The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Adjustment of the eyes under conditions of low light. The sensitivity of the eye to light is increased during dark adaptation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process of accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes over time in individual cells and the effect of the changes on CELL PROLIFERATION.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A perceptual phenomenon used by Gestalt psychologists to demonstrate that events in one part of the perceptual field may affect perception in another part.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Chemical and physical transformation of the biogenic elements from their nucleosynthesis in stars to their incorporation and subsequent modification in planetary bodies and terrestrial biochemistry. It includes the mechanism of incorporation of biogenic elements into complex molecules and molecular systems, leading up to the origin of life.
The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
Continuation of visual impression after cessation of stimuli causing the original image.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Sexual activities of animals.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From, 8/4/2000)
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
The number of mutations that occur in a specific sequence, GENE, or GENOME over a specified period of time such as years, CELL DIVISIONS, or generations.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.
An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Lack of correspondence between the way a stimulus is commonly perceived and the way an individual perceives it under given conditions.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Phylum in the domain Eukarya, comprised of animals either with fully developed backbones (VERTEBRATES), or those with notochords only during some developmental stage (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATE).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
A species of orangutan, family HOMINIDAE, found in the forests on the island of Borneo.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.
The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A small aquatic oviparous mammal of the order Monotremata found in Australia and Tasmania.
Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.
2 Evolution and adaptation *2.1 Paranotal hypothesis. *2.2 Epicoxal hypothesis. *2.3 Endite-exite hypothesis ... Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S. (2005). Evolution of the Insects. New York: Cambridge University Press.. [pages needed] ... Trueman, J.W.H. (1990), Comment: evolution of insect wings: a limb exite plus endite model. Canadian Journal of Zoology. ... The hypothesis with perhaps the strongest evidence is that which stems from the adaptation of endites and exites, appendages on ...
Why a species evolved the structures (adaptations) it has Phylogeny (evolution). The history of the evolution of sequential ... 1 Function (adaptation)[edit]. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is the only scientific explanation for why an ... 2 Phylogeny (evolution)[edit]. Evolution captures both the history of an organism via its phylogeny, and the history of natural ... On the other hand, the common definition of adaptation, a central concept in evolution, is a trait that was functional to the ...
Fleagle, John G. (1999). Primate adaptation and evolution. Academic Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-12-260341-9. Retrieved 10 July ... Coolidge, Frank L.; Wyn, Thomas (2006). "The effects of the tree-to-ground sleep transition in the evolution of cognition in ... Kappeler, Peter M. (1998). "Nests, Tree Holes, and the Evolution of Primate Life Histories" (abstract). American Journal of ... Sauther, Michelle L. (2006). Lemurs: ecology and adaptation. Springer. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-387-34585-7. Retrieved 9 July 2011. ...
Critical-Historical Perspective on the Argument about Evolution and Creation, John Durant, in "From Evolution to Creation: A ... Williams, George C. (1966). Adaptation and Natural Selection. United States: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-02615-2 ... b. ^ The debate ended with the motion "That the doctrine of creation is more valid than the theory of evolution" being defeated ... The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution. Transworld (United Kingdom and Commonwealth), Free Press (United States ...
Edward, Dominic A.; Chapman, Tracey (2011). "The evolution and significance of male mate choice". Trends in Ecology & Evolution ... Williams, G.C. (1966). Adaptation and Natural Selection. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ[page needed] ... Miller, Geoffrey (2000). The mating mind: how sexual choice shaped the evolution of human nature, London, Heineman, ISBN 0-434- ... "Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 30 (4): 207-214. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2015.01.012. ISSN 0169-5347. PMID 25736691.. ...
Comparative: Evolution, Adaptation & Environment. *Genomics & Biodiversity. References[edit]. *^ IUPS About Us. *^ a b IUPS, ...
"The evolution of life histories. Local adaptation and genetics of acid-stress" Hall, New York, New York, USA. Sinervo, B (1999 ... I. Local adaptation". Evolution. 57 (2): 352-362. doi:10.1554/0014-3820(2003)057[0352:gviast];2. Hangartner, S; Laurila, ... Moor frogs provide a good model for studying local adaptation as they experience a wide range of environments and are ... 2002). Life on Earth: An Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Ecology, and Evolution. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. "Moor Frog ...
"Skin Color Adaptation". Human Biological Adaptability: Skin Color as an Adaptation. Palomar. Archived from the original on 18 ... Jablonski, N. G.; Chaplin, G. (2000). "The evolution of human skin coloration". Journal of Human Evolution. 39 (1): 57-106. doi ... Strong selective pressure would be expected for the evolution of light skin in areas of low UV radiation. In the 1960s, ... 1975). "Cold injury and the evolution of "white" skin". Human Biology. 47 (1): 65-80. PMID 1126703. Steegman, A.T. Jr (1967). " ...
Evolution and Adaptation. The Macmillan Company; Macmillan and Co., Ltd. LCCN 03027216. OCLC 758217701. Evolution and ... In Environment, Development, and Evolution: Toward a Synthesis. MIT Press. p. 19. ISBN 0-262-08319-1 Bowler, Peter J. (1983). ... 1900). Sexual Dimorphism in the Animal Kingdom: A Theory of the Evolution of Secondary Sexual Characters. Nature 63: 197-202. ... Charles Darwin: Naturalist (1886) Sexual Dimorphism in the Animal Kingdom: A Theory of the Evolution of Secondary Sexual ...
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"Adaptation and evolution". Times of Malta. Retrieved 2021-03-12. "Penalties and enforcement by the Malta Business Registry". ...
"Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-08326-3. Retrieved 2008-02-28.. ... a b Watson, Paul J. "An Evolutionary Adaptationist Theory of Unipolar Depression: Depression as an adaptation for social ... "Evolution and Human Behavior. 20 (5): 325-359. doi:10.1016/S1090-5138(99)00016-1. Retrieved 2008-02-28.. ... "Evolution and Human Behavior. 23 (5): 323-336. doi:10.1016/S1090-5138(01)00102-7. Retrieved 2008-02-28.. ...
Sex and Evolution. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. Paradis, J. and G.C. Williams. 1989. T.H. Huxley's Evolution and ... Adaptation and Natural Selection p4 Grafen, Alan; Ridley, Mark (2006). Richard Dawkins: How A Scientist Changed the Way We ... Basic Books, New York). Williams, G. C. (1957). "Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence". Evolution. 11 ... Williams, George C. (1957). "Pleiotropy, Natural Selection, and the Evolution of Senescence". Evolution. 11 (4): 398-411. doi: ...
2071-2105, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-39979-4_50, ISBN 9783642399787 Fleagle, John G. (2013-03-08). Primate Adaptation and Evolution ... McHenry, H. M. (2009). "Human Evolution". In Michael Ruse; Joseph Travis (eds.). Evolution: The First Four Billion Years. ... Journal of Human Evolution, "New stratigraphic research makes Little Foot the oldest complete Australopithecus". Celia W. ... This suggests that erect, straight-legged walking originated as an adaptation to tree-dwelling. Major changes to the pelvis and ...
ISBN 0-262-12199-9. McKnight, Jim (1997). Straight Science? Homosexuality, Evolution and Adaptation. London: Routledge. ISBN 0- ...
Primate Adaptation and Evolution. San Diego, Academic Press. Gebo, DL. 2002. Adapiformes: phylogeny and adaptation. The Primate ... Systematics, Phylogeny and Evolution of Early Eocene Adapidae in North America. 1977. Martin, Robert D. 1993. Primate Origins: ... This is one of the best stratophenetic sequences in the Eocene, and is supporting evidence for gradualism in evolution. However ... Folia Primatologica, 1998 Gebo, D.L. (2002). "Adapiformes: Phylogeny and adaptation". In Hartwig, W.C. (ed.). The Primate ...
Fleagle, J.G. (1999). Primate Adaptation and Evolution. San Diego: Academic Press. Maiolino, S.; Boyer, D. M.; Bloch, J. I.; ... Adapiform primates were among the first primates to exhibit a set of adaptations for life in the trees, such as grasping hands ...
ISBN 0-8153-1696-8. Fleagle, John G. (1999). Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press. pp. 373-75. ISBN 9780122603419. ... Similarly, incisor enlargement was most likely an adaptation for grooming and food manipulation rather than a purely ... Delson, Eric; Tattersall, Ian; Van Couvering, John A. (1999). Encyclopedia of human evolution and prehistory. Taylor & Francis ... and primate evolution. Advances in primatology. Springer. ISBN 0-306-44297-3. Rasmussen, D. Tab (2007). "Fossil record of the ...
Fleagle, J.F. (1999). Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-260341-9. Ishida, Hidemi; ... List of fossil sites (with link directory) List of human evolution fossils (with images) Yasui, Nakano & Ishida 1987 Ward & ... Cela-Conde, Camilo J.; Ayala, Francisco J. (2007). Human Evolution - Trails from the Past. Oxford University Press. ISBN ...
doi:10.1016/0016-6995(91)80029-Y. Fleagle, J. G. (1999). Primate adaptation and evolution. Academic Press. p. 462. ISBN 978-0- ... These traits are too numerous to have been easily developed by parallel evolution. In the taxa's four premolars, double rooted ... Tarsiifromes:Evolutionary History and adaptation. The Primate Fossil Record. Cambridge University Press.. ...
