Immune Evasion: Methods used by pathogenic organisms to evade a host's immune system.Tumor Escape: The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Complement C4b-Binding Protein: A serum protein that regulates the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. It binds as a cofactor to COMPLEMENT FACTOR I which then hydrolyzes the COMPLEMENT C4B in the CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C4bC2a).Complement Inactivating Agents: Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Muromegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.Immunologic Surveillance: The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Virus Physiological Processes: Biological activities of viruses and their interactions with the cells they infect.Mice, Inbred BALB CMice, Inbred C57BLNK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily K: An activating NK cell lectin-like receptor subfamily that regulates immune responses to INFECTION and NEOPLASMS. Members of this subfamily generally occur as homodimers.Receptors, Natural Killer Cell: Receptors that are specifically found on the surface of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They play an important role in regulating the cellular component of INNATE IMMUNITY.Rhadinovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting New World primates and other species. HERPESVIRUS 2, SAIMIRIINE is the type species.Ranavirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Gammaherpesvirinae: A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by variable reproductive cycles. The genera include: LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS and RHADINOVIRUS.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Lymphocryptovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans and new world primates. The type species human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) is better known as the Epstein-Barr virus.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Herpesviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Varicellovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE. Its species include those causing CHICKENPOX and HERPES ZOSTER in humans (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN), as well as several animal viruses.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Poxviridae: A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cowpox: A mild, eruptive skin disease of milk cows caused by COWPOX VIRUS, with lesions occurring principally on the udder and teats. Human infection may occur while milking an infected animal.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Francisella tularensis: The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.Adaptive Immunity: Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Gammapapillomavirus: A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE, which cause cutaneous lesions in humans. They are histologically distinguishable by intracytoplasmic INCLUSION BODIES which are species specific.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Marburgvirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of one species (Lake Victoria marburgvirus) with several strains. The genus shows no antigenic cross-reactivity with EBOLAVIRUS.Herpesvirus 8, Human: A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Immediate-Early Proteins: Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.Trophozoites: Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Interferon-beta: One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.STAT2 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to TYPE I INTERFERONS. Stat2 protein is associated constitutively with INTERFERON REGULATORY FACTOR-9. After PHOSPHORYLATION Stat2 forms the IFN-STIMULATED GENE FACTOR 3 COMPLEX to regulate expression of target GENES.Amoebozoa: A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.Interferon Regulatory Factor-3: An interferon regulatory factor that is expressed constitutively and undergoes POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION following viral infection. PHOSPHORYLATION of IRF-3 causes the protein to be translocated from the CYTOPLASM to CELL NUCLEUS where it binds DNA, and activates transcription.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Brugia malayi: A species of parasitic nematode causing Malayan filariasis and having a distribution centering roughly on the Malay peninsula. The life cycle of B. malayi is similar to that of WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI, except that in most areas the principal mosquito vectors belong to the genus Mansonia.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Complement Factor B: A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Myeloid Cells: The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Genes, MHC Class I: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.DNA Virus InfectionsRubulavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus RUBULAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.Antigenic Modulation: Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one method in which some tumors escape detection by the immune system. Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies.nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Exosomes: A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Tularemia: A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein: An endogenous 105-kDa plasma glycoprotein produced primarily by the LIVER and MONOCYTES. It inhibits a broad spectrum of proteases, including the COMPLEMENT C1R and the COMPLEMENT C1S proteases of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY, and the MANNOSE-BINDING PROTEIN-ASSOCIATED SERINE PROTEASES. C1-INH-deficient individuals suffer from HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPES I AND II.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Herpesviridae: A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.Marburg Virus Disease: An RNA virus infection of rhesus, vervet, and squirrel monkeys transmissible to man.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Trypanosomatina: A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Plasminogen: Precursor of plasmin (FIBRINOLYSIN). It is a single-chain beta-globulin of molecular weight 80-90,000 found mostly in association with fibrinogen in plasma; plasminogen activators change it to fibrinolysin. It is used in wound debriding and has been investigated as a thrombolytic agent.Adenovirus E3 Proteins: Proteins transcribed from the E3 region of ADENOVIRUSES but not essential for viral replication. The E3 19K protein mediates adenovirus persistence by reducing the expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on the surface of infected cells.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Borrelia: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Receptors, Pattern Recognition: A large family of cell surface receptors that bind conserved molecular structures (PAMPS) present in pathogens. They play important roles in host defense by mediating cellular responses to pathogens.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Complement Pathway, Classical: Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Porphyromonas gingivalis: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Staphylococcal Protein A: A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.RNA Virus InfectionsProtein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Herpes Simplex: A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)HLA-G Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by alleles on locus B of the HLA complex. The HLA-G antigens are considered non-classical class I antigens due to their distinct tissue distribution which differs from HLA-A; HLA-B; and HLA-C antigens. Note that several isoforms of HLA-G antigens result from alternative splicing of messenger RNAs produced from the HLA-G*01 allele.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Superinfection: A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Yersinia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus YERSINIA.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
3 Evasion and enforcement *3.1 Edits by and on behalf of blocked editors *3.1.1 Enforcement by reverting ... Evasion and enforcement. "WP:BE" redirects here. For "building (an) encyclopedia", see Wikipedia:Here to build an encyclopedia. ...
