Eustachian Tube: A narrow passageway that connects the upper part of the throat to the TYMPANIC CAVITY.Ear Diseases: Pathological processes of the ear, the hearing, and the equilibrium system of the body.Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.Diagnostic Techniques, Otological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the ear or of hearing disorders or demonstration of hearing acuity or loss.Ear Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of any part of the hearing and equilibrium system of the body (the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR).Otitis Media with Effusion: Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.Palatal Muscles: The muscles of the palate are the glossopalatine, palatoglossus, levator palati(ni), musculus uvulae, palatopharyngeus, and tensor palati(ni).Middle Ear Ventilation: Ventilation of the middle ear in the treatment of secretory (serous) OTITIS MEDIA, usually by placement of tubes or grommets which pierce the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Otologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.Acoustic Impedance Tests: Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).Tympanoplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the hearing mechanism of the middle ear, with restoration of the drum membrane to protect the round window from sound pressure, and establishment of ossicular continuity between the tympanic membrane and the oval window. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Paraganglia, Nonchromaffin: Several clusters of chemoreceptive and supporting cells associated with blood vessels and nerves (especially the glossopharyngeal and vagus). The nonchromaffin paraganglia sense pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and participate in respiratory, and perhaps circulatory, control. They include the CAROTID BODY; AORTIC BODIES; the GLOMUS JUGULARE; and the GLOMUS TYMPANICUM.Mastoid: The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear: A mass of KERATIN-producing squamous EPITHELIUM that resembles an inverted (suck-in) bag of skin in the MIDDLE EAR. It arises from the eardrum (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE) and grows into the MIDDLE EAR causing erosion of EAR OSSICLES and MASTOID that contains the INNER EAR.Chinchilla: A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.NAV1.7 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found widely expressed in nociceptive primary sensory neurons. Defects in the SCN9A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with several pain sensation-related disorders.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Nasal Sprays: Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Methylphenidate: A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Governing Board: The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of health-related institutions and organizations.Otitis Externa: Inflammation of the OUTER EAR including the external EAR CANAL, cartilages of the auricle (EAR CARTILAGE), and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Otolaryngology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.Meniere Disease: A disease of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is characterized by fluctuating SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; TINNITUS; episodic VERTIGO; and aural fullness. It is the most common form of endolymphatic hydrops.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Receptors, Purinergic P2X3: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension, and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X3 subunits. The P2X3 subunits are also associated with P2X2 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.Dermoid Cyst: A tumor consisting of displaced ectodermal structures along the lines of embryonic fusion, the wall being formed of epithelium-lined connective tissue, including skin appendages, and containing keratin, sebum, and hair. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Epidermal Cyst: Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.Arachnoid: A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Bupropion: A unicyclic, aminoketone antidepressant. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not well understood, but it does appear to block dopamine uptake. The hydrochloride is available as an aid to smoking cessation treatment.Gastroparesis: Chronic delayed gastric emptying. Gastroparesis may be caused by motor dysfunction or paralysis of STOMACH muscles or may be associated with other systemic diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS.Domperidone: A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.Eritrea: A country of eastern Africa, west of the Red Sea, bordered west and northwest by SUDAN, and south by ETHIOPIA. Its capital is Asmara.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Pregnadienediols: Doubly unsaturated pregnane derivatives with two hydroxy groups substituted anywhere on the rings or side chains.Lycium: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain CEREBROSIDES and SCOPOLETIN.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.

Intranasally inoculated Mycoplasma hyorhinis causes eustachitis in pigs. (1/84)

Specific-pathogen-free pigs were experimentally inoculated with Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Pasteurella multocida, or both bacterial isolates to evaluate the role of these bacteria in the pathogenesis of otitis media. Six pigs were inoculated intranasally with 4.4 X 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) of M. hyorhinis. Twenty-one days later, three of these six pigs were inoculated intranasally with 5.0 X 10(8) CFU of P. multocida. Three additional pigs were also inoculated intranasally at the time with P. multocida alone. Two pigs served as uninoculated controls. Seven days later, all pigs were euthanatized. Histologically, subacute inflammation was found in 10 auditory tubes of six pigs and two tympanic cavities of two pigs inoculated with M. hyorhinis. Immunohistochemically, M. hyorhinis antigens were detected on the luminal surface of eight of 10 inflamed auditory tubes, and ultrastructural examination confirmed mycoplasmal organisms in two pigs. M. hyorhinis was isolated from the inflamed tympanic cavities of two pigs. None of the pigs inoculated only with P. multocida had otitis, and P. multocida was not isolated from the tympanic cavity. These findings indicate that M. hyorhinis can cause eustachitis but rarely otitis media in specific-pathogen-free pigs.  (+info)

