EuropeEurope, EasternNorth AmericaEuropean Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)AfricaInternational Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.HungaryHaplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Ceratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.GermanyFrance: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Asia, Central: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Bluetongue: A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.Oceania: The islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia. (Random House Dictionary, 2d ed)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.RussiaPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Gypsies: Ethnic group originating in India and entering Europe in the 14th or 15th century.Encephalitis, Tick-Borne: Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)ItalyChromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.PolandCommunism: A totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production with the professed aim of establishing a classless society.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Slovakia: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Orthobunyavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.Neanderthals: Common name for an extinct species of the Homo genus. Fossils have been found in Europe and Asia. Genetic evidence suggests that limited interbreeding with modern HUMANS (Homo sapiens) took place.RomaniaHistory, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Gene Pool: The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.AustriaMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.South AmericaAgriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)BelgiumUkraineRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Ixodes: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.PortugalDemography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Alnus: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Avoidable mortality in Europe 1955-1994: a plea for prevention. (1/8791)

OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends of avoidable mortality in Europe, emphasising causes of death amenable to primary prevention through reduction of exposures, secondary prevention through early detection and treatment, and tertiary prevention through improved treatment and medical care. DESIGN: Descriptive study of mortality from avoidable causes for the years 1955 through 1994, for ages 5-64 at time of death. Using the World Health Organisation Mortality Database, five year death rates were standardised to the world population. SETTING: 21 countries of Europe in four regions (northern, central, and southern Europe, Nordic countries). PARTICIPANTS: All causes of deaths for men and women, aged 5-64, at time of death. MAIN RESULTS: Between 1955-59 and 1990-94, the reduction in mortality was somewhat greater for avoidable causes than for all causes: 45.8% v 45.1% (women) and 39.3% v 32.6% among men. Reductions in mortality were greater for causes amenable to improved medical care: 77.9% among women and 76.3% among men. The smallest reduction in mortality was seen in women for causes amenable to secondary prevention (11.0%), and in men for causes amendable to primary prevention including tobacco related conditions (16.6%). From a geographical point of view, there were slight differences in trends between European regions, but overall the patterns were similar. CONCLUSIONS: The greatest reduction of avoidable mortality in Europe from 1955-94 came from causes amenable to improved treatment and medical care for both sexes. Further reductions of avoidable mortality can be achieved through implementation of primary and secondary prevention activities, such as tobacco control, reduction of occupational exposures, and universal access to breast and cervical cancer screening programmes.  (+info)

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (2/8791)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

Clinical significance of circulating anti-p53 antibodies in European patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. (3/8791)

p53 alterations are considered to be predictive of poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and may induce a humoral response. Anti-p53 serum antibodies were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using purified recombinant human p53 on 130 European HCC patients before treatment and during the clinical course of the disease. p53 immunohistochemistry was performed on tumours from the 52 patients who underwent surgery, and DNA sequencing analysis was initiated when circulating anti-p53 antibodies were detected. Nine (7%) HCC patients had anti-p53 serum antibodies before treatment. During a mean period of 30 months of follow-up, all the negative patients remained negative, even when recurrence was observed. Of the nine positive patients, eight were still positive 12-30 months after surgery. The presence of anti-p53 serum antibodies was correlated neither with mutation of the p53 gene nor the serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and clinicopathological characteristics of the tumours. However, a greater incidence of vascular invasion and accumulation of p53 protein were observed in the tumours of these patients (P<0.03 and P<0.01 respectively) as well as a better survival rate without recurrence (P = 0.05). In conclusion, as was recently shown in pancreatic cancer, anti-p53 serum antibodies may constitute a marker of relative 'good prognosis' in a subgroup of patients exhibiting one or several markers traditionally thought to be of bad prognosis.  (+info)

The European mesothelioma epidemic. (4/8791)

Projections for the period 1995-2029 suggest that the number of men dying from mesothelioma in Western Europe each year will almost double over the next 20 years, from 5000 in 1998 to about 9000 around 2018, and then decline, with a total of about a quarter of a million deaths over the next 35 years. The highest risk will be suffered by men born around 1945-50, of whom about 1 in 150 will die of mesothelioma. Asbestos use in Western Europe remained high until 1980, and substantial quantities are still used in several European countries. These projections are based on the fit of a simple age and birth cohort model to male pleural cancer mortality from 1970 to 1989 for six countries (Britain, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands and Switzerland) which together account for three-quarters of the population of Western Europe. The model was tested by comparing observed and predicted numbers of deaths for the period 1990-94. The ratio of mesothelioma to recorded pleural cancer mortality has been 1.6:1 in Britain but was assumed to be 1:1 in other countries.  (+info)

Many class I integrons comprise distinct stable structures occurring in different species of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from widespread geographic regions in Europe. (5/8791)

Three sizes of inserted regions of DNA (800, 1,000, and 1,500 bp) were shown to be common among class I integrons in unrelated clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from different European hospitals. Sequencing showed that 800-bp inserted regions comprised identical sequences including aacA4, that 1,000-bp inserted regions included aadA, and that 1,500-bp inserted regions included dfrI and aadA1, irrespective of host species and geographic origin. In addition promoter sequences were mostly identical for each size class. These data suggest that inserted gene cassettes and promoter regions of integrons are conserved and stable, with resistance genes transferred more often as part of the entire integron structure than as individual gene cassettes.  (+info)

Biodiversity of Lactococcus garvieae strains isolated from fish in Europe, Asia, and Australia. (6/8791)

