Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Bronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Infectious bronchitis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Expectorants: Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Respiratory Tract DiseasesForced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Pulmonary Heart Disease: Hypertrophy and dilation of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart that is caused by PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. This condition is often associated with pulmonary parenchymal or vascular diseases, such as CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE and PULMONARY EMBOLISM.Coronaviridae: Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Textile Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of manufacturing textiles. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Coal MiningLung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Byssinosis: A condition of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION resulting from hypersensitive reaction to inhaled dust during the initial processing of cotton, flax, or hemp in the textile industry. Symptoms include wheezing and tightness in the chest.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.WeldingLung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Mass Chest X-Ray: X-ray screening of large groups of persons for diseases of the lung and heart by means of radiography of the chest.Adrenal Cortex HormonesPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Aza CompoundsDyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Farmer's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Nasopharyngitis: Inflammation of the NASOPHARYNX, usually including its mucosa, related lymphoid structure, and glands.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Coronaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination: A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.SmokeHospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Yang Deficiency: In the YIN-YANG system of philosophy and medicine, a lack of vital energy (called yangxu in Chinese). It manifests itself in various systemic and organic diseases. (The Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary, 1979)LebanonHeptachlor: A man-made compound previously used to control termites and other insects. Even though production of heptachlor was phased out of use in the United States during the late 1980's it remains in soil and hazardous waste sites. It is clearly toxic to animals and humans but, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that heptachlor is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (From ATSDR Public Heath Statement, April 1989)Ambroxol: A metabolite of BROMHEXINE that stimulates mucociliary action and clears the air passages in the respiratory tract. It is usually administered as the hydrochloride.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Intermittent Positive-Pressure Breathing: Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase of spontaneous respiration.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Tachypnea: Increased RESPIRATORY RATE.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Rhinovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.MiningAir Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.EstoniaAmoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
... double-blind study of grepafloxacin versus amoxycillin in patients with acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis". J ... grepafloxacin versus 10 day clarithromycin in patients with acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis". J. Antimicrob ... of 400 or 600 milligrams of grepafloxacin once daily for treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: ... Grepafloxacin was used for treating exacerbations of chronic bronchitis caused by susceptible bacteria (e.g. Haemophilus ...
... is used to treat acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (ABECB), acute bacterial otitis media, ...
... acute bacterial sinusitis and acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The agency determined that the balance of ... Telithromycin binds to the subunit 50S of the bacterial ribosome, and blocks the progression of the growing polypeptide chain. ... Ketek remained on the market for the treatment of community acquired bacterial pneumonia of mild to moderate severity (acquired ... mechanism of action underlying not only the cases of liver failure but also cases of visual disturbances and exacerbations of ...
In the European Union, it is licensed for acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, non-severe community-acquired ... acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, community acquired pneumonia, complicated and uncomplicated skin and skin ... Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis Acute bacterial sinusitis Community acquired pneumonia Additional indications ... acute bacterial sinusitis, and acute exacerbations of COPD, it should only be used when other antibiotics are inappropriate. No ...
Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis (AECB) are frequently due to non-infective causes along with viral ones. 50% of ... Acute bronchitis can be defined as acute bacterial or viral infection of the larger airways in healthy patients with no history ... antibiotics can be given to patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The indications for treatment are ... Additionally, bronchitis is described as either acute or chronic depending on its presentation and is also further described by ...
Acute bronchitis. chronic. COPD Chronic bronchitis. Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Acute exacerbation of COPD. ... Most people with chronic bronchitis also have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).[9] Protracted bacterial bronchitis ... Chronic bronchitis[edit]. See also: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic bronchitis is defined as a productive cough ... Chronic bronchitis tends to affect men more often than women. While the primary risk factor for chronic bronchitis is smoking, ...
... acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pharyngitis, and tonsillitis. Cefditoren pivoxil is the active ingredient ... Cefditoren pivoxil has a broad spectrum of activity and has been used to treat bacterial infections of the skin and respiratory ... tract, including bronchitis, pneumonia, and tonsillitis. The following represents MIC susceptibility data for a few medically ...
... acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and uncomplicated urinary tract infections based on new safety information. ... Antibiotic misuse and bacterial resistances[edit]. See also: Antibiotic misuse and Antibiotic resistance ... Quinolones inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and ... Nearly half (42%) of these prescriptions were for conditions not approved by the U.S. FDA, such as acute bronchitis, otitis ...
... bacterial enteritis, traveler's diarrhea, respiratory tract infections ( including exacerbation of chronic bronchitis). In ... Fleroxacin is a bactericidal drug that inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Like other quinolones and ... fluoroquinolones the compound eradicates bacteria by interfering with DNA replication (bacterial DNA replication, transcription ...
Antibiotic used for the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, community ... chloramphenicol - treats anaerobic bacterial infections, both Gram-positive and -negative. Crosses blood-brain barrier, useful ... used widely for bacterial infections, is in the family of sulfa drugs trilostane - for canine Cushing's (hyperadrenocorticism) ... chronic renal failure and protein-losing nephropathy bethanechol - stimulates bladder contractions Biodyl - dietary supplement ...
... acute bacterial exacerbations of bronchitis in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and uncomplicated urinary ... Quinolones inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and ... Nearly half (42%) of these prescriptions were for conditions not approved by the U.S. FDA, such as acute bronchitis, otitis ... They are used in human and veterinary medicine to treat bacterial infections, as well as in animal husbandry. Nearly all ...
Acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis Community-acquired pneumonia Uncomplicated skin and skin structure ... An eye drop may be used for a superficial bacterial infection of the eye and an ear drop may be used for otitis media when ... Ofloxacin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. When taken by mouth or injection into ... Nearly half (42%) of these prescriptions were for conditions not approved by the FDA, such as acute bronchitis, otitis media, ...
Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis caused by S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae ... oral broad-spectrum quinolone antibacterial agent used in the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis ...
... acute bacterial sinusitis community-acquired pneumonia acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis uncomplicated skin and skin ... bacterial sinusitis, chronic bronchitis, and skin infections.[citation needed] In India it is available as FARONEM. Critchley ...
Double-Blind Study of Prulifloxacin versus Ciprofloxacin in Patients with Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis". ... resulting in inhibition of bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Quinolones inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the ... Complicated lower urinary tract infections Acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis Japan Gastroenteritis, including infectious ... Like other fluoroquinolones, Prulifloxacin prevents bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair and recombination through ...
Acute exacerbation of COPD also known as acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) is a sudden worsening of COPD ... Common bacterial pathogens of acute exacerbations include Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella ... Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis. Retrieved March 13, 2010 Uppsala Academic Hospital > Guidelines for treatment of ... Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) Archived 2006-04-06 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved March 13, 2010 Geffen, ...
Most people with chronic bronchitis have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Protracted bacterial bronchitis is ... Mucolytics may have a small therapeutic effect on acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Supplemental oxygen is used to ... Bronchitis is divided into two types: acute and chronic. Acute bronchitis is also known as a chest cold. Acute bronchitis ... Chronic bronchitis tends to affect men more often than women. While the primary risk factor for chronic bronchitis is smoking, ...
Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J. A. A.; Klein, S. J. (1986). "Ciprofloxacin in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis". Journal of ... Its spectrum of activity includes most strains of bacterial pathogens responsible for community-acquired pneumonias, bronchitis ... Bacterial resistance[edit]. See also: Antibiotic abuse and Antibiotic resistance. As a result of its widespread use to treat ... "Bacterial resistance prompts concern among health officials". 26 February 2009. Archived from the original on 5 March 2009.. ...
It has also been known to cause infective exacerbations in adults with chronic lung disease, and it is an important cause in ... acute purulent irritation of chronic bronchitis, urethritis, septicemia (although this is rare), septic arthritis (which is ... Additionally, it causes bacterial pneumonia, especially in adults with a compromised immune system. ... as well as exacerbations of existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The peak rate of colonisation by M. catarrhalis ...