Primate Adaptation and Evolution. San Diego, Academic Press. Mikko's Phylogeny Archive Gebo, DL. 2002. Adapiformes: phylogeny ... Systematics, Phylogeny and Evolution of Early Eocene Adapidae in North America. 1977. Godinot, M. A Summary of Adapiform ... Many later species show increasing adaptation for folivory including increased body size, the loss of the paraconids, and the ... and adaptation. The Primate Fossil Record. Cambridge University Press Gingerich, PD and Simons, EL. ...
They applied a "selfish gene" view of evolution to animals' threat displays to see if it would be in their genes' interests to ... Irons, W. (1996). J. P. Hurd (ed.). Morality as an Evolved Adaptation. Investigating the Biological Foundations of Morality. ... The Evolution of Commitment. Russell Sage Foundation. pp. 292-309. Johnstone, R. A. (1995). "Sexual selection, honest ... A first step in understanding the evolution of complex signals is to identify the factors that increase the effectiveness of ...
Primate Adaptation and Evolution. San Diego, Academic Press. Mikko's Phylogeny Archive Gebo, DL. 2002. Adapiformes: phylogeny ... Gebo, D.L. (2002). "Adapiformes: Phylogeny and adaptation". In Hartwig, W.C. (ed.). The Primate Fossil Record. Cambridge ... and adaptation. The Primate Fossil Record. Cambridge University Press Godinot, M. A Summary of Adapiform Systematics and ...
38 Issue (1): 1-7 [3] Fleagle, J. G. (1988). Primate adaptation and evolution. San Diego: Academic Press. Mammalian Rhinarium ... anatomy and evolution", in Brewer, Warrick; Castle, David; Pantelis, Christos (eds.), Olfaction and the Brain, Cambridge; New ... the rhinarium's structure and associated functions has proven of considerable importance in the fields of mammalian evolution ...
Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) Fleagle, JG (1999). Primate adaptation and evolution. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12- ... Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) Cameron, D. W. (2004). Hominid adaptations and extinctions. UNSW Press. ISBN ... Greenfield, L. O. (1987). "A Late Divergence Hypothesis". In Ciochon, Russell L.; Fleagle, John G. (eds.). Primate evolution ... "Evolution and Environment in the Hominoidea". In Gee, H (ed.). Shaking the tree: readings from Nature in the history of life. ...
Fleagle, John G. (2013). Primate adaptation and evolution. Academic Press. Kinzey, W.G. (1997). "Alouatta". In Warren G. Kinzey ... ed.). New World Primates: Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior. New York: de Gruyter. Milton, K. (1987). "Physiological ...
Fleagle (1998). Primate Evolution and Adaptation. Academic Press. ISBN 9780080492131. Ciochon, R. L. (1985). "Fossil ancestors ...
3.0.CO;2-7. Fleagle, JG (1988). Primate Adaptation and Evolution. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 9780122603402. Harrison, T ( ... "A mandible of Mabokopithecus clarki sheds new light on oreopithecid evolution". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 26 ( ...
Feldhamer, George A.; Drickamer, Lee C.; Vessey, Stephen H.; Merritt, Joseph H.; Krajewski, Carey (2007). Mammalogy: Adaptation ... "Energetics and the evolution of body size in small terrestrial mammals" (PDF). Symposia of the Zoological Society of London ... "Déjà vu: the evolution of feeding morphologies in the Carnivora". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 47 (1): 147-163. doi ...
Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 20 (6): 345-353. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2005.04.004. PMID 16701391. Archived from the original ( ... Herbivore adaptations to plant defense. *Mimicry. *Plant defense against herbivory. *Predator avoidance in schooling fish ... Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 17 (6): 269-277. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02455-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011- ... Post, D. M. (1993). "The long and short of food-chain length". Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 17 (6): 269-277. doi:10.1016/ ...
An anime adaptation lasting two seasons aired from March 2008 to September 2009. A 3DCG anime television adaptation lasting two ... Aquarian Age: Sign for Evolution (2002). *Chobits (2002). *Magical Shopping Arcade Abenobashi (2002) ... it was announced that the manga would receive a 3DCG anime television adaptation that began airing on October 2, 2016 called ...
On the basis of these findings, they suggested that transformation is an adaptation for repairing oxidative DNA damages. S. ... Engelmoer DJ, Rozen DE (December 2011). "Competence increases survival during stress in Streptococcus pneumoniae". Evolution. ...
Evolutionary adaptationEdit. Poinsettia bracts are leaves which have evolved red pigmentation in order to attract insects and ... 2004). The Evolution of Plant Physiology. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-08-047272-0. .. ... In the course of evolution, leaves have adapted to different environments in the following ways:[citation needed] ... Stewart, Wilson N; Rothwell, Gar W. (1993) [1983]. Paleobotany and the Evolution of Plants (2nd ed.). Cambridge University ...
Adaptations[change , change source]. Respiration[change , change source]. Amphibians like to live near freshwater in warm ... It is a case of co-evolution. Senses and skeletal system[change , change source]. Amphibians' eyes have lids, glands and ducts ... The rise of amphibians: 365 million years of evolution. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-9140-3 ... Carroll, Robert L. (2009), The rise of amphibians: 365 million years of evolution, The Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978 ...
The third chimpanzee: the evolution and future of the human animal.. *^ a b Sharman Apt Russell (2006). Hunger an unnatural ... the Provisional model suggests that bipedalism arose in pre-Paleolithic australopithecine societies as an adaptation to ... In Ungar, Peter S.; Teaford, Mark F. Human Diet: Its Origins and Evolution. Westport, Connecticut: Bergin and Garvey. pp. 111- ... "Human Evolution," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007 Archived 2009-11-01 at WebCite Contributed by Richard B. Potts, B. ...
For his research on the population biology and evolution of plants which has greatly improved understanding of the adaptation ... This means evolution, population biology, organismal biology and biological diversity. It was first awarded in 1890. It comes ... Distinguished for his work on molecular evolution, in particular on the role of stochastic events in determining the rate of ... for their fundamental work on the ecology, breeding and evolution of Darwin's finches on the Galapagos islands. This work has ...
Findings Challenge Conventional Ideas on Evolution of Human Diet, Natural Selection Newswise, Retrieved on June 26, 2008. ... and dietary adaptations in early hominins". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 151 (3): 356-71. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22281 ... Strong jaw muscles are believed to be an evolutionary adaptation of P. boisei for a diet of nuts, seeds and hard fruit.[16] ...
Evolution. Further information: Evolution of cephalopods. Fossil history and phylogeny. Cephalopods have existed for 500 ... Schmidt-Nielsen, Knut (1997). Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment. Cambridge University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0-521- ... The California two-spot octopus has had its genome sequenced, allowing exploration of its molecular adaptations.[151] Having ... Hence, greater transcriptome plasticity has come as the cost of slower genome evolution. High levels of RNA editing do not ...
The evolution of stalk positioning in the Caulobacter cladeEdit. Diverse positioning of the stalks. Caulobacter crescentus ( ... "The Genetic Basis of Laboratory Adaptation in Caulobacter crescentus". J. Bacteriol. 192 (14): 3678-88. doi:10.1128/JB.00255- ... On the basis of experimental evolution studies in C. crescentus, Ackermann et al.[19] suggested that aging is probably a ... "Experimental evolution of aging in a bacterium". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7: 126. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-126. PMC 2174458 ...
Rauhut, O.W.M. (2003). "The interrelationships and evolution of basal theropod dinosaurs". Special Papers in Palaeontology. 69 ... The tail, partially stiffened by overlapping vertebral projections, balanced the body and was also an adaptation for speed.[9] ... Benton, Michael J. (1999). "Origin and early evolution of dinosaurs". In Farlow, James O.; Brett-Surman, M.K. The Complete ... Parrish, J. Michael (1999). "Evolution of the archosaurs". In Farlow, James O.; Brett-Surman, M.K. The Complete Dinosaur. ...
1 Adaptations. *2 Evolution. *3 Taxonomy *3.1 Suborder Acanthisitti. *3.2 Suborder Tyranni ... Evolution[change , change source]. Evidence on their evolution comes from comparative anatomy, the fossil record and molecular ... Adaptations[change , change source]. The passerines have a number of adaptations which, taken together, have made them highly ... This is the most obvious adaptation.. *Almost all passerines have 12 tail feathers.[4] This is a basal trait, a feature ...
The evolution of bird-dispersed pines. Evolutionary Ecology 4: 185-219 *^ a b "South Island wilding conifer strategy". ... Other adaptations are pollen (so fertilisation can occur without water) and the seed, which allows the embryo to be transported ... a b c Henry, R.J.(2005) Plant Diversity and evolution. London: CABI. ... Pinophytes, Cycadophytes, and Ginkgophytes all developed at this time.[3] An important adaptation of these gymnosperms was ...
