the spread aerosols on flushing ("toilet plume"). Toilet seats are manufactured in a ...
Upper atmosphere-based: creating reflective aerosols, such as stratospheric sulfate aerosols, specifically designed self- ... An example of a previous tipping point is that which preceded the rapid warming leading up to the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal ... Troposphere-based: for example, marine cloud brightening, which would spray fine sea water to whiten clouds and thus increase ... For example, there may be an ethical distinction between climate engineering to minimize global warming and doing so to ...
Physically, it is an example of a dispersion. It is most commonly seen where warm, moist air meets sudden cooling, such as in ... It can be created artificially with aerosol canisters if the humidity and temperature conditions are right. It can also occur ... Aerosol Aeroponics Brocken spectre Drizzle Haze Spray (disambiguation) "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-12- ... as part of natural weather, when humid air cools rapidly, for example when the air comes into contact with surfaces that are ...
It does not include other forcings, such as aerosols and changes in solar activity. The table shows that CO2 dominates the ... Other possible tools can be constructed for the same purpose: for example Shine et al. say "...recent experiments indicate that ... The remainder of the difference is due to negative aerosol forcing and/or climate sensitivity being less than the commonly ... This happens continuously as sunlight hits the surface, clouds and aerosols form, the concentrations of atmospheric gases vary ...
Alternatively, realistic conditions can also be specified as inputs, based for example on aerosol and water vapor data provided ... SMARTS can be used for example to evaluate the energy production of solar panels under variable atmospheric conditions. Many ... Ideal conditions, based on various possible model atmospheres and aerosol models, can be selected by the user. ...
A feature, for example a pit or a ditch, consists of two parts: the cut and the fill. The cut describes the edge of the feature ... Lidars can determine atmospheric profiles of aerosols, clouds, and other constituents of the atmosphere. Laser Altimeter A ... An example of this type is the writing of Erich von Däniken. His 1968 book, Chariots of the Gods?, together with many ... An example of this occurred June 21, 2005, when community members and elders from a number of the 10 Algonquian nations in the ...
For example, the large projected demand for HFCs could significantly contribute to climate change." Aerosol particles in the ... aerosol particles result in about 800,000 premature deaths. Aerosol loading is sufficiently important to be included among the ... For example, the UNEP Executive Director Achim Steiner states that the challenge of agriculture is to "feed a growing global ... Some aerosols produce clouds which cool the Earth by reflecting sunlight back to space, while others, like soot, produce thin ...
One example is a product called Anti-Shark 100 which is an aerosol can that contains an extract of dead shark tissue. There is ... a range of evidence that supports the effectiveness of this product, Other examples of personal shark protection technologies ...
This could, for example, be used to stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Furthermore, marine cloud brightening, as it is ... Along with stratospheric aerosol injection, it is one of the two solar radiation management methods that may most feasibly have ... For example, one project released smoke behind ships in the Pacific Ocean and monitored the particulates' impact on clouds. ... For example, according to customary international law, if a country were to conduct or approve a marine cloud brightening ...
Examples of such shapes can be find in the kurtosis wiki entry. The Doppler radar kurtosis analysis started quite recently, so ... The first spaceborne CPR with Doppler capability will be launched in 2016 within the Earth Clouds, Aerosols and Radiation ... An example can be find in Kollias et al., where kurtosis is used to interpret Doppler spectra and to understand the ... For example, at the Chilbolton Observatory (UK), two mm-wavelength radars are operating continuously at 3.2 and 9 mm for the ...
Examples of companies that produce lidar sensors commonly used in robotics or vehicle automation are Sick and Hokuyo. Examples ... It can target a wide range of materials, including non-metallic objects, rocks, rain, chemical compounds, aerosols, clouds and ... Another example is work at Caracol by Arlen Chase and his wife Diane Zaino Chase. In 2012, lidar was used to search for the ... Lidar is an example of active sensor and uses a laser (light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) radar to ...
