American Native Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.EuropeEuropean Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Genealogy and HeraldryPolymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Gene Pool: The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Trinidad and Tobago: An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Principal Component Analysis: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.Suburban Population: The inhabitants of peripheral or adjacent areas of a city or town.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Colposcopy: The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.Alphapapillomavirus: A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE. They preferentially infect the anogenital and ORAL MUCOSA in humans and primates, causing both malignant and benign neoplasms. Cutaneous lesions are also seen.Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Binomial Distribution: The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Exotoxins: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Psychology, Experimental: The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Ectromelia: Gross hypo- or aplasia of one or more long bones of one or more limbs. The concept includes amelia, hemimelia, phocomelia, and sirenomelia.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Nobel PrizeBody Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Personal Satisfaction: The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.

Heart rate and subsequent blood pressure in young adults: the CARDIA study. (1/13036)

The objective of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that baseline heart rate (HR) predicts subsequent blood pressure (BP) independently of baseline BP. In the multicenter longitudinal Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study of black and white men and women initially aged 18 to 30 years, we studied 4762 participants who were not current users of antihypertensive drugs and had no history of heart problems at the baseline examination (1985-1986). In each race-sex subgroup, we estimated the effect of baseline HR on BP 2, 5, 7, and 10 years later by use of repeated measures regression analysis, adjusting for baseline BP, age, education, body fatness, physical fitness, fasting insulin, parental hypertension, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, oral contraceptive use, and change of body mass index from baseline. The association between baseline HR and subsequent systolic BP (SBP) was explained by multivariable adjustment. However, HR was an independent predictor of subsequent diastolic BP (DBP) regardless of initial BP and other confounders in white men, white women, and black men (0.7 mm Hg increase per 10 bpm). We incorporated the part of the association that was already present at baseline by not adjusting for baseline DBP: the mean increase in subsequent DBP was 1.3 mm Hg per 10 bpm in white men, white women, and black men. A high HR may be considered a risk factor for subsequent high DBP in young persons.  (+info)

Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups. (2/13036)

We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy.  (+info)

Associations of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I autoantibodies with HLA class II alleles in three ethnic groups. (3/13036)

OBJECTIVE: To determine any HLA associations with anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) antibodies in a large, retrospectively studied, multiethnic group of 262 patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or another connective tissue disease. METHODS: Anti-beta2GPI antibodies were detected in sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HLA class II alleles (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) were determined by DNA oligotyping. RESULTS: The HLA-DQB1*0302 (DQ8) allele, typically carried on HLA-DR4 haplotypes, was associated with anti-beta2GPI when compared with both anti-beta2GPI-negative SLE patients and ethnically matched normal controls, especially in Mexican Americans and, to a lesser extent, in whites. Similarly, when ethnic groups were combined, HLA-DQB1*0302, as well as HLA-DQB1*03 alleles overall (DQB1*0301, *0302, and *0303), were strongly correlated with anti-beta2GPI antibodies. The HLA-DR6 (DR13) haplotype DRB1*1302; DQB1*0604/5 was also significantly increased, primarily in blacks. HLA-DR7 was not significantly increased in any of these 3 ethnic groups, and HLA-DR53 (DRB4*0101) was increased in Mexican Americans only. CONCLUSION: Certain HLA class II haplotypes genetically influence the expression of antibodies to beta2GPI, an important autoimmune response in the APS, but there are variations in HLA associations among different ethnic groups.  (+info)

Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody in white and black patients with diabetes mellitus. (4/13036)

The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) and antibody (anti-HBS) was determined in 531 white and 519 black diabetic outpatients and in appropriate white and black control populations. There was no difference between the prevalence of either HBSAg or anti-HBS in either the white or black diabetics and that in the white and black controls. These findings make it unlikely that the vast majority of patients with diabetes mellitus have either an increased susceptibility to infection by the hepatitis B virus or an impaired ability to clear the virus once they are infected.  (+info)

Biochemical indices of osteomalacia in pregnant Asian immigrants in Britain. (5/13036)

Serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase, and urinary calcium excretion were examined during the second trimester of uncomplicated normal pregnancy in Asian immigrants to Britain and in local Caucasians. The mean serum calcium was significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians, and the mean serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly higher in Asians. The geometric mean of the urinary calcium excretion was highly significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians. The variances of the serum calcium, serum alkaline phosphatase, and urine calcium excretion did not differ significantly in the two populations. This indicates that there is a shift in values of immigrant Asians as a group compared with Caucasians. A comparison with figures obtained on normal nonpregnant persons of both suggests that the shift is not an inherent feature of the Asian population.  (+info)