... with each side developing ever more sophisticated adaptations, such as the immune system and the many techniques pathogens have ... The evolution of biological complexity is one important outcome of the process of evolution.[1] Evolution has produced some ... Constructive neutral evolution[edit]. Recently work in evolution theory has proposed that by relaxing selection pressure, which ... With selection, evolution can also produce more complex organisms. Complexity often arises in the co-evolution of hosts and ...
Molecular Biology and Evolution 15 (12): 1706-1718. [3] *↑ DeLarbre, Christiane et al 2002. Complete mitochondrial DNA of the ... It is believed that they lost their vertebrae during their lifestyle adaptations. ... Molecular phylogenetics and evolution. 22, 2, 184-192. [4] *↑ Janvier, Philippe 2010. MicroRNAs revive old views about jawless ... By the upper Silurian the agnathans had reached the high point of their evolution. They declined in the Devonian and never ...
The underlying reason includes evolutionary adaptation of large mammals to humans as well as greater pest pressure on human ... Graham, R. W.; Mead, J. I. (1987). "Environmental fluctuations and evolution of mammalian faunas during the last deglaciation ... The research -- published Monday in Nature, Ecology & Evolution journal -- found that 571 plant species have disappeared from ... Journal of Human Evolution. 47 (1-2): 25-63. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.05.005. PMID 15288523.. ...
These adaptations and counter adaptations probably have led to extensive diversification in both the Brassicaceae and one of ... Early classifications depended on morphological comparison only, but because of extensive convergent evolution, these do not ... Some insect herbivores have developed counter adaptations such as rapid absorption of the glucosinates, quick alternative ...
Gulisija D, Crow JF (May 2007). "Inferring purging from pedigree data". Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. ... As the adaptation becomes more pronounced, the new species or race radiates from its entrance into the new space, or dies out ... Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 59 (2): 317-23. doi:10.1554/04-128. PMID 15807418. S2CID 198156378.. ... International Journal of Organic Evolution. Oregon: Society for the Study of Evolution. 45 (3): 622-629. doi:10.1111/j.1558- ...
... which is the same hearing adaptation used by bats - and, in the rorqual whales, jaw adaptations, similar to those found in ... Molecular Biology and Evolution. 14 (5): 537-543. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025790. PMID 9159931.. ... This adaptation allows the chest to compress during deep dives as opposed to resisting the force of water pressure.[11] ... Whitehead, H. (2003). Sperm Whales: Social Evolution in the Ocean. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-226- ...
Williams, G. C. (1957). "Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence". Evolution. 11 (4): 398-411. doi: ... Studies on fungal evolutionary genomics have shown pleiotropic traits that simultaneously affect adaptation and reproductive ... Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 56 (6): 1267-1275. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb01437.x. PMID 12144025 ... Evolution[edit]. Pleiotropy can have an effect on the evolutionary rate of genes and allele frequencies. Traditionally, models ...
a b Colbert, E.H. & Morales, M. (2001): Colbert's Evolution of the Vertebrates: A History of the Backboned Animals Through Time ... Such adaptations are the result of environments such as remote islands and deserts where water is very scarce.[98]:143 Other ... Evolution No. 4, vol 5: pp. 1098-1115 PDF *^ Huey, R.B. (1982): Temperature, physiology, and the ecology of reptiles. Side 25- ... Pianka, Eric R.; Vitt, Laurie J. (2003). Lizards: Windows to the Evolution of Diversity (Organisms and Environments, 5). 5 (1 ...
Evolution. Using tomato sauce to give pasta its flavour was revolutionary, since it was originally eaten plain. The consumption ... International adaptations. As pasta was introduced elsewhere in the world, it became incorporated into a number of local ...
Butler, Ann B.; Hodos, William (2 September 2005). Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy: Evolution and Adaptation. John Wiley & ... Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 15 (3): 118-123. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(99)01780-2. ISSN 0169-5347. PMID 10675932. Archived from ... Clack, J.A. (2012). Gaining ground: the origin and evolution of tetrapods (2nd ed.). Bloomington, Indiana, USA.: Indiana ... David M. Hunt; Mark W. Hankins; Shaun P Collin; N. Justin Marshall (4 October 2014). Evolution of Visual and Non-visual ...
"Introduction to Human Evolution". The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program. January 27, 2010. Retrieved March 14, ... Kolk, Herman; Heeschen, Claus (May 1990). "Adaptation symptoms and impairment symptoms in Broca's aphasia". Aphasiology. 4 (3 ...[90]. Music has been used as a healing implement for centuries ...
Molecular Evolution. ISBN 978-0878934805.. *↑ Pop, M. (2004). "Shotgun Sequence Assembly" (PDF). Advances in Computers 60. ISSN ... "Artificial life: organization, adaptation and complexity from the bottom up" (PDF). TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences 7 (11). Páxs ... Pauling, L. y Zuckerkandl, E. (1962). "Molecular disease, evolution, and genic heterogeneity". Horizons in Biochemistry. ... "7 - Exploring Evolution". Biochemistry (5ª ed.). W. H. Freeman and Co. (edición papel); NCBI Bookshelf (edición electrónica). ...
As an adaptation to this kind of pollination, the calyx is short and there is no corolla. Flowers are grouped to form cymes. In ... "Molecular phylogenetics and character evolution of Cannabaceae". Taxon. 62 (3): 473-485. doi:10.12705/623.9. CS1 maint: Uses ...
"Journal of Human Evolution. 94: 72-82. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2016.02.006. PMC 4874949. PMID 27178459.. ... The hand bones of OH 7 suggest precision gripping, important in dexterity, as well as adaptations for climbing. In regard to ... "Journal of Human Evolution. 109: 17. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.05.003. PMID 28688456.. ... Haeusler, M.; McHenry, H. M. (2004). "Body Proportions of Homo Habilis". Journal of Human Evolution. 46 (4): 433-465. doi: ...
Intraspecific phenotypic plasticity, pre-adaptation and post-introduction evolution are all major factors in adaptive evolution ... Pre-adaptations and evolution after the initial introduction also play a role in the success of the introduced species. If the ... Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 16 (8): 458. doi:10.1016/s0169-5347(01)02194-2. Retrieved 21 October 2017.. ... "Ecology and Evolution. 3 (1): 182-96. doi:10.1002/ece3.431. PMC 3568853. PMID 23404636.. ...
1) The predictive adaptation hypothesis:[39] this hypothesis is in direct contrast with the diathesis stress model, which ... Denver RJ (Apr 2009). "Structural and functional evolution of vertebrate neuroendocrine stress systems". Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1163 ... The predictive adaptation hypothesis (1), the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience (2) and the maternal mediation ... Predictive adaptation asserts that early life experience induces epigenetic change; these changes predict or "set the stage" ...
We tend to assume that all characteristics of plants and animals are adaptations that have arisen through natural selection, ... Many are neither adaptations nor the result of selection at all.. Why do so many of us plonk ourselves down in front of the ... We tend to assume that all characteristics of plants and animals are adaptations that have arisen through natural selection. ... Other features of plants and animals, such as the wings of ostriches, may once have been adaptations but are no longer needed ...
... leading to adaptations to current environmental conditions and those of the immediate past. Over a century of... ... 2013). Individual adaptations can involve substantial biological complexity and the diversity of adaptations appears nearly ... Matsuda, H., & Abrams, P. A. (1994). Runaway evolution to self-extinction under asymmetrical competition. Evolution, 48, 1764- ... Even a cursory review of biological systems reveals adaptations. These adaptations are fascinating in the mechanisms involved, ...
Chromatic adaptation and the evolution of light color sensing in cyanobacteria. David M. Kehoe. *. Department of Biology, ... Chromatic adaptation and the evolution of light color sensing in cyanobacteria Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... 2001) Chromatic adaptation in marine Synechococcus strains. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:991-994. ... These data may provide a straightforward way to explain the evolution of the regulation of group III CA: a two-component system ...
Theory predicts that gene flow hinders local adaptation, unless it is coupled with habitat choice. Here, the authors show that ... We provide experimental evidence that local adaptation to the upper margin of a species thermal niche is favoured by dispersal ... Our study challenges the idea that high gene flow precludes local adaptation, and provides unique experimental evidence of ... However, habitat-matching theory predicts dispersal should favour rather than hinder local adaptation when individuals ...
While viruses can evolve and adapt rapidly, their hosts may ultimately shape their longer-term evolution. Studies of ancient ... filling model that describes how viruses can rapidly evolve to adapt to new host environments while their longer-term evolution ... Tetherin-driven adaptation of Vpu and Nef function and the evolution of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1 strains. Cell Host ... Host-specific parvovirus evolution in nature is recapitulated by in vitro adaptation to different carnivore species. PLOS ...
Primate Origins: Adaptations and Evolution is ideal for advanced undergraduates, graduate students and professionals in the ... Primate Origins: Adaptations and Evolution. Editors: Ravosa, Matthew J., Dagosto, Marian (Eds.) ... All 1.3 kg of it deserves to be read and pondered by serious students of primate evolution." (Chris Beard, International ... The papers in this volume examine hypotheses that have dominated our notions regarding early primate evolution and by coupling ...
... 28.07.2008. Bacteria living on opposite sides of a canyon have ... Evolution Canyons I and II are in Israel. They are similar, each with a hot south-facing slope and a cooler north-facing slope ... To understand evolution we need to explain the consequences of genetic differences for the organism in its natural environment ... The researchers found significant differences in the fatty acids of several ecotypes that live on different slopes in Evolution ...