Distribution regression has been successfully applied for example in supervised entropy learning, and aerosol prediction using ... Given training examples { ( x i t r , y i t r ) } i = 1 n {\displaystyle \{(x_{i}^{tr},y_{i}^{tr})\}_{i=1}^{n}} and a test set ... In this simple example, which is taken from Song et al., X , Y {\displaystyle X,Y} are assumed to be discrete random variables ... For example, the widely used Gaussian RBF kernel k ( x , x ′ ) = exp ⁡ ( − 1 2 σ 2 , , x − x ′ , , 2 ) {\displaystyle k(x,x')=\ ...
For example, in HIV/AIDS, C. dubliniensis and C. geotrichium can become pathogenic. About 35-50% of humans possess C. albicans ... or in persons who use corticosteroids topically or by aerosol. Acute and chronic pseudomembranous candidiasis are ... For example, bacteria as well as Candida species may be involved in these lesions. Frequently, antifungal therapy alone does ... For example, iron deficiency anemia is thought to cause depressed cell-mediated immunity. Some sources state that deficiencies ...
For example, the expected health benefits to Canada of a 50% SO2 reduction in both eastern Canada and the U.S. (i.e., ... Industries, factories, vehicles, aerosol cans, etc are all causes for "acid rain". This is because all of these things increase ... For example, if a unit burns oil and they know the sulphur content of the oil and the amount they used, they can compute the ... For example, igneous bedrock (e.g., the granite bedrock of the Canadian Shield that covers almost half of Canada) has a very ...
... aerosols plural : the fine particles of an aerosol. How to use aerosol in a sentence. ... Aerosol definition is - a suspension of fine solid or liquid particles in gas; also, ... Examples of aerosol in a Sentence. Recent Examples on the Web Over the course of several weeks, the researchers collected ... Dictionary Entries near aerosol. aeroshell aerosiderite aerosiderolite aerosol aerosol bomb aerosolize aerosol therapy ...
Heatable Aerosol Dilution System by Palas GmbH. The KHG 10 series of heatable dilution system builds upon the VKL series ... Application Examples *Dilution of hot aerosols, e.g. engine oil, DEHS, etc. ... aerosol dilution aerosol diluter aerosol dilution system aerosol measurement technology lab air oil mist separation particle ... Aerosol measurement technology: diesel exhaust gases, swarfs, coolant aerosols, weld smoke, oil droplets, test aerosols of ...
... dbserver.example.com end ssh :local do jump :user =, ubuntu, :host =, jump.example.com end deploy :deploy do ssh :ssh ... aerosol ssh deploy_name. - Same as aerosol:ssh:deploy_name. aerosol ssh -r deploy_name. - Runs the ssh command to the first ... require aerosol Usage. Rake Tasks. The deploy tasks are within the aerosol:deploy_name. namespace where deploy_name is based ... ssh :jump_ssh do jump :user =, ec2_user, :host =, jump.example.com end A lot of network structures use a middle jump server ...
Example Usage. Default one week. data.aethalometer.pass brw 2008W02. Exact time range. data.aethalometer.pass brw 2008:10 2008: ...
The volatized material combines with ambient air such that volatized material condenses to form the aerosol. An apparatus and ... The volatilized material may contain a volatilized solute and vehicle such that the resulting aerosol particle sizes of the ... An aerosol is formed by supplying a material in liquid form to a flow passage and heating the flow passage such that the ... method for generating such an aerosol are disclosed wherein the apparatus may include an electrically conductive sleeve at an ...
The present invention uses aerosol beam technology to accelerate either wet or dry aerosol particles to speeds enabling the ... For example, when nitrogen is used as the inert gas, it has been determined that the aerosol particles can be accelerated up to ... The density is modified by the addition of solutes, for example colloidal gold, to the solution prior to forming an aerosol or ... The schematic of the apparatus used in the instant example is shown in FIG. 1. The aerosol was produced by a respiratory ...
A disposable shielded device for producing aerosol having particles less than 2 microns in size from an aqueous colloidal ... As a representative example, U.S. Pat. No 4,660,547 to Kremer, et al. discloses aerosol generation by means of a compressed air ... EXAMPLE. The aerosol generation and inhalation unit 31 is placed into the lower container portion 16 of the housing 12 so that ... After the aerosol has been administered to the patient, the housing 12 is opened and the aerosol generation and inhalation unit ...
