'Evaluation studies' in medical context refer to systematic investigations designed to assess the effectiveness, efficiency, and quality of healthcare services, programs, interventions, or policies, aiming to inform decision-making, improve patient outcomes, and optimize resource allocation.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A system for the collection and/or processing of data from various sources, and using the information for policy making and management of health services. It could be paper-based or electronic. (From http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTHEALTHNUTRITIONANDPOPULATION/EXTHSD/0,,contentMDK:22239824~menuPK:376799~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:376793,00.html. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/en/)
The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS by MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as ALDOSTERONE.
A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
Institutional health care of patients during the day. The patients return home at night.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.
Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany" is a country and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition. It is located in Central Europe and is known for its advanced medical research and facilities.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.
Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
Works about books, articles or other publications on herbs or plants describing their medicinal value.
Labels pasted in books to mark their ownership and sometimes to indicate their location in a library. Private bookplates are often ornate or artistic: simpler and smaller ones bearing merely the owner's name are called "book labels." They are usually pasted on the front endpaper of books. (From Harrod, The Librarians' Glossary and Reference Book, 4th rev ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Published pieces of paper or other material, usually printed on one side and intended to be read unfolded and usually intended to be posted, publicly distributed, or sold. (From Genre Terms: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing, 2d ed)
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.
Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)
A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Publications, usually annual, containing a calendar for the coming year, the times of such events and phenomena as anniversaries, sunrises, sunsets, phases of the moon, tides, meteorological, and other statistical information and related topics. Almanacs are also annual reference books of useful and interesting facts relating to countries of the world, sports, entertainment, population groups, etc. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The educational process of instructing.
Financial support of research activities.
Books printed before 1501.

Effect of intravenous dextran 70 and pneumatic leg compression on incidence of postoperative pulmonary embolism. (1/9320)

The incidence of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis was measured in 50 matched pairs of patients undergoing common surgical procedures with preoperative and postoperative ventilation-perfusion lung scans and the fibrinogen uptake test. One patient in each pair was treated with intravenous dextran 70 and pneumatic leggings. The incidence of pulmonary embolism among the treated patients was significantly reduced from 24% to 8%, but the incidence of deep vein thrombosis was not significantly reduced (34% to 24%).  (+info)

Computerised tomography of acute traumatic intracranial haematoma: reliability of neurosurgeons' interpretations. (2/9320)

Two neurosurgeons concerned with the emergency management of patients with head injury correctly diagnosed the presence or absence of an acute intracranial haematoma in 97 scans that were presented to them without knowledge of the patients' clinical details. There were no false-positives or false-negatives, although identification of the type of haematoma was not always possible. The impact of the EMI scan on patient management demands new approaches to the care of head injuries.  (+info)

Influence of crossdrafts on the performance of a biological safety cabinet. (3/9320)

A biological safety cabinet was tested to determine the effect of crossdrafts (such as those created by normal laboratory activity or ventilation) upon the ability of the cabinet to protect both experiments and investigators. A simple crossdraft, controllable from 50 to 200 feet per min (fpm; 15.24 to 60.96 m/min), was created across the face of the unit. Modifications of standardized procedures involving controlled bacterial aerosol challenges provided stringent test conditions. Results indicated that, as the crossflow velocities exceeded 100 fpm, the ability of the cabinet to protect either experiments or investigators decreased logarithmically with increasing crossdraft speed. Because 100 fpm is an airspeed easily achieved by some air conditioning and heating vents (open windows and doorways may create velocities far in excess of 200 fpm), the proper placement of a biological safety cabinet within the laboratory--away from such disruptive air currents--is essential to satisfactory cabinet performance.  (+info)

Evaluating cost-effectiveness of diagnostic equipment: the brain scanner case. (4/9320)

An approach to evaluating the cost-effectiveness of high-technology diagnostic equipment has been devised, using the introduction of computerised axial tomography (CAT) as a model. With the advent of CAT scanning, angiography and air encephalography have a reduced, though important, role in investigating intracranial disease, and the efficient use of conventional equipment requires the centralisation of neuroradiological services, which would result in major cash savings. In contrast, the pattern of demand for CAT scanning, in addition to the acknowledged clinical efficiency of the scanner and its unique role in the head-injured patient, ephasies the need for improved access to scanners. In the interest of the patients the pattern of service must change.  (+info)

Synthesis and kinetic evaluation of 4-deoxymaltopentaose and 4-deoxymaltohexaose as inhibitors of muscle and potato alpha-glucan phosphorylases. (5/9320)

alpha-Glucan phosphorylases degrade linear or branched oligosaccharides via a glycosyl transfer reaction, occurring with retention of configuration, to generate alpha-glucose-1-phosphate (G1P). We report here the chemoenzymic synthesis of two incompetent oligosaccharide substrate analogues, 4-deoxymaltohexaose (4DG6) and 4-deoxymaltopentaose (4DG5), for use in probing this mechanism. A kinetic analysis of the interactions of 4DG5 and 4DG6 with both muscle and potato phosphorylases was completed to provide insight into the nature of the binding mode of oligosaccharide to phosphorylase. The 4-deoxy-oligosaccharides bind competitively with maltopentaose and non-competitively with respect to orthophosphate or G1P in each case, indicating binding in the oligosaccharide binding site. Further, 4DG5 and 4DG6 were found to bind to potato and muscle phosphorylases some 10-40-fold tighter than does maltopentaose. Similar increases in affinity as a consequence of 4-deoxygenation were observed previously for the binding of polymeric glycogen analogues to rabbit muscle phosphorylase [Withers (1990) Carbohydr. Res. 196, 61-73].  (+info)

Value of scintigraphy in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients. (6/9320)

BACKGROUND: A variety of factors can adversely impact chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) as an effective renal replacement therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease. These factors include peritonitis, poor clearances, loss of ultrafiltration, and a variety of anatomic problems, such as hernias, peritoneal fluid leaks, loculations, and catheter-related problems caused by omental blockage. This study reviews our experience with peritoneal scintigraphy for the evaluation of some of these difficulties. METHODS: From 1991 to 1996, 50 peritoneal scintigraphy scans were obtained in 48 CPD patients. Indications for scintigraphy were evaluated, and the patients were placed into four groups: group I, abdominal wall swelling; group II, inguinal or genital swelling; group III, pleural fluid; and group IV, poor drainage and/or poor ultrafiltration. A peritoneal scintigraphy protocol was established and the radiotracer isotope that was used was 2.0 mCi of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid placed in two liters of 2.5% dextrose peritoneal dialysis solution. RESULTS: Ten scans were obtained to study abdominal wall swelling, with seven scans demonstrating leaks; six of these episodes improved with low-volume exchanges. Twenty scans were obtained to evaluate inguinal or genital swelling, and 10 of these had scintigraphic evidence for an inguinal hernia leak (9 of these were surgically corrected). One of four scans obtained to evaluate a pleural fluid collection demonstrated a peritoneal-pleural leak that corrected with a temporary discontinuation of CPD. Sixteen scans were obtained to assess poor drainage and/or ultrafiltration. Five of these scans demonstrated peritoneal location, and all of these patients required transfer to hemodialysis. The other 11 scans were normal; four patients underwent omentectomies, allowing three patients to continue with CPD. CONCLUSION: Peritoneal scintigraphy is useful in the evaluation and assessment of CPD patients who develop anatomical problems (such as anterior abdominal, pleural-peritoneal, inguinal, and genital leaks) and problems with ultrafiltration and/or drainage.  (+info)

Quantitation of Friend spleen focus-forming virus by a nine-day 59Fe assay. (7/9320)

A previously described 3-day 59Fe assay for quantitation of Friend spleen focus-forming virus has been modified to produce a 200-fold more sensitive 9-day 59Fe assay. A characterization of this assay is reported here. Male BALB/c mice received intravenous injections of appropriately diluted Friend polycythemia virus (FVP); control mice received virus diluent. All mice were allowed food and water ad libitum for 6 days, and on day 6 after virus injection were fasted by removal of food but not water. On day 3 of the fast (the 9th day after virus injection) each mouse received an intraperitoneal injection of 1 muCi of 59Fe. Six hours later the mice were sacrificed and the splenic radioactivity was determined. The percent splenic incorporation of 59Fe was directly related to the logarithm of spleen focus-forming units (SFFU) of FVP injected in a range of approximately 25 to 1,000 SFFU. Using a standard FVP preparation in a dose range of 25 to 1,000 SFFU, it was possible to determine the SFFU titers of unknown samples by extrapolation of the percent splenic 59Fe incorporation to the logarithm of SFFU. SFFU titers obtained by the 9-day 59Fe assay were similar to those obtained by the enumerative-response assay. Advantages of the 9-day 59Fe assay over the enumerative-response assay include a 50-fold greater virus dose range, an easier and a more objective counting procedure, and a reduced coefficient of variation.  (+info)

Serum dilution neutralization test for California group virus identification and serology. (8/9320)

The serum dilution neutralization test was evaluated for serological diagnosis of California group arbovirus infections and identification of virus isolates. The technical advantages and the degree of subtype specificity of the serum dilution neutralization test over the hemagglutination inhibition test and the complement fixation test were demonstrated with paired specimens from human cases, single human survey sera, and sentinel rabbit sera. Twenty-one virus isolates from various geographical areas of the United States were also used to evaluate the efficacy of the serum dilution neutralization test for specific virus identification.  (+info)

Evaluation studies are systematic investigations designed to assess the effectiveness, efficiency, and/or impact of a health-related intervention, program, or policy. These studies typically involve collecting and analyzing data on predefined outcomes, comparing them with established benchmarks or expected results, and drawing conclusions about the value or merit of the intervention being evaluated.

