The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process of accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes over time in individual cells and the effect of the changes on CELL PROLIFERATION.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Animals that have no spinal column.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Sexual activities of animals.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The number of mutations that occur in a specific sequence, GENE, or GENOME over a specified period of time such as years, CELL DIVISIONS, or generations.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.
The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.
A small aquatic oviparous mammal of the order Monotremata found in Australia and Tasmania.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From, 8/4/2000)
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.
Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.
Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A mutation named with the blend of insertion and deletion. It refers to a length difference between two ALLELES where it is unknowable if the difference was originally caused by a SEQUENCE INSERTION or by a SEQUENCE DELETION. If the number of nucleotides in the insertion/deletion is not divisible by three, and it occurs in a protein coding region, it is also a FRAMESHIFT MUTATION.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.

Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region. (1/24558)

On the basis of developmental gene expression, the vertebrate central nervous system comprises: a forebrain plus anterior midbrain, a midbrain-hindbrain boundary region (MHB) having organizer properties, and a rhombospinal domain. The vertebrate MHB is characterized by position, by organizer properties and by being the early site of action of Wnt1 and engrailed genes, and of genes of the Pax2/5/8 subfamily. Wada and others (Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N. and Holland, P. W. H. (1998) Development 125, 1113-1122) suggested that ascidian tunicates have a vertebrate-like MHB on the basis of ascidian Pax258 expression there. In another invertebrate chordate, amphioxus, comparable gene expression evidence for a vertebrate-like MHB is lacking. We, therefore, isolated and characterized AmphiPax2/5/8, the sole member of this subfamily in amphioxus. AmphiPax2/5/8 is initially expressed well back in the rhombospinal domain and not where a MHB would be expected. In contrast, most of the other expression domains of AmphiPax2/5/8 correspond to expression domains of vertebrate Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in structures that are probably homologous - support cells of the eye, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits; although AmphiPax2/5/8 is not transcribed in any structures that could be interpreted as homologues of vertebrate otic placodes or otic vesicles. In sum, the developmental expression of AmphiPax2/5/8 indicates that the amphioxus central nervous system lacks a MHB resembling the vertebrate isthmic region. Additional gene expression data for the developing ascidian and amphioxus nervous systems would help determine whether a MHB is a basal chordate character secondarily lost in amphioxus. The alternative is that the MHB is a vertebrate innovation.  (+info)

Molecular chaperones: small heat shock proteins in the limelight. (2/24558)

Small heat shock proteins have been the Cinderellas of the molecular chaperone world, but now the crystal structure of a small heat shock protein has been solved and mutation of two human homologues implicated in genetic disease. Intermediate filaments appear to be one of the key targets of their chaperone activity.  (+info)

Insect evolution: Redesigning the fruitfly. (3/24558)

Homeotic mutations in Drosophila can result in dramatic phenotypes that suggest the possibility for rapid morphological evolution, but dissection of the genetic pathway downstream of Ultrabithorax is beginning to reveal how wing morphology may have evolved by more gradual transformations.  (+info)

Ultrabithorax function in butterfly wings and the evolution of insect wing patterns. (4/24558)

BACKGROUND: . The morphological and functional evolution of appendages has played a critical role in animal evolution, but the developmental genetic mechanisms underlying appendage diversity are not understood. Given that homologous appendage development is controlled by the same Hox gene in different organisms, and that Hox genes are transcription factors, diversity may evolve from changes in the regulation of Hox target genes. Two impediments to understanding the role of Hox genes in morphological evolution have been the limited number of organisms in which Hox gene function can be studied and the paucity of known Hox-regulated target genes. We have therefore analyzed a butterfly homeotic mutant 'Hindsight', in which portions of the ventral hindwing pattern are transformed to ventral forewing identity, and we have compared the regulation of target genes by the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) gene product in Lepidopteran and Dipteran hindwings. RESULTS: . We show that Ubx gene expression is lost from patches of cells in developing Hindsight hindwings, correlating with changes in wing pigmentation, color pattern elements, and scale morphology. We use this mutant to study how regulation of target genes by Ubx protein differs between species. We find that several Ubx-regulated genes in the Drosophila haltere are not repressed by Ubx in butterfly hindwings, but that Distal-less (Dll) expression is regulated by Ubx in a unique manner in butterflies. CONCLUSIONS: . The morphological diversification of insect hindwings has involved the acquisition of different sets of target genes by Ubx in different lineages. Changes in Hox-regulated target gene sets are, in general, likely to underlie the morphological divergence of homologous structures between animals.  (+info)

Molecular phylogeny of the ETS gene family. (5/24558)

We have constructed a molecular phylogeny of the ETS gene family. By distance and parsimony analysis of the ETS conserved domains we show that the family containing so far 29 different genes in vertebrates can be divided into 13 groups of genes namely ETS, ER71, GABP, PEA3, ERG, ERF, ELK, DETS4, ELF, ESE, TEL, YAN, SPI. Since the three dimensional structure of the ETS domain has revealed a similarity with the winged-helix-turn-helix proteins, we used two of them (CAP and HSF) to root the tree. This allowed us to show that the family can be divided into five subfamilies: ETS, DETS4, ELF, TEL and SPI. The ETS subfamily comprises the ETS, ER71, GABP, PEA3, ERG, ERF and the ELK groups which appear more related to each other than to any other ETS family members. The fact that some members of these subfamilies were identified in early metazoans such as diploblasts and sponges suggests that the diversification of ETS family genes predates the diversification of metazoans. By the combined analysis of both the ETS and the PNT domains, which are conserved in some members of the family, we showed that the GABP group, and not the ERG group, is the one most closely related to the ETS group. We also observed that the speed of accumulation of mutations in the various genes of the family is highly variable. Noticeably, paralogous members of the ELK group exhibit strikingly different evolutionary speed suggesting that the evolutionary pressure they support is very different.  (+info)

Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection. (6/24558)

A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects.  (+info)

Analysis of a ubiquitous promoter element in a primitive eukaryote: early evolution of the initiator element. (7/24558)

Typical metazoan core promoter elements, such as TATA boxes and Inr motifs, have yet to be identified in early-evolving eukaryotes, underscoring the extensive divergence of these organisms. Towards the identification of core promoters in protists, we have studied transcription of protein-encoding genes in one of the earliest-diverging lineages of Eukaryota, that represented by the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis. A highly conserved element, comprised of a motif similar to a metazoan initiator (Inr) element, surrounds the start site of transcription in all examined T. vaginalis genes. In contrast, a metazoan-like TATA element appears to be absent in trichomonad promoters. We demonstrate that the conserved motif found in T. vaginalis protein-encoding genes is an Inr promoter element. This trichomonad Inr is essential for transcription, responsible for accurate start site selection, and interchangeable between genes, demonstrating its role as a core promoter element. The sequence requirements of the trichomonad Inr are similar to metazoan Inrs and can be replaced by a mammalian Inr. These studies show that the Inr is a ubiquitous, core promoter element for protein-encoding genes in an early-evolving eukaryote. Functional and structural similarities between this protist Inr and the metazoan Inr strongly indicate that the Inr promoter element evolved early in eukaryotic evolution.  (+info)

The nuclear receptor superfamily has undergone extensive proliferation and diversification in nematodes. (8/24558)

The nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily is the most abundant class of transcriptional regulators encoded in the Caenorhabditis elegans genome, with >200 predicted genes revealed by the screens and analysis of genomic sequence reported here. This is the largest number of NR genes yet described from a single species, although our analysis of available genomic sequence from the related nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae indicates that it also has a large number. Existing data demonstrate expression for 25% of the C. elegans NR sequences. Sequence conservation and statistical arguments suggest that the majority represent functional genes. An analysis of these genes based on the DNA-binding domain motif revealed that several NR classes conserved in both vertebrates and insects are also represented among the nematode genes, consistent with the existence of ancient NR classes shared among most, and perhaps all, metazoans. Most of the nematode NR sequences, however, are distinct from those currently known in other phyla, and reveal a previously unobserved diversity within the NR superfamily. In C. elegans, extensive proliferation and diversification of NR sequences have occurred on chromosome V, accounting for > 50% of the predicted NR genes.  (+info)

Polyploidy is a condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, which are the thread-like structures that carry genetic information. It can occur in both plants and animals, although it is relatively rare in most species. In humans, polyploidy is extremely rare and usually occurs as a result of errors during cell division or abnormal fertilization.

In medicine, polyploidy is often used to describe certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer or colon cancer, that have extra sets of chromosomes. This can lead to the development of more aggressive and difficult-to-treat tumors.

However, not all cases of polyploidy are cancerous. Some individuals with Down syndrome, for example, have an extra copy of chromosome 21, which is a non-cancerous form of polyploidy. Additionally, some people may be born with extra copies of certain genes or chromosomal regions due to errors during embryonic development, which can lead to various health problems but are not cancerous.

Overall, the term "polyploidy" in medicine is used to describe any condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, regardless of whether it is cancerous or non-cancerous.

Inversions are classified based on their location along the chromosome:

* Interstitial inversion: A segment of DNA is reversed within a larger gene or group of genes.
* Pericentric inversion: A segment of DNA is reversed near the centromere, the region of the chromosome where the sister chromatids are most closely attached.

Chromosome inversions can be detected through cytogenetic analysis, which allows visualization of the chromosomes and their structure. They can also be identified using molecular genetic techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH).

Chromosome inversions are relatively rare in the general population, but they have been associated with various developmental disorders and an increased risk of certain diseases. For example, individuals with an inversion on chromosome 8p have an increased risk of developing cancer, while those with an inversion on chromosome 9q have a higher risk of developing neurological disorders.

Inversions can be inherited from one or both parents, and they can also occur spontaneously as a result of errors during DNA replication or repair. In some cases, inversions may be associated with other genetic abnormalities, such as translocations or deletions.

Overall, chromosome inversions are an important aspect of human genetics and can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying developmental disorders and disease susceptibility.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

Tetraploidy can be caused by various factors such as:

1. Polyploidy: This is a condition where an individual has more than two sets of chromosomes, including tetraploidy.
2. Chromosomal abnormalities: Such as aneuploidy, where there is an extra or missing copy of a specific chromosome.
3. Genetic disorders: Such as Down syndrome, which is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
4. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain chemicals or radiation can increase the risk of tetraploidy.

Symptoms of tetraploidy can vary depending on the severity of the condition and may include:

1. Growth delays: Children with tetraploidy may experience slowed growth and development.
2. Intellectual disability: Some individuals with tetraploidy may have cognitive impairments and learning difficulties.
3. Physical abnormalities: Tetraploidy can result in a variety of physical characteristics, such as short stature, thinning hair, and distinctive facial features.
4. Increased risk of health problems: Individuals with tetraploidy may be more susceptible to certain health issues, such as heart defects, hearing loss, and vision problems.

Diagnosis of tetraploidy is typically made through chromosomal analysis, which can be performed on a blood or tissue sample. Treatment for tetraploidy is not always necessary, but may include:

1. Monitoring growth and development: Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help track the child's growth and development.
2. Speech and language therapy: Children with tetraploidy may benefit from speech and language therapy to address any communication difficulties.
3. Occupational therapy: Individuals with tetraploidy may need occupational therapy to help them develop skills and abilities.
4. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to manage associated health problems, such as heart defects or seizures.

