Directed Molecular Evolution
Molecular Sequence Data
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Amino Acid Sequence
Gene Transfer, Horizontal
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Amino Acid Substitution
DNA Transposable Elements
Open Reading Frames
Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Mating Preference, Animal
Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Expressed Sequence Tags
Sequence Analysis, Protein
Nucleic Acid Conformation
Gene Regulatory Networks
Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region. (1/24558)On the basis of developmental gene expression, the vertebrate central nervous system comprises: a forebrain plus anterior midbrain, a midbrain-hindbrain boundary region (MHB) having organizer properties, and a rhombospinal domain. The vertebrate MHB is characterized by position, by organizer properties and by being the early site of action of Wnt1 and engrailed genes, and of genes of the Pax2/5/8 subfamily. Wada and others (Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N. and Holland, P. W. H. (1998) Development 125, 1113-1122) suggested that ascidian tunicates have a vertebrate-like MHB on the basis of ascidian Pax258 expression there. In another invertebrate chordate, amphioxus, comparable gene expression evidence for a vertebrate-like MHB is lacking. We, therefore, isolated and characterized AmphiPax2/5/8, the sole member of this subfamily in amphioxus. AmphiPax2/5/8 is initially expressed well back in the rhombospinal domain and not where a MHB would be expected. In contrast, most of the other expression domains of AmphiPax2/5/8 correspond to expression domains of vertebrate Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in structures that are probably homologous - support cells of the eye, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits; although AmphiPax2/5/8 is not transcribed in any structures that could be interpreted as homologues of vertebrate otic placodes or otic vesicles. In sum, the developmental expression of AmphiPax2/5/8 indicates that the amphioxus central nervous system lacks a MHB resembling the vertebrate isthmic region. Additional gene expression data for the developing ascidian and amphioxus nervous systems would help determine whether a MHB is a basal chordate character secondarily lost in amphioxus. The alternative is that the MHB is a vertebrate innovation. (+info)
Molecular chaperones: small heat shock proteins in the limelight. (2/24558)Small heat shock proteins have been the Cinderellas of the molecular chaperone world, but now the crystal structure of a small heat shock protein has been solved and mutation of two human homologues implicated in genetic disease. Intermediate filaments appear to be one of the key targets of their chaperone activity. (+info)
Insect evolution: Redesigning the fruitfly. (3/24558)Homeotic mutations in Drosophila can result in dramatic phenotypes that suggest the possibility for rapid morphological evolution, but dissection of the genetic pathway downstream of Ultrabithorax is beginning to reveal how wing morphology may have evolved by more gradual transformations. (+info)
Ultrabithorax function in butterfly wings and the evolution of insect wing patterns. (4/24558)BACKGROUND: . The morphological and functional evolution of appendages has played a critical role in animal evolution, but the developmental genetic mechanisms underlying appendage diversity are not understood. Given that homologous appendage development is controlled by the same Hox gene in different organisms, and that Hox genes are transcription factors, diversity may evolve from changes in the regulation of Hox target genes. Two impediments to understanding the role of Hox genes in morphological evolution have been the limited number of organisms in which Hox gene function can be studied and the paucity of known Hox-regulated target genes. We have therefore analyzed a butterfly homeotic mutant 'Hindsight', in which portions of the ventral hindwing pattern are transformed to ventral forewing identity, and we have compared the regulation of target genes by the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) gene product in Lepidopteran and Dipteran hindwings. RESULTS: . We show that Ubx gene expression is lost from patches of cells in developing Hindsight hindwings, correlating with changes in wing pigmentation, color pattern elements, and scale morphology. We use this mutant to study how regulation of target genes by Ubx protein differs between species. We find that several Ubx-regulated genes in the Drosophila haltere are not repressed by Ubx in butterfly hindwings, but that Distal-less (Dll) expression is regulated by Ubx in a unique manner in butterflies. CONCLUSIONS: . The morphological diversification of insect hindwings has involved the acquisition of different sets of target genes by Ubx in different lineages. Changes in Hox-regulated target gene sets are, in general, likely to underlie the morphological divergence of homologous structures between animals. (+info)