Immune system evasion. Filoviral infection also interferes with proper functioning of the innate immune system.[44][46] EBOV ... "Filoviral immune evasion mechanisms". Viruses. 3 (9): 1634-49. doi:10.3390/v3091634. PMC 3187693. PMID 21994800 ...
Block evasion[edit]. One reason for sockpuppeting is to circumvent a block, ban or other form of sanction imposed on the ...
Blocked again for block evasion; please find a more constructive use of your time[edit]. ...
NK cell evasion by tumor cells[edit]. By shedding decoy NKG2D soluble ligands, tumor cells may avoid immune responses. These ... This example of immune evasion actually highlights NK cells' importance in tumor surveillance and response, as CD8 cells can ... This method of evasion occurs in prostate cancer. In addition, prostate cancer tumors can evade CD8 cell recognition due to ...
2010 indictment for tax evasion and mail fraud[edit]. On May 8, 2007, WXYZ-TV reported that Kilpatrick used $8,600 from the ... Obstruction of justice (x2), assault of a police officer, racketeering, tax evasion, extortion, mail fraud. ... and tax evasion, among others. Shortly after conviction, speaking about Kilpatrick, Judge Nancy Edmunds ruled in favor of ... and one count of tax evasion. Each count of fraud carries a maximum sentence of 20 year imprisonment and a fine of $250,000. ...
Phagocyte evasion[change , change source]. Many bacteria have ways to not be eaten or killed by phagocytes.[1] They may avoid ...
Tax evasion. Although numbers are difficult to ascertain, it is widely believed that individuals in wealthy nations unlawfully ... most of which have adopted tax information exchange protocols to allow foreign countries to investigate suspected tax evasion. ...
He has published widely on such topics as underground and shadow economies; tax evasion; transition economics; financial ... The Demand for Liquid Assets, Prentice Hall, 1963; The Underground Economies: Tax Evasion and Information Distortion, Cambridge ... University Press, 1989 Underground Economies in Transition: Unrecorded Activity, Tax Evasion, Corruption and Organized Crime, ...
... tax evasion; forgery of checks and invoices; excessive expenses and waste. Willfully damaging private or public property is ...
James S. Leonard et al., Satire of Evasion?: Black Perspectives on "Huckleberry Finn", Durham, NC, Duke University Press, 1992 ...
Wolk, Douglas (March 2002). "The British Evasion". Spin. 18 (3): 127-28. Retrieved 15 April 2016. "Clinic: Walking with Thee". ...
Wolk, Douglas (March 2002). "The British Evasion". Spin. 18 (3): 127-28. Retrieved 15 April 2016. O'Connell, Sharon (9 November ...
Bose, Sumantra (2007-08-23). "The partition evasion". openDemocracy. Retrieved 2007-12-16. "Sumantra Bose biography" (PDF). ...
Evasion of Primacy; 10 tracks (1996?; private release of less than 50) Linear, 23db Records (28 February 2006) stealth hey. ...
Concealment and evasion. Camouflage was used heavily. Roads were sometimes "roofed" with a network of branches, brush and other ...
Immune system evasion. Filoviral infection also interferes with proper functioning of the innate immune system.[50][52] EBOV ... "Filoviral immune evasion mechanisms". Viruses. 3 (9): 1634-49. doi:10.3390/v3091634. PMC 3187693. PMID 21994800 ...
Police evasion. Taylor concluded his criticism of South Yorkshire Police by describing senior officers in command as "defensive ...
Pathogen evasionEdit. Pathogens have evolved several strategies to suppress plant defense responses. Host processes usually ...