Racial differences in the outcome of left ventricular dysfunction. (6/13036)

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have found that black patients with congestive heart failure have a higher mortality rate than whites with the same condition. This finding has been attributed to differences in the severity, causes, and management of heart failure, the prevalence of coexisting conditions, and socioeconomic factors. Although these factors probably account for some of the higher mortality due to congestive heart failure among blacks, we hypothesized that racial differences in the natural history of left ventricular dysfunction might also have a role. METHODS: Using data from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) prevention and treatment trials, in which all patients received standardized therapy and follow-up, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction among black and white participants. The mean (+/-SD) follow-up was 34.2+/-14.0 months in the prevention trial and 32.3+/-14.8 months in the treatment trial among the black and white participants. RESULTS: The overall mortality rates in the prevention trial were 8.1 per 100 person-years for blacks and 5.1 per 100 person years for whites. In the treatment trial, the rates were 16.7 per 100 person-years and 13.4 per 100 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for age, coexisting conditions, severity and causes of heart failure, and use of medications, blacks had a higher risk of death from all causes in both the SOLVD prevention trial (relative risk, 1.36; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.74; P=0.02) and the treatment trial (relative risk, 1.25; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.50; P=0.02). In both trials blacks were also at higher risk for death due to pump failure and for the combined end point of death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure, our two predefined indicators of the progression of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Blacks with mild-to-moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction appear to be at higher risk for progression of heart failure and death from any cause than similarly treated whites. These results suggest that there may be racial differences in the outcome of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction.  (+info)

The effect of race and sex on physicians' recommendations for cardiac catheterization. (7/13036)

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have reported differences in the use of cardiovascular procedures according to the race and sex of the patient. Whether the differences stem from differences in the recommendations of physicians remains uncertain. METHODS: We developed a computerized survey instrument to assess physicians' recommendations for managing chest pain. Actors portrayed patients with particular characteristics in scripted interviews about their symptoms. A total of 720 physicians at two national meetings of organizations of primary care physicians participated in the survey. Each physician viewed a recorded interview and was given other data about a hypothetical patient. He or she then made recommendations about that patient's care. We used multivariate logistic-regression analysis to assess the effects of the race and sex of the patients on treatment recommendations, while controlling for the physicians' assessment of the probability of coronary artery disease as well as for the age of the patient, the level of coronary risk, the type of chest pain, and the results of an exercise stress test. RESULTS: The physicians' mean (+/-SD) estimates of the probability of coronary artery disease were lower for women (probability, 64.1+/-19.3 percent, vs. 69.2+/-18.2 percent for men; P<0.001), younger patients (63.8+/-19.5 percent for patients who were 55 years old, vs. 69.5+/-17.9 percent for patients who were 70 years old; P<0.001), and patients with nonanginal pain (58.3+/-19.0 percent, vs. 64.4+/-18.3 percent for patients with possible angina and 77.1+/-14.0 percent for those with definite angina; P=0.001). Logistic-regression analysis indicated that women (odds ratio, 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.9; P=0.02) and blacks (odds ratio, 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.9; P=0.02) were less likely to be referred for cardiac catheterization than men and whites, respectively. Analysis of race-sex interactions showed that black women were significantly less likely to be referred for catheterization than white men (odds ratio, 0.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.2 to 0.7; P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the race and sex of a patient independently influence how physicians manage chest pain.  (+info)

Genetic polymorphism and interethnic variability of plasma paroxonase activity. (8/13036)

A method for determining plasma paroxonase activity using an auto-analyser is described. Frequency distributions for British and Indian subjects show bimodality. A study of 40 British families confirms the presence of a genetic polymorphism with regard to plasma paroxonase activity. Two phenotypes can be defined, controlled by two alleles at one autosomal locus. The frequency of the low activity phenotype is less in the Indian population than in the British population. Malay, Chinese, and African subjects fail to show obvious bimodality.  (+info)