Brownish - chronic bronchitis (greenish/yellowish/brown); chronic pneumonia (whitish-brown); tuberculosis; lung cancer. Yellow ... The more intense the yellow color, the more likely it is a bacterial infection (bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, or pneumonia). ... Sputum Color is the Key to Treating Acute COPD Exacerbations. ... this last choice tends to suggest a chronic allergic bronchitis ... chronic infectious bronchitis, and infected bronchiectasis or cystic fibrosis. Rust colored - usually caused by pneumococcal ...
The causes of chronic cough are similar in children with the addition of bacterial bronchitis. A cough can be the result of a ... Cough can also worsen in an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Asthma is a common cause of chronic ... Chronic bronchitis is defined clinically as a persistent cough that produces sputum (phlegm) and mucus, for at least three ... Chronic bronchitis is often the cause of "smoker's cough". The tobacco smoke causes inflammation, secretion of mucus into the ...
... exacerbations of chronic bronchitis caused by susceptible bacteria, community-acquired pneumonia). In a review of 2081 adult ... Quinolones inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the topoisomerase IV enzyme, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and ... is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used in the treatment of bacterial infections. It has a controversial safety profile. Zagam is ...
Lower respiratory tract infections - bacterial pneumonias, bronchitis, bronchiectasis caused by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, ... Acute and chronic sinusitis caused by S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and S. progenies. otitis media, particularly ... Acute exacerbations of COPD. Urinary tract infections - pyelonephritis, cystitis caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis ... including B. fragilis). Infections of the gastrointestinal tract - Bacterial esophagitis, treatment of H. pylori infections as ...
"Haemophilus influenzae oral vaccination for preventing acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive ... COPD develops as a significant and chronic inflammatory response to inhaled irritants. Chronic bacterial infections may also ... Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are older terms used for different types of COPD. The term "chronic bronchitis" is still used ... Mucolytics may help to reduce exacerbations in some people with chronic bronchitis. Cough medicines are not recommended. ...
... most commonly emphysema or chronic bronchitis, frequently have chronic shortness of breath and a chronic productive cough.[2] ... "Pulmonary rehabilitation following exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". The Cochrane Database of Systematic ... As the cause is usually a bacterial infection, antibiotics are typically used for treatment.[2] ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease[edit]. People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ...
... is a mucolytic. Specifically it is a thiol derivative developed for the treatment of chronic obstructive bronchitis, including acute infective exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Erdosteine contains two blocked sulfhydryl groups which are released following first-pass metabolism. The three active metabolites exhibit mucolytic and free radical scavenging activity. Erdosteine modulates mucus production and viscosity and increases mucociliary transport, thereby improving expectoration. It also exhibits inhibitory activity against the effects of free radicals produced by cigarette smoke. Clinical studies in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease have demonstrated the efficacy and tolerability of erdosteine. Erdosteine 300 mg twice daily reduced cough (both frequency and severity) and sputum ...
... is an inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.[1] Symptoms include coughing up mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest discomfort.[1] Bronchitis is divided into two types: acute and chronic.[1] Acute bronchitis is also known as a chest cold.[1] Acute bronchitis usually has a cough that lasts around three weeks.[4] In more than 90% of cases the cause is a viral infection.[4] These viruses may be spread through the air when people cough or by direct contact.[1] Risk factors include exposure to tobacco smoke, dust, and other air pollution.[1] A small number of cases are due to high levels of air pollution or bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Bordetella pertussis.[4][5] Treatment of acute bronchitis typically involves rest, ...
... , also known as a chest cold, is short-term inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) of the lungs. The most common symptom is a cough. Other symptoms include coughing up mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, fever, and chest discomfort. The infection may last from a few to ten days. The cough may persist for several weeks afterward with the total duration of symptoms usually around three weeks. Some have symptoms for up to six weeks. In more than 90% of cases the cause is a viral infection. These viruses may be spread through the air when people cough or by direct contact. Risk factors include exposure to tobacco smoke, dust, and other air pollution. A small number of cases are due to high levels of air pollution or bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Bordetella pertussis. Diagnosis is typically based on a person's signs and symptom. The color of the sputum does not indicate if the infection is viral or bacterial. Determining the underlying organism is ...