Roy, Craig R.; Kagan, Jonathan C. (1 January 2013). Evasion of Phagosome Lysosome Fusion and Establishment of a Replicative ... Bacterial evasion and manipulationEdit. Many bacteria have evolved to evade the bactericidal properties of phagosomes or even ...
"Immune Evasion by bacteria". Finlay B, McFadden G (2006). "Anti-immunology: evasion of the host immune system by bacterial and ...
"Filoviral immune evasion mechanisms". Viruses. 3 (9): 1634-49. doi:10.3390/v3091634. PMC 3187693 . PMID 21994800. Kortepeter MG ...
"Wanser's Evasion is Futile; On Him the Responsibility For Jersey City's Bad Water". New York Times. September 6, 1894. "Will ...
ISBN 0-563-48624-4. Davies, Russell T (25 May 2005). "The Evasion of Time". Doctor Who Magazine. Panini Comics (356): 66-67. ... Davies, Russell T (25 May 2005). "The Evasion of Time". Doctor Who Magazine. No. 356. Tunbridge Wells: Panini Publishing Ltd. p ...
"Taxi warning on evasion". South China Morning Post. 19 February 2000. "Warning for MPF-dodging bosses". South China Morning ...
The immune evasion functions UL16, UL142, and microRNA(miR)-UL112 are known to target NKG2DLs. While infection with a UL16 ... Two novel human cytomegalovirus NK cell evasion functions target MICA for lysosomal degradation.. Fielding CA1, Aicheler R1, ... US18 and US20 were identified as novel NK cell evasion functions capable of acting independently to promote MICA degradation by ... Two Novel Human Cytomegalovirus NK Cell Evasion Functions Target MICA for Lysosomal Degradation ...
... Timothy Besley, Anders Jensen, Torsten Persson. NBER Working Paper No. 25575. Issued in ... which led to widespread evasion. The evidence is consistent with the models main predictions on the dynamics of evasion. ... This paper studies individual and social motives in tax evasion. We build a simple dynamic model that incorporates these ...
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Copyright © 2020 CFO. All Rights Reserved. CFO Publishing LLC, a division of The Argyle Group. 50 Broad Street, New York, N.Y. 10004. ...
Tax evasion analysis typically assumes that evasion involves individual taxpayers responding to some given policies. However, ... The total cost of transacting in the illegal sector can fall, and tax evasion may increase. The policy implications of this ... "The Hidden Costs of Tax Evasion - Collaborative Tax Evasion in Markets for Expert Services," Working Papers 2014-01, Faculty of ... "The hidden costs of tax evasion: collaborative tax evasion in markets for expert services," Economics Working Papers ECO2014/01 ...
Poxviruses and immune evasion.. Seet BT1, Johnston JB, Brunetti CR, Barrett JW, Everett H, Cameron C, Sypula J, Nazarian SH, ...
An aged wiseguy has been slapped with tax evasion charges for failing to fork over $367,000 in dues from real estate... ... An aged wiseguy has been slapped with tax evasion charges for failing to fork over $367,000 in dues from real estate sales, ... Ex-cop Derek Chauvin, wife, charged with tax evasion in Minneapolis. Accountant accuses Michael Cohen of extortionist cash ... Capone ruled the Chicago underworld until he was convicted on charges of tax evasion in 1931. ...
Much, if not all, of this evidence concludes that the main beneficiaries of successful tax evasion are the tax evaders ... and especially the general equilibrium literatures on tax evasion. ... we examine the distributional effects of tax evasion, using results from theoretical, experimental, empirical, ... "Tax evasion, labor market effects, and income distribution," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages ...
China joins international efforts to end tax evasion. 27/08/2013 - China signed the Multilateral Convention on Mutual ... OECD Home TaxChina joins international efforts to end tax evasion Tax. ... A valuable tool for governments to fight offshore tax evasion, the Convention also ensures compliance with national tax laws ...
... tax evasion, for example) Evasion (book), a book adapted from a zine of the same title Evasion (network security), techniques ... a French local radio station Evasion (ethics), a deceptive act Evasion (law), to avoid government mandate through specious ... Evasion may refer to: Evade, a 1960s board game in the 3M bookshelf game series Évasion, a Canadian French-language travel and ... to by-pass network security devices Evasi0n, a jailbreaking tool for iOS devices Citroën Evasion, a Eurovan minivan. ...
... Julie Berry Cullen, Nicholas Turner, Ebonya L. Washington. ... We ask whether attitudes toward government play a causal role in the evasion of U.S. personal income taxes. We use individual- ... We provide three types of evidence that alignment reduces evasion. As a county moves into alignment we find 1) taxpayers report ... Our results provide real-world evidence that a positive outlook on government lowers tax evasion. ...