Occlusion of the internal carotid artery by means of microcoils for preventing epistaxis caused by guttural pouch mycosis in horses. (2/84)

Occlusion of the internal carotid artery by insertion of intravascular platinum microcoils for guttural pouch mycosis was experimentally evaluated in 9 healthy adult Thoroughbred horses. The internal carotid artery was ligated to its origin, and an arteriotomy was made distal to the ligature, which was then occluded by insertion of the microcoil approximately 13 cm distal to its origin. Cessation of blood flow was determined visually and by angiography at the arteriotomy site. Six horses were evaluated for complication clinically and by endoscopy after surgery. One horse was necropsied after 30 days of surgery for histological evaluation of artery thrombus formation. In the other 3 horses, the blood flow of the right internal carotid artery was monitored, before and after microcoil occlusion of the left internal carotid artery. One or 2 microcoils stopped blood flow within a few minutes. No other abnormal findings were observed clinically. Thrombus was observed in the occluded segment of 1 horse 30 days after insertion; but no abnormalities were detected. The blood flow in the right internal carotid artery increased by approximately 28-58% after occlusion of the left internal carotid artery. This microcoil vascular occlusion technique causes an effective thrombosis, and based on experimental studies and clinical application in 2 horses with epistaxis due to guttural pouch mycosis, this technique would appear to be safe and efficacious.  (+info)

Surfactant protein A and D expression in the porcine Eustachian tube. (3/84)

Surfactant proteins A and D are collectins which are considered to play an important role in the innate immunity of lungs. Our aim was to investigate whether surfactant protein A or D is expressed in the porcine Eustachian tube originating from the upper airways. Both surfactant proteins A and D were present in the epithelial cells of the Eustachian tube, as shown by strong immunostaining. Using RT-PCR and Northern hybridization, these collectins were detected in the Eustachian tube. The present study is the first report demonstrating surfactant protein gene expression in the Eustachian tube. Surfactant proteins A and D may be important in the antibody-independent protection of the middle ear.  (+info)

CT examination of the guttural pouch (auditory tube diverticulum) in Przewalski's Horse (Equus przewalskii). (4/84)

The domestic horse (Equus caballus) have the large symmetrical guttural pouches (the auditory tube diverticulum) formed by saccate bulge of the auditory tube. In this study, CT examination was carried out in the head of Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii), the only true wild horse living at present. As results of the examination, Przewalski's horse possessed the large symmetrical guttural pouches divided into medial and lateral compartments by the stylohyoid bone. Moreover, the right and left guttural pouches meet each other at the median part to form a thin septum. As CT sections get close to the part of the occipital condyle, the lateral compartment disappeared, and the medial compartment gradually became small toward the base of the skull. These results indicate that the nuchal-basal part of the medial compartment is not well-developed as compared with the domestic horse.  (+info)

Primary distension of the guttural pouch lateral compartment secondary to empyema. (5/84)

A 6-year-old, 420-kg quarter horse gelding was presented with a 2-month history of difficulty swallowing and dyspnea. The horse was diagnosed with a right guttural pouch empyema with many large chondroids. Two surgeries were required to completely remove all the chondroids from what proved to be a primary distension of the guttural pouch lateral compartment.  (+info)

Distribution of immunoglobulin isotypes and subisotypes in equine guttural pouch (auditory tube diverticulum). (6/84)

To clarify the functions of the equine guttural pouch, the distribution of various immunoglobulin isotypes and subisotypes in the guttural pouch mucosa were examined in healthy horses. IgGa was present in the mucosa of guttural pouch, mucosal lymph nodules and submucosal lymph nodules. IgM was scattered in the mucosal lymph nodules and in the germinal centers of the submucosal lymph nodules. IgGc was recognized only in the submucosal lymph nodules. These immunoglobulin isotypes and subisotypes were found in lymphocytes and plasma cells. On the other hand, IgA was detected in glandular epithelial cells and the surface layer of the mucosal epithelium, as well as in free cells. This finding suggests that IgA is secreted through the glandular epithelium. Based on the above findings, we conclude that the guttural pouch has phylactic ability.  (+info)

Galbreath technique: a manipulative treatment for otitis media revisited. (7/84)