Experimental Evolution to Explore Adaptation of Terrestrial Bacteria to the Martian Environment. ... Nicholson W.L. (2018) Experimental Evolution to Explore Adaptation of Terrestrial Bacteria to the Martian Environment. In: ... Raven JA, Andrews M, Quigg A (2005) The evolution of oligotrophy: implications for the breeding of crop plants for low input ... Wassmann M, Moeller R, Reitz G, Rettberg P (2010) Adaptation of Bacillus subtilis cells to Archean-like UV climate: relevant ...
Convergent Evolution or Design-Based Adaptation? by Jeffrey P. Tomkins, Ph.D. * Evidence for Creation › Evidence from Science ... Phylogenetics and Evolution. 94 (Pt B): 537-547. *Dr. Tomkins is Director of Life Sciences at the Institute for Creation ... Convergent evolution is the idea that the same trait, or set of traits, in completely different organisms were somehow produced ... Rather than invoking the magic phrase convergent evolution, it is considerably more rational to ascribe this level of ...
tags: adaptation x evolution x culture x neuroscience x developmental biology x ... Scientists study the unusual genome evolution of the bacteria that live within a genus of cicadas. ...
The lineage-specific evolution of aquaporin gene clusters facilitated tetrapod terrestrial adaptation.. Finn RN1, Chauvigné F2 ... The Lineage-Specific Evolution of Aquaporin Gene Clusters Facilitated Tetrapod Terrestrial Adaptation ... The Lineage-Specific Evolution of Aquaporin Gene Clusters Facilitated Tetrapod Terrestrial Adaptation ... The Lineage-Specific Evolution of Aquaporin Gene Clusters Facilitated Tetrapod Terrestrial Adaptation ...
... not an actual adaptation in the population that demonstrates evolution. ... This type of change does not leave a lasting impression on a species the way an adaptation does. This debate between ... Charles Darwin viewed evolution as a gradual emergence of new varieties of life from previous forms over long periods. A ... These tiny evolutionary changes usually are found within a specific population of people and often are due to adaptations that ...
The turtle-headed sea snake is losing its stripes, and researchers suggest that the change reflects adaptation to fouled oceans ... Sea Anemones Illuminate the Evolution of Embryo Development. By Abby Olena , September 11, 2017 ... Fingerprints of Ongoing Human Evolution Found. By Shawna Williams , September 5, 2017 ... A study of five far-flung human populations gives clues to adaptations to environmental pressures. ...
"Physics and Evolution of Thermophilic Adaptation." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences102 (36): 12742-47. https:// ... relied in their evolutionary strategy of thermophilic adaptation on "sequence-based" mechanism of thermostability. We propose ... of several hyperthermophilic archaea and bacteria revealed that organisms develop diverse strategies of thermophilic adaptation ...
Host diversity limits the evolution of parasite local adaptation.. [Daniel Morley, Jenny M Broniewski, Edze R Westra, Angus ... Specificity in the interactions between hosts and their parasites can lead to local adaptation. However, the degree of local ... increasing host diversity should decrease mean parasite infectivity and hence reduce local adaptation. In this study, we ... adaptation is predicted to depend upon the diversity of resistance alleles within the host population; ...
Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation. By Guojie Zhang, Cai Li, Qiye Li, Bo Li, ... Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation. By Guojie Zhang, Cai Li, Qiye Li, Bo Li, ... Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, the Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, ...
Evolution. *. Standing genetic variation as the predominant source for adaptation of a songbird ... The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system. Freek J. Vonk, Nicholas R. ... The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system ... King cobra genome and snake venom evolution. Freek J. Vonk, Nicholas R. Casewell, Christiaan V. Henkel, Alysha M. Heimberg, ...
Genetic variation in the southern pines: evolution, migration, and adaptation following the pleistocene. In: Kabrick, John M.; ... Genetic variation in the southern pines: evolution, migration, and adaptation following the pleistocene ...
... to show that mass extinctions could speed up evolution, leading to useful new adaptations. ... Are mass extinctions a GOOD thing? Die-offs can speed up evolution and introduce useful adaptations in walking robots. * ... Extinctions can speed up evolution and introduce useful adaptations in walking robots. * ... As with real evolution, random mutations were introduced through the computational evolution process. ...
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... Chromosome Res. 2012 Jul;20(5):579-93. ...
Adaptations to energy stress dictate the ecology and evolution of the Archaea.. Valentine DL1. ... Adaptation to chronic energy stress is hypothesized to be the crucial factor that distinguishes the Archaea from Bacteria. The ... Based on the ecological unity and biochemical adaptations among archaea, I propose the hypothesis that chronic energy stress is ...
Evolution: A Course for Educators. You will learn about Darwins second breakthrough: that adaptation via natural selection is ... the basic mechanism of evolution. Youll go behind ... ... oh yes, an adaptation for getting rid of lice. But on the other ... You will learn about Darwins second breakthrough: that adaptation via natural selection is the basic mechanism of evolution. ... Now, how does one recognize an adaptation in nature? Lots and lots of things are said, oh, thats an adaptation for, because ...
In yesterdays post I laid out an adaptive hypothesis for the evolution of depression -- a hypothesis presented in two new ... Is depression an evolutionary adaptation? Part 2.. In yesterdays post I laid out an adaptive hypothesis for the evolution of ... By Depressive Syndrome » Is depression an evolutionary adaptation? Part 2. « Why Evolution … on August 30, 2009 at 3:11 pm ... By Is depression an adaptation? « Why Evolution Is True on May 27, 2010 at 3:57 am ...
Increasingly complex organisms require increased capacities to confront pathogens, achieved by co-evolution of recognition ... adaptive evolution and functional divergence of gene families and the recognition of novel ... ... The evolution of metazoans has been accompanied by new interfaces with the microbial environment that include biological ... Keywords: immune evolution, innate immunity, adaptive immunity, host-microbe, co-option Important Note: All contributions to ...
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Cellular Adaptation to Drug Exposure: Evolution of the Drug-resistant Phenotype. Yoshihito Matsumoto, Hiroshi Takano and Tito ... Cellular Adaptation to Drug Exposure: Evolution of the Drug-resistant Phenotype. Yoshihito Matsumoto, Hiroshi Takano and Tito ... Cellular Adaptation to Drug Exposure: Evolution of the Drug-resistant Phenotype. Yoshihito Matsumoto, Hiroshi Takano and Tito ... Cellular Adaptation to Drug Exposure: Evolution of the Drug-resistant Phenotype Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Adaptation 1. Adaptation 2. Adaptation 3. Adaptation 4. Adaptation 5. Adaptation 6. Adaptation 7. Adaptation 8. Adaptation 9. ... Adaptation and Experimental Evolution 2. Sexual Selection and Experimental Evolution. Adaptation and Gene Flow. Adaptation and ... Adaptation and Evolutionary Ecolgy 1. Adaptation and Evolutionary Ecolgy 2. Adaptation and Evolutionary Ecolgy 3. Adaptation ... Adaptation 10. Adaptation and Evolutionary Genetics. Sexual Selection and Mating Systems 1. Sexual Selection and Mating Systems ...
... the evolution of local populations. This work provides insight into the mechanisms controlling local adaptation of salmon ... Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative ... Rapid evolution of osmoregulatory function by modification of gene transcription in steelhead trout. Genetica 139:233-242.. * ... Advances in fish cytokine biology give clues to the evolution of a complex network. Curr. Pharm. Des. 12:3051-3069.. *CrossRef ...
It is evident that themes and trends can very much so dictate the direction of human evolution and the adaptations we make as a ... One such adaptation is menopause in women; a mysterious process that science is still aiming to understand why it happens yet ... What does reality look like for you? What does evolution look like for you? The fact that we exist in an ocean of potentials ... collective evolution" concepts (in other words the manner in which the species will evolve...there is a dismissal of the ...