The Swiss bank Credit Suisse pleaded guilty Monday to helping U.S. citizens commit tax evasion over the course of several ...
The international community continues making tremendous progress in the fight against offshore tax evasion, as implementation ... OECD Home TaxInternational community continues making progress against offshore tax evasion Tax. ... International community continues making progress against offshore tax evasion. 30/06/2020 - The international community ... reducing the possibility for offshore tax evasion. Many developing countries have joined the process and more are expected to ...
The geometric formulation is sometimes called continuous pursuit-evasion, and the graph formulation discrete pursuit-evasion ( ... The board game Scotland Yard is a variant of the pursuit-evasion problem. The complexity of several pursuit-evasion variants, ... Pursuit-evasion (variants of which are referred to as cops and robbers and graph searching) is a family of problems in ... One of the initial applications of the pursuit-evasion problem was missile guidance systems formulated by Rufus Isaacs at the ...
... main tax agencyfiled on Friday a tax evasion complaint against Dunkin Donutslocal franchisee, which is partly owned by a ... MANILA, Feb 23 (Reuters) - The Philippines main tax agency filed on Friday a tax evasion complaint against Dunkin Donuts ...
A Washington County optometrist featured in a Pittsburgh Post-Gazette story on Monday about supercars was indicted earlier this month in
The federal prosecution service said in a statement the charges related to "tax evasion and forgery," which cost the state " ...
Dino (as Kent Hovind is known) for taking his own money out of the bank rather than for income tax evasion just does not seem ... Dino (as Kent Hovind is known) for taking his own money out of the bank rather than for income tax evasion just does not seem ... You will see reports that Kent Hovind is in prison for tax evasion. This is understandable. According to this recent Tax Court ... You will see reports that Kent Hovind is in prison for tax evasion. This is understandable. According to this recent Tax Court ...
Swiss banks argue that U.S. laws, which do not distinguish between tax fraud and tax evasion, should not apply to Switzerland. ... from American clients who fled UBS in the wake of its scrutiny and assertions by Swiss officials that offshore tax evasion ...
A former UBS AG client in New Jersey has pleaded guilty to hiding as much as $759,000 in a Swiss account from U.S. tax authorities, seven months after her father made a similar admission.
From the Turkish city of Trebizond (equivalent to a U. S. Fundamentalist stronghold) news came last week that pious women have found a way to circumvent the recent law that all Turkish women must...
2018) Complement Evasion Mechanisms of the Human Pathogen Plasmodium falciparum. In: Stoute J. (eds) Complement Activation in ... Plasmodium Malaria Merozoite Surface proteins Complement evasion Factor H 6 Cysteine proteins Parasite invasion ... Schmidt CQ, Kennedy AT, Tham W-H (2015) More than just immune evasion: hijacking complement by plasmodium falciparum. Mol ... The following provides a brief overview of complement evasion strategies employed by blood-stage malaria parasites and ...
Magufuli launched a crackdown on graft and tax evasion when he took office in 2015 and has sacked dozens of senior public ... DAR ES SALAAM, Feb 2 (Reuters) - Tanzanian President John Magufuli vowed on Thursday to toughen up a crackdown on tax evasion ...
OHCHR , English , Your Human Rights , International Order , Tax avoidance, tax evasion, tax fraud and profit shifting ... A human rights-based approach to taxation and stricter measures against tax fraud, tax evasion and tax havens are urgently ... tax evasion, tax fraud and profit shifting, facilitated by bank secrecy and a web of shell companies registered in tax havens. ...
Tackling tax evasion is an issue French President Francois Hollande is pushing hard to help trim public debt without further ... Swiss agree to widen cooperation with France on tax evasion. Published Wed, Jun 25 2014 4:05 PM EDT. ... The two ministers also signed a pact pledging to keep talking and cooperating on tax fraud and evasion. ...