It is important to note that every individual with tetraploidy is unique and may have a different experience and outcome. With appropriate medical care and support, many individuals with tetraploidy can lead fulfilling lives.

Other journals dedicated to molecular evolution include Journal of Molecular Evolution and Molecular Phylogenetics and ... Genome evolution Heterotachy History of molecular evolution Horizontal gene transfer Human evolution Molecular clock Molecular ... Hence the evolution of protein function is critical to understand molecular evolution. Evolution of proteins is studied by ... The Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution publishes the journals "Molecular Biology and Evolution" and "Genome Biology ...
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... disease molecular signatures); and disease evolution and progression. Investigators can analyze genome, methylome, epigenome, ... method Epidemiology Evidence-based medicine Molecular diagnostics Molecular epidemiology Molecular medicine Molecular pathology ... Molecular epidemiology broadly encompasses MPE and conventional-type molecular epidemiology with the use of traditional disease ... Since molecular diagnostics is becoming routine clinical practice, molecular pathology data can aid epidemiologic research.[ ...
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Wallis, G. P.; Trewick, S. A. (2009). "New Zealand phylogeography: Evolution on a small continent". Molecular Ecology. 18 (17 ... New Zealand's geographic isolation for 80 million years and island biogeography has influenced evolution of the country's ... November 2009) [1966]. "Historical evolution and trade patterns". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 10 February 2011. ... Evolution. 8 (12): 429-33. doi:10.1016/0169-5347(93)90004-9. PMID 21236222. Trewick, S. A.; Morgan-Richards, M. (2014). New ...
... and ancestral biogeographic range evolution of the ants". Evolution. 67 (8): 2240-2257. doi:10.1111/evo.12105. PMID 23888848. ... Poulsen, Michael; Panagiotis Sapountzis (May 2012). "Behind every great ant, there is a great gut". Molecular Ecology. 21 (9): ... and Ancestral Biogeographic Range Evolution of the Ants". Evolution. 67 (8): 2240-2257. doi:10.1111/evo.12105. PMID 23888848. ... Moreau studies the evolution, ecology, biogeography, systematics, and diversification of insects and their microbial gut- ...
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Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 158: 107091. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107091. ISSN 1055-7903. PMID 33545275. S2CID ...
"Non-Chromosomal DNA Drives Tumor Evolution". The Scientist Magazine®. Retrieved 2019-02-01. Wu, Sihan; Turner, Kristen M.; ... Molecular Cell. 67 (1): 128-138.e7. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2017.05.030. ISSN 1097-4164. PMC 5521991. PMID 28648777. Guo, Deliang ... showed that it potently drives tumor evolution and drug resistance, and identified specific signaling, biochemical and ... "Extrachromosomal oncogene amplification in tumour pathogenesis and evolution". Nature Reviews Cancer. 19 (5): 283-288. doi: ...
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 43 (1): 91-110. Pilack, M. (2020). "Kronohero Report - in chronological order, science ... Říčan, O.; Piálek, L.; Dragová, K.; Novák, J. (2016). "Diversity and evolution of the Middle American cichlid fishes (Teleostei ...
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56(1):21-39. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.04.002 Neonauclea At: Search Page At: World ... Molecular phylogenetic studies indicate that some related genera are probably embedded in it. Neonauclea acuminata Ridsdale ...
Westra ER, Dowling AJ, Broniewski JM, van Houte S (November 2016). "Evolution and Ecology of CRISPR". Annual Review of Ecology ... Molecular Microbiology. 87 (5): 1088-99. doi:10.1111/mmi.12152. PMID 23320564. Sinkunas T, Gasiunas G, Fremaux C, Barrangou R, ... Molecular Biology. 21 (9): 771-7. doi:10.1038/nsmb.2875. PMC 4156918. PMID 25132177. Gasiunas G, Barrangou R, Horvath P, ... Evolution, and Systematics. 47 (1): 307-331. doi:10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-121415-032428. Wiedenheft B, Sternberg SH, Doudna JA ( ...
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 36 (1): 112-134. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.12.002. PMID 15904861. Samuel, Rosabelle; ... "Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences and ovule and seed ... The revision of Phyllanthaceae by Hoffmann and co-authors was based on two molecular phylogenetic studies that were published ... Kathriarachchi, H; Hoffmann, P; Samuel, R; Wurdack, KJ; Chase, MW (July 2005). "Molecular phylogenetics of Phyllanthaceae ...
"Ecology, Evolution, and Natural Resources". Retrieved 2022-10-17. Staff, NJJN. "Joan G. Ehrenfeld". ... She also completed a summer program at Colorado State University, and spent time working in a molecular biology lab. Ehrenfeld ... Joan G. Ehrenfeld (December 2010). "Ecosystem Consequences of Biological Invasions". Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and ...
Barbas CF, Hu D, Dunlop N, Sawyer L, Cababa D, Hendry RM, Nara PL, Burton DR (April 1994). "In vitro evolution of a ... Initial work was done by laboratories at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology (Greg Winter and John McCafferty), the Scripps ... Phage display is also a widely used method for in vitro protein evolution (also called protein engineering). As such, phage ... Directed evolution protein-protein interactions PelB leader sequence Competing techniques: Two-hybrid system mRNA display ...
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 37(3):686-699 (Use dmy dates from June 2020, Articles with short description, Short ...
This has led to new understanding of how genome rearrangement has shaped the evolution of plant metabolism. The discovery of a ... He was appointed a lecturer in the division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at University of Glasgow from 1994 to 1999. ... Additionally, Graham was elected as a member of the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) in 2016,[citation needed] ... Plant Molecular Biology. 13 (6): 673-684. doi:10.1007/BF00016022. PMID 2491683. S2CID 23684986. Graham, I. A.; Denby, K. J.; ...