... (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow. The main symptoms include shortness of breath and cough with sputum production. COPD is a progressive disease, meaning it typically worsens over time. Eventually everyday activities, such as walking or getting dressed, become difficult. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are older terms used for different types of COPD. The term "chronic bronchitis" is still used to define a productive cough that is present for at least three months each year for two years. Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of COPD, with factors such as air pollution and genetics playing a smaller role. In the developing world, one of the common sources of air pollution is poorly vented heating and cooking fires. Long-term exposure to these irritants causes ...
... (COPD) is a teep o obstructive buff disease chairacterised bi lang-term puir airflow. The main symptoms include shortness o breath an coch wi sputum production. COPD is a progressive disease, meanin it teepically worsens ower time.[1] Eventually everyday activities, such as walkin up stairs, acome difficult.[2] Chronic bronchitis an emphysema are aulder terms uised for different teeps o COPD.[2][3] The term "chronic bronchitis" is still uised tae define a productive coch that is present for at least three months each year for twa years.[4] ...
Figure A shows the location of the lungs and bronchial tubes in the body. Figure B is an enlarged, detailed view of a normal bronchial tube. Figure C is an enlarged, detailed view of a bronchial tube with bronchitis. The tube is inflamed and contains more mucus than usual ...
Laurence Larson was born at Bergen in Hordaland, Norway. He was the son of Christian Spjutoy Larson (1840-1919) and Ellen Mathilde (Bruland) Larson (1839-1916). He emigrated to the United States with his family in May 1870. He studied at Drake University and the University of Wisconsin-Madison.[3] Larson was appointed to the UW faculty as a Scandinavian languages and history professor on April 17, 1906, but resigned later that year, on June 27.[4] He joined the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1907 and became history department chair in 1923. Larson continued teaching at UIUC until his September 1937 retirement.[5] Larson was named a trustee of the Illinois State Historical Library in 1923. He was elected to the presidency of the American Historical Association in 1938, but died of acute bronchitis in Urbana, Illinois, aged 69, before completing his term.[5] ...
... is a species of bacteria in the genus Mycoplasma. This genus of bacteria lacks a cell wall around their cell membrane. Without a cell wall, they are unaffected by many common antibiotics such as penicillin or other beta-lactam antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis. Mycoplasma are the smallest bacterial cells yet discovered, can survive without oxygen and are typically about 0. 1 µm in diameter. It has been found in human respiratory infections and is associated with chronic bronchitis in immunosuppressed patients. It has been observed to possess gliding motility, a protruding polar tip resembling that of M. gallepticum, and cytoskeletal structure at its polar tip similar to M. pneumonia's. Those infected show symptoms of lower respiratory tract infections such as increased respiratory rates and increased pulse rates. The type strain is strain A39 = ATCC BAA-992 = NCTC 11740 . Ryan KJ, Ray CG ...
기관지염(氣管支炎, bronchitis)은 폐의 기관지에 생기는 염증이다.[1] 증상으로는 가래, 천명, 호흡 곤란, 가슴의 불편함 등이 있다.[1] 기관지염은 급성 및 만성 두 종류로 분류된다.[1] 급성 기관지염은 기침 감기로도 알려져 있다.[1] 급성 기관지염은 보통 3 주 정도 지속적으로 기침을 한다.[2] 원인의 90 % 이상이 바이러스 감염이다.[2] 이 바이러스는 기침을 통해, 혹은 직접적인 접촉을 통해 공중에 퍼질 수 있다.[1] 흡연, 먼지 및 기타 대기 오염에 대한 노출이 위험 요인이다.[1] 폐렴미코플라스마(Mycoplasma pneumoniae) 나 백일해균(Bordetella pertussis)과 같은 박테리아나 고농도의 대기 오염에 의한 경우도 소량 존재한다.[2][3]급성 기관지염의 치료에는 일반적으로 휴식, paracetamol (acetaminophen) 및 NSAIDs가 발열에 도움이 된다.[4][5] 만성 기관지염은 적어도 2 년 동안, 1 년에 3 ...