Molecular phylogeny of the ETS gene family. (5/24558)We have constructed a molecular phylogeny of the ETS gene family. By distance and parsimony analysis of the ETS conserved domains we show that the family containing so far 29 different genes in vertebrates can be divided into 13 groups of genes namely ETS, ER71, GABP, PEA3, ERG, ERF, ELK, DETS4, ELF, ESE, TEL, YAN, SPI. Since the three dimensional structure of the ETS domain has revealed a similarity with the winged-helix-turn-helix proteins, we used two of them (CAP and HSF) to root the tree. This allowed us to show that the family can be divided into five subfamilies: ETS, DETS4, ELF, TEL and SPI. The ETS subfamily comprises the ETS, ER71, GABP, PEA3, ERG, ERF and the ELK groups which appear more related to each other than to any other ETS family members. The fact that some members of these subfamilies were identified in early metazoans such as diploblasts and sponges suggests that the diversification of ETS family genes predates the diversification of metazoans. By the combined analysis of both the ETS and the PNT domains, which are conserved in some members of the family, we showed that the GABP group, and not the ERG group, is the one most closely related to the ETS group. We also observed that the speed of accumulation of mutations in the various genes of the family is highly variable. Noticeably, paralogous members of the ELK group exhibit strikingly different evolutionary speed suggesting that the evolutionary pressure they support is very different. (+info)
Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection. (6/24558)A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects. (+info)
Analysis of a ubiquitous promoter element in a primitive eukaryote: early evolution of the initiator element. (7/24558)Typical metazoan core promoter elements, such as TATA boxes and Inr motifs, have yet to be identified in early-evolving eukaryotes, underscoring the extensive divergence of these organisms. Towards the identification of core promoters in protists, we have studied transcription of protein-encoding genes in one of the earliest-diverging lineages of Eukaryota, that represented by the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis. A highly conserved element, comprised of a motif similar to a metazoan initiator (Inr) element, surrounds the start site of transcription in all examined T. vaginalis genes. In contrast, a metazoan-like TATA element appears to be absent in trichomonad promoters. We demonstrate that the conserved motif found in T. vaginalis protein-encoding genes is an Inr promoter element. This trichomonad Inr is essential for transcription, responsible for accurate start site selection, and interchangeable between genes, demonstrating its role as a core promoter element. The sequence requirements of the trichomonad Inr are similar to metazoan Inrs and can be replaced by a mammalian Inr. These studies show that the Inr is a ubiquitous, core promoter element for protein-encoding genes in an early-evolving eukaryote. Functional and structural similarities between this protist Inr and the metazoan Inr strongly indicate that the Inr promoter element evolved early in eukaryotic evolution. (+info)
The nuclear receptor superfamily has undergone extensive proliferation and diversification in nematodes. (8/24558)The nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily is the most abundant class of transcriptional regulators encoded in the Caenorhabditis elegans genome, with >200 predicted genes revealed by the screens and analysis of genomic sequence reported here. This is the largest number of NR genes yet described from a single species, although our analysis of available genomic sequence from the related nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae indicates that it also has a large number. Existing data demonstrate expression for 25% of the C. elegans NR sequences. Sequence conservation and statistical arguments suggest that the majority represent functional genes. An analysis of these genes based on the DNA-binding domain motif revealed that several NR classes conserved in both vertebrates and insects are also represented among the nematode genes, consistent with the existence of ancient NR classes shared among most, and perhaps all, metazoans. Most of the nematode NR sequences, however, are distinct from those currently known in other phyla, and reveal a previously unobserved diversity within the NR superfamily. In C. elegans, extensive proliferation and diversification of NR sequences have occurred on chromosome V, accounting for > 50% of the predicted NR genes. (+info)
Polyploidy is a condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, which are the thread-like structures that carry genetic information. It can occur in both plants and animals, although it is relatively rare in most species. In humans, polyploidy is extremely rare and usually occurs as a result of errors during cell division or abnormal fertilization.