  • A valuable tool for governments to fight offshore tax evasion, the Convention also ensures compliance with national tax laws and respects the rights of taxpayers by protecting the confidentiality of the information exchanged. (oecd.org)
  • 30/06/2020 - The international community continues making tremendous progress in the fight against offshore tax evasion, as implementation of innovative transparency standards by the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes moves countries ever closer to the goal of eradicating banking secrecy for tax purposes. (oecd.org)
  • The Common Reporting Standard requires countries and jurisdictions to exchange financial account information from non-residents obtained from their financial institutions automatically on an annual basis, reducing the possibility for offshore tax evasion. (oecd.org)
  • Since the G20 declared an end to bank secrecy in 2009, the international community has made strong and ongoing progress in the fight against offshore tax evasion. (oecd.org)
  • American officials are concerned that the 10 banks appear to have accepted hidden money from American clients who fled UBS in the wake of its scrutiny and assertions by Swiss officials that offshore tax evasion would not be tolerated under the cloak of Swiss bank secrecy rules, the people briefed on the matter said. (reuters.com)
  • The HSBC Bank, which is at the core of a US crackdown on offshore tax evasion, has alerted its clients having an account in India, including Indian Americans, to consult a tax advisor after it received summons from Internal Revenue Service (IRS) seeking its account-holders' names. (hindustantimes.com)
  • He said this on Wednesday in Abuja while declaring open a seminar by the West Africa Tax Administration Forum (WATAF) on "Exchange of Information'' as a tool to combat offshore tax evasion, especially in the ECOWAS sub-region. (vanguardngr.com)
  • 2017), we set out to estimate how tax evasion varies with wealth and to correct inequality statistics for differences in evasion rates. (voxeu.org)
  • U.S. Air Forces Escape and Evasion Society Recognition Act of 2017, H.R. 2279, 115th Cong. (govtrack.us)
  • Justice Akintoye made the order following Okocha's alleged failure to settle a 2017 income tax evasion case brought against him by the Lagos State Government. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The statutory regulatory order (SRO) 116, which allowed DG I and I to conduct investigation into sales tax evasion , was declared illegal in a Lahore High Court (LHC) judgment in July 2017. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • From 30th September 2017, the Criminal Finances Act 2017 made companies and partnerships criminally liable if they fail to prevent tax evasion by either a member of their staff or an external agent - even where the business was not involved in the act or was unaware of it. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This criminal offense is known as tax evasion, which in 1943 the U.S. Supreme Court decided that in Spies v, United States ruled that an overt act is necessary to give rise to the crime of income tax evasion. (hubpages.com)
  • A former personal injury attorney has been sentenced to 15 months in federal prison for income tax evasion. (latimes.com)
  • Recent studies identifying novel host-pathogen interactions between the complement system and malaria parasites yield insights on the mechanisms of parasite entry into red blood cells, complement evasion strategies and the development of malaria pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Because of potent immune evasion mechanisms, and the ability of the virus to persist in immune competent hosts, a vast majority of the global population remain infected with at least one of the herpes virus. (pasteur.fr)
  • The paradox of this host-pathogen relationship is that human and mouse strains share 99% gene content ( 12 ), indicating that a limited number of pathogen-specific virulence genes control evasion of IFN-γ-mediated host-specific defense mechanisms. (pnas.org)
  • P . aeruginosa has evolved numerous evasion and subversion mechanisms that work in concert to overcome immune recognition and effector functions in hospitalized and immunosuppressed individuals. (jci.org)
  • These data highlight the need to block multiple evasion and subversion mechanisms in tandem to kill P . aeruginosa . (jci.org)
  • Currently, we have limited understanding of mechanisms of innate immune evasion used by S. aureus. (nih.gov)
  • One person briefed on the matter said the U.S. Justice Department "tries to deal with the entity, not the government" in its crackdown on tax evasion. (reuters.com)
  • DAR ES SALAAM, Feb 2 (Reuters) - Tanzanian President John Magufuli vowed on Thursday to toughen up a crackdown on tax evasion by big businesses including mining companies as the east African nation moves to boost domestic revenues. (reuters.com)
  • Magufuli launched a crackdown on graft and tax evasion when he took office in 2015 and has sacked dozens of senior public officials. (reuters.com)
  • The U.K. government will on Wednesday set out proposals to broaden the crackdown on tax evasion to benefit developing countries, setting a year-end deadline for a U.K.-led multilateral tax-information-sharing accord with emerging nations. (corpwatch.org)