Evaluation studies can be formative, summative, or both. Formative evaluations are conducted during the development or implementation phase of an intervention to provide feedback for improvement. Summative evaluations, on the other hand, are conducted at the end of an intervention to assess its overall effectiveness and impact.

There are several types of evaluation studies, including:

1. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs): These are considered the gold standard in evaluation research as they randomly assign participants to either the intervention or control group, minimizing bias and confounding variables.
2. Quasi-experimental designs: These studies lack random assignment but use other methods to approximate experimental conditions, such as matching or stratification.
3. Observational studies: These involve observing and collecting data on participants without any intervention, allowing researchers to assess associations between variables.
4. Case studies: These are in-depth analyses of individual cases or small samples, often used to explore complex issues or generate hypotheses for further testing.
5. Cost-effectiveness analyses: These evaluate the costs and benefits of an intervention, providing information on its value relative to other interventions or alternatives.

Evaluation studies are essential in evidence-based medicine as they provide valuable insights into the effectiveness and impact of health-related interventions, programs, and policies, informing decision-making and resource allocation.

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

Health Information Systems (HIS) refer to the integrated set of components for collecting, processing, storing and disseminating health information. It includes hardware, software, telecommunications, people and procedures needed to run them. HIS can be used by various healthcare stakeholders such as hospitals, clinics, laboratories, pharmacies, insurance companies, and public health agencies to support clinical, administrative, and financial operations.

The primary goal of HIS is to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare delivery by providing timely and accurate information to the right people in the right format. It supports decision-making at all levels of the healthcare organization, from individual patient care to population health management.

HIS can include various applications such as electronic health records (EHR), computerized physician order entry (CPOE), clinical decision support systems (CDSS), picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), laboratory information systems (LIS), radiology information systems (RIS), pharmacy information systems (PIS), and many others.

Overall, Health Information Systems play a critical role in modern healthcare by facilitating the management of health data and supporting evidence-based practice, patient engagement, and population health management.

Informatics, in the context of medicine and healthcare, is the scientific discipline that deals with the systematic processing, transmission, and manipulation of biomedical data, information, and knowledge. It involves the application of computer and information science principles, methods, and systems to improve healthcare delivery, research, and education.

Health Informatics, also known as Healthcare Informatics or Medical Informatics, encompasses various areas such as clinical informatics, public health informatics, nursing informatics, dental informatics, and biomedical informatics. These fields focus on developing and using information systems, technologies, and tools to support healthcare professionals in their decision-making processes, improve patient care, enhance clinical outcomes, and promote evidence-based practice.

Health Informatics plays a crucial role in facilitating the integration of data from different sources, such as electronic health records (EHRs), medical imaging systems, genomic databases, and wearable devices, to create comprehensive and longitudinal patient records. It also supports research and education by providing access to large-scale biomedical data repositories and advanced analytical tools for knowledge discovery and evidence generation.

In summary, Informatics in healthcare is a multidisciplinary field that combines information technology, communication, and healthcare expertise to optimize the health and well-being of individuals and populations.

A "Research Report" in the medical context is a comprehensive and systematic documentation of the entire process, findings, and conclusions of a scientific research study. It typically includes an abstract, introduction, methodology, results, discussion, and conclusion sections. The report may also contain information about the funding sources, potential conflicts of interest, and ethical considerations related to the research. The purpose of a research report is to allow other researchers to critically evaluate the study, replicate its findings, and build upon its knowledge. It should adhere to strict standards of scientific reporting and be written in a clear, concise, and objective manner.

Swan-Ganz catheterization is a medical procedure in which a Swan-Ganz catheter, also known as a pulmonary artery catheter, is inserted into a patient's vein and guided through the heart to the pulmonary artery. The procedure is named after its inventors, Dr. Jeremy Swan and Dr. William Ganz.

The Swan-Ganz catheter is a thin, flexible tube that is equipped with sensors that measure various cardiac functions, such as blood pressure in the heart chambers and lungs, oxygen saturation of the blood, and cardiac output. This information helps doctors evaluate heart function, diagnose heart conditions, and monitor treatment effectiveness.

Swan-Ganz catheterization is typically performed in a hospital setting by trained medical professionals, such as cardiologists or critical care specialists. The procedure may be used to diagnose and manage various heart conditions, including heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and shock. It may also be used during major surgeries or other medical procedures to monitor the patient's hemodynamic status.

Like any medical procedure, Swan-Ganz catheterization carries some risks, such as infection, bleeding, and damage to blood vessels or heart structures. However, these complications are relatively rare when the procedure is performed by experienced medical professionals.

Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) are a class of medications that block the action of aldosterone, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium balance and blood pressure by binding to mineralocorticoid receptors in the kidneys, heart, blood vessels, and brain.

When aldosterone binds to these receptors, it promotes sodium retention and potassium excretion, which can lead to an increase in blood volume and blood pressure. MRAs work by blocking the binding of aldosterone to its receptors, thereby preventing these effects.

MRAs are primarily used to treat heart failure, hypertension, and kidney disease. By reducing sodium retention and increasing potassium excretion, MRAs can help lower blood pressure, reduce fluid buildup in the body, and improve heart function. Examples of MRAs include spironolactone and eplerenone.

Spironolactone is a prescription medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as potassium-sparing diuretics. It works by blocking the action of aldosterone, a hormone that helps regulate sodium and potassium balance in your body. This results in increased urine production (diuresis) and decreased salt and fluid retention.

Spironolactone is primarily used to treat edema (fluid buildup) associated with heart failure, liver cirrhosis, or kidney disease. It's also prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure and primary hyperaldosteronism, a condition where the adrenal glands produce too much aldosterone.

Furthermore, spironolactone is used off-label to treat conditions such as acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth in women), and hormone-sensitive breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

It's important to note that spironolactone can cause increased potassium levels in the blood (hyperkalemia) and should be used with caution in patients with kidney impairment or those taking other medications that affect potassium balance. Regular monitoring of electrolyte levels, including potassium and sodium, is essential during spironolactone therapy.

Day care, also known as adult day services, is a type of medical or social service provided for adults who need supervision and assistance during the day. These services are designed to help individuals who are unable to be left alone during the day due to physical or mental impairments, chronic illness, or disability. Day care centers typically provide a range of services including nursing care, personal care, meals, social activities, and recreational programs. They offer respite for caregivers who need a break from their caregiving responsibilities and can help individuals maintain their independence and quality of life while receiving the support they need.

Program Evaluation is a systematic and objective assessment of a healthcare program's design, implementation, and outcomes. It is a medical term used to describe the process of determining the relevance, effectiveness, and efficiency of a program in achieving its goals and objectives. Program evaluation involves collecting and analyzing data related to various aspects of the program, such as its reach, impact, cost-effectiveness, and quality. The results of program evaluation can be used to improve the design and implementation of existing programs or to inform the development of new ones. It is a critical tool for ensuring that healthcare programs are meeting the needs of their intended audiences and delivering high-quality care in an efficient and effective manner.

In the context of healthcare, an Information System (IS) is a set of components that work together to collect, process, store, and distribute health information. This can include hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that are used to create, process, and communicate information.

Healthcare IS support various functions within a healthcare organization, such as:

1. Clinical information systems: These systems support clinical workflows and decision-making by providing access to patient records, order entry, results reporting, and medication administration records.
2. Financial information systems: These systems manage financial transactions, including billing, claims processing, and revenue cycle management.
3. Administrative information systems: These systems support administrative functions, such as scheduling appointments, managing patient registration, and tracking patient flow.
4. Public health information systems: These systems collect, analyze, and disseminate public health data to support disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, and population health management.

Healthcare IS must comply with various regulations, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which governs the privacy and security of protected health information (PHI). Effective implementation and use of healthcare IS can improve patient care, reduce errors, and increase efficiency within healthcare organizations.

A visual field test is a method used to measure an individual's entire scope of vision, which includes what can be seen straight ahead and in peripheral (or side) vision. During the test, the person being tested is asked to focus on a central point while gradually identifying the appearance of objects moving into their peripheral vision. The visual field test helps detect blind spots (scotomas) or gaps in the visual field, which can be caused by various conditions such as glaucoma, brain injury, optic nerve damage, or retinal disorders. It's an essential tool for diagnosing and monitoring eye-related diseases and conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country in central Europe. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

Decision support techniques are methods used to help individuals or groups make informed and effective decisions in a medical context. These techniques can involve various approaches, such as:

1. **Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS):** Computerized systems that provide clinicians with patient-specific information and evidence-based recommendations to assist in decision-making. CDSS can be integrated into electronic health records (EHRs) or standalone applications.

2. **Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM):** A systematic approach to clinical decision-making that involves the integration of best available research evidence, clinician expertise, and patient values and preferences. EBM emphasizes the importance of using high-quality scientific studies to inform medical decisions.

3. **Diagnostic Reasoning:** The process of formulating a diagnosis based on history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. Diagnostic reasoning techniques may include pattern recognition, hypothetico-deductive reasoning, or a combination of both.

4. **Predictive Modeling:** The use of statistical models to predict patient outcomes based on historical data and clinical variables. These models can help clinicians identify high-risk patients and inform treatment decisions.