  • Local adaptation is assumed to occur under limited gene flow. (
  • However, habitat-matching theory predicts dispersal should favour rather than hinder local adaptation when individuals selectively disperse towards habitats maximizing their performance. (
  • We provide experimental evidence that local adaptation to the upper margin of a species' thermal niche is favoured by dispersal with habitat choice, but hindered under random dispersal. (
  • Our study challenges the idea that high gene flow precludes local adaptation, and provides unique experimental evidence of habitat choice as an overlooked mechanism responsible for adaptation under rapid environmental changes. (
  • Fig. 2: Habitat choice favours local adaptation at the thermal niche margin. (
  • Host diversity limits the evolution of parasite local adaptation. (
  • Specificity in the interactions between hosts and their parasites can lead to local adaptation. (
  • increasing host diversity should decrease mean parasite infectivity and hence reduce local adaptation. (
  • The molecular genetic mechanisms facilitating local adaptation in salmonids continue to be poorly characterized. (
  • Gene transcription is a highly regulated step in the expression of a phenotype and it has been shown to respond to selection and thus may be one mechanism that facilitates the development of local adaptation. (
  • Local adaptation is characterized by local genotype advantage where individuals experience higher fitness in their local environment than any other environment in which they could exist (Kawecki and Ebert 2004 ). (
  • Local adaptation implies that local environmental forces have acted, via natural selection, to increase traits that are advantageous to individuals in that environment. (
  • In salmonids, local adaptation is facilitated by high levels of natal philopatry and population subdivision that occurs across a landscape of variable environments (Quinn 2005 ). (
  • The scale and extent to which local adaptation occurs in salmonid populations appears to be context- and trait dependent (Fraser et al. (
  • However, local adaptation is primarily thought to be a response to environmental variation, and indeed recent reviews have highlighted the roles temperature and diseases play in determining functional divergence among populations (Garcia de Leaniz et al. (
  • 2011 ). A better understanding of the patterns and processes that affect the development and maintenance of local adaptation is critical to our understanding of speciation processes (Schluter 2000 ) as well as the effective conservation of locally adapted populations (Fraser and Bernatchez 2001 ). (
  • Despite the use of quantitative genetics to study the genetic architecture of local adaptation, (e.g. (
  • Local adaptation is a mechanism in evolutionary biology whereby a population of organisms evolves to be more well-suited to its local environment than other members of the same species that live elsewhere. (
  • Local adaptation requires that different populations of the same species experience different natural selection. (
  • A stricter definition of local adaptation requires 'reciprocal home site advantage', where for a pair of populations each out performs the other in its home site. (
  • This definition requires that local adaptation result in a fitness trade-off, such that adapting to one environment comes at the cost of poorer performance in a different environment. (
  • This definition of local adaptation has been largely abandoned after Kawecki and Ebert argued convincingly that populations could be adapted to poor-quality sites but still experience higher fitness if moved to a more benign site (right panel of figure). (
  • Testing for local adaptation requires measuring the fitness of organisms from one population in both their local environment and in foreign environments. (
  • Using the stricter definition of reciprocal home site advantage, local adaptation is often tested via reciprocal transplant experiments. (
  • If local adaptation is defined simply as a home site advantage of one population (local sources outperform foreign sources at a common site), it can be tested for using common garden experiments, where multiple source populations are grown in a common site, as long as one of the source populations is local to that site. (
  • Several meta-analyses have attempted to quantify how common local adaptation is, and generally reach similar conclusions. (
  • Roughly 75% of transplant experiments (mostly with plants) find that local populations outcompete foreign populations at a common site, but less than 50% find the reciprocal home site advantage that defines classic local adaptation. (
  • Exotic plants are locally adapted to their invasive range as often and as strongly as native plant are locally adapted, suggesting that local adaptation can evolve relatively rapidly. (
  • However, biologists likely test for local adaptation where they expect to find it. (
  • Thus these numbers likely reflect local adaptation between obviously differing sites, rather than the probability than any two randomly-selected populations within a species are locally adapted. (
  • Any component of the environment can drive local adaptation, as long as it affects fitness differently at different sites (creating divergent selection among sites), and does so consistently enough for populations to evolve in response. (
  • Seminal examples of local adaptation come from plants that adapted to different elevations or to tolerate heavy metals in soils. (
  • Interactions among species (e.g. herbivore-plant interactions) can also drive local adaptation, though do not seem to be as important as abiotic factors, at least for plants in temperate ecosystems. (
  • Many examples of local adaptation exist in host-parasite systems as well. (
  • Over a century of advances in theory, experiment, and observation have documented innumerable adaptations demonstrating the efficacy of natural selection to finely tune species to their respective environments. (
  • Understanding how a species is adapted to its environment remains a longstanding topic of investigation, because researchers continue to discover new and surprising adaptations (e.g. (
  • The perception of evolutionary outcomes derived solely from the abundance of extant adaptations might be boundless biological success, that species are likely to adapt successfully to even the most extreme environments. (
  • As environments become increasingly affected by human modification, pre-existing adaptations are mismatched to current habitats, so that many species are under threat of imminent extinction (Bellard et al. (
  • This type of change does not leave a lasting impression on a species the way an adaptation does. (
  • It is evident that themes and trends can very much so dictate the direction of human evolution and the adaptations we make as a species. (
  • Adaptation makes changes so that a species is more suited to the current environment. (
  • Her download biochemical adaptation mechanism and process in felt as a Volume at concentration 10, and also at syndrome 11 she went her cross-species as an producer. (
  • The Adaptations group investigates adaptations to extreme polar conditions, from the molecular level through physiology to ecology and, using experimental approaches, how these may affect species abilities to adapt under future change scenarios. (
  • This PhD project will employ experimental evolution in a spatially-explicit range expansion setting, and genetically- and spatially-explicit modelling, to understand the dynamics and feedbacks between evolution of dietary specialisation and generalization, and evolution of dispersal during invasions, in both single and multi-species setting (to discover how range expansion and adaptation to novel hosts may proceed in a competitive environment). (
  • Here, the term parallel evolution is used in a broad sense, implying that not all parts of the organism undergo parallel evolutionary transformations and that the trends are nearly parallel, resulting in very similar organs/structures in a phylogenetic series of more than one species in at least two lineages. (
  • Speciation, the formation of new species, is not evolution in action. (
  • Freezing adaptation in northern populations of this species has not been thoroughly examined, although preliminary findings indicate that frogs collected near Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, tolerate profound freezing, with many surviving exposure to temperatures below −18°C ( Middle and Barnes, 2001 ). (
  • Gradual change in a species through adaptation over time. (
  • Identify specific adaptations and explore diverse plant species surviving in unique environments. (
  • HS-LS4-2 Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. (
  • The objection is that, to get an improvement in species, several correlated adaptations have to occur together. (
  • [5] The theory of evolution by natural selection is an explanation of the mechanism by which these changes occur, and was proposed by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace , and set out in detail in Darwin's 1859 book On the Origin of Species . (
  • We then wanted to follow this up with a broader-scale study looking at adaptations across an entire species range because we know that some of the genome doubled populations successfully invaded very hostile habitats such as toxic mines, railways and beach environments which are not generally plant-friendly. (
  • In fact, a large proportion of the most invasive plant species in the world are genome doubled, so we hypothesised that there are adaptations that occur as a result of genome duplication that we can focus on and find the genes responsible for the adaptations. (
  • Organisms of the same species that occur in different climates can be compared to determine which adaptations are due to climate and which are influenced majorly by other factors. (
  • Climatic adaptations limits to adaptations that have been established, characterizing species that live within the specific climate. (
  • Once a climate has changed, the climate change adaptation that led to the survival of the specific organisms as a species can be seen as a climatic adaptation. (
  • Climatic adaptation is constrained by the genetic variability of the species in question. (
  • Research on climatic adaptations are mostly aimed on species living in different climates to understand which of these species would have a higher chance to survive climate change, based on their current climatic adaptations. (
  • citation needed] Many species have varying levels of climatic adaptation. (
  • But the actual effect of climatic adaptation depends greatly on the species in question and often the amount of genetic variability within that species. (
  • You will learn about Darwin's second breakthrough: that adaptation via natural selection is the basic mechanism of evolution. (
  • Darwin's ideas were broadly correct, and founded modern biology - but if we want our students to understand the concept of natural selection as we now envisage it, we are likely to direct them towards one of many texts on evolution or popular books by Dawkins, Coyne, or Zimmer rather than Darwin. (
  • Compare the beaks of six of Darwin's Finches from the Galápagos Islands - a useful starter video for a lesson on adaptation and evolution. (
  • Molecular evolution and host adaptation of Bordetella spp. (
  • Our results suggest that the scarcity of metal ions (including iron and zinc) is an important evolutionary driver in CF host adaptation. (
  • Home Research Outputs Within-Host Adaptation Mediated by Intergenic Evolution in P. (
  • Although mutations can either target intergenic or coding regions in the pathogen genome, studies of host adaptation have focused predominantly on molecular evolution within coding regions, whereas the role of intergenic mutations remains unclear. (