  • Introduction A number of recent studies document the proportion of all cigarette packs that are 'contraband' using discarded packs to measure tax avoidance and evasion, which we call tax non-compliance. (bmj.com)
  • The FIRS boss said efforts were also being made to offer a global response to issues of international tax avoidance, tax evasion, illicit financial flows, money laundering and other harmful tax practices, using advanced technology. (vanguardngr.com)
  • A judge ordered the detention of Karoui to face charges of tax evasion and money laundering, Mosaique FM radio reported. (firstpost.com)
  • About 150 anti-corruption groups under the aegis of the Civil Society Network Against Corruption have asked the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission to urgently investigate an alleged N100bn fraud, tax evasion and money laundering against Alpha Beta Consulting Ltd., Alpha Beta LLP and Ocean Trust Ltd. (punchng.com)
  • A Russian court found whistle-blower Sergei Magnitsky guilty of tax evasion on Thursday, ending a convoluted case that caused a diplomatic row between Moscow and Washington. (npr.org)
  • Governments typically seek to reduce tax evasion by increasing the odds of catching tax evaders or by raising the punishments. (voxeu.org)
  • MANILA, Feb 23 (Reuters) - The Philippines' main tax agency filed on Friday a tax evasion complaint against Dunkin' Donuts' local franchisee, which is partly owned by a member of a wealthy family that President Rodrigo Duterte has publicly accused of dodging taxes. (reuters.com)
  • MEXICO CITY (Reuters) - Mexico's president said on Thursday that spy tactics could be used to fight tax evasion, after such violations were classified as serious crimes on the order of corruption and homicide, and he brushed off critiques of overreach. (yahoo.com)
  • RNA viruses like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and measles virus undergo extensive antigenic variations due to the selective pressure of the immune system, which leads to immune evasion. (pasteur.fr)
  • Large-scale transcriptional analyses of fungal and plant responses have shown that perturbance of plant hormone homeostasis and secretion of fungal lectins and other small proteins (effectors) may be involved in the evasion and suppression of host defenses at these early colonization steps. (apsnet.org)
  • A human rights-based approach to taxation and stricter measures against tax fraud, tax evasion and tax havens are urgently needed because a shortfall in tax revenues handicaps Governments in meeting human rights treaty obligations. (ohchr.org)
  • This report focuses on impacts of taxation on human rights and explores the challenges posed to the international order by widespread tax avoidance, tax evasion, tax fraud and profit shifting, facilitated by bank secrecy and a web of shell companies registered in tax havens. (ohchr.org)
  • The two ministers also signed a pact pledging to keep talking and cooperating on tax fraud and evasion. (cnbc.com)
  • Tax evasion isn't just a United States problem, as all countries around the world have to deal with tax fraud. (hubpages.com)
  • The jury foreman, Alvin Taylor, a 26-year-old postal worker from Manhattan, pronounced the word ''guilty'' 33 times for the 33 counts on which she was convicted, including tax-fraud conspiracy, tax evasion and filing false tax returns. (nytimes.com)
  • With an economic recovery that has seemingly left behind middle-class Americans, high-profile fraud and corruption cases, news reports about wealthy individuals and corporations avoiding taxes, and the release of the "Panama Papers," President Barack Obama and Congress have come under increased pressure to pass legislation to combat tax evasion and corruption. (icc-ccs.org)
  • Immune evasion and the suppression of anti-tumor responses during cancer progression are considered hallmarks of cancer and are typically attributed to tumor-derived factors. (jci.org)
  • The project, led by Prof Margaret Frame from the Cancer Centre (and also involving the IGMM Mass Spectrometry Facility and collaborators in Edinburgh), demonstrated how nuclear activity of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and the cytokine IL-33 drives tumour immune evasion. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Evasion of the p53 tumour surveillance network by tumour-derived MYC mutants. (diva-portal.org)
  • This column uses Scandinavia as an example to demonstrate how tax evasion varies with wealth: the top 0.01% richest households in Scandinavia evade about 25% of the taxes they owe by concealing assets and investment income abroad. (voxeu.org)
  • To award a gold medal on behalf of the Congress to the U.S. Air Forces Escape and Evasion Society, in recognition of the ceaseless efforts of American aircrew members to escape captivity and evade capture by the enemy forces in occupied countries during our foreign wars, and the brave resistance organizations and patriotic nationals of those foreign countries who assisted them. (govtrack.us)
  • The HSV-1 UL13 kinase promotes evasion of HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cell accumulation in infection sites by downregulating expression of the CD8+ T cell attractant chemokine CXCL9 in the CNS of infected mice, leading to increased HSV-1 mortality due to encephalitis. (jci.org)
  • A Rindge man accused of swindling millions through an investment scheme has entered a federal plea agreement admitting to tax evasion. (unionleader.com)