5. **Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA):** An economic evaluation technique that compares the costs and benefits of different medical interventions to determine which option provides the most value for money. CEA can assist decision-makers in allocating resources efficiently.

6. **Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA):** A structured approach to decision-making that involves identifying, evaluating, and comparing multiple criteria or objectives. MCDA can help clinicians and patients make complex decisions by accounting for various factors, such as efficacy, safety, cost, and patient preferences.

7. **Shared Decision-Making (SDM):** A collaborative approach to decision-making that involves the clinician and patient working together to choose the best course of action based on the available evidence, clinical expertise, and patient values and preferences. SDM aims to empower patients to participate actively in their care.

These techniques can be used individually or in combination to support medical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Netherlands" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Western Europe, known for its artistic heritage, elaborate canal system, and legalized marijuana and prostitution. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Heart failure is a pathophysiological state in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body or do so only at the expense of elevated filling pressures. It can be caused by various cardiac disorders, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Heart failure is often classified based on the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A reduced EF (less than 40%) is indicative of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), while a preserved EF (greater than or equal to 50%) is indicative of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is also a category of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) for those with an EF between 40-49%.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

Self care is a health practice that involves individuals taking responsibility for their own health and well-being by actively seeking out and participating in activities and behaviors that promote healthy living, prevent illness and disease, and manage existing medical conditions. Self care includes a wide range of activities such as:

* Following a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Getting adequate sleep and rest
* Managing stress through relaxation techniques or mindfulness practices
* Practicing good hygiene and grooming habits
* Seeking preventive care through regular check-ups and screenings
* Taking prescribed medications as directed by a healthcare provider
* Monitoring symptoms and seeking medical attention when necessary

Self care is an important part of overall health and wellness, and can help individuals maintain their physical, emotional, and mental health. It is also an essential component of chronic disease management, helping people with ongoing medical conditions to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior change to include social and environmental interventions that can positively influence the health of individuals, communities, and populations. Health promotion involves engaging in a wide range of activities, such as advocacy, policy development, community organization, and education that aim to create supportive environments and personal skills that foster good health. It is based on principles of empowerment, participation, and social justice.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

The term "Congresses as Topic" refers to large, formal meetings that are held to discuss and exchange information on a specific topic or field, usually academic or professional in nature. In the context of medical science, a congress is an event where healthcare professionals, researchers, and experts gather to present and discuss the latest research, developments, and innovations in their field. Medical congresses can cover a wide range of topics, including specific diseases, treatments, medical specialties, public health issues, or healthcare policies. These events often include keynote speeches, panel discussions, workshops, poster sessions, and networking opportunities for attendees. Examples of well-known medical congresses are the annual meetings of the American Medical Association, the American Heart Association, and the European Society of Cardiology.

A "periodical" in the context of medicine typically refers to a type of publication that is issued regularly, such as on a monthly or quarterly basis. These publications include peer-reviewed journals, magazines, and newsletters that focus on medical research, education, and practice. They may contain original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, letters to the editor, and other types of content related to medical science and clinical practice.

As a "Topic," periodicals in medicine encompass various aspects such as their role in disseminating new knowledge, their impact on clinical decision-making, their quality control measures, and their ethical considerations. Medical periodicals serve as a crucial resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and other stakeholders to stay updated on the latest developments in their field and to share their findings with others.

"Textbooks as Topic" is a medical subject heading (MeSH) used in the National Library of Medicine's cataloging system to describe works that are about textbooks as a genre or medium, rather than a specific subject. This can include discussions on the history of medical textbooks, their role in medical education, comparisons between different types of textbooks, and analysis of their content and effectiveness. It may also cover issues related to the production, distribution, and accessibility of medical textbooks.

Abstracting and indexing are processes used in the field of information science to organize, summarize, and categorize published literature, making it easier for researchers and other interested individuals to find and access relevant information.

Abstracting involves creating a brief summary of a publication, typically no longer than a few hundred words, that captures its key points and findings. This summary is known as an abstract and provides readers with a quick overview of the publication's content, allowing them to determine whether it is worth reading in full.

Indexing, on the other hand, involves categorizing publications according to their subject matter, using a controlled vocabulary or set of keywords. This makes it easier for users to search for and find publications on specific topics, as they can simply look up the relevant keyword or subject heading in the index.

Together, abstracting and indexing are essential tools for managing the vast and growing amount of published literature in any given field. They help ensure that important research findings and other information are easily discoverable and accessible to those who need them, thereby facilitating the dissemination of knowledge and advancing scientific progress.

"Review literature" is a term used to describe a type of scientific or academic writing that summarizes and synthesizes existing research on a particular topic. A review literature article, also known as a literature review, provides an overview of the current state of knowledge on a subject, highlighting the most important studies, methods, findings, and controversies.

A well-conducted review literature article is based on a thorough and systematic search of the relevant scientific or academic databases, journals, and other sources of information. The selection of studies for inclusion in the review is typically based on specific criteria, such as the quality of the research design, the relevance of the findings to the topic, and the publication date.

The purpose of a review literature article is to provide a critical analysis of the existing research, identify gaps in the current knowledge, and suggest directions for future research. It can also serve as a guide for researchers, clinicians, policymakers, and other stakeholders who are interested in staying up-to-date with the latest developments in their field.

In medical contexts, review literature articles are often used to inform evidence-based practice, clinical guidelines, and health policy decisions. They can also help to identify research priorities and guide funding agencies in allocating resources for future studies.

"Terminology as a topic" in the context of medical education and practice refers to the study and use of specialized language and terms within the field of medicine. This includes understanding the meaning, origins, and appropriate usage of medical terminology in order to effectively communicate among healthcare professionals and with patients. It may also involve studying the evolution and cultural significance of medical terminology. The importance of "terminology as a topic" lies in promoting clear and accurate communication, which is essential for providing safe and effective patient care.

Benchmarking in the medical context refers to the process of comparing healthcare services, practices, or outcomes against a widely recognized standard or within best practice recommendations, with the aim of identifying areas for improvement and implementing changes to enhance the quality and efficiency of care. This can involve comparing data on various metrics such as patient satisfaction, clinical outcomes, costs, and safety measures. The goal is to continuously monitor and improve the quality of healthcare services provided to patients.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Programmed Instruction" is not a medical term or concept. It is a educational theory and teaching strategy that was developed in the mid-20th century. Programmed instruction involves presenting information to learners in small, manageable chunks or "frames," with each frame building upon the previous one. Learners are often asked to respond to questions or prompts after each frame, which allows them to immediately apply what they have learned and receive feedback. This approach is designed to help learners progress at their own pace and take an active role in their learning process. It has been used in various settings, including medical education, to teach a wide range of topics.

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is a medical approach that combines the best available scientific evidence with clinical expertise and patient values to make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. It emphasizes the use of systematic research, including randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses, to guide clinical decision making. EBM aims to provide the most effective and efficient care while minimizing variations in practice, reducing errors, and improving patient outcomes.

'Guidelines' in the medical context are systematically developed statements or sets of recommendations designed to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available evidence, including scientific studies, expert opinions, and patient values. Guidelines may cover a wide range of topics, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention, screening, and management of various diseases and conditions. They aim to standardize care, improve patient outcomes, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote efficient use of healthcare resources.

"Herbals as Topic" is not a medical condition or diagnosis itself, but rather it refers to the study and discussion of herbal medicine or phytotherapy in the context of medical and healthcare practices. Herbal medicine involves the use of plants and plant extracts for medicinal purposes, either alone or combined with conventional treatments.

The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) defines herbal products as "products made from plants (or parts of plants) used to treat illnesses or promote health and well-being." These products can come in many forms, including teas, capsules, powders, extracts, and tinctures.

When discussing "Herbals as Topic," it is important to consider the potential benefits and risks associated with their use, as well as any interactions between herbal supplements and conventional medications. It is also crucial to ensure that patients are fully informed about the quality, safety, and efficacy of herbal products they may choose to use. Healthcare professionals should maintain an open and non-judgmental dialogue with their patients regarding their use of herbal medicine, encouraging evidence-based decision-making and promoting safe and effective integrative healthcare practices.

A bookplate, also known as ex libris, is a label or plate placed in a book, often on the front endpaper, to indicate ownership. It typically contains the name, motto, or coat of arms of the book's owner. Medical bookplates as a topic may refer to the study of these plates as they appear in medical books, or to the design and creation of bookplates for medical professionals or institutions. These bookplates can provide insight into the history of medicine and the cultural attitudes towards it.

A broadside, in the context of medical terminology, typically refers to a type of publication that is printed on one side of a large sheet of paper. In a historical context, broadsides were often used to disseminate information about medical treatments, public health announcements, or advertisements for medical services or products.

In modern times, the term "broadsides" may also refer to the sudden and intense delivery of medical treatment, such as in the case of broadside chemotherapy. This refers to the administration of multiple chemotherapeutic agents all at once, with the intention of delivering a concentrated and powerful blow to cancer cells.

It's worth noting that the term "broadsides" has a variety of meanings and uses outside of the medical field as well, including in reference to naval warfare, poetry, and more.

Practice guidelines, also known as clinical practice guidelines, are systematically developed statements that aim to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence, consensus of expert opinion, and consideration of patient preferences. Practice guidelines can cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment options for various medical conditions. They are intended to improve the quality and consistency of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote evidence-based medicine. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized patient care.