  • Here, we address this issue and investigate the extent to which intergenic mutations contribute to the evolutionary response of a clinically important bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to the host environment, and whether intergenic mutations have distinct roles in host adaptation. (
  • Isolates from this second clade were tested in a chick model of infection and exhibited a reduced colonization phenotype, which we postulate represents an intermediate stage in pathogen-host adaptation. (
  • Convergent Evolution or Design-Based Adaptation? (
  • Convergent evolution is the idea that the same trait, or set of traits, in completely different organisms were somehow produced through independent evolutionary processes. (
  • The authors simply attribute the highly repeatable process to the mysterious black box of convergent evolution. (
  • Rather than invoking the magic phrase 'convergent evolution,' it is considerably more rational to ascribe this level of masterful engineering and programming to an omnipotent and all-wise Creator. (
  • All indications are we're seeing convergent evolution," said Dr. Cynthia Beall, professor of anthropology at Case Western Reserve University and one of the leaders of the study. (
  • Convergent evolution is when two separate populations change biologically in a similar way to adapt to a similar environment yet use different mechanisms. (
  • The distinction between convergent, parallel, and divergent evolution indeed requires the historical evolutionary aspect of studied lineages. (
  • These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. (
  • Another reason why apparent adaptations can be side effects of selection for other traits is that genes can have different roles at different times of development or in different parts of the body. (
  • If someone chooses a piece of DNA in the middle of nowhere in the genome, well away from any genes, and then concludes that it doesn't show any sign of its evolution being anything but drift, would we see a paper on that at the meeting? (
  • The main theses are that (i) adaptive evolution works by the substitution of alternative alleles/genes, (ii) one should not invoke a higher level of selective processes than is needed (individual-based selection is preferred over group selection), and (iii) the evolution and maintenance of nearly all observed phenotypes are (so far, at least) consistent with selection at the individual level. (
  • Here, we took an integrative approach to characterize the adaptation of Acaryochloris MBIC11017 to low environmental iron availability and the relative contributions of the expression of duplicated versus novel genes. (
  • 2012). As a result, the relative contributions of the acquisition of novel genes by HGT (i.e., the flexible both duplication and HGT mechanisms within the same genome) for microbial adaptation to environmental genome during adaptation are not clear. (
  • Highlanders in Tibet and Ethiopia share a biological adaptation that enables them to thrive in the low oxygen of high altitudes, but the ability to pass on the trait appears to be linked to different genes in the two groups, research from a Case Western Reserve University scientist and colleagues shows. (
  • Sequencing the genomes of these mutants can identify genes or pathways that contribute to an adaptation. (
  • Linking the experimental evolution results to clinal variation in natural populations, we show that AMPK is not only among the genes with the largest clinal variation, but populations from the extreme ends of the cline differ also in their expression pattern. (
  • At the functional level, we show that some of these mutations both increase or decrease transcription of genes and are directly responsible for evolution of important pathogenic phenotypes including antibiotic sensitivity. (
  • Importantly, we find that intergenic mutations facilitate essential genes to become targets of evolution. (
  • However, some genes display traces of selection that point towards an adaptation to the urban environment. (
  • The researchers uncovered further adaptations to the vent environment in Nautilia profundicola , including genes necessary for growth and for sensing environmental conditions. (
  • In the 1930s, Darwinian natural selection was combined with Mendelian inheritance to form the modern evolutionary synthesis , [7] in which the connection between the units of evolution ( genes ) and the mechanism of evolution (natural selection) was made. (
  • Alternatively, organisms that evolved as mesophiles but later recolonized a hot environment (Thermotoga maritima) relied in their evolutionary strategy of thermophilic adaptation on "sequence-based" mechanism of thermostability. (
  • These studies demonstrate how cellular adaptation to increasing drug pressure occurs and how more than one mechanism can contribute to the resistant phenotype when increasing selecting pressure is applied. (
  • There are many more neutral alleles than beneficial alleles and random genetic drift is overwhelmingly the most common mechanism of evolution. (
  • Genomic research on the Eastern Yellow Robin reveals a mechanism for local climate adaptation in the absence of a geographical barrier. (
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  • Whereas multiple contributions to IR resistance are evident in this study, our results highlight a particular adaptation mechanism not adequately considered in studies to date: Genetic innovations involving pre-existing DNA repair functions can play a predominant role in the acquisition of an IR resistance phenotype. (
  • Expression of Novel Gene Content Drives Adaptation to Low Iron in the Cyanobacterium Acaryochloris Gallagher, Amy L;Miller, Scott R;Gojobori, Takashi 2018-05-29 00:00:00 Variation in genome content is a potent mechanism of microbial adaptation. (
  • dance) is an important mechanism of adaptation in pop- This includes adaptation to antibiotics (reviewed by ulations of microorganisms. (
  • Adaptations are conspicuous aspects of biological systems. (
  • 2013 ). Individual adaptations can involve substantial biological complexity and the diversity of adaptations appears nearly inexhaustible. (
  • Without such understanding, predictions regarding the generality and basis of successful adaptation are likely to be overly optimistic in forecasting the biological consequences of rapid environmental shifts. (
  • Many evolutionists study this common biological phenomenon and then claim it as proof for molecules-to-man evolution. (
  • Biological anthropologists explore many of these environmental pressures and investigate the adaptations that populations undergo in response to them. (
  • This debate between acclimatization and adaptation is at the crux of what a biological anthropologist might study. (
  • Lastly, you'll choose a topic from the course and explain how to use it as empirical evidence that supports common ancestry and biological evolution. (
  • The evolution of metazoans has been accompanied by new interfaces with the microbial environment that include biological barriers and surveillance by specialized cell types. (
  • Ecology of human evolution: biological, social and cultural approaches to hominin adaptations. (
  • Disentangling the processes that lead to the evolution of complex biological structures is one of the major aims of evolutionary biology [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Are mutations-copying errors in DNA-the driving force for biological evolution? (
  • Evolutionists often refer to natural selection as equivalent to biological evolution. (
  • Receive email alerts on new books, offers and news in Biological Anthropology, Primatology and Evolution 2018. (
  • HS-LS4-1 Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. (
  • Lectures and weekly laboratory sessions focus on the evolution of the human brain, dentition, and skeleton to provide students with a practical understanding of the anatomy and function of the human body and its evolution, as well as some of its biological limitations. (
  • Unexpected findings, e.g., genetic expansions of innate receptors, high levels of polymorphism, RNA-based forms of generating diversity, adaptive evolution and functional divergence of gene families and the recognition of novel mediators of adaptive immunity, prompt us to reconsider the very nature of immunity. (
  • Furthermore, understanding the processes involved in parallel evolution is also important for solving systematic problems and thus to estimate evolutionary rates and diversity [ 14 ]. (
  • Carroll SB "Chance and Necessity: The evolution of morphological complexity and diversity" 2001. (
  • Allopatric speciation Co-adaptation Evolvability Genetic diversity Genetic drift Maladaptation Mutualism (biology) Phenotypic trait Red Queen hypothesis Sympatric speciation Williams, George (1966). (
  • Genetic evolution and spatial spread of epidemic lineage of influenza A(H7N9) viruses, China, 2013-2017. (
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at Title: Human evolution : an introduction to man's adaptations Author: Bernard Grant Campbell Publisher: London : Routledge, 2017. (
  • By contrast, virologists have access to the remarkable field of experimental evolution, such that adaptive processes that may occur over centuries or millennia in larger organisms can be observed in viruses over days or weeks. (
  • Here, we examine the evolution of morphological, ecological, and life history characteristics of medusozoans, focusing on the taxa that occur en masse . (
  • By tracing the evolution of aggregating, blooming, and swarming phenotypes, organismal traits, and environmental settings on an up-to-date synoptic phylogeny of classes and orders of Medusozoa, we are able to hypothesize circumstances that enable taxa to occur en masse . (
  • [1] [2] Over many generations, adaptations occur through a combination of successive, small, random changes in traits, and natural selection of those variants best-suited for their environment. (
  • Here, we focus on how selection techniques can reveal the genetic basis of post-mating adaptations to sexual selection and sexual conflict. (
  • It was realized from the 1980s onwards that artificial selection and experimental evolution techniques could be used to investigate sexual selection and sexual conflict. (
  • 2020. Rapid evolution by sexual selection in an invasive mammal. (
  • These tough little plants can become little genetic adaptation machines which allows them to invade hostile environments and even thrive where others can't. (
  • unpublished data), and gene content contrast, experimental evolution studies of microbial on these plasmids varies greatly among strains due to their The Author(s) 2018. (
  • Our team has two research groups, Biodiversity and Adaptations. (
  • Human adaptation focuses on human anatomy and behavior from an evolutionary perspective. (
  • Adaptation and speciation are going on continuously. (
  • The fourth edition retains the thematic structure and organization of the third, with its cogent treatment of human variability and speciation, primate locomotion, and nonverbal communication and the evolution of language, supported by more than 150 detailed illustrations and an expanded and updated glossary and bibliography. (
  • Adaptations to energy stress dictate the ecology and evolution of the Archaea. (
  • Bobby continued under his NSF postdoctoral grant, and conducted a field research expedition to Awash National Park in Ethiopia, where he surveyed the weaverbirds and studied their nest ecology and evolution. (
  • This world-first study, published in Nature Ecology and Evolution ,could have significant implications for plant and crop sustainability in the face of climate change. (
  • That means fewer chances for evolution to throw up mutations that would reduce the size of the appendix or eliminate it altogether - and fewer chances for those mutations to spread through populations by natural selection. (
  • As with real evolution, random mutations were introduced through the computational evolution process. (
  • Yet for the first 13 years of the LTEE, the genetic sources of adaptation remained unknown because the causative mutations did not affect the candidates chosen for Sanger sequencing. (