Gostinčar, C.; Grube, M.; Gunde-Cimerman, N. (2011). "Evolution of Fungal Pathogens in Domestic Environments?". Fungal Biology ... A molecular perspective at a glance". Studies in Mycology. 61: 67-75. doi:10.3114/sim.2008.61.06. PMC 2610308. PMID 19287528. ... Evolution on the edge". FEMS Microbiology Ecology. 71 (1): 2-11. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2009.00794.x. PMID 19878320. ... Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms". PLOS ONE. 7 (11): e48674. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...748674R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048674. ...
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 47 (2), 757-782. ... In 2010, she was awarded the Stebbins' Medal for the best publication in Plant Systematics or Plant Evolution in the period ... In 2014 she won the Rolf Dahlgren Prize for her major contributions to the understanding of the systematics and evolution of ... "Systematics, evolution, and biogeography of Compositae". International Association for Plant Taxonomy. Top five cited papers in ...
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 56 (1): 21-39. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2010.04.002. PMID 20382247. Chione in the World ...
2016) Molecular ecolution of the capsid gene in human norovirus genogroup II. Sci Rep 6:29400 Ozaki K, Matsushima Y, Nagasawa K ... Several estimates of the evolution rate have been made varying from 8.98 × 10−3 to 2.03 × 10−3 substitutions per site per year ... fragment-based molecular docking and binding free energy calculations". Carbohydr. Res. 378: 133-8. doi:10.1016/j.carres. ... Motoya T, Ryo A, Kuroda M, Katayama K, Kimura H (2018) Molecular evolutionary analyses of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ...
Evolution of Segmentation. 46 (3): 354-379. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2016.10.011. ISSN 1467-8039. PMID 27989966. Cong, Peiyun; Ma, ... Edgecombe, Gregory D. (2010). "Arthropod phylogeny: an overview from the perspectives of morphology, molecular data and the ... Collins, D. (1996). "The "Evolution" of Anomalocaris and Its Classification in the Arthropod Class Dinocarida (nov.) and Order ... Ortega-Hernández, Javier; Janssen, Ralf; Budd, Graham E. (2017-05-01). "Origin and evolution of the panarthropod head - A ...
Human PANO1 protein has a molecular weight of 22.8 kb and a theoretical, isoelectric point of 12.21. From an analysis of the ... Grzybowska EA (July 2012). "Human intronless genes: functional groups, associated diseases, evolution, and mRNA processing in ...
Shono, T.; Thiery, A.P.; Cooper, R. L.; Kurokawa, D.; Britz, R.; Okabe, M.; Fraser, G.J. (September 2019). "Evolution and ... The following cladogram is based on molecular evidence and illustrates the polyphyletic nature of the genus Carinotetraodon: ...
A molecular perspective". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 45 (3): 1014-1032. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.07.006. PMID ...
Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Meiofaunal Pseudunelidae (Gastropoda, Acochlidia)". PLoS ONE 6(8): e23313. doi:10.1371/ ... "Towards a phylogeny and evolution of Acochlidia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean ...
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 127 (October 2018): 626-637. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2018.06.009. PMID 29913310. Molluscs of ... Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 114 (2017): 367-381. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2017.06.018. PMID 28669812. Vaux, Felix; ... "Evolutionary lineages of marine snails identified using molecular phylogenetics and geometric morphometric analysis of shells ...
Harlow, H.J.; Frank, C.L. (2001). "The role of dietary fatty acids in the evolution of spontaneous and facultative hibernation ... Carey, H.V.; Andrews, M.T.; Martin, S.L. (2003). "Mammalian hibernation: cellular and molecular responses to depressed ... Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 147 (1): 20-28. doi:10.1016/j.cbpb.2006.12.020. PMID 17307375. Folk, Edgar; Larson, Anna; ...
Molecular Biology and Evolution. 39: msab292. doi:10.1093/molbev/msab292. ISSN 0737-4038. PMC 8549283. PMID 34638137. Cagliani ... Masters, Paul S. (2006). "The Molecular Biology of Coronaviruses". Advances in Virus Research. 66: 193-292. doi:10.1016/S0065- ... "Computational Inference of Selection Underlying the Evolution of the Novel Coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ...
February 2022). "Genetic Connections and Convergent Evolution of Tropical Indigenous Peoples in Asia". Molecular Biology and ... through convergent evolution and positive selection, rather than a remnant of a shared common ancestor, as suggested previously ... Evolution. 39 (2). doi:10.1093/molbev/msab361. PMC 8826522. PMID 34940850. Retrieved 31 October 2022. We hypothesize that ...
Nakamura Y, Imai I, Yamaguchi A, Tuji A, Not F, Suzuki N (July 2015). "Molecular Phylogeny of the Widely Distributed Marine ... n.), a Tiny Naked Centrohelid, and the Diversity and Evolution of Heliozoa". Protist. 163 (4): 574-601. doi:10.1016/j.protis. ... They are traditionally considered radiolarians, but in molecular trees do not appear to be close relatives of the other groups ... Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E.; Lewis, Rhodri (April 2018). "Multigene phylogeny and cell evolution of chromist ...
Palumbi's research interests include studying evolution and change using molecular genetics techniques, marine population ... Palumbi has written several books: The Evolution Explosion: How Humans Cause Rapid Evolutionary Change, 2002. The Death and ... Palumbi, Stephen R. (2002). The Evolution Explosion: How Humans Cause Rapid Evolutionary Change. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN ...
At a molecular level, initiation of fruiting body development in Myxococcus xanthus is regulated by Pxr sRNA. Myxobacteria such ... Fiegna F, Yu YT, Kadam SV, Velicer GJ (May 2006). "Evolution of an obligate social cheater to a superior cooperator". Nature. ... They typically travel in swarms (also known as wolf packs), containing many cells kept together by intercellular molecular ... Yu YT, Yuan X, Velicer GJ (May 2010). "Adaptive evolution of an sRNA that controls Myxococcus development". Science. 328 (5981 ...