In medicine, polyploidy is often used to describe certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer or colon cancer, that have extra sets of chromosomes. This can lead to the development of more aggressive and difficult-to-treat tumors.
However, not all cases of polyploidy are cancerous. Some individuals with Down syndrome, for example, have an extra copy of chromosome 21, which is a non-cancerous form of polyploidy. Additionally, some people may be born with extra copies of certain genes or chromosomal regions due to errors during embryonic development, which can lead to various health problems but are not cancerous.
Overall, the term "polyploidy" in medicine is used to describe any condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, regardless of whether it is cancerous or non-cancerous.
Inversions are classified based on their location along the chromosome:
* Interstitial inversion: A segment of DNA is reversed within a larger gene or group of genes.
* Pericentric inversion: A segment of DNA is reversed near the centromere, the region of the chromosome where the sister chromatids are most closely attached.
Chromosome inversions can be detected through cytogenetic analysis, which allows visualization of the chromosomes and their structure. They can also be identified using molecular genetic techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH).
Chromosome inversions are relatively rare in the general population, but they have been associated with various developmental disorders and an increased risk of certain diseases. For example, individuals with an inversion on chromosome 8p have an increased risk of developing cancer, while those with an inversion on chromosome 9q have a higher risk of developing neurological disorders.
Inversions can be inherited from one or both parents, and they can also occur spontaneously as a result of errors during DNA replication or repair. In some cases, inversions may be associated with other genetic abnormalities, such as translocations or deletions.
Overall, chromosome inversions are an important aspect of human genetics and can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying developmental disorders and disease susceptibility.
Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:
1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.
Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:
1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.
Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.
There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:
1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)
The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
8. Weight loss
If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:
1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)
HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.
Prevention methods for HIV infection include:
1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.
It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.
Tetraploidy can be caused by various factors such as:
1. Polyploidy: This is a condition where an individual has more than two sets of chromosomes, including tetraploidy.
2. Chromosomal abnormalities: Such as aneuploidy, where there is an extra or missing copy of a specific chromosome.
3. Genetic disorders: Such as Down syndrome, which is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
4. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain chemicals or radiation can increase the risk of tetraploidy.
Symptoms of tetraploidy can vary depending on the severity of the condition and may include:
1. Growth delays: Children with tetraploidy may experience slowed growth and development.
2. Intellectual disability: Some individuals with tetraploidy may have cognitive impairments and learning difficulties.
3. Physical abnormalities: Tetraploidy can result in a variety of physical characteristics, such as short stature, thinning hair, and distinctive facial features.
4. Increased risk of health problems: Individuals with tetraploidy may be more susceptible to certain health issues, such as heart defects, hearing loss, and vision problems.
Diagnosis of tetraploidy is typically made through chromosomal analysis, which can be performed on a blood or tissue sample. Treatment for tetraploidy is not always necessary, but may include:
1. Monitoring growth and development: Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help track the child's growth and development.
2. Speech and language therapy: Children with tetraploidy may benefit from speech and language therapy to address any communication difficulties.
3. Occupational therapy: Individuals with tetraploidy may need occupational therapy to help them develop skills and abilities.
4. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to manage associated health problems, such as heart defects or seizures.