Vos T, Flaxman AD, Naghavi M, Lozano R, Michaud C, Ezzati M, Shibuya K, Salomon JA, Abdalla S, Aboyans V, et al. (December 2012). "Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2163-96. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2. PMID 23245607 ...
... or a bronchial spasm is a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles. It is caused by the release (degranulation) of substances from mast cells or basophils under the influence of anaphylatoxins. It causes difficulty in breathing which can be very mild to severe. Bronchospasms appear as the feature of asthma, chronic bronchitis and anaphylaxis. Bronchospasms are a possible side effect of some drugs: pilocarpine (which is used to treat illness resulting from the ingestion of deadly nightshade, as well as other things), beta blockers (used to treat hypertension), a paradoxical result of using LABA drugs (to treat COPD) and other drugs. Bronchospasms can present as a sign of giardiasis. Bronchospasms are one of several conditions associated with cold housing. Some of the things that can cause bronchospasms are: consuming foods, taking medicines, allergic responses to insects, and fluctuating hormone ...
... first involved herself with politics in South Africa in 1904 when she helped her husband and others establish the Phoenix Settlement near Durban. Then in 1913, she took part in protests against the ill-treatment of Indian immigrants in South Africa, for which she was arrested. While in prison, Kasturba helped other women survive by leading them in prayer[9] referring to the prison as the temple during prayer meetings. Kasturba also referred to the women as sisters.[10] While imprisoned, Kasturba encouraged educated women to teach the uneducated women how to read and write. [10] Kasturba and Gandhi then permanently left South Africa in July 1914 and returned to live in India. In spite of Kasturba's chronic bronchitis, that had worsened in South Africa, she continued to take part in civil actions and protests across India that were organized by Gandhi. Moreover, she often took her husband's spot if he was in prison. The ...
... /'spju.təm/ is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi). In medicine, sputum samples are usually used for naked eye exam, microbiological investigations of respiratory infections and cytological investigations of respiratory systems. It is critical that the patient not give a specimen that includes any mucoid material from the interior of the nose. Naked eye exam of sputum can be done at home by a patient in order to note the various colors (see below). Any hint of yellow color suggests an airway infection (but does not indicate between the types of organisms causing it). Such color hints are best detected when the sputum is viewed on a very white background such as white paper, a white pot, or a white sink surface. The more intense the yellow color, the more likely it is a bacterial infection (bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, or pneumonia). The best sputum samples contain ...
Bacterial Load Guided Therapy for Severe Bronchiectasis Exacerbations Study of Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics and ... VX-770 for the Treatment of Chronic Bronchitis Etiologies, Investigations and Outcomes of Patients Presenting With Hemoptysis ... Sustained Effects of Hypertonic Saline on Mucociliary Clearance in Subjects With Chronic Bronchitis Seoul National University ... These tests will also be repeated whenever the patient has an exacerbation. At the beginning and end of the study, a high ...
... and clinical studies related to infectious diseases of bacterial, viral and parasitic origin. The journal welcomes articles ... Grepafloxacin in Patients with Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis - a Question of Speed in Bacterial Killing. ... and pharmacodynamics of oral grepafloxacin in patients with acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (ABECB), with ... CONCLUSION: The speed of bacterial killing for grepafloxacin in ABECB patients was highly related to AUIC; values below 75 ...
... regimens for Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (ABECB)? ... regimens for Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (ABECB)? ... regimens for Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (ABECB ... Sputum colour and bacteria in chronic bronchitis exacerbations: a pooled analysis. Eur Respir J. 2012 Jun. 39 (6):1354-60. [ ...
Bronchial inflammation in acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: the role of leukotriene B4. SW Crooks, DL Bayley ... Bronchial inflammation in acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: the role of leukotriene B4 ... Bronchial inflammation in acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: the role of leukotriene B4 ... Bronchial inflammation in acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: the role of leukotriene B4 ...