... (born November 11, 1957) is a molecular biologist well-known for contributions to the biology of halophilic ... which contributed to the acceptance of the three Domain view of evolution proposed by Carl Woese. In the 1990s, he organized ... Indian molecular biologists, Indiana University Bloomington alumni, Massachusetts Institute of Technology School of Science ... He is a researcher and teacher of molecular genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics and mentor of undergraduate, graduate and ...
Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22 (7): 1543-1545. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi155. PMID 15858206. Shimomura, Osamu (2006). "The ... The luciferase enzyme consists of a 555-amino acid-long peptide with a molecular mass of 61627 u, while the luciferine vargulin ...
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 52(1): 84-102.[1] Neogobiin research at the University of Toledo, Ohio Systematics of ... Evolution and biogeography of an endemic goby species flock (Benthophilinae: Gobiidae: Teleostei). ...
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 132: 117-137. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2018.11.012. PMID 30496844. S2CID 54166316. Dalponte, ... first appraisal of taxonomy based on molecular evidence". Frontiers in Zoology. 13: 10. doi:10.1186/s12983-016-0142-4. ISSN ...
Bacterial Molecular Evolution For several bacterial species, available whole-genome DNA sequences number in the tens or ... The evolution of coding sequences and their protein products is most commonly studied by comparison of sequences from different ... Genome Biology and Evolution, February 11, 2020 * Methylation-Induced Hypermutation in Natural Populations of Bacteria, ... Evolution of Pathogen Characteristics. Genetic differences within a bacterial species can have phenotypic consequences that are ...
Molecular Biology and Evolution and Genome Biology and Evolution. The Society sponsors an annual meeting, as well as smaller ... Molecular Biology and Evolution. Correction: Sex Differences in 20-Hydroxyecdysone Hormone Levels Control Sexual Dimorphism in ... The Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution is an international organization whose goals are to provide facilities for ... We are delighted to announce that the abstract system for the Annual Meeting of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution ...
Phylemon -- A suite of web tools for molecular evolution, phylogenetics and phylogenomics. URL: ... PubMed Link: Phylemon -- A suite of web tools for molecular evolution, phylogenetics and phylogenomics. ... natural response to the increasing demand of data analysis of many experimental scientists wishing to add a molecular evolution ... Phylemon is an online platform for phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of molecular sequence data. ...
Molecular Pharmacology. ・ Molecular phylogenetics. ・ Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. ・ Molecular physics. ・ Molecular ... Molecular Plant Pathology. ・ Molecular Playground. ・ Molecular probe. ・ Molecular Probes. ・ Molecular processors. ・ Molecular ... Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution : ウィキペディア英語版. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and ... Molecular Oncology (journal). ・ Molecular orbital. ・ Molecular orbital diagram. ・ Molecular orbital theory. ・ Molecular Pain. ...
Use of Predicted Amino Acid Sequence of Envelope-Nonstructural Protein 1 Region to Study Molecular Evolution of Epidemic- ... Use of Predicted Amino Acid Sequence of Envelope-Nonstructural Protein 1 Region to Study Molecular Evolution of Epidemic- ...
Molecular Arms Races Shape the Evolution and Function of Antiviral Proteins ... Molecular Arms Races Shape the Evolution and Function of Antiviral Proteins. Download VideoCast. You can download this ... This lecture will describe how we use evolution-guided mutagenesis approaches to dissect and enhance the function of antiviral ... "molecular arms races" and how they drive recurrent genetic innovation, from the perspective of both evolutionary biology and ...
Peer-Reviewed Scientific Paper by Michael Behe Challenges "Gain of Function" Mutations in Molecular Evolution. Casey Luskin. ... Hopi E. Hoekstra and Jerry A. Coyne, "The Locus of Evolution: Evo Devo and the Genetics of Adaptation," Evolution, Vol. 61-5: ... Michael J. Behe, "Experimental Evolution, Loss-of-Function Mutations and The First Rule of Adaptive Evolution," Quarterly ... "Experimental Evolution, Loss-of-Function Mutations and The First Rule of Adaptive Evolution," arguing that "the most common ...
Nonadaptive molecular evolution of seminal fluid proteins in Drosophila. Evolution. 75: 2102-2113. ... Sodium channel genes and the evolution of diversity in communication signals of electric fishes: Convergent molecular evolution ... Understanding the genetic basis for convergent phenotypic evolution and the extent of convergent evolution at the molecular ... Faster rates of molecular sequence evolution in reproduction-related genes and in species with hypodermic sperm morphologies. ...
Molecular evolution and distribution of dengue viruses type 1 and 2 in nature R Rico-Hesse. Virology. 1990 Feb. ... Molecular evolution and distribution of dengue viruses type 1 and 2 in nature R Rico-Hesse 1 ... Molecular evolution of dengue virus: a Bayesian approach using 1581 whole-genome sequences from January 1944 to July 2022. Wolf ... The history and evolution of human dengue emergence. Vasilakis N, Weaver SC. Vasilakis N, et al. Adv Virus Res. 2008;72:1-76. ...
NIH OBSSR Directors Webinar: Molecular Mechanisms and Evolution of Vocal Learning Erich D. Jarvis, Ph.D. ... and molecular techniques to explore the neural genetics of vocal learning and the evolution of this complex behavior. His ...
University of Cambridge , , Evolution and Development Seminar Series , Evolution of the molecular basis of ... Evolution of the molecular basis of thermotolerance, focussing on the embryos of an invasive marine invertebrate. Add to your ... This talk is part of the Evolution and Development Seminar Series series. ...
Use of Predicted Amino Acid Sequence of Envelope-Nonstructural Protein 1 Region to Study Molecular Evolution of Epidemic- ... Use of Predicted Amino Acid Sequence of Envelope-Nonstructural Protein 1 Region to Study Molecular Evolution of Epidemic- ...