It is important to note that every individual with tetraploidy is unique and may have a different experience and outcome. With appropriate medical care and support, many individuals with tetraploidy can lead fulfilling lives.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Molecular Biology and Evolution
Evolution of molecular chaperones
Journal of Molecular Evolution
History of molecular evolution
Neutral theory of molecular evolution
Nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution
The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution
Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution
Molecular-weight size marker
Molecular pathological epidemiology
MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology
Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease
Mutagenesis (molecular biology technique)
Founder takes all
Evolutionarily significant unit
Ian A. Graham
Coronavirus nucleocapsid protein
Bacterial Molecular Evolution - Fogarty International Center @ NIH
Meeting Announcements - The Society for Molecular Biology & Evolution
Phylemon -- A suite of web tools for molecular evolution, phylogenetics and phylogenomics | HSLS
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution について
Use of Predicted Amino Acid Sequence of Envelope-Nonstructural Protein 1 Region to Study Molecular Evolution of Epidemic...
NIH VideoCast - Molecular Arms Races Shape the Evolution and Function of Antiviral Proteins
Peer-Reviewed Scientific Paper by Michael Behe Challenges "Gain of Function" Mutations in Molecular Evolution | Evolution News
Faster rates of molecular sequence evolution in reproduction-related genes and in species with hypodermic sperm morphologies |...
Molecular evolution and distribution of dengue viruses type 1 and 2 in nature - PubMed
NIH OBSSR Director's Webinar: Molecular Mechanisms and Evolution of Vocal Learning | Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences...
talks.cam : Evolution of the molecular basis of thermotolerance, focussing on the embryos of an invasive marine invertebrate
Use of Predicted Amino Acid Sequence of Envelope-Nonstructural Protein 1 Region to Study Molecular Evolution of Epidemic...
WHO EMRO | Molecular epidemiology and evolution of A(H1N1)pdm09 and H3N2 viruses in Jordan, 2011−2013 | Volume 22, issue 7 |...
Project Publications: Michigan State University: Ecology, Physiology, Molecular Genetics and Evolution of Microorganisms that...
How Molecular Clocks Are Refining Human Evolution's Timeline - SAPIENS
Molecular epidemiology, genomics and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibiotic resistance in Belarus, 2010-2013 | NIH...
Solid-state bonding behavior between surface-nanostructured Cu and Au: a molecular dynamics simulation | Scientific Reports
Chromosome Dynamics and Evolution | NHLBI, NIH
Molecular Disease and Evolution [Rudolf Virchow Lecture] - Digital Collections - National Library of Medicine
Universität Düsseldorf: Team: Institute of Molecular Evolution
Evolution in Molecular Biology | Biochemistry congress 2023
Cytoskelotyn - Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution (SMBE)
Journal of Molecular Evolution | Find Me A Cure
Urban ecology, evolution, and racism | The Molecular Ecologist
The genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and its implications for cell type evolution - PubMed
Molecular Evolution and Genetic Variation of |i|G2-Like|/i| Transcription Factor Genes in Wheat (|i|Triticum aestivum|/i| L.). ...
News September 2018 | Molecular Ecology and Evolution at Bangor (MEEB) | Bangor University
Society for Molecular Biology a1
- The Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution is an international organization whose goals are to provide facilities for association and communication among molecular evolutionists and to further the goals of molecular evolution, as well as its practitioners and teachers. (smbe.org)
- It has been conceived as a natural response to the increasing demand of data analysis of many experimental scientists wishing to add a molecular evolution and phylogenetics insight into their research. (pitt.edu)
- Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution'' is a peer-review ed scientific journal of evolutionary biology and phylogenetics . (ne.jp)
- Phylemon is an online platform for phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of molecular sequence data. (pitt.edu)
- Tools included in Phylemon cover a wide yet selected range of programs: from the most basic for multiple sequence alignment to elaborate statistical methods of phylogenetic reconstruction including methods for evolutionary rates analyses and molecular adaptation. (pitt.edu)