Telithromycin in the treatment of acute bacterial sinusitis, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, and community-acquired ...
... - Interesting Aspects of Acute ... chronic bronchitis persists in time and needs ongoing medical treatment. Home Remedies for Bronchitis. Acute bronchitis is ... Chronic bronchitis is a form of bronchitis that generates less intense symptoms, but the illness can lead to serious ... Bronchitis can be either acute or chronic. Acute bronchitis generates intense symptoms and evolves rapidly (has a short period ...
... bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis , bacterial bronchitis treatment , bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis ... Contact Us , About Us , Privacy Policy , RSS Feed , bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis ... Bacterial infections lead to chronic bronchitis; but with asthmatic bronchitis, small particles that passes though the cilia in ... Bronchitis, can be classified based on length of time someone has symptoms as either acute or chronic. Chronic bronchitis is ...
Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis due to H. influenzae (non-ß-lactamase-producing strains only). Moraxella ... Acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis due to Haemophilus influenzae (excluding ß-lactamase-negative, ampicillin- ... ACUTE BACTERIAL EXACERBATIONS OF CHRONIC BRONCHITIS. In adequate and well-controlled clinical trials of cefaclor extended- ... release tablets in the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (ABECB), only 4 evaluable patients with ...
Acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in adults (1.1). •. Acute bacterial sinusitis in adults (1.1). •. ... Acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (mild to moderate). 500 mg as a single dose on Day 1, followed by 250 mg ... Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis In a randomized, double-blind controlled clinical trial of acute ... These bacterial infections include:. •. acute worsening of chronic bronchitis. •. acute sinus infection. •. community-acquired ...
Acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (mild to moderate). 250 or 500 mg every 12 hours. 10a. ... Acute Bacterial Exacerbations Of Chronic Bronchitis. CEFTIN tablets are indicated for the treatment of adult patients and ... with mild-to-moderate acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis caused by susceptible strains of Streptococcus ... a The safety and effectiveness of CEFTIN administered for less than 10 days in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic ...
Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Topoisomerase II Inhibitors. Topoisomerase Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. ... Chronic bronchitis. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Prevention therapy. ... Time of first exacerbation [ Time Frame: Through to week 48 ]. *Frequency of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis [ Time ... Intermittent Moxifloxacin Therapy For The Prevention Of Acute Exacerbations In Patients With Chronic Bronchitis. This study has ...
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive. Moxifloxacin. Norgestimate, ethinyl estradiol drug combination. Anti-Bacterial Agents. ... VICTOR - Avelox® Intravenous (i.v.) in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis (VICTOR). The safety and scientific validity ... Patients documented must suffer from an acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and take at least one dose of Moxifloxacin ... Bronchitis. Bronchitis, Chronic. Acute Disease. Disease Progression. Bronchial Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Lung ...
Acute bacterial sinusitis [see Indications and Usage (1.6)]. o. Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis [see ... Acute Bacterial Sinusitis. •. Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis. Avelox should not be used in patients with ... Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis. Avelox is indicated in adult patients for the treatment of Acute Bacterial ... Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis. Avelox Tablets (400 mg once daily for five days) were evaluated for the ...
Acute bacterial sinusitis [see INDICATIONS AND USAGE]. *Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis [see INDICATIONS AND ... Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis. AVELOX should not be used in patients with acute bacterial sinusitis or ... Acute Bacterial Exacerbation Of Chronic Bronchitis. AVELOX is indicated in adult patients for the treatment of Acute Bacterial ... Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis (ABECB) 400 mg. 5. aDue to the designated pathogens [see INDICATIONS AND ...
Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis. Levofloxacin is indicated for the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbation ... Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis [see Indications and Usage (1.13)]. *​Acute bacterial sinusitis [see ... acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, or acute bacterial sinusitis if there are other treatment options available ... Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis. Levofloxacin is indicated for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis due to Escherichia ...