Molecular epidemiology and evolution of A(H1N1)pdm09 and H3N2 viruses in Jordan, 2011−2013 ... Molecular epidemiology and evolution of A(H1N1)pdm09 and H3N2 virus during winter 2012-2013 in Beijing, China. Infect Genet ... Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal , All issues , Volume 22, 2016 , Volume 22, issue 7 , Molecular epidemiology and evolution ... Understanding the evolution of A(H1N1)pdm09 and H3N2 viruses is essential for studying diversification, determining genetic and ...
Ecology, Physiology, Molecular Genetics and Evolution of Microorganisms that Degrade Aromatic Xenobiotic Pollutants. Project ... Project Publications: Michigan State University: Ecology, Physiology, Molecular Genetics and Evolution of Microorganisms that ... Evidence for the evolution of a single component phenol/cresol hydroxylase from a multicomponent toluene monooxygenase. J Ind ... Recruitment of an alkyl-substituted phenol/benzene regulated system for the evolution of a unit peptide phenol hydroxylase. In ...
How Molecular Clocks Are Refining Human Evolutions Timeline. Scientists are getting better and better at using DNA to figure ... geneticists could confirm that for this period of human evolution, the slower molecular clock rate of 0.5×10⁻⁹ provides ... Due to the evolution of Prdm9 and hotspots, the fine-scale recombination rates differ between humans and chimps, and possibly ... Molecular clocks are a mainstay of evolutionary calculations, not just for humans but for all forms of living organisms. But ...
Molecular epidemiology, genomics and evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antibiotic resistance in Belarus, 2010-2013. ... the majority of DR M.tb infections were due to recent transmission of already DR strains rather than repeated de novo evolution ...
Therefore, in this study, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the solid-state bonding behavior between ... b) The MSD evolution of each atom with linearly-fitted lines attached. MSDz to MSD ratio evolution of the atoms of the (c) Cu ... Morphology evolution of surface nanostructure. First, the evolution of the morphology of the surface nanostructure at the ... MSD evolution with time at Sv = 2.8 nm−1: (a) Number of atoms of the Cu slab, NS-Cu, and Au slab used in the MSD calculation ...
The Laboratory of Chromosome Dynamics and Evolution, led by Dr. Takashi Akera, uses mouse oocyte system to reveal both the cell ... Thus, centromere DNA and centromere proteins continually evolve in conflict with each other, analogous to a molecular arms race ... Chromosome Dynamics and Evolution. The Laboratory of Chromosome Dynamics and Evolution, led by Dr. Takashi Akera, uses mouse ... Using mouse oocytes as a model, the laboratory of Chromosome Dynamics and Evolution, led by Dr. Takashi Akera focuses on both ...
Molecular Disease and Evolution [Rudolf Virchow Lecture]. Contributor(s):. Oregon State University. Library. Ava Helen and ...
Institute of Molecular Evolution Close menu. To homepage: Institute of Molecular Evolution * Home of the Institute ... Molekulare Evolution. Heinrich-Heine-Universität. Düsseldorf. Universitätsstraße 1 Building: 26.24. Floor/Room: 03.076. +49 211 ...
Evolution in Molecular Biology. Molecular evolution is the process of change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules ... Major topics in molecular evolution concern the rates and impacts of single nucleotide changes, neutral evolution vs. natural ... The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these ... Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Theme: The results of biochemistry and technological improvements to deliver micronutrients ...
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Anna Bligh, Coral Sea, Cuttlefish, Great Barrier Reef, Hong Kong, Journal of Molecular Evolution, Octopus, University of ... The origin of these genes also sheds light on the fundamentals of evolution, presenting a prime example of convergent evolution ...
This entry was posted in ecology, evolution and tagged evolutionary ecology, racism, urban evolution, urbanization. Bookmark ... Urban ecology, evolution, and racism. Posted on 31 Aug, 2020 by Kathleen Grogan ... See Figure 3 for understanding how racial segregation can affect ecology and evolution of individuals and species. ... Further, incorporating environmental justice principles into how we perform and interpret urban ecology and evolution research ...
An understanding of ctenophore biology is critical for reconstructing events that occurred early in animal evolution. Toward ... Molecular Biology Databases. * SILVA Full text links [x]. Atypon Free PMC article ... The genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and its implications for cell type evolution Joseph F Ryan 1 , Kevin Pang, ... The genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and its implications for cell type evolution Joseph F Ryan et al. Science. 2013 ...
Molecular Evolution and Genetic Variation of G2-Like Transcription Factor Genes in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). ... Molecular Evolution and Genetic Variation of ,i,G2-Like,/i, Transcription Factor Genes in ... Evolução Molecular; Fatores de Transcrição/genética; Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo; Variação Genética/genética ...
Molecular Ecology and Evolution at Bangor (MEEB). Bangor University School of Natural Sciences. Environment Centre Wales, ... The "Professor John Harper Research Fund in Plant Ecology" has been awarded to the Molecular Ecology and Fisheries Genetics ...
  • The Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution is an international organization whose goals are to provide facilities for association and communication among molecular evolutionists and to further the goals of molecular evolution, as well as its practitioners and teachers. (
  • It has been conceived as a natural response to the increasing demand of data analysis of many experimental scientists wishing to add a molecular evolution and phylogenetics insight into their research. (
  • Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution'' is a peer-review ed scientific journal of evolutionary biology and phylogenetics . (
  • Phylemon is an online platform for phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of molecular sequence data. (
  • Tools included in Phylemon cover a wide yet selected range of programs: from the most basic for multiple sequence alignment to elaborate statistical methods of phylogenetic reconstruction including methods for evolutionary rates analyses and molecular adaptation. (