Patient education, as defined by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), is "the teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs. It includes the patient's understanding of his or her condition and the necessary procedures for self, assisted, or professional care." This encompasses a wide range of activities and interventions aimed at helping patients and their families understand their medical conditions, treatment options, self-care skills, and overall health management. Effective patient education can lead to improved health outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and better use of healthcare resources.

In the context of medical education, a curriculum refers to the planned and organized sequence of experiences and learning opportunities designed to achieve specific educational goals and objectives. It outlines the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that medical students or trainees are expected to acquire during their training program. The curriculum may include various components such as lectures, small group discussions, clinical rotations, simulations, and other experiential learning activities. It is typically developed and implemented by medical education experts and faculty members in consultation with stakeholders, including learners, practitioners, and patients.

A medical webcast is a digital broadcast of a live or recorded medical education event, seminar, or conference transmitted via the internet. It may include lectures, presentations, discussions, and question-and-answer sessions delivered by medical professionals, researchers, or experts in various fields of medicine. Medical webcasts serve as a valuable resource for continuing medical education (CME) and professional development, allowing healthcare providers to stay current with the latest advances, treatments, and guidelines in their respective fields. They may also provide opportunities for remote participation and interaction with presenters and other attendees through live chats, polls, or Q&A sessions.

A medical definition of "Manuscripts as Topic" refers to the study and analysis of written documents that report original research or scholarly work in the field of medicine. This can include research articles, review articles, case reports, and other types of manuscripts that are submitted for publication in medical journals. The study of manuscripts as a topic may involve analyzing their content, structure, and quality, as well as evaluating the peer-review process and editorial policies of medical journals. Additionally, it can also cover the historical development of medical knowledge and practices through the examination of ancient and medieval medical manuscripts.

A meta-analysis is a statistical method used to combine and summarize the results of multiple independent studies, with the aim of increasing statistical power, improving estimates of effect size, and identifying sources of heterogeneity. It involves systematically searching for and selecting relevant studies, assessing their quality and risk of bias, extracting and analyzing data using appropriate statistical models, and interpreting the findings in the context of the existing literature. Meta-analyses can provide more reliable evidence than individual studies, especially when the results are inconsistent or inconclusive, and can inform clinical guidelines, public health policies, and future research directions.

Clinical trials are research studies that involve human participants and are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or behavioral interventions. The purpose of clinical trials is to determine whether a new intervention is safe, effective, and beneficial for patients, as well as to compare it with currently available treatments. Clinical trials follow a series of phases, each with specific goals and criteria, before a new intervention can be approved by regulatory authorities for widespread use.

Clinical trials are conducted according to a protocol, which is a detailed plan that outlines the study's objectives, design, methodology, statistical analysis, and ethical considerations. The protocol is developed and reviewed by a team of medical experts, statisticians, and ethicists, and it must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) before the trial can begin.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must provide informed consent before enrolling in the study. Informed consent involves providing potential participants with detailed information about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and alternatives, as well as their rights as research subjects. Participants can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which they are entitled.

Clinical trials are essential for advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. They help researchers identify new treatments, diagnostic tools, and prevention strategies that can benefit patients and improve public health. However, clinical trials also pose potential risks to participants, including adverse effects from experimental interventions, time commitment, and inconvenience. Therefore, it is important for researchers to carefully design and conduct clinical trials to minimize risks and ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.

Research, in the context of medicine, is a systematic and rigorous process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in order to increase our understanding, develop new knowledge, or evaluate current practices and interventions. It can involve various methodologies such as observational studies, experiments, surveys, or literature reviews. The goal of medical research is to advance health care by identifying new treatments, improving diagnostic techniques, and developing prevention strategies. Medical research is typically conducted by teams of researchers including clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals. It is subject to ethical guidelines and regulations to ensure that it is conducted responsibly and with the best interests of patients in mind.

An almanac is not a medical term, but rather a type of publication that has been produced for many centuries. Traditional almanacs typically include a variety of information such as calendars, astronomical data, weather predictions, and various types of miscellaneous information that changes from year to year.

In a broader sense, an "almanac as topic" could refer to any publication that provides information on a particular subject on a regular or annual basis. For example, a medical almanac might be a publication that comes out once a year and includes information on the latest medical research, treatments, and guidelines. It might also include calendars of medical conferences and events, directories of medical organizations and professionals, and other useful resources for people working in the medical field.

However, it's worth noting that there is no widely recognized or standardized definition of a "medical almanac" as a specific type of publication. The term could be used differently by different publishers or organizations, so it's always a good idea to check the contents and scope of any publication before assuming what it covers.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "teaching" is a general term that refers to the act of imparting knowledge or skills to others and is not a medical term. However, in the context of medical education, teaching refers to the instruction and training of medical students, residents, fellows, and other healthcare professionals to develop their knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for providing high-quality patient care. This can take place in various settings such as classrooms, clinical wards, simulation centers, or online platforms, and can involve a range of teaching methods including lectures, small group discussions, bedside teaching, case-based learning, and hands-on training.

"Research Support as Topic" is not a specific medical term or diagnosis. However, in the context of medical literature and research, "research support" refers to the resources, funding, and infrastructure that enable and facilitate the conduct of scientific research. This can include financial support from various sources such as government agencies, private organizations, or institutions; access to laboratory facilities, equipment, and databases; and technical assistance in study design, data collection and analysis, and manuscript preparation.

When "research support" is designated as a topic in medical literature, it typically refers to articles that discuss the various aspects of research funding, ethics, and management, including best practices for grant writing, financial conflict of interest disclosures, and responsible conduct of research. It may also include studies that examine the impact of research support on the quality, quantity, and outcomes of scientific research.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question, as "incunabula" is not a medical term but rather a bibliographic one. Incunabula refers to books printed in Europe before the year 1501, during the infancy of print technology. The term comes from the Latin word "incunabulum," which means "swaddling clothes" or "cradle." It is used to describe the early stages of book production and printing. Therefore, it does not have a medical definition as such.