  • And, there were probably older, pre-Neolithic, episodes of admixture, as well, when different groups of modern humans expanded across the globa and mixed with older groups of modern humans, or, as it seems increasingly likely, with archaic humans as well. (
  • In humans today there are not multiple biological groups called "races. (
  • After heading north out of Africa, humans spread to the east and west, populating Melanesia, Asia, and Europe, and eventually made their way across the Bering Strait into the Americas ~ 20,000 years ago. (
  • When I was but a wee cup o' broth a half-century ago in a little working-class town outside of Philadelphia, we referred to blacks as "colored people," which to me suggested that humans are all identical Barbie and Ken dolls coming down the same assembly line until a certain group gets shunted away to receive coloring. (
  • Recently, the rs7677751 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) locus was found to be associated with corneal astigmatism in people of Asian ancestry.Gene-based pathway analysis identified a significant association between the Gene Ontology 'segmentation' (GO:0035282) pathway, corrected p=0.009.Better-powered studies are required to validate the novel putative findings of our study. (
  • Recently, the rs7677751 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) locus was found to be associated with corneal astigmatism in people of Asian ancestry. (
  • Admixture calculations provide genetic ancestry analysis to individuals tested for high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. (
  • 9 Such estimates are most efficiently made with a set of markers that are selected to be specifically informative for continental ancestry, 10-13 but can also be ascertained from dense whole genome polymorphism data from SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) arrays. (
  • Raised incidence rates of all psychoses among migrant groups: findings from the East London first episode psychosis study. (
  • The study of human genetic variation-a kind of historical Global Positioning System-goes back to World War I, when two physicians working in the Greek city of Thessaloníki found that soldiers garrisoned there had a differing incidence of a given blood group depending on their nationality. (
  • What we ought to ask on medical questionnaires is not racial identification, but ancestry. (
  • So note the following "ancestry" categories (just don't call em' "racial" categories! (
  • These data demonstrate that not only is there a wide variation in hypertension prevalence among both racial groups, the rates among blacks are not unusually high when viewed internationally. (
  • Differences in duration of untreated psychosis for racial and ethnic minority groups with first-episode psychosis: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. (
  • Because we are forced to parrot the transparent inanity that the only difference between us is "skin color," whenever we hear about any statistical disparities between racial groups in America, we are only permitted to publicly blame such differences on "racism. (
  • Chi-square tests, t tests, and one-way analysis of covariance were used to analyze racial/ethnic group differences. (
  • Racial/ethnic group differences were minimal compared with the overall high prevalence of risk factors such as smoking and obesity. (
  • European Continental Ancestry Group" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • A new dat set on job related mortality within 3473 digit occupations is merged with two national probability samples of United States workers to assess which groups are in hazardous and which in safe jobs. (
  • What they dont know is that there are many hundreds of groups native to the Americas and some were even white with red hair, others were DARK skinned native Americans and that the facial features they describe are not unique to Africa. (
  • We report here on the patterns of hypertension prevalence in a sample of 3 such surveys among blacks from Africa, the Caribbean and the US and 8 surveys among whites from the US, Canada and Europe. (
  • Iberia also has an admixture level of ancestry originating in Africa, with the concentration of both being highest in Southern Portugal, which is largely ascribed to the long Moor presence in the Iberian peninsula and possibly African slavery in Portugal. (
  • The indigenous peoples of Africa are those peoples from the African region whose way of life, attachment or claims to particular lands, and social and political standing in relation to other more dominant groups have resulted in their substantial marginalisation within modern African states. (
  • Using samples taken from WHI participants, the researchers first determine part of each woman's genotype, or genetic fingerprint, using high through-put assays that specifically examine ancestry. (
  • Admixture analysis (more properly known as biogeographical ancestry analysis) is a method of inferring someone's geographical origins based on an analysis of their genetic ancestry . (
  • Since a relatively limited number of autosomal SNPs are available in the Geno 2.0 data for analysis, the biogeographical ancestry analysis is somewhat limited relative to other similar tools, particularly relative to Ancestry Composition. (
  • A somewhat limited number of autosomal SNPs are included in the All My Ancestry dataset which limits the specificity of the biogeographical ancestry analysis relative to 23andMe's Ancestry Composition. (
  • Biogeographical ancestry (BGA) is particularly useful forensic intelligence that can be gained from DNA and my research is aimed at increasing the accuracy of prediction and understanding the legal, policy and privacy frameworks. (
  • Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. (
  • The Ancestry Composition feature offers a map view which displays one's ancestral components from various regions of the world as of 500 years ago, a split view for those who also have one or both parents who have been tested by 23andMe, and a breakdown by chromosome. (
  • Ancestry Finder provides a breakdown of one's ancestry by country. (
  • Data were collected on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions of disadvantage, and identification with one's own ethnic group. (
  • However, in the context of frequent ECG repolarization anomalies in black athletes, the potential for erroneous diagnosis of arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy is considerably greater in this ethnic group. (
  • Spanish people or Spaniards constitute the European nation and ethnic group native of Spain , in the Iberian Peninsula , which forms the southwest of Europe . (
  • If Lewontin wants to argue that Japanese, West-African, and Amerindian "ancestry" is informative about genetic differences (with varying levels of resolution) then there isn't much of substance to argue about, though we can quibble about whether we want a trendy euphemism to describe this differentiation that exists below the species level. (
  • This method studies differences in the frequencies of particular allelic traits, namely polymorphisms from proteins found within human blood (such as the ABO blood groups, Rhesus blood antigens, HLA loci, immunoglobulins, G6PD isoenzymes, among others). (
  • It is no surprise, then, that many of the distinctions between the blood groups involve basic functions of our digestive and immune systems.Evolution is usually considered in the context of millions of years, which is the time frame needed to explain the many differences between animals or other species. (
  • Mongoloids, caucasoids, and negroids can be distinguished on the basis of obvious differences in skeletal morphology, hair and facial features, as well by blood groups and DNA fingerprints. (
  • As researchers begin to parse those differences, a crucial tool is a genetic map, as it determines how some groups of genetic differences tend to be inherited together. (
  • LG1, LG2, LG3 and LG4, respectively, however, these linkage groups did not form stable haplotypes as indicated by linkage equilibrium (LE) of STRs within the groups and significant LD between the groups. (
  • Only in the last century have scientists and anthropologists begun using biological markers such as the blood groups in the search for humanity's imprint on our distant past. (
  • Interrogation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha locus and corneal astigmatism in Australians of Northern European ancestry: results of a genome-wide association study. (
  • The paper questions the utility of the term "minority research," for it disregards the considerable variation between and within minority groups and subcultures. (
  • The sheer number and diversity of the women who took part in the WHI study will also allow Seldin and his colleagues to determine the impact of ancestry on disease-risk. (
  • For this study, we characterized the impact of ancestry and admixture on genetic variants that underlie health- and disease-related phenotypes in population genomic samples from Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and Puerto Rico. (
  • This would result in an overestimation of haplogroup age, thus falsely extending the demographic history of Europe into the Late Paleolithic rather than the Neolithic era. (
  • Specifically, the most common ancestry groupings were Oceanic (Melanesian and Papuan) and Eastern Asian (specifically Han Chinese). (
  • The ancestry of modern Iberians (Spanish and Portuguese) is consistent with the geographical situation of the Iberian Peninsula in the south-west corner of Europe. (
  • The many distinctive groups of the larger Hispanosphere are discussed under demography of Latin America and from a US perspective as Hispanic and Latino Americans . (
  • Both the used datasets (regional, continental, worldwide) and the ancestral components (number, age) are very diverse depending on the used setup and analysis method. (
  • El análisis de regresión logística multinomial mostró un odds ratio de 14.3 (IC 95 %: 2.5, 82.1), 13.4 (IC 95 %: 1.7, 103.5), 29.2 (IC 95 %: 3.2, 260.9) y 68 (IC 95 %: 6.6, 711.0) placa en gingivitis, periodontitis crónica leve, moderada y grave, respectivamente. (
  • This figure from the paper (which I've reformatted slightly) shows the degree of sharing between the top 10 signals of selection from each of the 8 broad population clusters defined in the paper (from top to bottom: Biaka Pygmies, Bantu speakers, Europe, Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, Oceania and the Americas). (
  • UC Davis researchers are conducting a first-of-its-kind genetic study to determine the importance of ancestry on the development of diseases in women. (
  • JACKSON, Miss. A group of researchers from the University of Oxford, Harvard Medical School and the University of Mississippi Medical Center has constructed the world's most detailed genetic map, a tool scientists can use to better understand the roots of disease and how DNA is passed generationally to create diversity in the human species. (
  • Here we sampled mite DNA from 70 human hosts of diverse geographic ancestries and analyzed 241 sequences from the mitochondrial genome of the species Demodex folliculorum . (

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