  • There is little information on their evolution in Jordan so this study investigated the genetic and antigenic variability of A(H1N1)pdm09 and H3N2 viruses in Jordan by performing phylogenetic and genetic analyses of the HA and NA genes of A(H1N1)pdm09 and H3N2 viruses between 2011 and 2013. (
  • The data generated for this study represent a valuable resource for future phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary research, and our results provide new insight into the forces driving genome evolution in taxa that span the root of entelegyne spider phylogeny. (
  • Select Phylogenetic relationships of the North American catfishes (Ictaluridae, Siluriformes): Investigating the origins and parallel evolution of the troglobitic species. (
  • Select Formation of the Holarctic Fauna: Dated molecular phylogenetic and biogeographic insights from the Quedius-lineage of Ground-Dwelling Rove Beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). (
  • Formation of the Holarctic Fauna: Dated molecular phylogenetic and biogeographic insights from the Quedius-lineage of Ground-Dwelling Rove Beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). (
  • Comparison of sequences from tight genetic clusters of bacteria, with divergence times of years to decades, provides a very different perspective on protein evolution. (
  • Reconstruction of genetic changes that have occurred recently can elucidate the evolution of disease-causing and other important traits on a relatively short time scale (years or decades). (
  • Research specialties: genetic analysis of avian hybridization and speciation, molecular systematics and population genetics of birds, use of ancient DNA in evolutionary research. (
  • We are interested in understanding these "molecular arms races" and how they drive recurrent genetic innovation, from the perspective of both evolutionary biology and human disease. (
  • This is a sound argument: at some point, any important genetic mechanism of evolution must be shown to have the ability to generate new function rather than eliminating function. (
  • ABSTRACT Understanding the genetic evolution of A(H1N1)pdm09 and H3N2 viruses can help better select strains to be included in the annual influenza vaccine. (
  • Molecular clocks are becoming more sophisticated, thanks to improved DNA sequencing, analytical tools, and a better understanding of the biological processes behind genetic changes. (
  • The Laboratory of Chromosome Dynamics and Evolution, led by Dr. Takashi Akera, uses mouse oocyte system to reveal both the cell biological basis and evolutionary consequences of meiotic drive, where selfish genetic elements violate Mendel's Law of Segregation to increase their own rate of transmission. (
  • Major topics in molecular evolution concern the rates and impacts of single nucleotide changes, neutral evolution vs. natural selection, origins of new genes, the genetic nature of complex traits, the genetic basis of speciation, evolution of development, and ways that evolutionary forces influence genomic and phenotypic changes. (
  • In order to accomplish these goals, the Society publishes two peer-reviewed journals, Molecular Biology and Evolution and Genome Biology and Evolution . (
  • This international meeting will bring together scientists from across the world to provide a synthesis of the current knowledge of de novo gene evolution and function, develop shared guidelines concerning the annotation of de novo genes, identify critical areas and compelling questions on de novo gene birth and promote novel interdisciplinary collaborations. (
  • The motivation behind this meeting is the simple point that the cell, organelles, and their contents define the natural settings within which genes, genomes, proteins, and other molecular features evolve. (
  • Combining functional annotations from the model, M. lignano , with transcriptomes from 97 congeners, we find genus-wide faster sequence evolution in reproduction-related versus ubiquitously-expressed genes, consistent with stronger sexual selection on the former. (
  • At the same time, sex-biased genes tend to show rapid rates of molecular sequence evolution ( Ellegren and Parsch 2007 ). (
  • These unique, uncharacterized genes exhibited elevated rates of amino acid substitution, potentially consistent with lineage-specific adaptive evolution. (
  • Meiotic drive impacts genetics, evolution, and fertility, as selfish elements distort transmission ratios of linked genes and allele frequencies in populations and manipulate gamete production. (
  • Meiotic drive of selfish centromeres, or centromere drive, can explain the "centromere paradox": rapid evolution of both centromere DNA sequences and genes encoding centromere-binding proteins despite conserved centromere function in segregation. (
  • The evolution of coding sequences and their protein products is most commonly studied by comparison of sequences from different species, with divergence times of millions of years. (
  • Additionally, species with hypodermic sperm morphologies had elevated molecular sequence evolution, regardless of a gene's functional annotation. (
  • See Figure 3 for understanding how racial segregation can affect ecology and evolution of individuals and species. (
  • This lecture will describe how we use evolution-guided mutagenesis approaches to dissect and enhance the function of antiviral proteins. (
  • Thus, centromere DNA and centromere proteins continually evolve in conflict with each other, analogous to a molecular arms race between viruses and the immune system. (
  • Molecular evolution is the process of change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. (
  • Explain how rapid evolution alters binding specificities between host and viral proteins. (
  • The mechanistic basis for the rapid evolution largely rests on the features of the genomes of the interacting partners involved. (
  • Use of Predicted Amino Acid Sequence of Envelope-Nonstructural Protein 1 Region to Study Molecular Evolution of Epidemic-Causing Dengue-2 Strains. (
  • However, while loci thought to be under sexual selection often evolve rapidly, few studies have contrasted rates of molecular sequence evolution at such loci across lineages with different sexual selection contexts. (
  • We investigate rates of molecular sequence evolution in hermaphroditic flatworms of the genus Macrostomum . (
  • and molecular basis of morphological and developmental adaptations. (