... with disabling and potentially permanent side effects and to limit their use in patients with less serious bacterial infections ... Limits use for acute bacterial sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and uncomplicated urinary tract ... acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and uncomplicated urinary tract infections based on new safety information. ... acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and uncomplicated urinary tract infections. The patient Medication Guide ...
Staphylococcus aureus is also frequently isolated while atypical bacteria are thought to cause up to 10% of exacerbations. ... These species are the predominant causative bacterial pathogens in AECB and thus the spectrum of activity of telithromycin ... The three predominant bacterial species isolated are nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and ... Telithromycin demonstrated similar or better activity against the bacterial species investigated than the other agents, with ...
Bronchial inflammation in acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: the role of leukotriene B4. Eur Respir J 2000;15 ... Exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are related to increased morbidity and ... Changes in bronchial inflammation during acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. S. Gompertz, C. OBrien, D.L. Bayley, S.L. ... Changes in bronchial inflammation during acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. S. Gompertz, C. OBrien, D.L. Bayley, S.L. ...
Veeramachaneni SB, Sethi S. Pathogenesis of bacterial exacerbations of COPD. COPD: J Chronic Obstructive Pul Dis 2006;3:109-115 ... Chronic Bronchitis (Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). Authors: Antonio Anzueto, M.D. ... Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in this patient population (10, ... Until the early 1980s, most bacteria species associated with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis could be assumed to be ...
Acute bacterial sinusitis. Acute streptococcal tonsillitis and pharyngitis. Acute otitis media. Acute exacerbations of chronic ... Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Community acquired pneumonia 500 mg to 1 g every 8 hours ... in the biosynthetic pathway of bacterial peptidoglycan, which is an integral structural component of the bacterial cell wall. ... Inactivation by bacterial beta-lactamases. • Alteration of PBPs, which reduce the affinity of the antibacterial agent for the ...
Appropriate selection of antimicrobials for the treatment acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis may lead to better outcomes ... It is estimated that 50-70% of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) are caused by bacterial infections. Appropriate ... An acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB) is characterized by increased sputum volume, increased sputum purulence, ... Table 2. Antibiotic therapy and speed of recovery from acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.. Antibiotic treatment. ...
Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis. 500 mg PO/IV once daily for ≥7 days ... for patients who do not have other available treatment options for acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis ... acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, and uncomplicated UTIs, that fluoroquinolones should be reserved for use in patients ... Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis. 500 mg PO/IV once daily for 28 days ...
Chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and irreversible or partially reversible progressive airway obstruction, as a result of chronic ... The International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Indexed:- American Chemical Societys Chemical Abstracts ... Gemifloxacin use in the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis Cristian Jivcu, Mark Gotfried ... Particulate matter air pollution exposure: role in the development and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ...
  • Moxifloxacin, is being tested at approximately 60 study centres in 15 countries to determine if this drug, when taken periodically in addition to the patients normal treatment, is effective at reducing the number of flare-ups of chronic bronchitis he has. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • One small double-blind study found that use of an herbal combination containing echinacea enhanced the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment for acute flare-ups of chronic bronchitis . (epnet.com)
  • A 3-month, double-blind trial of 246 individuals with chronic bronchitis found that oral treatment with essential oil monoterpenes helped prevent acute flare-ups of chronic bronchitis. (doctors-hospital.net)
  • Ketolides are members of the mac- rolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) fam- ily, and consequently execute their antibacterial ac- tivity through the inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis. (ufl.edu)
  • Mpex has a first rate entrepreneurial R&D team with deep experience in antibacterial research and has validated efflux pump inhibition for potentiation of antibacterial activity, as well as expanding the spectrum of bacterial susceptibility. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The antibacterial effect of cefixime results from inhibition of mucopeptide synthesis in the bacterial cell wall. (drugbank.ca)
  • Telithromycin demonstrated similar or better activity against the bacterial species investigated than the other agents, with the most complete coverage overall. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This dual binding mechanism en- hances the ability of telithromycin to overcome re- sistance caused by modification of one of the target sites. (ufl.edu)