  • Indeed, even when a population is in the course of adaptation, the vast majority of mutations are still deleterious. (
  • The supposed vehicles of evolution are mutations, natural selection, and other mechanisms that-when combined with that pixie dust of time-allegedly led to the development of all life forms present today. (
  • It is not a 'sexy' technique like genomics or proteomics but it gives a more comprehensive insight into the result of adaptation of the cell membrane," said Dr Sikorski. (
  • Combined with advanced techniques in genetics and genomics, it is a valuable tool for understanding the molecular nature of adaptive evolution. (
  • Based on the ecological unity and biochemical adaptations among archaea, I propose the hypothesis that chronic energy stress is the primary selective pressure governing the evolution of the Archaea. (
  • In yesterday's post I laid out an adaptive hypothesis for the evolution of depression - a hypothesis presented in two new papers by Andrews and Thompson. (
  • To test this hypothesis in this study, we resequenced about 300 genomes of this little plant Arabidopsis arenosa,collected from 39 geographical areas across Europe, and looked for the little footprints of selection, a particular gene, that appeared helpful for adaptation to a particular area. (
  • The researchers found significant differences in the fatty acids of several ecotypes that live on different slopes in Evolution Canyon. (
  • To understand evolution we need to explain the consequences of genetic differences for the organism in its natural environment. (
  • These tiny evolutionary changes usually are found within a specific population of people and often are due to adaptations that are made to help cope with environmental pressures like increased solar radiation, high altitude and dietary differences. (
  • 2) Conduct common garden experiments at regular time intervals to test for genetically-based differences in dispersal propensity and dietary adaptation under spatial and non-spatial evolutionary scenarios, and under different novel resource scenarios. (
  • Differences in molecular evolution can be related to different transmission and recombination patterns, as well as to differences in effective population sizes of essential and dispensable chromosomes. (
  • These differences accompany human-specific evolution of the A and B haplotypes that are under balancing selection and differentially function in defense and reproduction. (
  • Our study shows how the qualitative differences that distinguish the human and chimpanzee systems of KIR and MHC class I predominantly derive from adaptations on the human line in response to selective pressures placed on human NK cells by the competing needs of defense and reproduction. (
  • In the end, the significant differences between alternative meanings of adaptation suggests that. (
  • In the end, the significant differences between alternative meanings of adaptation suggests that early hominid practices are important depending on why they evolved, not simply that they were characteristic of the EEA. (
  • Featuring anthropologist Dr. Nina Jablonski, the film walks us through the evidence that differences in human skin color are adaptations to varying intensity of UV light. (
  • Although there was remarkable correspondence between antigenic and genetic evolution, significant differences were observed: Antigenic evolution was more punctuated than genetic evolution, and genetic change sometimes had a disproportionately large antigenic effect. (
  • We used this method to study quantitatively the antigenic evolution of influenza A (H3N2) virus, revealing both similarities to, and important differences from, its genetic evolution. (
  • Scientists theorize that evolution occurs when these heritable differences become more common or rare in a population, either non-randomly through natural selection or randomly through genetic drift . (
  • Because of this, the manner of climatic adaptation shows large differences between the climates. (
  • Because the variance of these abiotic factors differ depending on the type of climate, differences in the manner of climatic adaptation are expected. (
  • Scientists study the unusual genome evolution of the bacteria that live within a genus of cicadas. (
  • Detkova EN, Boltyanskaya YV (2007) Osmoadaptation of haloalkaliphilic bacteria: role of osmoregulators and their possible practical application. (
  • High-throughput comparative analysis of structures and complete genomes of several hyperthermophilic archaea and bacteria revealed that organisms develop diverse strategies of thermophilic adaptation by using, to a varying degree, two fundamental physical mechanisms of thermostability. (
  • Adaptation to chronic energy stress is hypothesized to be the crucial factor that distinguishes the Archaea from Bacteria. (
  • The same evolution experiment was carried out four times, generating four separate populations of bacteria that were resistant to ionizing radiation. (
  • The genomes only limited evidence of duplication driving adaptation in of these bacteria, which are unique in their use of the far-red nature (Triglia et al. (
  • Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is often touted as proof of evolution, but is it really? (
  • Are intelligently designed experiments using already present features in already-existing bacteria and viruses really examples of molecules-to-man evolution? (
  • Here we show that adaptation in experimental populations of microbes can dramatically reduce population sizes to near extinction levels in a stressful environment. (
  • They display evolution in real time as they acquire antiviral drug resistance, mediate persistent infection through escape from T and B cell immune system responses to infection or, at the experimental level, rapidly adapt to different cell culture conditions, new receptors and new hosts. (
  • The student will gain valuable and transferrable skills in experimental evolution and statistical and process-based modelling. (
  • Artificial selection and experimental evolution document natural selection under controlled conditions. (
  • The use of artificial selection or experimental evolution (i.e. the creation of a specific set of conditions to which a suite of traits may evolve) has also been an important tool in microbial genetics. (
  • Experimental evolution is a method in which populations of organisms, often microbes, are founded by one or more ancestors of known genotype and then propagated under controlled conditions to study the evolutionary process. (
  • Here, I describe why the outcomes of experimental evolution should be viewed with greater certainty because the force of selection typically dominates. (
  • Experimental evolution is a method that is gaining in popularity because of several inspiring successes and because high-throughput sequencing can reveal the genetic basis of the evolutionary process ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Thus, the experimental evolution of large populations of microbes can and should be viewed as a powerful genetic screen for adaptations. (
  • Experimental evolution is not a new method, dating back to the 1870s when Dallinger conducted continuous culture experiments at steadily increasing temperatures ( 3 ). (
  • Abstract: Experimental evolution in combination with whole genome sequencing offers the unique opportunity to study adaptive processes under controlled, replicated conditions. (
  • Generally, the experimental measure of climate adaptation is conducted by exposing an experimental population to different environmental stimuli. (
  • Such " vestigial traits " can persist because they are neutral, because they have taken on another function or because there hasn't been enough evolution to eliminate them even though they have become disadvantageous. (
  • These evolutionarily advantageous traits may be adaptations that evolved in response to selection for individual traits such as survival during periods of few resources, feeding on pulsed resources, and fecundity. (
  • Evolution of some traits (involution, umbilical lid) appears to be mainly driven by adaptation to improve the hydrodynamic properties of the shell, whereas other characters (sutural complexity) evolved due to covariation with features that play a central role in the morphogenesis of mollusc shells. (
  • Repeated patterns of parallel evolutionary change of phenotypic traits are commonly regarded as evidence of adaptation under common selection pressures such as common environmental factors [ 20 - 22 ], therefore illustrating natural selection's major role in shaping morphological evolution and the repeatability of evolutionary processes. (
  • In biology , evolution is a change in the inherited traits of a population from one generation to the next. (
  • Dr. Beall investigated the adaptations and genetic links with Drs. Gorka Alkorta-Aranburu, David Witonsky, Jonathan K. Pritchard, and Anna Di Rienzo, of the University of Chicago department of human genetics, and Dr. Amha Gebremedhin of Adis Ababa University's department of internal medicine in Ethiopia. (
  • Interactions between genetics and epigenetics are multifaceted and epigenetic variation stands at the crossroad between genetic and environmental variance, which make these mechanisms prominent in the processes of adaptive evolution. (
  • We quantitatively compare the effects of phylogenetic and allometric constraints, and ecological adaptation between regions, and examine their impact on evolvability (disparity and evolutionary rate) of serially-homologous vertebrae. (
  • Evolution of the vertebral column is shaped not only by integration between vertebrae (serial homology), but also by phylogenetic and allometric constraints, as well as adaptation to diverse ecological niches. (
  • The repeated and similar large-scale morphological evolutionary trends of distinct lineages suggest that adaptation by means of natural selection (functional constraints) is the major cause of parallel evolution, a very common phenomenon in extinct and extant lineages. (
  • However, parallel evolution can result from other processes, which are usually ignored or difficult to identify, such as developmental constraints. (
  • This example provides evidence that parallel evolution can be driven simultaneously by different factors such as covariation (constructional constraints) and adaptation (natural selection). (
  • Because in his download biochemical adaptation the helpful mobile director is a thiourea-catalyzed one! (
  • biochemical adaptation ( Mortlock 1984 ), the evolution of resistance to phage (e.g. (
  • By directed evolution in the laboratory, we previously generated populations of Escherichia coli that exhibit a complex new phenotype, extreme resistance to ionizing radiation (IR). (
  • This activity provides a case study in human evolution that connects genotype, phenotype, culture, and graphical analysis skills. (
  • Green evolution and dynamic adaptations revealed by genomes of the marine picoeukaryotes Micromonas. (
  • Analyses of the Micromonas genomes offer valuable insights into ecological differentiation and the dynamic nature of early plant evolution. (
  • Phylogeny and the evolution of plant-animal interactions. (
  • The morphological evolution of these two Devonian ammonoid lineages follows a near parallel evolutionary path for some important shell characters during several million years and through their phylogeny. (
  • We characterize intergenic evolution in 44 clonal lineages of P. aeruginosa and identify 77 intergenic regions in which parallel evolution occurs. (
  • The data can be used to discern how inter-and intra-specific competition differ in how their pressures affect evolution of dispersal or adoption novel or sub-optimal resources. (
  • I outline why the processes underlying most evolution experiments are practically straightforward and why evolved mutants can provide valuable insight into the biology of the microbe under study and its response to environmental pressures. (