Otitis media is a common disorder that results in numerous visits to the physician each year. Antimicrobials, antihistamines, steroids, and surgery have all been used to treat otitis media; however, the literature makes little mention of osteopathic manipulative treatment in this regard. This article describes a technique that was first described in 1929 by William Otis Galbreath, DO. By simple mandibular manipulation, the eustachian tube is made to open and close in a "pumping action" that allows the ear to drain accumulated fluid more effectively. Physicians can easily teach this procedure to parents for use at home.  (+info)

Expression and localization of lung surfactant protein B in Eustachian tube epithelium. (8/84)

Surfactant protein (SP) B is an essential component of the pulmonary surfactant complex, which participates in reducing the surface tension across the alveolar air-liquid interface. The Eustachian tube (ET) connects the upper respiratory tract to the middle ear, serving as an intermittent airway between the pharynx and the middle ear. Recently, we described the expression of SP-A and SP-D in the ET, suggesting their role in middle ear host defense. Our present aim was to detect whether the expression of SP-B is evident in the porcine ET. With Northern blot analysis, RT-PCR, and in situ hybridizations, SP-B mRNA was identified and localized in the ET epithelium. The cellular localization of SP-B was revealed with immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy. The protein was found in the secretory granules of epithelial cells and also attached to the microvilli at the luminal side of these cells. The SP-B immunoreactivity of aggregates isolated from ET lavage fluid was similar to that isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We conclude that there are specialized cells in the ET epithelium expressing and secreting SP-B and propose that SP-B may facilitate normal opening of the tube and mucociliary transport.  (+info)