... aerosol coatings reactivity rule), which establishes national reactivity-based emission standards for the aerosol coatings ... category (aerosol spray paints) under section 183(e) of the Clean... ... EPA is proposing to amend the National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings ( ... Examples of regulated entities. Paint and Coating Manufacturing. 32551. Manufacturing of lacquers, varnishes, enamels, epoxy ...
Examples of liquids, aerosols and gels. Liquids. Aerosols. Gels. Liquid, aerosol or gel items must be in containers of 100 ... Liquids, aerosols and gels. *Liquid, aerosol or gel items must be in containers of 100 millilitres (volume), 100 grams (weight ... What are powders, liquids, aerosols and gels?. Powders, liquids, aerosols and gels are:. *Liquid-a substance that is liquid ... Examples of powders. Inorganic powders. (restrictions apply). Organic powders. (not restricted). All powders must be separately ...
Representative example. Purchase rate p.a. (variable). 17.9% Representative APR (variable). 17.9% APR Assumed Credit Limit ... Spiderex Spray Aerosol Repellent Spider Deterrent - Hom... Spiderex Spray Aerosol Repellent Spider Deterrent - Hom... ... Spiderex Spider Repellent Aerosol Spray for CCTV Cameras Home PIR Pack of 1 ... Spiderex Spider Repellent Aerosol Spray for CCTV Cameras Home PIR Pack of 6 ...
... the second figure in Part I gives an example of freshly nucleated aerosols which grew large enough to influence cloud formation ... Aerosol effects and climate, Part II: the role of nucleation and cosmic rays. Filed under: *Aerosols ... 309 Responses to "Aerosol effects and climate, Part II: the role of nucleation and cosmic rays". « Previous 1 2 3 4 5 … 7 Next ... For example:. 1) One ton of coal leads to about three tons of CO2. That would be the mass component. Second, coal is a solid, ...
Define aerosol: A two-phase system consisting of dispersed liquid or solid particles in a gas; examples include dust, smoke and ... aerosol. A two-phase system consisting of dispersed liquid or solid particles in a gas; examples include dust, smoke and clouds ...
aerosol (plural aerosols). *A mixture of fine solid particles or liquid droplets suspended in a gaseous medium. Examples of ... From aero- +‎ sol (solution). Noun[edit]. aerosol m (definite singular aerosolen, indefinite plural aerosoler, definite plural ... From aero- +‎ sol (solution). Noun[edit]. aerosol m (definite singular aerosolen, indefinite plural aerosolar, definite plural ... Catalan: aerosol m. *Chinese: Mandarin: 氣霧劑 (zh), 气雾剂 (zh) (qìwùjì), 氣溶膠 (zh), 气溶胶 (zh) (qìróngjiāo), 煙霧質 (zh), 烟雾质 (zh) ( ...
aerosol penetration synonyms, aerosol penetration pronunciation, aerosol penetration translation, English dictionary definition ... of aerosol penetration. n. 1. A gaseous suspension of fine solid or liquid particles. 2. a. The spray of fine particles of a ... Examples of common aerosols are mist, fog, and smoke.. aerosol. Extremely small liquid or solid particles suspended in air or ... aerosol. → أَيْرُوسُول sprej spraydåse Aerosol αεροζόλ aerosol suihke aérosol sprej aerosol エアゾール 에어로졸 aerosol aerosol aerozol ...
aerosol A liquid or solid composed of finely divided particles suspended in a gaseous medium. Examples of common aerosols are ...
Answers to questions about bloodborne pathogens and aerosols, which are associated with the diseases of most concern in ... In dentistry, the diseases we are most concerned about are those caused by bloodborne pathogens (BBP). Examples are hepatitis B ... Aerosols can remain airborne for extended periods of time and may be inhaled. Aerosols should not be confused with the large- ... The spray may also contain some aerosol. Aerosols take considerable energy to generate, consist of particles less than 10 ...
A sustained duration non-aerosol mechanical sprayer includes a spray head which is screwed onto the top of a bottle. The spray ... An example of such a pump is shown in U.S. Pat. No. 5,810,211 to Shanklin et al. Like the air pump described above, these ... See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,192,464 to Chow. The pump sprayer includes a hand operated air pump which is used to charge ... Non-aerosol pump spray apparatus. US5860574 *. Oct 14, 1997. Jan 19, 1999. Hayes Products, Llc. Pump assembly with bayonet lock ...