  • Although a routine IRS audit uncovered and stopped his tax evasion scheme in 2015, Broga said, a cancer diagnosis in 2014 helped put his life in perspective. (marshfieldnewsherald.com)
  • Why Is the Whistleblower Who Exposed the Massive UBS Tax Evasion Scheme the Only One Heading to Prison? (democracynow.org)
  • A former banker for the Swiss giant UBS who blew the whistle on the biggest tax-evasion scheme in US history is preparing to head to prison tomorrow to begin serving a forty-month federal sentence. (democracynow.org)
  • Mr. Turco had been charged with Mrs. Helmsley of extortion conspiracy and was also acquitted of that count while being convicted of ''aiding and abetting'' what the prosecution said was the Helmsleys' tax evasion in 1983, 1984 and 1985. (nytimes.com)
  • J. P. Hespanha, G. J. Pappas, and M. Prandini, "Greedy control for hybrid pur-suit-evasion games," in Proceedings of the European Control Conference , pp. 2621-2626, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Congratulations to the members of the Cancer Biology group at the Cancer Research UK Edinburgh Centre, whose work entitled "IL-33 and ST2 mediate FAK-dependent antitumor immune evasion through transcriptional networks" has recently been published in Science Signaling, a journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). (ed.ac.uk)
  • Aaron Olson of Rindge entered the plea agreement for four counts of tax evasion with the U.S. Attorney's Office for the District of New Hampshire. (unionleader.com)
  • Dr. Ihassan Al-Amin has pleaded guilty in federal court to three of the 105 counts against him alleging illegal pain pill prescribing and tax evasion. (timesfreepress.com)
  • He faces up to 10 years in prison on the pill charge and five years each for the two tax evasion counts against him. (timesfreepress.com)
  • These results suggest that TLR5 evasion is critical for the survival of this subset of bacteria at mucosal sites in animals and raise the intriguing possibility that flagellin receptors provided the selective force to drive the evolution of these unique subclasses of bacterial flagellins. (pnas.org)
  • Evasion of apoptosis can be part of a cellular stress response to ensure the cell's survival upon exposure to stressful stimuli. (hindawi.com)
  • Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape ( SERE ) is a program, best known by its military acronym , that provides U.S. military personnel , U.S. Department of Defense civilians , and private military contractors with training in evading capture, survival skills , and the military code of conduct . (wikipedia.org)
  • Under the direction of Air Force General Curtis LeMay it was realized that it was much cheaper and more effective to train aircrews in Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape techniques, than to have them languishing in enemy hands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bearak, 2016) Developing countries show a large number of tax evasion because they simply don't have the income to provide for the government. (hubpages.com)
  • The Hidden Costs of Tax Evasion - Collaborative Tax Evasion in Markets for Expert Services ," Working Papers 2014-01, Faculty of Economics and Statistics, University of Innsbruck. (repec.org)
  • Magnitsky, who died in prison of pancreatitis at age 37, had accused Russian officials of massive corruption and was himself subsequently accused of tax evasion. (npr.org)
  • Many industry experts on corruption and tax evasion have stated that the proposed regulations are "watered down" or "quite weak. (icc-ccs.org)
  • Pursuit-evasion (variants of which are referred to as cops and robbers and graph searching) is a family of problems in mathematics and computer science in which one group attempts to track down members of another group in an environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are innumerable possible variants of pursuit-evasion, though they tend to share many elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, STAT3-enhancing germline receptor variants contribute to immune evasion through their pleiotropic functions in immune cells. (jci.org)
  • These changes are conserved among all flagellated members of the α and ε Proteobacteria that infect mammals, suggesting that evasion of TLR5 may contribute to persistence of these bacteria at mucosal surfaces. (pnas.org)
  • Much, if not all, of this evidence concludes that the main beneficiaries of successful tax evasion are the tax evaders themselves, with distributional effects that largely favor higher income individuals. (repec.org)
  • This previously uncharacterized strategy for HSV-1 evasion of CD8+ T cell accumulation in the CNS has important implications for understanding the pathogenesis and clinical treatment of HSV-1 encephalitis. (jci.org)
  • It's also worth mentioning that there are also other traditional detection evasion methods, like adding obfuscation and using custom packers which are typically deployed by the malware author on their piece of work. (fortinet.com)
  • inundator is a modern twist on an old concept - it's an IDS/IPS/WAF evasion tool, used to anonymously flood intrusion detection systems with false positives in order to obfuscate a real attack. (darknet.org.uk)
  • The first involves changing the wording on existing returns to increase the psychological cost of evasion and increase the perceived expectation of detection. (ssrn.com)