Nikolenko, Sergey (2017). "Topic modelling for qualitative studies". Journal of Information Science. 43: 88-102. doi:10.1177/ ... Newman, David (2010). "Automatic evaluation of topic coherence". Human Language Technologies: The 2010 Annual Conference of the ... The author-topic model by Rosen-Zvi et al. models the topics associated with authors of documents to improve the topic ... The "topics" produced by topic modeling techniques are clusters of similar words. A topic model captures this intuition in a ...
Hercules, Dalianis (2003). Porting and evaluation of automatic summarization. Roxana, Angheluta (2002). The Use of Topic ... Anne, Buist (2004). Automatic Summarization of Meeting Data: A Feasibility Study (PDF). Annie, Louis (2009). Performance ... Evaluation can be intrinsic or extrinsic, and inter-textual or intra-textual. Intrinsic evaluation assesses the summaries ... Intra-textual evaluation assess the output of a specific summarization system, while inter-textual evaluation focuses on ...
H stands for hooking the students on the topic of study. E stands for students exploring and experiencing ideas and being ... E stands for student evaluation. Most models of instructional design follow the core elements found in the ADDIE model of ... are not as likely to become so lost in the factual detail of a unit that they miss the point of studying the original topic. ... Educators are provided with an integrated framework and more importantly a case study of the backward lesson planning in action ...
Results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators". Lancet. 355 (9200 ... Current Topics in Biotechnology and Microbiology: Recent Trends. Lambert Academic Publishing. ISBN 978-3-8443-2975-9. "Effects ... Jha studied medicine at the University of Manitoba. After earning his Doctor of Medicine degree, he attended the University of ... Jha is the lead researcher behind the Action to Beat Coronavirus (Ab-C) study, where Unity Health, the University of Toronto ...
Prepare analytical reports, briefs, databases, studies, advisories, estimates, and evaluations. Identify information gaps and ... Topics include maritime C4ISR infrastructure." Other contractors that offer target analysis positions include Lockheed Martin, ... Available targeting analyst positions focus on regions of the world and on functional topics including terrorism, weapons ...
Another active research topic in medical voice analysis is vocal loading evaluation. The vocal cords of a person who speaks for ... A medical study of the voice can be, for instance, analysis of the voice of patients who have had a polyp removed from their ... Perceptual evaluation of voice is heavily reliant on voice quality, a factor assessed preferably by voice specialists (speech ... Voice analysis has been studied as an objective means to evaluate such problems. Voice analysis was an important factor in the ...
An exact evaluation of 'lattice sums' using Poisson's summation formula. A study of 'stochastic phenomena in sociology' --- ... These papers are mainly spread over the following topics. Superfluidity in liquid helium II --- one of the topics of Pathria's ... He received his early education in a local high school and then joined the Hindu College, Amritsar for his FSc studies. He was ... Lorentz transformation of thermodynamic quantities --- another topic of Pathria's Ph.D. thesis. Polymers and the Theory of ...
The researches conducted on this topic reported both positive and negative results. The study carried out by professor Zhang of ... Researchers consider peer evaluation a good compromise between working in groups and an objective evaluation. ... Studies by the OECD in 2015 suggested soft skills can be meaningfully measured within cultural and linguistic boundaries. Such ... This longitudinal study was evaluated using randomized controlled trials (RCT). It was found that the group which experienced ...
As a more applied research topic, he studied the aesthetics of Design on evaluation and usability. Since 2004 Leder has been a ... His team has also published a number of museum studies, in collaboration with the Museum Belvedere, the Musa, and the Albertina ... This model has served to frame many studies on the cognitive foundations of art, neuroaesthetics, product design, and web ... Leder had (and has) funded research projects to study facial attractiveness, appreciation of art, the brain on art, art ...
Objective-based teaching and evaluation, Value Education in classroom are a few other topics. Some of the notable alumni of the ... Some of these that have been held in the past few years were in Hindi, Mathematics and Social Studies at the Middle and the ... business studies, mathematics, economics, entrepreneurship, informatics, physical and health education, computer science, ... Secondary level, in Mathematics and Environmental Studies for Primary teachers and on Activity based approach for Kindergarten ...
... in particular those which studies Tabasaran, Andi, Chamalal languages of Dagestan. The topic of his diploma was Evaluation of ... Since 1984, he has systematically studied Dogon languages in Mali, and took part in an international field trip to Mali (1992 ... the topic of his work being Morphological derivation and inflection in the verbal system of an agglutinative language (based on ... African studies, poetics. Vladimir Plungian is a Doctor of Philology (1998), full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences ( ...
Wei has also served on numerous Data Safety Monitoring Boards for experimental studies for the drug industry. And has moreover ... Specifically, he has published many papers on monitoring drug and device safety and related topics. The resulting procedures ... have been utilized for various drug and device regulatory evaluations involving safety issues. His extensive experience in ... developed and published a number of novel quantitative methods for analyzing data from experimental and observational studies. ...
MSPP offers a number of global learning opportunities including a dual degree with the University of Geneva, five study abroad ... These are customized training programs in a variety of topics: international and domestic public policy issue areas; Congress ... The Georgetown University Initiative on Innovation, Development and Evaluation (GUI2DE). The Health Policy Institute: HPI is a ... Institute of Politics and Public Service (GU Politics): Partake in the study of politics and the political process and engage ...
... mirrored the intent of the work he later pursued in the evaluation of children. Maybe most importantly, his studies graduate ... Although these topics seem unrelated to his work, that was far from the case. On one hand, collaboration during graduate school ... II: Evaluation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 39(5), 281-297. doi:10.1037/h0056681 Cowen, E. L., Gesten, E. L., & Wilson, ... This constant evaluation is documented in both article (Cowen, Gesten, & Wilson, 1979) and book publications (Cowen et al., ...
The evaluation of SERIEE were focused on the EPEA framework and several countries provided pilot studies on the topic. Examples ... The studies in late 1990s indicated that the EPEA were difficult to compile, i.e. in the sense that numerous types of ... Even more recent studies have concluded the same thing. A few countries have found the compilation of the EPEA feasible and can ... Another study, based on Swedish statistics show that enterprises that has internal research and development (R&D) departments ...
Her thesis was on the topic of relational database performance. During her studies at Berkeley, she began working with Michael ... Hawthorn completed her master's in 1974 with a thesis entitled A performance evaluation of a CDC 6600 computer. Encouraged by ... "USACM Study on Voter Registration Databases". www.acm.org. Retrieved 2021-04-07. Crowley, Magdalene L. (2019-12-19). "The First ... "ACM STUDY GROUP ISSUES VOTER REGISTRATION GUIDELINES TO ASSURE PRIVACY AND ACCURACY" (PDF). 2006-02-16. Retrieved 2021-04-07. " ...
This topic has received little analytic study. An example of this is the 2018 London, Ontario municipal election. In 2018, the ... The evaluation protocol outlined here is modelled on the one described by Tideman and Plassmann. Evaluations of this type are ... The evaluation protocol can be varied in a number of ways: The number of voters can be made finite and varied in size. In ... A separate topic is the fact that different candidates may be encouraged to run for election under different voting systems. ...
Sherif's experimental study of the autokinetic movement demonstrated how mental evaluation norms were created by human beings. ... The experiment is a study on the psychology of imprisonment and is a topic covered in most introductory psychology textbooks. ... During the three studies, a child was offered a choice between one small reward provided immediately or two small rewards if ... The study had shown aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors were learned by observing others and had a significant effect on ...
Publications To date, the Academia has published over 50 publications including studies and projects on various topics. AMC ... maintains crucial links with various government organizations, by actively participating in the discussion, evaluation and ... It also undertakes studies on the problems that affect the formal teaching of mathematics in elementary and middle school. Some ... Scientific Research Week The Week consists of planning the greatest number of talks on scientific topics, aimed at young ...
The GEM study revealed that numerous technical problems related to the Simputers and ingrained inequalities, mean that even ... http://idrc.ca/lacro/ev-92793-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html[permanent dead link] GEM manuals "APC Women's Networking Support Programme". ... The Gender Evaluation Methodology (GEM) is an evaluation methodology that integrates a gender analysis into evaluations of ... It is an evaluation tool for determining whether ICTs are really improving or worsening women's lives and gender relations, as ...
The study of attitude formation is the study of how people form evaluations of persons, places or things. Theories of classical ... Key topics in the study of attitudes include attitude strength, attitude change, consumer behavior, and attitude-behavior ... Past studies conclude accessible attitudes are more resistant to change. The effects of attitudes on behaviors is a growing ... As with any type of heritability, to determine if a particular trait has a basis in genetics, twin studies are used. The most ...
A special class of language disorders is studied by the psychopathology of language. Its topics of interest range from simple ... In most cases, language development is predicable and referrals for evaluation may be needed in cases where a child's language ... ISBN 978-0-387-94041-0. van Dulm, Ondene (2002). "A Psycholinguistic Approach to the Classification, Evaluation and Remediation ...
... consists of modern evaluations, commentaries and studies on early music. The series often includes topics which do not fall ... Since 1946, the AIM has produced over 650 publications on a variety of topics. These include the complete works of two of the ... The Renaissance Manuscript Studies, general editor formerly Charles Hamm, contains complete catalogues of early music sources. ... "AIM: Musicological Studies and Documents (MSD) Home". corpusmusicae.com. Retrieved 19 September 2021. Lowinsky 1983, p. 13. ...
Wikipedia articles that may have off-topic sections from May 2023, All articles that may have off-topic sections, Articles with ... Studies of Shakespeare (by Weimann, Barber, or Bristol, for example) locate much of the characteristic vitality of his drama in ... Gans, Herbert J. Popular Culture and High Culture: an Analysis and Evaluation of Taste. New York: Basic Books, 1974. xii, 179 p ... Adorno's work has had a considerable influence on culture studies, philosophy and the New Left. Writing in the New Yorker in ...
While at USC he was the evaluation specialist on the team that created the Emmy-winning PBS-TV program, Freestyle, which ... While teaching in Pennsylvania, he developed an eleventh-grade curriculum that integrated topics across all subjects. Shortly ... encouraged young girls to study mathematics and science. While at California State University, with two others he expanded his ... Klein, Stephen P.; James Burry; David Churchman; Marc Nadeau (1971). Evaluation Workshop. Monterey, California: CTB/McGraw-Hill ...