Supplied in a 500ml Aerosol. Master Guard ML is a oil based corrosion and protection product specially designed for applying in ... ML Brown Cavity Wax Rust Proofing 500ml Aerosol: ... Example Finance Options. Cash Price: £676.00. Deposit: £70.00. ... Supplied in a 500ml Aerosol. Master Guard ML is a oil based corrosion and protection product specially designed for applying in ... ML Brown Cavity Wax Rust Proofing 500ml Aerosol. JK Part Number: J41225 ...
The carbonaceous aerosol component typically dominants PM1 aerosol mass, see for example:. Zhang, Q. et al., Ubiquity and ... But sulphate aerosols are not the major aerosol component by particle mass or number. The lagest sources of aerosol mass are ... The net effect of human-generated aerosols is more complicated and regionally variable - for example, in contrast to the local ... Aerosols are not smog: First they confuse aerosols with photochemical smog. Both are pollutants, but the first is dominated by ...
For example, the perturbation of direct aerosol RF showed a great sensitivity to SSA in cloudy columns [64]. Recently, Colarco ... For example, the variation of midsummer aerosols over Eastern Asia is closely associated with the Asian summer monsoon activity ... Most previous researches mainly focused on the aerosol effect on the EASM, while the research about the aerosol effect on the ... It should be mentioned that MISR retrieval includes all types of aerosols, while the model only describes dust aerosol. ...
An aerosol generator and methods of delivering aerosol to a user inhaling on a mouthpiece when a pressure drop is detected ... For example, the pressurized air source can be a compressed air source located within the aerosol generator (not shown), a fan/ ... 0030] An aerosol generator and methods of generating an aerosol with the aerosol generator are described herein. The aerosol ... The aerosol generator preferably generates aerosols in which 95% of the aerosol particles (aerosol droplets) are smaller than ...
... at the request of NIOSH Director John Howard to assess the current status of research on aerosol issues within NIOSH and ... For example, combustion aerosols from diesel engines or mine fires must be characterized for source identification to ... Aerosol resuspension issues. *Combined or mixed effects between components of aerosols, and between aerosols and other chemical ... Aerosol Measurement in Mining. PRL has been most active in the area of mining-related aerosols. The continuing occurrence of ...
Background Pressurized intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC) is a novel technique of intraperitoneal chemotherapy. First ... Examples of tumor regression are shown in Fig. 2 and Suppl. Material 1.. Open image in new window. ... The therapeutic aerosol was maintained at 12 mmHg for 30 min at 37 °C. Then, it was released safely via a Closed Aerosol Waste ... A pressurized aerosol containing doxorubicin at a dose of 1.5 mg/m2 body surface in a 50 ml NaCl 0.9 % followed by cisplatin at ...
Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; ... and aerosol entrainment, transport, and deposition. An analysis with GASFLOW will result in a prediction of the gas composition ... Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; ... Examples of 3D phenomena include circulation patterns; flow stratification; hydrogen distribution mixing and stratification; ...