- There is little information on their evolution in Jordan so this study investigated the genetic and antigenic variability of A(H1N1)pdm09 and H3N2 viruses in Jordan by performing phylogenetic and genetic analyses of the HA and NA genes of A(H1N1)pdm09 and H3N2 viruses between 2011 and 2013. (who.int)
- The data generated for this study represent a valuable resource for future phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary research, and our results provide new insight into the forces driving genome evolution in taxa that span the root of entelegyne spider phylogeny. (datadryad.org)
- Select Phylogenetic relationships of the North American catfishes (Ictaluridae, Siluriformes): Investigating the origins and parallel evolution of the troglobitic species. (gale.com)
- Select Formation of the Holarctic Fauna: Dated molecular phylogenetic and biogeographic insights from the Quedius-lineage of Ground-Dwelling Rove Beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). (gale.com)
- Formation of the Holarctic Fauna: Dated molecular phylogenetic and biogeographic insights from the Quedius-lineage of Ground-Dwelling Rove Beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). (gale.com)
- Comparison of sequences from tight genetic clusters of bacteria, with divergence times of years to decades, provides a very different perspective on protein evolution. (nih.gov)
- Reconstruction of genetic changes that have occurred recently can elucidate the evolution of disease-causing and other important traits on a relatively short time scale (years or decades). (nih.gov)
- Research specialties: genetic analysis of avian hybridization and speciation, molecular systematics and population genetics of birds, use of ancient DNA in evolutionary research. (bio.net)
- We are interested in understanding these "molecular arms races" and how they drive recurrent genetic innovation, from the perspective of both evolutionary biology and human disease. (nih.gov)
- This is a sound argument: at some point, any important genetic mechanism of evolution must be shown to have the ability to generate new function rather than eliminating function. (evolutionnews.org)
- ABSTRACT Understanding the genetic evolution of A(H1N1)pdm09 and H3N2 viruses can help better select strains to be included in the annual influenza vaccine. (who.int)
- Molecular clocks are becoming more sophisticated, thanks to improved DNA sequencing, analytical tools, and a better understanding of the biological processes behind genetic changes. (sapiens.org)
- The Laboratory of Chromosome Dynamics and Evolution, led by Dr. Takashi Akera, uses mouse oocyte system to reveal both the cell biological basis and evolutionary consequences of meiotic drive, where selfish genetic elements violate Mendel's Law of Segregation to increase their own rate of transmission. (nih.gov)
- Major topics in molecular evolution concern the rates and impacts of single nucleotide changes, neutral evolution vs. natural selection, origins of new genes, the genetic nature of complex traits, the genetic basis of speciation, evolution of development, and ways that evolutionary forces influence genomic and phenotypic changes. (euroscicon.com)
Biology and Evolution1
- In order to accomplish these goals, the Society publishes two peer-reviewed journals, Molecular Biology and Evolution and Genome Biology and Evolution . (smbe.org)
- This international meeting will bring together scientists from across the world to provide a synthesis of the current knowledge of de novo gene evolution and function, develop shared guidelines concerning the annotation of de novo genes, identify critical areas and compelling questions on de novo gene birth and promote novel interdisciplinary collaborations. (smbe.org)
- The motivation behind this meeting is the simple point that the cell, organelles, and their contents define the natural settings within which genes, genomes, proteins, and other molecular features evolve. (smbe.org)
- Combining functional annotations from the model, M. lignano , with transcriptomes from 97 congeners, we find genus-wide faster sequence evolution in reproduction-related versus ubiquitously-expressed genes, consistent with stronger sexual selection on the former. (biorxiv.org)
- At the same time, sex-biased genes tend to show rapid rates of molecular sequence evolution ( Ellegren and Parsch 2007 ). (biorxiv.org)