In an article that appeared in Science, eight weeks after the DNA study, Eugene Foster, the lead co-author of the DNA study, is ... Historians, as is their wont, have usually been more reserved in their evaluation of the Jefferson-Hemings relationship than ... Nonetheless, as the conferences and publications devoted to the topic attest, the DNA revelations have strongly resonated among ... "Background DNA Study: The Jefferson-Hemings DNA Study as told by Herbert Barger, Jefferson Family Historian". JeffersonDNAStudy ...
It is supplemented with a Master's degree program in the same topics. After an in-depth evaluation, both programs were extended ... "Study". Retrieved 4 July 2015. "QS World University Rankings 2024". QS World University Rankings. Retrieved 16 July 2023. " ... Louis Agassiz, biologist and geologist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber (1739-1810), naturalist, studied mammals. Robley ... Center for Area Studies Center for Teacher Education Center for Applied Ethics and Science Communication FAU Graduate School ...
Sherif's experimental study of autokinetic movement demonstrated how mental evaluation norms were created by human beings. In ... The topic of the dissertation was social influence in perception, and the experiments have come to be known as the "autokinetic ... Despite this vast increase, Sherif believes that the studies don't build off of each other so it is hard to argue from common ... He returned to the U.S. in 1933 and re-enrolled at Harvard for his Doctoral studies, but later switched to Columbia University ...
... and/or related topics. Modern variants include Master of Library and Information Studies (MLIS), Master of Science in ... and program evaluation/performance measurement. Depending on their interest, MPA students can focus their studies on a variety ... The Master of Arts in Liberal Studies (MALS) Master of Liberal Arts (MLA, ALM) and Master of Liberal Studies (MLS) are ... Example of Master of Advanced Studies degree in the USA: List of Master of Advanced Studies offered at the University of ...
Through this process, they are exposed to different perspectives on the topic being studied, giving them a deeper understanding ... Peer-Based Evaluation: In peer based evaluation students are given the opportunity to analyze, critique, and provide ... Inquiry-based learning is generally used in field-work, case studies, investigations, individual and group projects, and ... and addresses topics that are relevant and applicable to their lives outside of school." Authentic instruction will take on a ...
Topic(s). * MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN - Marie Skłodowska-Curie Innovative Training Networks (ITN-ETN) ... this goal it is essential to implement efficient methods for the design and analysis of such early development studies. The. ... of development to avoid going into lengthy and costly confirmatory studies with ineffective or harmful treatments. To achieve. ... and in the design and analysis of early developmental studies in particular.. Within the network, cross-sectorial, ...
In the present study, we show that benzoic acid derivatives isolated from Bjerkandera adusta promote the activity of the two ... Our findings were further supported by in silico studies, where all compounds were found to be putative binders of both ... Topics. Information. For Authors For Reviewers For Editors For Librarians For Publishers For Societies For Conference ... "Biological Evaluation and In Silico Study of Benzoic Acid Derivatives from Bjerkandera adusta Targeting Proteostasis Network ...
What is already known on this topic. *. Validated risk prediction algorithms such as QRISK2 usually use a 10 year absolute risk ... Limitations of study. As with all observational studies, our study is subject to bias and confounding, including the effects of ... Derivation, validation, and evaluation of a new QRISK model to estimate lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease: cohort study ... Derivation, validation, and evaluation of a new QRISK model to estimate lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease: cohort study ...
What is already known about this topic?. Harmful algal and cyanobacterial blooms are large colonies of algae or cyanobacteria ... Evaluation of Syndromic Surveillance Data for Studying Harmful Algal Bloom-Associated Illnesses - United States, 2017-2019. ... Evaluation of Syndromic Surveillance Data for Studying Harmful Algal Bloom-Associated Illnesses - United States, 2017-2019. ... As of the end of the study period (December 2019), the national database represented approximately 70% of all ED visits in the ...
Evaluation Studies as Topic * Female * Hemarthrosis / diagnosis* * Humans * Image Enhancement / methods * Joint Dislocations / ... A single-blinded evaluation in 69 patients using high-field MRI before arthroscopy Int J Sports Med. 1996 Apr;17(3):218-22. doi ...
Using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), researchers examined three ... Topics. * Risk factors Locations. * United Kingdom Abstract. The United Kingdom has provided universal health care and public ... UK health performance: findings of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 Published March 4, 2013, in The Lancet (opens in a ... Using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), researchers examined three ...
USGS evaluations of nutrients in the MMSD Watercourse Corridor Study includes the characterization of processes for stream ... Corridor Study, the following six topics are being addressed by one or more USGS subprojects:. 1. Ecological Assessments and ... MMSD Watercourse Corridor Study: Nutrient Evaluations Active By Upper Midwest Water Science Center November 1, 2022 ... Corridor Study, the following six topics are being addressed by one or more USGS subprojects:. 1. Ecological Assessments and ...
Evaluation Studies as Topic* * Evidence-Based Practice / organization & administration* * Health Services Research ... A framework for mandatory impact evaluation to ensure well informed public policy decisions Lancet. 2010 Jan 30;375(9712):427- ...
Topics & Ideas. 353 Students who study Chemistry deal with various academic assignments. They prepare case studies, term papers ... Topics & Ideas Evaluation Essay Economics It seems we havent posted about it yet... Here are similar topics you might find ... Business and administrative studies. Accounting Business Studies Finance Human Resources Management (HRM) Logistics Management ... Topics & Ideas. 183 Topic selection for academic papers is always a challenge for both students and educators who want to ...
Term Status code Evaluation Weighting Examination aids Date Time Examination system Room * Spring ORD Assignment 100/100 A Room ... The course consist of lectures, and seminars, self-study of relevant literature, discussions with the supervisor or other ... Further on evaluation. An paper must be submitted in text form which is evaluated with pass / fail. ... It will also give support integrate the topics above in the candidates own PhD research. This includes:. a) the ability to ...
This is the final evaluation report for the project. ... Wilder Topic. Wilder Topic. Capacity Building Children, Youth, ... Study ID. Project Information. MN Youth Work Institute Technical Assistance Project. This project assisted community-based ... As a nonprofit research and evaluation group, we work with nonprofits, foundations, and government entities to inform decisions ... Community Youth Development - Technical Assistance Project: MN Youth Work Institute 2004-2005 Evaluation. ...
Wilder Topic. Communities Economy and Workforce Study ID. Project Information. Neighborhood Development Center. Neighborhood ... This multi-year evaluation documents NDCs impact on NDC-assisted businesses, as well as on the neighborhoods where owners ... As a nonprofit research and evaluation group, we work with nonprofits, foundations, and government entities to inform decisions ...
Project Topic on RATIO ANALYSIS AS A TOOL FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION (CASE STUDY OF GLAXOSMITHKLINE). (Banking and Finance ... More Banking and Finance Project Topics & Materials Related Works 1. RATIO ANALYSIS AS A TOOL FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION (CASE ... RATIO ANALYSIS AS A TOOL FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION (CASE STUDY OF GLAXOSMITHKLINE). For more Info, call us on +234 8130 686 ... 5. Ratio Analysis as an Important Tool for Evaluation Performance in the Banking Sector (A Case Study of Union Bank of Nigeria ...
The following topics will be studied: research, assessment, and evaluation; survey design; data collection and analysis; ... Assessment, Evaluation & Research in Higher Education EDUC 641 The purpose of this course is two-fold: (1) to provide a general ... Learn about the essential tools to successfully learn online, from study skills to technical help. ...
Research Study Evaluation Criteria. 1) Is the RESEARCH QUESTION relevant and important? ... Is the topic important? Are WREN clinicians interested in participating?. *Is this collaborative research, e.g., will one or ... Interest: Is the topic relevant to primary care practice? Will the research results add value to the practice of primary care ... WREN welcomes inquiries from researchers interested in collaborating on primary care research topics. This page can serve as a ...
Topics. Information. For Authors For Reviewers For Editors For Librarians For Publishers For Societies For Conference ... Evaluation of the Built-Up Area Dynamics in the First Ring of Cluj-Napoca Metropolitan Area, Romania by Semi-Automatic GIS ... Thus, the study of water supply, demand and balancing are important for effective water resources management. This study aims ... using GIS technology in environmental studies, geographical studies, engineering with an emphasis on the objective analysis of ...
Impact Evaluation Analytics: LFS International Field Studies - Indonesia. Posted on October 11, 2017 by Emma Loughton ... Posted in New Courses and Topics , Tagged apbi, course, field study of grape wine production, LFS, summer 2017 , Leave a ... Posted in New Courses and Topics , Tagged 2017S, apbi, course, grs, LFS, permaculture, ubc farm , Leave a comment ... Posted in New Courses and Topics , Tagged apbi, environmental impacts on human health, fnh, fre, grs, LFS, new course, SPPH ...
Case Study. * Featured Topics. * Evaluation. * Grantee Story. * Insights. * Research Report. * Speech. * Video. ...
The GBD study will continue to provide the data to set priorities for and measure progress in the global effort to control the ... The GBD study continues to grow by gathering more data from country partners than ever before, and by measuring health at the ... The Global Burden of Disease study and the preventable burden of NCD. Published December 16, 2016, in Global Heart (opens in a ... The Global Burden of Disease study and the preventable burden of NCD. Global Heart. 2016 Dec 8; 11(4):393-397. doi: 10.1016/j. ...
Learn how a self-management-oriented evaluation system can improve the quality of running primary and secondary schools. ... Explore a resource-based theory framework for school management evaluation. ... Conceptual Foundation and Research Topic. Management of the World, 5, 157-169. ... From the 1980s, studies on primary and secondary schools evaluation are keeping increasing. Among them, the evaluation of ...
http://www.fastmr.com/prod/1172884_2015_teema_report_evaluation.aspx?afid=301 List of Topics Overview of the structure of the ... Newly released market study: 2015 TEEMA Report: Evaluation of Chinese Investment Environment. From: Fast Market Research, Inc. ... 2015 TEEMA Report: Evaluation of the Investment Risks in China - 2015 TEEMA Report: Evaluation of Chinese City Competitiveness ... Newly released market study: 2015 TEEMA Report: Evaluation of Chinese Investment Environment ...
Methods The evaluation focused on the institutional perspective, i.e. the investment case for implementing WGS compared with ... Aim We evaluated costs and benefits of routine WGS through case studies at eight reference laboratories in Europe and the ... Economic evaluation of whole genome sequencing for pathogen identification and surveillance - results of case studies in Europe ... Economic evaluation of whole genome sequencing for pathogen identification and surveillance - results of case studies in Europe ...
CR 09: Study design for the evaluation of the effectiveness of MITERS-type projects-summary (1979) ... CR 09: Study design for the evaluation of the effectiveness of MITERS-type projects-summary (1979) ... A methodology was developed and recommended for the evaluation phase, based on the principles of the before-and-after study. ... This Summary report briefly describes the design phase of a study to evaluate the safety effectiveness of certain minor traffic ...