  • Aerosols can remain airborne for extended periods of time and may be inhaled. (cdc.gov)
  • The "settle time" is the amount of time needed to remove infectious airborne organisms from room air or infectious aerosols that may be created during an AGMP. (vaniman.com)
  • Despite its small size, Glory will deploy an innovative aerosol-sensing instrument called the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) that many specialists predict will produce dramatic improvements in measuring airborne particles, as well as an important sensor that will help maintain a 32-year record of the sun's irradiance. (nasa.gov)
  • It might just as well stand for aerosols, as the A-Train satellites have proven especially important in the study of the tiny airborne particles, which can have an outsized impact on the climate. (nasa.gov)
  • Is COVID-19 transmitted by airborne aerosols? (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • The concept and definition of aerosols is also discussed, as is the concept of large droplet transmission, and airborne transmission which is meant by most authors to be synonymous with aerosol transmission, although some use the term to mean either large droplet or aerosol transmission. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, these terms are often used confusingly when discussing specific infection control interventions for individual pathogens that are accepted to be mostly transmitted by the airborne (aerosol) route (e.g. tuberculosis, measles and chickenpox). (biomedcentral.com)
  • With this in mind, this review considers the commonly used term of 'aerosol transmission' in the context of some infectious agents that are well-recognized to be transmissible via the airborne route. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It also discusses other agents, like influenza virus, where the potential for airborne transmission is much more dependent on various host, viral and environmental factors, and where its potential for aerosol transmission may be underestimated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The classification of an infectious agent as airborne and therefore 'aerosol-transmissible' has significant implications for how healthcare workers (HCWs) need to manage patients infected with such agents and what sort of personal protective equipment (PPE) they will need to wear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 3 , 4 In particular, lidar is very suitable for remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols because of its high spatial and temporal resolution, and can be developed for vehicular and airborne application. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • 5 , 6 Many observation data have been obtained from the lidar stations and airborne-lidar worldwide, and the optical characteristics of the aerosols can be retrieved from the raw data. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The book then goes on to provide a description of the fundamental mechanical properties of aerosols, in particular those mechanical properties associated with the motion of airborne particles (which govern particle transport, inhalation, deposition, sampling and control). (elsevier.com)
  • A bioaerosol (short for biological aerosol ) is a suspension of airborne particles that contain living organisms or were released from living organisms. (wn.com)
  • The volatilized material may contain a volatilized solute and vehicle such that the resulting aerosol particle sizes of the solute and the vehicle are either different or the same. (google.com.au)
  • 10. The method of claim 1 , wherein the flow passage includes an electrically conductive sleeve at the open end, the conductive sleeve being effective to provide a narrow particle size distribution of the aerosol. (google.com.au)
  • These observations provide a basis for understanding dust aerosol particle properties, transport, and their climatic effects [ 9 - 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In particular the combination of MODIS and OMI characteristics allows deriving aerosol height, absorption and optical depth along with a measure of particle size distribution. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is achieved by using the traditional MODIS visible-to-SWIR wavelengths to constrain spectral aerosol optical depth and particle size. (frontiersin.org)
  • They determined that the particles become what they call 'particle soup,' and the researchers created a chemical map of how the aerosols change once they are part of the soup. (windows2universe.org)
  • secondary aerosols form through gas-to-particle conversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The size of particles has a major influence on their properties, and the aerosol particle radius or diameter (dp) is a key property used to characterise aerosols. (wikipedia.org)
  • For a monodisperse aerosol, a single number-the particle diameter-suffices to describe the size of the particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, more complicated particle-size distributions describe the sizes of the particles in a polydisperse aerosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The normal distribution usually does not suitably describe particle size distributions in aerosols because of the skewness associated a long tail of larger particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. An aerosol formulation suitable for drug delivery to the human lung by administration to a patient by oral or nasal inhalation comprising salbutamol sulphate, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, oleic acid and ethyl alcohol, the formulation being in the form of a suspension of drug particles having a median particle size of less than 10 microns. (epo.org)