  • Funds will be awarded on a competitive basis to members of the molecular evolution research community to run workshops/meetings on an important, focused, and timely topic of their choice.The number of awards will depend on the quality of proposals and total cost. (
  • Using mouse oocytes as a model, the laboratory of Chromosome Dynamics and Evolution, led by Dr. Takashi Akera focuses on both the cell biological basis and evolutionary consequences of meiotic drive. (
  • The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes. (
  • Rapid (co-)evolution at multiple timescales is a hallmark of plant-microbe interactions. (
  • You are cordially invited to register for the SMBE Satellite Meeting on Mechanisms of Cellular Evolution . (
  • This four-day event is being organized by the Biology Integration Institute for Mechanisms of Cellular Evolution at Arizona State University and is in collaboration with the NSF BII for Mechanisms of Cellular Evolution's Annual Symposium . (
  • Here, we review recent insights into genomic characteristics and mechanisms that enable rapid evolution of both plants and phytopathogens. (
  • systematics of fishes using molecular and morphological characters. (
  • In a 2007 article in the journal Evolution , Hopi E. Hoekstra and Jerry Coyne co-authored a review article critiquing cis-regulatory mutations as a mechanism of evolution, stating, "Supporting the evo devo claim that cis-regulatory changes are responsible for morphological innovations requires showing that promoters are important in the evolution of new traits, not just the losses of old ones. (
  • Hopi E. Hoekstra and Jerry A. Coyne, "The Locus of Evolution: Evo Devo and the Genetics of Adaptation," Evolution , Vol. 61-5: 995-1016 (2007). (
  • Here, we use synthetic molecular evolution (SME) to identify gain-of-function CPPs with dramatically improved ability to deliver cargoes to cells at low concentration. (
  • We conclude that the means underlying the rapid evolution of plant-microbe interactions are multifaceted and depend on the particular nature of each interaction. (
  • Demonstrate how rapid evolution and combinatorial mutagenesis can be used as a guide to enhance antiviral specificities against target viruses. (
  • Michael Behe has published a peer-reviewed scientific paper in the journal Quarterly Review of Biology titled " Experimental Evolution, Loss-of-Function Mutations and 'The First Rule of Adaptive Evolution' ," arguing that "the most common adaptive changes seen … are due to the loss or modification of a pre-existing molecular function. (
  • Michael J. Behe, " Experimental Evolution, Loss-of-Function Mutations and 'The First Rule of Adaptive Evolution' ," Quarterly Review of Biology , Vol. 85(4) (December, 2010). (
  • Afin de remédier à ce problème et d'étudier les variations génétiques et antigéniques des virus A(H1N1)pdm09 et H3N2, nous avons procédé à des analyses génétiques et phylogénétiques des gènes de l'hémagglutinine (HA) et de la neuraminidase (NA) de ces virus, sur la période 2011-2013 en Jordanie. (
  • Researchers generally use socioeconomic status as a proxy for understanding how social factors, especially wealth, but also occupation, education, race, culture, and societal power influence ecology and evolution. (
  • A developmental perspective: changes in the position of the blastopore during bilaterian evolution. (
  • In the thalamus , neuronal diversification correlates with the evolution of the cortex, suggesting that developmental origin and circuit allocation are drivers of neuronal identity and evolution. (
  • The recent advent of cell type molecular fingerprinting has yielded initial insights into the evolutionary interrelationships of cell types between remote animal phyla and has allowed us to define some first principles of cell type diversification in animal evolution. (
  • In two subsequent posts, I will discuss Behe's review of FCT evolution in bacteria and viruses, as well as the implications he draws from that data. (
  • POSTDOCTORAL POSITIONS IN MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION ------------------------------------------ The Laboratory of Molecular Systematics at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, invites applications for 1- and 2-year postdoctoral fellowships. (
  • Behe argues that we do not generally observe the evolution of new adaptive FCTs in the laboratory. (
  • Therefore, in this study, molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the solid-state bonding behavior between surface-nanostructured Cu and Au, with a focus on diffusion phenomena. (
  • A genomic parasite in the evolution of metazoan development. (
  • Further, using a phylogenomic approach, we concluded that the majority of DR M.tb infections were due to recent transmission of already DR strains rather than repeated de novo evolution of resistance within patients. (
  • For example, sex chromosome evolution is expected to be driven, to a large extent, by sexual conflict (e.g. (
  • It follows that a stronger focus on the molecular features inside of cells and the constraints under which they function will lead to an improved understanding of evolutionary processes. (
  • The rules and constraints underlying the evolution of neuron types, however, remain poorly understood. (
  • He integrates computational, behavioral, physiological, and molecular techniques to explore the neural genetics of vocal learning and the evolution of this complex behavior. (
  • The temporal signal of the ML trees and compatibility with molecular clock phylogenies were assessed with TempEst v1.5.3 ( 7 ). (
  • Molecular clock analysis showed that PUUV is a stable virus, evolving slowly at a rate of 0.7 x 10(-7) to 2.2 x 10(-6) nt substitutions per site per year. (
  • These changes accrue like the ticks on a stopwatch, providing a "molecular clock. (
  • He earned his PhD in Geology from the University of Johannesburg, and BS and MS degrees in Earth Sciences from the University of California, San Diego, where he studied evolution extensively at both the graduate and undergraduate levels. (
  • Molecular diversity and evolution of neuron types in the amniote brain. (
  • The observation that a particular type of molecular change involves loss-of-function has been used by leading evolutionary biologists as argument against that particular mechanism as being an important force for adaptive evolutionary change. (