443.539.4162 What we studied: NCHH conducted a cross-sectional observational study, utilizing data collected by the MDHHS lead ... Evaluation of the HUD Lead Hazard Control Grant Program. Project Funder: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD ... Lead Soil Treatment Study in Boston. Project Funders: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Housing ... Lead Dust Cleaning Study in Vermont. Project Funder: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Project Partners: ...
Despite the ongoing debate in the field regarding the appropriate duration of these programs, the goal of the current study was ... Kopystynska, O., Turner, J.J., Schramm, D.G. and Higginbotham, B. (2020), Evaluation of Topics in Utahs ONE‐HOUR Divorce ... Evaluation of Topics in Utahs ONE‐HOUR Divorce Education Program. Family Court Review, 58: 804-815. doi:10.1111/fcre.12469, ... Despite the ongoing debate in the field regarding the appropriate duration of these programs, the goal of the current study was ...
Early Childhood Training and Technical Assistance Cross-System Evaluation A first-of-its-kind evaluation to maximize the ... Michigan Early Care and Education Workforce Study Understanding the professional development needs of educators vital to high- ... We provide news outlets with data and insights on emerging topics. Contact us to speak with one of our experts. ... Comprehensive Literacy Program Evaluation Assessing whether grants to promote youths reading and writing are having an impact ...
  • This report presents findings of a cognitive interviewing study which evaluated the performance of proposed questions on high-impact, chronic pain for the National Pain Strategy (NPS) Workgroup. (cdc.gov)
  • What are the main study findings? (annfammed.org)
  • SHRP 2 Report S2-R06D-RW-2 was developed as part of SHRP 2 Renewal Project R06D that generated a sizable amount of documentation regarding the findings of evaluations and equipment development. (trb.org)
  • However, the authors reported that most of the studies had flaws in design or analysis so that the findings should be interpreted with caution. (bmj.com)
  • It will also give support integrate the topics above in the candidates' own PhD research. (ntnu.edu)
  • As a nonprofit research and evaluation group, we work with nonprofits, foundations, and government entities to inform decisions and improve lives. (wilder.org)
  • WREN welcomes inquiries from researchers interested in collaborating on primary care research topics. (wisc.edu)
  • Is this collaborative research, e.g., will one or more WREN members be involved in study design, conduct, analysis, and/or co-authorship? (wisc.edu)
  • Based on a lot of literature analysis and practice research, this paper tries to construct a school management evaluation framework based on resource-based theory to help schools step into the right way. (scirp.org)
  • Interested in partnering with us on a research, data, or evaluation project? (norc.org)
  • The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) is an independent, nonprofit scientific and educational organization dedicated to reducing deaths, injuries and property damage from motor vehicle crashes through research and evaluation and through education of consumers, policymakers and safety professionals. (iihs.org)
  • This study represents one of the first attempts to use qualitative research to explicitly explain heterogeneity in the effects detected by the quantitative impact evaluation of a PBF program. (bmj.com)
  • How does this study advance beyond previous research and clinical practice on this topic? (annfammed.org)
  • NIOSH research - handle size study. (cdc.gov)
  • Griffiths & Steyvers used topic modeling on abstracts from the journal PNAS to identify topics that rose or fell in popularity from 1991 to 2001 whereas Lamba & Madhusushan used topic modeling on full-text research articles retrieved from DJLIT journal from 1981 to 2018. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting topics are used to index the papers at aipano.cse.ust.hk to help researchers track research trends and identify papers to read, and help conference organizers and journal editors identify reviewers for submissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The assessment is part of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Democracy Human Rights and Governance: Learning, Evaluation, and Research (DRG-LER) activity. (norc.org)
  • The first research effort was a comprehensive lab and field study to identify safer ways to lift and move nursing home residents by removing the excessive forces and extreme postures that can occur when manually lifting residents. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on the successes achieved in the long-term care industry, NIOSH is undertaking a six-year longitudinal research study to evaluate the effectiveness of a "best practices" safe patient handling program at two large acute-care hospitals in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The discrepancy in results from previous research on accent evaluations was interesting and called for further investigation. (lu.se)
  • This has been shown in language attitudes research where the use of some accents can have both notable social and communication consequences for some speakers, in addition to trait characteristics and prejudice evaluations (Dragojevic et al. (lu.se)
  • Using a cross-sectorial, transnational approach, the IDEAS network brings together leading public and private sector researchers in the field with ample experience in training to educate, promote and support the future leaders in medical statistics in general and in the design and analysis of early developmental studies in particular. (europa.eu)
  • Using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), researchers examined three critical questions: what are the patterns of health loss in the UK, what are the leading preventable risks that explain some of those patterns, and how do UK outcomes compare to a set of comparable countries in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere in 1990 and 2010. (healthdata.org)
  • To improve the qualitative aspects and coherency of generated topics, some researchers have explored the efficacy of "coherence scores", or otherwise how computer-extracted clusters (i.e. topics) align with a human benchmark. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of the end of the study period (December 2019), the national database represented approximately 70% of all ED visits in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • A total of 93.4 % of graduates from this University enter the job market the first year after finishing their studies, according to the 2019 XXIV Estudio de Inserción Profesional (Professional Placement Study) . (uc3m.es)
  • Methods Our qualitative study aimed at closing this gap in knowledge by attempting to unpack the mixed and heterogeneous effects detected by the PBF impact evaluation in Cameroon to inform further implementation as the country scales up the PBF approach. (bmj.com)
  • 2 The current study by Al Achkar et al presents a qualitative study of telepsychiatric consultation as a method of continuous training and workforce development in the primary care settings with an established collaborative care model in rural areas. (annfammed.org)
  • The evaluation adopted a mixed-methods approach in gathering data, with the primary method being qualitative - interviews, documentary analysis and observations. (ucd.ie)
  • There are courses in quantitative methods, but not in qualitative methods, which suggests a hierarchy within methodologies and indeed that it is not necessary to study qualitative methods which can somehow be `picked up' from general reading. (lu.se)
  • In statistics and natural language processing, a topic model is a type of statistical model for discovering the abstract "topics" that occur in a collection of documents. (wikipedia.org)
  • We provide news outlets with data and insights on emerging topics. (norc.org)
  • Topic models can help to organize and offer insights for us to understand large collections of unstructured text bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • but recent studies have revealed new insights. (cdc.gov)
  • Recent sediment fingerprinting studies in the Kinnickinnic River system showed that the sources of sediment-bound phosphorus were mainly residential areas and secondarily stream banks ( Blount, Lenoch, and Fitpatrick, 2023 ). (usgs.gov)
  • The evaluation focused on the institutional perspective, i.e. the 'investment case' for implementing WGS compared with conventional methods, based on costs and benefits during a defined reference period, mostly covering at least part of 2017. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The overall goal of this cognitive testing study was to test the constructs captured by questions on chronic pain, management of pain, burden of pain and participation restrictions due to pain and to select appropriate items for inclusion on the 2017 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). (cdc.gov)
  • The impact evaluation design was based on the preliminary concepts developed at the 2017 DRG IE Learning Clinic. (norc.org)
  • The goal of this essay is to study the language attitudes of native English speakers toward two native and two non-native English accents by applying the verbal-guise technique and using speech audios from The Speech Accent Archive (Weinberger, 2017). (lu.se)
  • This feature evaluates nine intersections studied. (iihs.org)
  • This study evaluates the CPH-NEW Healthy Workplace Participatory Program (HWPP), a Total Worker Health protocol to develop effective employee teams for worker safety, health, and wellbeing. (cdc.gov)
  • To achieve this goal it is essential to implement efficient methods for the design and analysis of such early development studies. (europa.eu)
  • Following this initial introduction, section two discusses the methods used in this study, including the sample selection, sample characteristics, and interviewing procedure. (cdc.gov)
  • Analytic number theory studies the distribution of the prime numbers, based on methods from mathematical analysis. (ntnu.edu)
  • Yang, Torget and Mihalcea applied topic modeling methods to newspapers from 1829 to 2008. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2014. A comprehensive evaluation of various sensitivity analysis methods: A case study with a hydrological model. (lu.se)
  • Safety and health through integrated, facilitated teams (SHIFT): stepped-wedge protocol for prospective, mixed-methods evaluation of the Healthy Workplace Participatory Program. (cdc.gov)
  • The study examined the long-term effectiveness of a safe lifting program with the primary objective to reduce injuries to healthcare workers resulting from manual lifting and transferring of patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Improvements were found in six of the 14 studies measuring patient outcomes. (bmj.com)
  • Targeted pre-post analyses will also examine specific outcomes appropriate to the topics selected for intervention. (cdc.gov)
  • Process evaluation outcomes include fidelity of the HWPP intervention, extent of individual DT member activity, expansion of committee scope to include employee well-being, program obstacles and opportunities in each setting, and sustainability (within the available time frame). (cdc.gov)
  • Design Prospective cohort study with routinely collected data from general practice. (bmj.com)
  • Syndromic surveillance data are useful for studying the extent of harmful algal bloom-associated illness. (cdc.gov)
  • To explore the utility of syndromic surveillance data for studying health effects from harmful algal bloom exposures, CDC queried emergency department (ED) visit data from the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP) for harmful algal bloom exposure-associated administrative discharge diagnosis codes and chief complaint text terms related to harmful algal bloom exposure ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The GBD study continues to grow by gathering more data from country partners than ever before, and by measuring health at the national and subnational levels and in smaller time increments. (healthdata.org)
  • The GBD study will continue to provide the data to set priorities for and measure progress in the global effort to control the rising burden of NCD. (healthdata.org)
  • The general process for analyzing cognitive interview data involves synthesis and reduction beginning with a large amount of textual data and ending with conclusions that are meaningful and serve the ultimate purpose of the study (Miller, Willson, Chepp, & Padilla, 2014). (cdc.gov)
  • The Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) shares and supports this mission through scientific studies of insurance data representing the human and economic losses resulting from the ownership and operation of different types of vehicles and by publishing insurance loss results by vehicle make and model. (iihs.org)