  • The findings supported the outcome of the measurements carried out in a traffic environment: nanoclusters form an essential part of particle emissions from engines, but their quantity is also dependent on, for example, the driving situation. (tut.fi)
  • Real-time online means, including mass spectrometry of single particle aerosols and some in situ detection instruments (such as hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzers and cavity ring down spectroscopy) may analyze the components of aerosol continuously. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • 252-305 5 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A pressurized aerosol container in which is included a substantially anhydrous aerosol foaming composition adapted to produce a quick breaking foam and comprising a foamable liquid and a silicone resin as foaming agent. (google.es)
  • This invention relates to aerosol inhalation drug formulations comprising one or more drugs and one or more soluble surfactants in propellant 134a. (google.com)
  • However, there is no suggestion in Keil of incorporating the organic liquid and silicone polymer in an aerosol dispenser together with a high vapor pressure propellant system or that this material could be dispensed from an aerosol container containing said high vapor pressure propellant system as a quick breaking foam. (google.es)
  • A stable, edible anhydrous aerosol foam comprises a foamable liquid oil, a foaming agent, a food grade propellant, and at least 15 wt % dispersed solid particles. (google.com)
  • For the purposes of this document, an aerosol is an 'agricultural chemical product' (Australian definition) or a 'pesticide product' (New Zealand definition) that comprises an active constituent and a liquefied or compressed gas as a propellant, in a container with a suitable valve. (apvma.gov.au)
  • There are two ways of storing the propellant and product inside an aerosol can: together in a single compartment or separately in two compartments. (schoolscience.co.uk)
  • 4. The aerosol precursor composition mixing system of claim 1, wherein the source container further includes a pressurized propellant. (patents.com)
  • In addition, remote measurement platforms like the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) have provided three-dimensional dust distributions [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The analysis of the performances in reduced status, especially the instance of application to Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization, demonstrates the generalization ability and performance of this model. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Although it has long been known that some aerosol species perturb the energy balance of the atmospheric column through shortwave absorption, affecting radiative forcing, cloud formation, precipitation, and more, the magnitude of these effects has proven difficult to pin down. (springer.com)
  • Although all aerosols act as scatterers of radiation, reducing surface irradiance, some species also absorb, effectively adding a positive energy term to the atmospheric radiative balance. (springer.com)
  • Following the successful release of the Sentinel-3 Near Real Time (NRT) Fire Radiative Power Product (FRP) in April, EUMETSAT will deploy the NRT Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) product on 27 August. (eumetsat.int)
  • Bergstrom, R. W. , P. Pilewskie , B. Schmid , and P. B. Russell ( 2003 ), Estimates of the spectral aerosol single scattering albedo and aerosol radiative effects during SAFARI 2000 , J. Geophys. (wiley.com)
  • Bush, B. C. , and F. P. J. Valero ( 2002 ), Spectral aerosol radiative forcing at the surface during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) , J. Geophys. (wiley.com)
  • Bush, B. C. , and F. P. J. Valero ( 2003 ), Surface aerosol radiative forcing at Gosan during the ACE-Asia campaign , J. Geophys. (wiley.com)
  • In past years, some studies describing aerosol properties over this region (Alados-Arboledas et al. (hindawi.com)
  • Other technological applications of aerosols include dispersal of pesticides, medical treatment of respiratory illnesses, and combustion technology. (aiha.org)
  • Rotavera B, Polley N, Petersen EL, Scheu K, Crofton M, Bourque G. Ignition and Combustion of Heavy Hydrocarbons Using an Aerosol Shock-Tube Approach. (asme.org)
  • The volatized material combines with ambient air such that volatized material condenses to form the aerosol. (google.com.au)
  • A disposable shielded device for producing aerosol having particles less than 2 microns in size from an aqueous colloidal suspension obtained from human serum albumen and labelled with 99m Technetium for use in scintigraphic imaging of pulmonary function. (google.com)
  • Aerosols take considerable energy to generate, consist of particles less than 10 microns in diameter, and are not typically visible to the naked eye. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, suppose that a specific aerosol diameter-dependent health effect is under investigation. (astm.org)
  • Dust aerosol is mainly produced from arid and semiarid deserts during strong dust storms. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, many scholars have begun to use models to investigate dust aerosol climatic effects [ 13 - 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Radiometric measurements were used to obtain Aerosol Optical Depth, Ångström parameters, and aerosol size distributions, allowing differentiation of background conditions from anthropogenic, marine, or Saharan dust aerosol advection. (hindawi.com)
  • In fact, its contribution to PM10 level limit exceedances cannot be disregarded, due to the even more frequent penetrations in European countries of dust aerosol coming from North Africa. (hindawi.com)