- These unique, uncharacterized genes exhibited elevated rates of amino acid substitution, potentially consistent with lineage-specific adaptive evolution. (datadryad.org)
- Meiotic drive impacts genetics, evolution, and fertility, as selfish elements distort transmission ratios of linked genes and allele frequencies in populations and manipulate gamete production. (nih.gov)
- Meiotic drive of selfish centromeres, or centromere drive, can explain the "centromere paradox": rapid evolution of both centromere DNA sequences and genes encoding centromere-binding proteins despite conserved centromere function in segregation. (nih.gov)
- The evolution of coding sequences and their protein products is most commonly studied by comparison of sequences from different species, with divergence times of millions of years. (nih.gov)
- Additionally, species with hypodermic sperm morphologies had elevated molecular sequence evolution, regardless of a gene's functional annotation. (biorxiv.org)
- See Figure 3 for understanding how racial segregation can affect ecology and evolution of individuals and species. (molecularecologist.com)
- This lecture will describe how we use evolution-guided mutagenesis approaches to dissect and enhance the function of antiviral proteins. (nih.gov)
- Thus, centromere DNA and centromere proteins continually evolve in conflict with each other, analogous to a molecular arms race between viruses and the immune system. (nih.gov)
- Molecular evolution is the process of change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. (euroscicon.com)
- Explain how rapid evolution alters binding specificities between host and viral proteins. (nih.gov)
- The mechanistic basis for the rapid evolution largely rests on the features of the genomes of the interacting partners involved. (uea.ac.uk)
- Use of Predicted Amino Acid Sequence of Envelope-Nonstructural Protein 1 Region to Study Molecular Evolution of Epidemic-Causing Dengue-2 Strains. (who.int)
- However, while loci thought to be under sexual selection often evolve rapidly, few studies have contrasted rates of molecular sequence evolution at such loci across lineages with different sexual selection contexts. (biorxiv.org)
- We investigate rates of molecular sequence evolution in hermaphroditic flatworms of the genus Macrostomum . (biorxiv.org)
- and molecular basis of morphological and developmental adaptations. (bio.net)
- Funds will be awarded on a competitive basis to members of the molecular evolution research community to run workshops/meetings on an important, focused, and timely topic of their choice.The number of awards will depend on the quality of proposals and total cost. (smbe.org)
- Using mouse oocytes as a model, the laboratory of Chromosome Dynamics and Evolution, led by Dr. Takashi Akera focuses on both the cell biological basis and evolutionary consequences of meiotic drive. (nih.gov)
- The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes. (euroscicon.com)
- Rapid (co-)evolution at multiple timescales is a hallmark of plant-microbe interactions. (uea.ac.uk)
- You are cordially invited to register for the SMBE Satellite Meeting on Mechanisms of Cellular Evolution . (smbe.org)
- This four-day event is being organized by the Biology Integration Institute for Mechanisms of Cellular Evolution at Arizona State University and is in collaboration with the NSF BII for Mechanisms of Cellular Evolution's Annual Symposium . (smbe.org)
- Here, we review recent insights into genomic characteristics and mechanisms that enable rapid evolution of both plants and phytopathogens. (uea.ac.uk)
- systematics of fishes using molecular and morphological characters. (bio.net)
- In a 2007 article in the journal Evolution , Hopi E. Hoekstra and Jerry Coyne co-authored a review article critiquing cis-regulatory mutations as a mechanism of evolution, stating, "Supporting the evo devo claim that cis-regulatory changes are responsible for morphological innovations requires showing that promoters are important in the evolution of new traits, not just the losses of old ones. (evolutionnews.org)
- Hopi E. Hoekstra and Jerry A. Coyne, "The Locus of Evolution: Evo Devo and the Genetics of Adaptation," Evolution , Vol. 61-5: 995-1016 (2007). (evolutionnews.org)
- Here, we use synthetic molecular evolution (SME) to identify gain-of-function CPPs with dramatically improved ability to deliver cargoes to cells at low concentration. (nih.gov)
- We conclude that the means underlying the rapid evolution of plant-microbe interactions are multifaceted and depend on the particular nature of each interaction. (uea.ac.uk)