  • Originally developed as a text-mining tool, topic models have been used to detect instructive structures in data such as genetic information, images, and networks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Process Evaluation Inter-agency Collaboration Questionnaire , 2008 - 2012 [data collection]. (ucd.ie)
  • The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. (plos.org)
  • This course also includes practical and theoretical exercises relevant to current status of spatial data management and sharing, development of clearinghouse networks, SDI evaluation, and spatial enabled-society. (lu.se)
  • The design seeks to achieve comparable study engagement and data quality between groups. (cdc.gov)
  • Potential challenges include difficulty in pooling data across study sites if Design Teams select different intervention topics, and follow-up periods too short for change to be observed. (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical study in which a prospectively planned opportunity is included to modify trial designs and hypotheses based on analysis of data from subjects in the study. (bvsalud.org)
  • The pain assessment tools proposed by the NPS Workgroup use the definitions of chronic pain and high- impact chronic pain, which are based in part on the widely used definition of chronic pain recommended by the International Association for the Study of Pain, (International Association for the Study of Pain, 1986) modified to account for intermittent pain. (cdc.gov)
  • This study evaluated the implementation of the Childhood Development Initiative (CDI) in Tallaght West, Co. Dublin, between 2008 and 2012. (ucd.ie)
  • As a pioneer in measuring and understanding the world, NORC studies almost every aspect of the human experience. (norc.org)
  • NORC was commissioned to design an impact evaluation of the Obirodh: Road to Tolerance, Bangladesh program. (norc.org)
  • Discussion: This study aims for a quantitative evaluation of the HWPP over a time period long enough to accomplish multiple intervention cycles in each facility. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of a cognitive interviewing study is to investigate how well survey questions perform when asked of respondents, that is, if respondents understand the questions according to their intended design and if they can provide accurate answers based on that intent (Willis, 2005). (cdc.gov)
  • Design Within-trial economic evaluation alongside a multicentre, two-arm parallel group, randomised controlled trial (Speed of Increasing milk Feeds Trial). (bmj.com)
  • tive studies that link water to tularemia in humans are lack- ing. (cdc.gov)
  • The main question driving this study is the following: To what extent is NISE Net reaching the public through the different tiers of the Network? (nisenet.org)
  • Is the topic relevant to primary care practice? (wisc.edu)
  • How comparable is the study sample to similar patients in your practice? (annfammed.org)
  • How might this study change your practice? (annfammed.org)
  • General practitioners and practice nurses in the study practices and their patients aged 18 or over with angina or asthma. (bmj.com)
  • This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Kopystynska, O., Turner, J.J., Schramm, D.G. and Higginbotham, B. (2020), Evaluation of Topics in Utah's ONE‐HOUR Divorce Education Program. (usu.edu)
  • Dragojevic and Goatley-Soan (2020) conducted a study to examine the attitudes of American participants toward standard English accents and nine different non-Anglo foreign accents. (lu.se)
  • Effective Fall 2024, BCIT will implement English Language Proficiency (ELP) categories for programs requiring a minimum of English 12 with 50%, 67%, or 73% into Categories 1,2,3, and Graduate Studies . (bcit.ca)
  • NIOSH conducted a large field study to determine if an intervention consisting of mechanical equipment to lift physically dependent residents, training on the proper use of the lifts, a safe lifting policy, and a preexisting medical management program would reduce the rate and the associated costs of the resident handling injuries for the nursing personnel in a real world setting. (cdc.gov)
  • More information on this study can be found in the NIOSH publication Safe Lifting and Movement of Nursing Home Residents . (cdc.gov)
  • Another major study demonstrating success in reducing back injuries to health care workers was funded by NIOSH through a cooperative agreement. (cdc.gov)
  • This is the final evaluation report for the project. (wilder.org)
  • In the cover letter participants were informed about the study, the survey specifically - its aims and content - and informed that their participation was voluntary. (ucd.ie)
  • Do you have similar experiences to the clinicians interviewed in this study? (annfammed.org)
  • This study demonstrates the feasibility of using Bayesian Improved Surname Geocoding (BISG) in a Medicaid population, producing imputed estimates for more than 99% of beneficiaries. (rand.org)
  • In the present study, we show that benzoic acid derivatives isolated from Bjerkandera adusta promote the activity of the two main protein degradation systems, namely the ubiquitin-proteasome (UPP) and especially the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) in human foreskin fibroblasts. (mdpi.com)
  • Study participants like you inform answers to society's most pressing questions. (norc.org)
  • These studies include all the basic content that is taught in both degree programs separately. (uc3m.es)
  • This paper tries to help those schools to improve their quality from the perspective of building a more effective evaluation framework that will be based on the idea of self-management and endogenous development. (scirp.org)
  • A topic model captures this intuition in a mathematical framework, which allows examining a set of documents and discovering, based on the statistics of the words in each, what the topics might be and what each document's balance of topics is. (wikipedia.org)
  • Describe how this study will impact practices. (wisc.edu)
  • Approaches for temporal information include Block and Newman's determination of the temporal dynamics of topics in the Pennsylvania Gazette during 1728-1800. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study is an international review of approaches to police performance measurement which examines how police performance is measured in a selection of countries and assesses how police performance measurement in the Netherlands could be improved. (rand.org)
  • Case studies from six communities illustrate approaches to implementing SEL. (rand.org)
  • The DT conducts root cause analyses, prioritizes problems, identifies feasible interventions in light of the constraints and needs of the specific setting, makes business-case presentations to facility leadership, and assists in evaluation. (cdc.gov)
  • The study was intended to further inform and specify this theory of change, allowing for clearer hypotheses about strategies that may be effective in inspiring individuals to counter violent extremist rhetoric. (norc.org)
  • Topic selection for academic papers is always a challenge for both students and educators who want to obtain a new educational degree. (customwritings.com)
  • IAEA scientific and technical publications can be searched by multiple parameters: year of publication, topic and type. (iaea.org)
  • The objectives of this study are to describe the processes for stream nutrients to cause estuary eutrophication, low dissolved oxygen, algal growth, and potential HABs by building off the state of science and gaps from the Fox and Maumee Rivers. (usgs.gov)
  • Evaluation of Topics in Utah's ONE‐HOUR Divorce Education Program" by Olena Kopystynska, Joshua Turner et al. (usu.edu)
  • Find everything you need to know about how to apply for your program of study. (uottawa.ca)
  • At the end of the program, students will receive two degrees, one in International Studies and another in Political Science, with the professional advantages that this entails. (uc3m.es)
  • With the development of the society and the change of educational philosophy, more and more Chinese want their children to study in schools with higher quality both in teaching and management which will help their children grow up better but not in general schools. (scirp.org)
  • Language attitudes will be studied by looking at social attractiveness and social status and applying traits from semantic- differential scales. (lu.se)
  • However, The EC had a number of questions about the courses and wanted to use the opportunity created by the evaluation initiative to suggest ways in which the achievements of the last few years could be consolidated and progressed. (lu.se)
  • The study results provide further evidence in support of the previous studies on language attitudes and evaluation of accents on the scales of social attractiveness and social status. (lu.se)
  • Adaptative Clinical Trials as Topic and Equivalence Trials as Topic are available for 2018. (bvsalud.org)
  • Increasing awareness so that more patients know to mention harmful algal bloom exposures and more physicians know to ask about them could improve documentation of health effects and enable further use of health records for health studies. (cdc.gov)
  • Improving the documentation of harmful algal bloom exposures in medical records would further benefit future health studies. (cdc.gov)
  • The GBD (Global Burden of Disease) study measures and benchmarks health loss from death or disability from more than 300 diseases in over 100 countries. (healthdata.org)
  • Hierarchical latent tree analysis (HLTA) is an alternative to LDA, which models word co-occurrence using a tree of latent variables and the states of the latent variables, which correspond to soft clusters of documents, are interpreted as topics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual-level analysis finds that among those arrested for driving under the influence, participation in 24/7 Sobriety reduces risk of death during study period-on the order of 50 percent. (rand.org)
  • In the studies that were included in our analysis, changes of adiponectin levels (when present) were also evaluated. (plos.org)
  • The USGS will conduct a baseline study of indicators of sediment-phosphorus and nitrogen availability in stream sediment and algae species at tributary and estuary sites to determine the potential for fueling HABs in Milwaukee-area rivers and the Milwaukee Estuary. (usgs.gov)
  • We evaluated costs and benefits of routine WGS through case studies at eight reference laboratories in Europe and the Americas which conduct pathogen surveillance for avian influenza (two laboratories), human influenza (one laboratory) and food-borne pathogens (five laboratories). (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Cystometric study measures the amount of fluid in the bladder when you first feel the need to urinate, when you are able to sense fullness, and when your bladder is completely full. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Recently, it has been recognised that more care needs to be taken during the early stages of development to avoid going into lengthy and costly confirmatory studies with ineffective or harmful treatments. (europa.eu)
  • This multi-year evaluation documents NDC's impact on NDC-assisted businesses, as well as on the neighborhoods where owners reside and operate businesses. (wilder.org)
  • A number of impact evaluations have noted that PBF often produces mixed and heterogeneous effects. (bmj.com)
  • A number of impact evaluations of performance-based financing (PBF) programs have pointed to the fact that PBF often produces mixed and heterogeneous effects. (bmj.com)
  • This study looks specifically at the activities of the Tier I, II and III institutions as a way of determining whether it is likely that NISE Net will have an impact on the public through the NSET public outreach activities of those institutions. (nisenet.org)
  • The impact evaluation was based on a theory of change proposing that violent extremism flourishes in social environments that are permissive of it and can be mitigated by encouraging the society in which it would otherwise grow to become inhospitable and hostile to it. (norc.org)
  • The course consist of lectures, and seminars, self-study of relevant literature, discussions with the supervisor or other faculty members/peers during the writing process, an oral presentation and the writing of a final essay. (ntnu.edu)
  • This case study explores how Lister Elementary School in Tacoma, Washington, established social and emotional learning and equity as a nonnegotiable foundation for its work with students, staff, and families. (rand.org)