  • ExI] Is Evolution more random mutation than adaptation? (
  • P. Pranav and Jeyakumar, G., "Control parameter adaptation strategies for mutation and crossover rates of differential evolution algorithm - An insight", in 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research, ICCIC 2015, 2015. (
  • Evolution experiments are influenced by all population genetic forces: selection, genetic drift, mutation, and recombination. (
  • In this article, we model analytically the evolution of mutation rate in asexual organisms. (
  • First, in asexuals, the needs for both adaptation and genome preservation are not evolutionary forces that can stabilize mutation rate at an intermediate optimum. (
  • When adaptation has a significant role, it primarily destabilizes mutation rate and yields the emergence of strong-effect mutators. (
  • Third, in small populations, and even if adaptations are needed, mutation rate is always blocked at the minimum attainable level, because the rate of adaptation is too slow to play a significant role. (
  • Only populations whose size is above a critical mass see their mutation rate affected by the need for adaptation. (
  • The first step toward this general question is the study of the evolution of error rate at replication (mutation rate) in the case of asexuals. (
  • In the following, we introduce the current theory on mutation rate evolution in asexual organisms. (
  • At first, one could get the impression that mutation rate evolution depends simply on the average effect of DNA alterations. (
  • Mutation rate evolution would then be a trivial issue. (
  • However, comparisons between the mutation and the epimutation rates showed a high level of the latter, suggesting a significant role of spontaneous epimutations in adaptation. (
  • The paradox that this Opinion article aims to address is the increasing evidence for extreme genetic conservation of viruses over longer periods of evolution. (
  • The papers in this volume examine hypotheses that have dominated our notions regarding early primate evolution and by coupling this with an emergent body of novel evidence due to new fossil discoveries and technological and methodological advances, provide a long overdue multidisciplinary reanalysis of the suite of derived life history, socioecological, neural, visual, circumorbital, locomotor, postural and masticatory specializations of the first primates. (
  • examine evidence for the ecologies and adaptations of present-day hunter-gatherers and great apes. (
  • That evolution has taken place is a fact , because it is overwhelmingly supported by many lines of evidence . (
  • The evidence for evolution is given in a number of books. (
  • The most convincing evidence for the occurrence of evolution is the discovery of extinct organisms in older geological strata. (
  • 18 min 58 sec) Embedded quiz modules test students' understanding as they watch a short film that explores the evidence for the evolution of the variation in skin color among human populations. (
  • In this hands-on activity students examine the evidence for the evolution of human bipedality as revealed by a trail of fossil footprints. (
  • HS-LS4-4 Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations. (
  • An investigation of the evidence and background of human evolution. (
  • Emphasis will be placed on the examination of the fossil and genetic evidence for human evolution and its functional and behavioral implications. (
  • This serves as an effective vehicle in the dissemination of trends and themes and in the alteration of human behavior and adaptation to natural or orchestrated changes right down to the cellular level/ DNA codes. (
  • Changes in behavior, physical structure, internal mechanisms and metabolism are forms of adaptation that is caused by climate properties. (
  • I've been looking over the program for the First Joint Congress on Evolutionary Biology to be held in Ottawa, Canada next week [ Evolution Ottawa ]. (
  • Nine years later he published Adaptation and Selection (ANS), a book that changed the course of biology more generally in ways that provide a foundation for much current thinking about disease. (
  • Historians of science will claim that we need to understand the origins of an idea if we are to truly comprehend it, but most practitioners of modern biology are too busy doing research to spend time on uncovering the evolution of evolutionary thinking. (
  • Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. (
  • 1 Evolution, Natural Selection, and Adaptation Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. (
  • Mason was interviewed for a New York Times article on bird song cultural evolution that has recently come out in Current Biology . (
  • The theory of evolution is the basis of modern biology . (
  • I think the original researchers are saying that evolution is more complex than that. (
  • The researchers found the adaptation in an ethnic group that has lived high in mountains of Ethiopia for at least 5,000 years, but not among a related group that has lived high in the mountains for 500 years. (
  • Currently we are 23 researchers working on a broad range of topics including natural history, urban ecology, bird nest evolution, bird egg color, bird hyoid (tongue bone) evolution, African ethnobotany, social learning, public understanding of evolution, and cultural evolution in bird song and human music. (
  • Thus, the vertebrate axial skeleton provides a system with which to examine the interaction between integration, modularity, and morphological evolution over macroevolutionary timescales. (
  • However, the contribution and conditions in which these various processes trigger parallel morphological evolution are still insufficiently investigated. (
  • The power of each of these methods now pales in comparison to today's genome-enabled screens that harness simple population genetic processes to precisely identify genetic adaptations. (
  • Hence, understanding the underlying processes of parallel evolution still requires further research. (
  • Several additional processes have been proposed that could contribute to the fabric of parallel evolution. (
  • Because of their isolated natural habitats, guppy populations have been used to study the processes of "evolution" in the wild. (
  • Many remarkable studies of the LTEE have taught us a great deal about the evolutionary dynamics of adaptation and revealed numerous adaptive phenotypes, including gains in cell size, metabolic capacity, thermal tolerance, life history parameters, and above all, competitive fitness. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Evolutionary adaptation" applicable to this article? (
  • Is depression an evolutionary adaptation? (
  • In order to investigate whether life could exist in such extraterrestrial environments, laboratory evolution experiments have been undertaken to probe the physical limits at which life can be forced to adapt. (
  • Introduction populations suggest a key role for gene duplication during The evolution of gene dosage (i.e., gene transcript abun- the adaptation to novel environments (Kondrashov 2012). (
  • Plant evolution is largely driven by adaptations in seed protection and dispersal strategies that allow diversification into new niches. (
  • However, we do not know how adaptation to new hosts and evolution of dispersal interact, and how range expansion may proceed where populations are faced with novel plant types. (
  • Thus, it is now timely and critical to discover how these two fundamental mechanisms (adaptation to novel hosts and dispersal) underpinning invasions interact, in order to predict and contain emerging pest outbreaks. (
  • Phylogenetic analyses suggest location-specific evolution and bacterial migration between gastric regions. (
  • We tend to assume that all characteristics of plants and animals are adaptations that have arisen through natural selection. (
  • Theory indicates that responses to natural selection maximize immediate fitness benefits, leading to adaptations to current environmental conditions and those of the immediate past. (
  • Revisiting a book that changed our lives: Reflections on "Adaptation and Natural Selection" 50 years later. (
  • Neither of us had much sense of what it meant to be evolutionary biologists, but we were introduced to, and read, a short (300-page) book by G.C. Williams, entitled "Adaptation and Natural Selection" (hereafter, ANS). (
  • Perhaps the main understanding to emerge from reading the book is that evolution by natural selection must follow a specific set of rules, and hence that adaptation should not be viewed superficially in terms of outcomes. (
  • 3 Definitions Natural selection: Differential reproduction and survivorship among individuals within a population Fitness: relative lifetime reproductive success Survival & Reproduction Adaptation: trait that increases the fitness of an individual, relative to its competitors, in a population. (
  • Natural Selection Is Not Evolution! (
  • Does Natural Selection Prove Evolution? (
  • Distinguishing natural selection from Darwinian evolution (the latter combines natural selection with the idea that all life has an ancestor in common) is one of the primary challenges modern creationists face in the origins debate. (
  • Henry Bernard David Kettlewell's study of the peppered moth, Biston betularia , is one of the most widely cited cases of natural selection producing adaptation. (
  • Survival of the fittest is not evolution. (
  • The grasping hands of primates, the sensitive antennae of insects, and the flowers and fruits of plants are all forms of adaptation that promote survival, reproduction, or both. (
  • Discovering how organisms react and respond to changing environmental conditions, and how their polar adaptations could be an advantage or disadvantage in a warming world. (
  • The general theory of evolution is the idea that single-celled organisms gained new genetic information over millions and billions of years, and eventually arrived at "higher life-forms" such as man. (
  • Adaptation is a term used to describe the ways in which organisms change over time in response to the changing demands of their environment. (
  • Although some of the mechanisms underpinning freezing adaptation in vertebrate ectotherms are understood, relatively little is known about the factors driving evolution of this trait. (
  • 14 min 52 sec) Embedded quiz modules test students' understanding as they watch a short film that explores the evolution of the ability to digest lactose as adults (lactose tolerance) and the genetic changes associated with the trait. (
  • Although it is almost impossible to demonstrate evolution in the laboratory, this issue can be approached by using an unusual organism, "Dark-fly": Drosophila melanogaster kept in complete darkness for 57 years through 1,400 generations, which corresponds to 28,000 years in terms of human generations. (
  • Climatic adaptation refers to adaptations of an organism that are triggered due to the patterns of variation of abiotic factors that determine a specific climate. (
  • Likely the best known is the Long-Term Evolution Experiment (LTEE) in which 12 Escherichia coli populations have been propagated daily for more than 30 years ( 5 ). (
  • Primate Origins: Adaptations and Evolution is ideal for advanced undergraduates, graduate students and professionals in the fields of primatology, anthropology, mammalogy, and paleontology. (
  • In December 2006, the National Academy of Sciences sponsored a colloquium (featured as part of the Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia series) on "Adaptation and Complex Design" to synthesize recent empirical findings and conceptual approaches toward understanding the evolutionary origins and maintenance of complex adaptations. (
  • demonstrate that active mechanisms, involving adaptations in the cellular DNA repair systems, can bring about dramatic increases in radiation resistance. (