  • The Hidden Costs of Tax Evasion: Collaborative Tax Evasion in Markets for Expert Services ," IZA Discussion Papers 9085, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (repec.org)
  • When dealing with tax evasion the Untied States has had some different ideas trying to stop it especially after the "Panama Papers" which were leaked documents that showed wealthy Americans using the offshore companies to hide their money from IRS. (hubpages.com)
  • However the origins of what we now call SERE are firmly rooted in the leadership of Britain's MI9 Evasion and Escape organisation, formed in February 1939 at the onset of WW2. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, the United States stood up their own Evasion and Escape organisation, known as MIS-X, based at Fort Hunt, Virginia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the offence of 'failure to prevent economic crime' and the proposed corporate criminal evasion offence consider the difficulties of holding corporations to account for the actions of individuals working in or for the organisation. (accountancyage.com)
  • Together, these results validate the yeast-based assay as an effective cell-based screening approach for compounds that interfere with EBV immune evasion and that might, therefore, provide treatments for EBV-related diseases, including cancer. (biologists.org)
  • The geometric formulation is sometimes called continuous pursuit-evasion, and the graph formulation discrete pursuit-evasion (also called graph searching). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the discrete formulation of the pursuit-evasion problem, the environment is modeled as a graph. (wikipedia.org)
  • You will see reports that Kent Hovind is in prison for tax evasion . (forbes.com)
  • MINNEAPOLIS-The former millionaire chief executive of a Maple Grove-based company faces 10 years in prison after a jury convicted him of tax evasion Wednesday. (twincities.com)
  • Wisconsin Rapids man, fined for tax evasion, says leukemia put his life in perspective Russell Broga was ordered to pay $150,000, but a judge agreed to probation rather than prison so he could keep his business going. (marshfieldnewsherald.com)
  • FORT WORTH - An attorney who ran dozens of nursing homes in Texas, Oklahoma, Iowa, Kansas and Virginia pleaded guilty on Wednesday in a federal tax-evasion case involving at least $34 million in payroll taxes. (chron.com)
  • 2 Former Executives Guilty The 80-year-old Mr. Helmsley was also charged with tax-evasion conspiracy but was found not mentally competent to stand trial and his case was severed. (nytimes.com)
  • NPR's Corey Flintoff, reporting from Moscow, points out that "the tax evasion case against Magnitsky was brought by the very officials that he had accused. (npr.org)
  • This column analyses two Pakistani initiatives - public disclosure of income taxes and a recognition-and-rewards programme for top taxpayers - and shows that, to the extent that they are effective in influencing private and social behaviour, they potentially offer a cost-effective complement to standard tax-evasion measures. (voxeu.org)
  • Laws and regulations addressing tax evasion and the disclosure of beneficial owners of corporations are of critical importance from a tax revenue and law enforcement standpoint, but they are also important from an optics standpoint. (icc-ccs.org)
  • An aged wiseguy has been slapped with tax evasion charges for failing to fork over $367,000 in dues from real estate sales, authorities said. (nypost.com)
  • Capone ruled the Chicago underworld until he was convicted on charges of tax evasion in 1931. (nypost.com)
  • The federal prosecution service said in a statement the charges related to "tax evasion and forgery," which cost the state "millions" in lost taxes. (news24.com)
  • A dentist in Luzerne County has been cleared of tax evasion charges. (wnep.com)
  • There is strong evidence that commercial malware detectors are susceptible to these evasion tactics. (psu.edu)
  • Court documents showed that the Liberia Revenue Authority (LRA) and Lonestar Communications Corporation (Lonestar) have reached a compromise on the controversial US$2,376,098.78 tax evasion allegation without the intervention of the Tax Court, although tax is imposed and collected by law, and is not to be compromised. (liberianobserver.com)
  • Furthermore, NAIP5 recognizes multiple regions of its ligand, and mutations of flagellin that allow for NAIP5 evasion compromise bacterial fitness. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cobham) In 2013 the G8 decided to create a comprehensive tax plan of laws and regulations to take down some of the tax evasions committed by both individuals and multinational corporations. (hubpages.com)
  • To be sure, Obama's proposed regulations are an important first step in addressing the tax evasion that occurs both domestically and abroad. (icc-ccs.org)
  • Malacanang on Monday said that the issuance of an arrest warrant against online news site Rappler's chief executive officer Maria Ressa for alleged tax evasion is not politically motivated. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When cigarette taxes differ substantially across areas, some smokers, tobacco retailers and wholesalers engage in tax avoidance (legal) or evasion (illegal), which we collectively label as tax non-compliance. (bmj.com)