  • These measures will be used to determine if facial growth is related to improved Eustachian tube function, to see if the better function explains why young children who have middle-ear disease outgrow it as they get older, and to determine if these measures are different for the children in the three groups defined by disease history. (
  • Regardless of delivery method, no significant results were found among the experimental groups to suggest improved Eustachian tube function after drug treatment. (
  • O'Reilly RC, Levi J. Anatomy and physiology of the eustachian tube. (
  • What is the anatomy of Eustachian tubes (pictures)? (
  • The opening chapters document the clinical anatomy and provide essential information on physiology, with explanation of the new model of tubal mechanics and the use of Eustachian tube function tests. (
  • However, before exploring treatment options, it is important for physicians to have a clear understanding of the anatomy of the eustachian tube. (
  • Eustachian tube - Infobox Anatomy Name = Eustachian tube Latin = tuba auditiva GraySubject = 230 GrayPage = 1042 Caption = Anatomy of the human ear. (
  • Further investigations are being conducted to measure the magnitude and duration of the effects of allergic responses on Eustachian tube anatomy and physiology. (
  • Interestingly, the anatomy of the Eustachian tube in infants and young children is different than in adults. (
  • First, in order to understand possible problems of the middle ear and eustachian tube, a brief review of ear anatomy & physiology is in order. (
  • Additional treatment consists in blowing the ear 2-3 times a week before restoring the patency of the Eustachian tube. (
  • This is called abnormal patency of the eustachian tube (patalous eustachian tube). (
  • Abnormal patency of the eustachian tube is annoying but does not produce a hearing impairment. (
  • Abnormal patency of the eustachian tube is a condition occurring primarily in adults, in which the eustachian tube remains "open" for a prolonged period. (
  • It seems obvious that obstruction of the Eustachian tube somehow disturbs the air pressure and causes stimulation of the perilymph, which interferes with normal balance as maintained by the labyrinthine mechanism . (
  • Medical or surgical treatment is often directed towards causing mechanical obstruction of the eustachian tube or creating a less functional eustachian tube. (
  • Bacteria can become trapped when the tissue of the eustachian tube becomes swollen from colds or allergies. (
  • Normally, the Eustachian tube is closed, but it can become partially or completely blocked as a consequence of common colds or allergies . (
  • X Research source These tubes can become clogged due to colds and allergies. (
  • Occlusion of the eustachian tube produces a sense of fullness in the affected ear and a mild conductive hearing loss , which may be increased if there is fluid in the middle ear. (
  • The increased activity not only increases the rate and force of pressure changes in the airway, which is therefore transmitted more forcefully into the middle ear, but also drives increased blood flow to peripheral muscles, compounding the problem by further depleting the Eustachian tube of extracellular fluid and increasing patency. (
  • Ear infections are more common in children because their eustachian tubes are shorter, narrower, and more horizontal than in adults, making the movement of air and fluid difficult. (
  • The eustachian tubes (red tube at the back of the ear in diagram) drain excess fluid and regulate ear pressure. (
  • 1 The inner wall of the tube also is coated with a mucous fluid that moistens the lining of the tube so that surface tension plays a partial role in the maintenance of closure. (
  • Long-term blockage of the Eustachian tube leads to the accumulation of fluid in the middle ear space that further increases the pressure and hearing loss. (
  • The function of these tubes is to equalize pressure within your ear, as well as drain fluid from your middle ear (the region of the ear behind your eardrums). (
  • The grommets, also known as ventilation tubes, or tympanostomy tubes, are then inserted into the eardrums to drain fluid and ventilate the middle ear. (
  • Also, because the Eustachian tube is not opening enough, fluid can accumulate in the middle ear, which requires treatment with ear tubes. (
  • Since the tubes are swollen, the fluid cannot drain. (
  • When the Eustachian tube is open as it is normally, it prevents fluid and air pressure from building up inside the ear. (
  • Plugging of the eustachian tube can cause a build-up of pressure (air or fluid) and this can lead to pain as it strains the ear drum. (
  • The distal part of the tubotympanic sulcus gives rise to the tympanic cavity, while the proximal tubular structure becomes the Eustachian tube. (
  • The proximal portion of the tubotympanic recess forms the tympanic cavity, and its distal portion becomes the Eustachian tube. (
  • Occlusion of the eustachian tube: Bluestone and Cantekin (1981) recommend occlusion of bony eustachian tube with an intravenous indwelling catheter via anterior tympanotomy. (
  • Injection of autologous fat, cartilage or hydroxylapatite has been described for Eustachian tube occlusion, with promising results. (
  • Autologous fat or cartilage graft plugging of the eustachian tube at its nasopharyngeal orifice, in conjunction with myringotomy and ventilation tube placement, has been successful in some patients. (
  • Consider adenoidectomy in patients requiring a second set of ventilation tubes. (
  • Background: Middle ear ventilation and the drainage of secretions are the basic functions of the eustachian tube. (
  • Eustachian tube stents are intended for ventilation and/or drainage of the middle ear cavity by enhancement of the lumen of the natural tube. (
  • Micropressure pulses penetrate the inner ear via the external auditory canal, ventilation tube, and the round window and eliminate the debris in the vestibular aqueduct, resulting in an improvement in endolymphatic hydrops. (
  • It is occasionally effective only with the insertion of a tympanic ventilation tube, and previous study has demonstrated the effectiveness of tympanic ventilation tube insertion in MD patients [ 3 ]. (
  • Children with or without cleft palate (CP) with ventilation tubes (VTs) will be evaluated for the function of the soft palate and the ET. (
  • All the patients were intractable to conservative therapy or ventilation tube insertion for more than one year. (
  • The rate of TM perforation (Prototype 22.6%, New 17.5%), middle ear effusion (Prototype 20.2%, New 10.2%) and ventilation tube placement (Prototype 14.8%, New 4.4%) decreased after transition to the New Plug. (
  • There are four muscles associated with the function of the Eustachian tube: Levator veli palatini (innervated by the vagus nerve) Salpingopharyngeus (innervated by the vagus nerve) Tensor tympani (innervated by the mandibular nerve of CN V) Tensor veli palatini (innervated by the mandibular nerve of CN V) The tube is opened during swallowing by contraction of the tensor veli palatini and levator veli palatini, muscles of the soft palate. (
  • The adult eustachian tube is approximately 3.5 cm in length. (
  • Under normal circumstances, the human Eustachian tube is closed, but it can open to let a small amount of air through to prevent damage by equalizing pressure between the middle ear and the atmosphere. (
  • Analysis of human eustachian tube mucosa reveals that it is similar to respiratory epithelium, which is found elsewhere. (
  • The substance which looked like the lamellar bodies were observed in-the secretory cells and in the lumen of the E-tube. (
  • Infants and young children are particularly susceptible to such acute infections, which usually cause ear pain and fever, possibly because the eustachian tube is wider, shorter, and more horizontal than it is in adults. (
  • In adults, the Eustachian tube is approximately 35 mm long (1.3 inches) and approximately 3 mm in diameter (less than 1/10 inch). (
  • The eustachian tube is about 3 to 4 cm long in adults (around 1.2 to 1.6 inches) and is a little shorter in children. (
  • Glue ear is more common in children than in adults, partly because children's Eustachian tubes are narrower and more horizontal, which means that they can block more easily. (
  • The tensor veli palatini is believed to play a role in active dilation of the tube by distention of the membraneous wall both laterally and inferiorly. (