  • It is also highly desirable in these compositions that the entire mixture while in the container remains as a clear homogeneous compostion in storage i.e. that there be no separation of a solid phase in the aerosol dispenser. (google.es)
  • The formulation of certain anhydrous aerosol foaming compositions has already been suggested in the prior art. (google.es)
  • Aerosol compositions are provided that enhance the therapeutic action of ointments by producing, upon topical application thereof, a sustained cooling effect that provides fast relief form pain and itching as well as a tendency to shrink swollen, inflamed tissue. (google.com)
  • Bio-aerosols, and more Safe exposure levels, resulting health effects, measurement techniques, mitigate and control measures of these IAC are discussed. (coursera.org)
  • A general approach ( 8 ) for dealing with this situation relates to the theory of tolerance intervals and may be summarized as follows: Sampling/analytical methods undergo extensive evaluations and are subsequently applied without re-evaluation at each measurement, while taking precautions (for example, through a quality assurance program) that the method remains stable. (astm.org)
  • X-ray neutralizer XRC 049 Electrically charged aerosols can seriously distort measurement results, e.g. in filter testing. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Discharge systems produce a balanced and reproducible charge distribution in the aerosol and thus enable reliable measurement data. (environmental-expert.com)
  • A property of the measurement error covariance matrix is discussed, due to which photons travelling from the surface are given a higher preference over photons that scatter back from the aerosol layer. (atmos-meas-tech.net)
  • This is a potential source of biases in the estimation of aerosol properties over land, which can be mitigated by revisiting the design of the measurement error covariance matrix. (atmos-meas-tech.net)
  • There follows a description of the optical properties of workplace aerosols since these are important in the visual appearance of aerosols and in many aspects of measurement. (elsevier.com)
  • The frequency is partly a function of where the aircraft was flying: during the WB-57F Aerosol Mission (WAM), the stratospheric categories are frequent just because the aircraft spent most of its time in the stratosphere. (noaa.gov)
  • Conceptually, the net shortwave aerosol absorption, usually quantified through the absorbing aerosol optical depth (AAOD), can therefore be thought of as the sum of the contributions of these three separate species, integrated over the atmospheric column. (springer.com)
  • The Sentinel-3 SLSTR NRT Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) product quantifies the abundance of aerosol particles, and monitors their global distribution and long-range transport, at the scale of 9.5 x 9.5 km 2 . (eumetsat.int)
  • The analysis was focused on the study of optical and physical properties variation of atmospheric aerosols under Saharan outbreaks. (hindawi.com)
  • The modeled total-column smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD) and above-cloud AOD are consistent ( ∼0.7 over continental sources and ∼0.3 over the SAO at 550 nm) with the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications version 2 (MERRA-2), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • Dubovik, O. , B. Holben , T. F. Eck , A. Smirnov , Y. J. Kaufman , M. D. King , and D. Tanré ( 2002 ), Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations , J. Atmos. (wiley.com)
  • Aerosol is generated in a high-vacuum manifold positioned 4-m from the endwall where optical and pressure-based diagnostics are stationed. (asme.org)
  • Unfortunately, there is sparse observational data describing the vertical profiles of aerosols and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) as a function of altitude. (anl.gov)
  • Reference: Micropulse Lidar-Derived Aerosol Optical Depth Climatology at ARM Sites Worldwide, Durga Kafle and Richard Coulter, Journal of Geophysical Research , doi:10.1002/jgrd.50536). (anl.gov)
  • For this reason, there is a strong need to properly estimate its contribution to the aerosol loading, as a natural contribution for air quality evaluation by European Union Member States, as stated in the "Guidance for State Members on PM10 measurements and the inter-comparison with the reference method" ( http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/pdf/finalwgreporten.pdf ). (hindawi.com)
  • These countries recognize the importance of minimizing all modes of transmission, including droplet and aerosol transmission, where the role of a mask is critical to the protection of the individual. (paulcraigroberts.org)
  • A more direct method to derive aerosol layer height makes use of O2A absorption methods, despite the relative coarseness of the nominal 5 nm spectral resolution of OCI. (frontiersin.org)
  • Optomec Aerosol Jet printers deliver the unique ability to print electronic and other materials onto any type of 2D and 3D structure, in dimensions ranging from 10 microns up to centimeters in scale. (idtechex.com)
  • There is still considerable ambiguity about the dominant types of aerosol in satellite observations and the amount of observed aerosol that can be attributed to human activities," he said. (nasa.gov)
  • However, recent developments and suggestions for future observations show great promise, indicating that better constraints on aerosol absorption may be possible in the near future. (springer.com)
  • Chung, C. E. , V. Ramanathan , D. Kim , and I. A. Podgorny ( 2005 ), Global anthropogenic aerosol direct forcing derived from satellite and ground-based observations , J. Geophys. (wiley.com)