- Demonstrate how rapid evolution and combinatorial mutagenesis can be used as a guide to enhance antiviral specificities against target viruses. (nih.gov)
- Michael Behe has published a peer-reviewed scientific paper in the journal Quarterly Review of Biology titled " Experimental Evolution, Loss-of-Function Mutations and 'The First Rule of Adaptive Evolution' ," arguing that "the most common adaptive changes seen … are due to the loss or modification of a pre-existing molecular function. (evolutionnews.org)
- Michael J. Behe, " Experimental Evolution, Loss-of-Function Mutations and 'The First Rule of Adaptive Evolution' ," Quarterly Review of Biology , Vol. 85(4) (December, 2010). (evolutionnews.org)
- Afin de remédier à ce problème et d'étudier les variations génétiques et antigéniques des virus A(H1N1)pdm09 et H3N2, nous avons procédé à des analyses génétiques et phylogénétiques des gènes de l'hémagglutinine (HA) et de la neuraminidase (NA) de ces virus, sur la période 2011-2013 en Jordanie. (who.int)
- Researchers generally use socioeconomic status as a proxy for understanding how social factors, especially wealth, but also occupation, education, race, culture, and societal power influence ecology and evolution. (molecularecologist.com)
- A developmental perspective: changes in the position of the blastopore during bilaterian evolution. (nih.gov)
- In the thalamus , neuronal diversification correlates with the evolution of the cortex, suggesting that developmental origin and circuit allocation are drivers of neuronal identity and evolution. (bvsalud.org)
- The recent advent of cell type molecular fingerprinting has yielded initial insights into the evolutionary interrelationships of cell types between remote animal phyla and has allowed us to define some first principles of cell type diversification in animal evolution. (nih.gov)
- In two subsequent posts, I will discuss Behe's review of FCT evolution in bacteria and viruses, as well as the implications he draws from that data. (evolutionnews.org)
- POSTDOCTORAL POSITIONS IN MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION ------------------------------------------ The Laboratory of Molecular Systematics at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, invites applications for 1- and 2-year postdoctoral fellowships. (bio.net)
- Behe argues that we do not generally observe the evolution of new adaptive FCTs in the laboratory. (evolutionnews.org)
- Therefore, in this study, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the solid-state bonding behavior between surface-nanostructured Cu and Au, with a focus on diffusion phenomena. (nature.com)
- A genomic parasite in the evolution of metazoan development. (nih.gov)
- Further, using a phylogenomic approach, we concluded that the majority of DR M.tb infections were due to recent transmission of already DR strains rather than repeated de novo evolution of resistance within patients. (nih.gov)
- For example, sex chromosome evolution is expected to be driven, to a large extent, by sexual conflict (e.g. (biorxiv.org)
- It follows that a stronger focus on the molecular features inside of cells and the constraints under which they function will lead to an improved understanding of evolutionary processes. (smbe.org)
- The rules and constraints underlying the evolution of neuron types, however, remain poorly understood. (bvsalud.org)
- He integrates computational, behavioral, physiological, and molecular techniques to explore the neural genetics of vocal learning and the evolution of this complex behavior. (nih.gov)
- The temporal signal of the ML trees and compatibility with molecular clock phylogenies were assessed with TempEst v1.5.3 ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
- Molecular clock analysis showed that PUUV is a stable virus, evolving slowly at a rate of 0.7 x 10(-7) to 2.2 x 10(-6) nt substitutions per site per year. (nih.gov)
- These changes accrue like the ticks on a stopwatch, providing a "molecular clock. (sapiens.org)
- He earned his PhD in Geology from the University of Johannesburg, and BS and MS degrees in Earth Sciences from the University of California, San Diego, where he studied evolution extensively at both the graduate and undergraduate levels. (evolutionnews.org)
- Molecular diversity and evolution of neuron types in the amniote brain. (bvsalud.org)
- The observation that a particular type of molecular change involves loss-of-function has been used by leading evolutionary biologists as argument against that particular mechanism as being an important force for adaptive evolutionary change. (evolutionnews.org)