Lactococcus garvieae (junior synonym, Enterococcus seriolicida) is a major pathogen of fish, producing fatal septicemia among fish species living in very diverse environments. The phenotypic traits of L. garvieae strains collected from three different continents (Asia, Europe, and Australia) indicated phenotypic heterogeneity. On the basis of the acidification of D-tagatose and sucrose, three biotypes were defined. DNA relatedness values and a specific PCR assay showed that all the biotypes belonged to the same genospecies, L. garvieae. All of the L. garvieae strains were serotyped as Lancefield group N. Ribotyping proved that one clone was found both in Japan, where it probably originated, and in Italy, where it was probably imported. PCR of environmental samples did not reveal the source of the contamination of the fish in Italy. Specific clones (ribotypes) were found in outbreaks in Spain and in Italy. The L. garvieae reference strain, isolated in the United Kingdom from a cow, belonged to a unique ribotype. L. garvieae is a rising zoonotic agent. The biotyping scheme, the ribotyping analysis, and the PCR assay described in this work allowed the proper identification of L. garvieae and the description of the origin and of the source of contamination of strains involved in outbreaks or in sporadic cases.  (+info)

Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series. (7/8791)

BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node dissection is an established component of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, and is an important procedure in cancer staging; however, it is associated with unpleasant side effects. We have investigated a radioactive tracer-guided procedure that facilitates identification, removal, and pathologic examination of the sentinel lymph node (i.e., the lymph node first receiving lymphatic fluid from the area of the breast containing the tumor) to predict the status of the axilla and to assess the safety of foregoing axillary dissection if the sentinel lymph node shows no involvement. METHODS: We injected 5-10 MBq of 99mTc-labeled colloidal particles of human albumin peritumorally in 376 consecutive patients with breast cancer who were enrolled at the European Institute of Oncology during the period from March 1996 through March 1998. The sentinel lymph node in each case was visualized by lymphoscintigraphy, and its general location was marked on the overlying skin. During breast surgery, the sentinel lymph node was identified for removal by monitoring the acoustic signal from a hand-held gamma ray-detecting probe. Total axillary dissection was then carried out. The pathologic status of the sentinel lymph node was compared with that of the whole axilla. RESULTS: The sentinel lymph node was identified in 371 (98.7%) of the 376 patients and accurately predicted the state of the axilla in 359 (95.5%) of the patients, with 12 false-negative findings (6.7%; 95% confidence interval = 3.5%-11.4%) among a total of 180 patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS: Sentinel lymph node biopsy using a gamma ray-detecting probe allows staging of the axilla with high accuracy in patients with primary breast cancer. A randomized trial is necessary to determine whether axillary dissection may be avoided in those patients with an uninvolved sentinel lymph node.  (+info)

Class I integrons in Gram-negative isolates from different European hospitals and association with decreased susceptibility to multiple antibiotic compounds. (8/8791)

Class I integrons are associated with carriage of genes encoding resistance to antibiotics. Expression of inserted resistance genes within these structures can be poor and, as such, the clinical relevance in terms of the effect of integron carriage on susceptibility has not been investigated. Of 163 unrelated Gram-negative isolates randomly selected from the intensive care and surgical units of 14 different hospitals in nine European countries, 43.0% (70/163) of isolates were shown to be integron-positive, with inserted gene cassettes of various sizes. Integrons were detected in isolates from all hospitals with no particular geographical variations. Integron-positive isolates were statistically more likely to be resistant to aminoglycoside, quinolone and beta8-lactam compounds, including third-generation cephalosporins and monobactams, than integron-negative isolates. Integron-positive isolates were also more likely to be multi-resistant than integron-negative isolates. This association implicates integrons in multi-drug resistance either directly through carriage of specific resistance genes, or indirectly by virtue of linkage to other resistance determinants such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes. As such their widespread presence is a cause for concern. There was no association between the presence of integrons and susceptibility to cefepime, amikacin and the carbapenems, to which at least 97% of isolates were fully susceptible.  (+info)

  • The Armament Industry European Research Group (Ares Group) was created in 2016 by The French Institute for International and Strategic Affairs (IRIS), who coordinates the Group. (
  • Please note that the dates are subject to the adoption of Horizon Europe and the ERC Work Programme 2021. (
  • Current Working Groups cover topics such as gender balance, open access, widening European participation, innovation and industry. (
  • The aim of the Ares Group, a high-level network of security and defence specialists across Europe, is to provide a forum to the European armament community, bringing together top defence industrial policy specialists, to encourage fresh strategic thinking in the field, develop innovative policy proposals and conduct studies for public and private actors. (
  • The club brings together experienced armament policy and defence industrial policy experts, working accross European universities and think tanks. (
  • Go behind the scenes of the ERC granting process, read what is happening in European research centers, get updated on recent science themed events, explore ERC funded projects and dip into opinion pieces by leading scientists and science policy makers. (
  • The Mediterranean EPIC centres with high olive oil consumption combined with low animal fat intake contrasted with the central and northern European centres where fewer vegetable oils, more animal fats and a high proportion of margarine were consumed. (
  • The [email protected] seminar series is now over for this academic year and will be back for the 2019/20 academic year. (
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  • The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities are not always reflected by the continent's current overland boundary with Asia. (
  • Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. (
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  • The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French revolution and the Napoleonic wars are events that deeply modeled and structured the future of the European continent, culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century till the first half of the 19th century. (
  • Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . (
  • The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting the European continent from prehistory to the present. (
  • As a continent, the economy of Europe is currently the largest on Earth and it is the richest region as measured by assets under management with over $32.7 trillion compared to North America's $27.1 trillion in 2008. (
  • World map showing the location of Europe (continent). (
  • With rampant unemployment spreading misery in southern Europe and companies shutting factories across the continent, workers around the European Union sought to unite in a string of strikes and demonstrations. (
  • Europe is the continent of infinitesimal countries (Vatican, Monaco, Gibraltar) and huge history: it is the continent where everything began with the company's foundation in Mannheim on the April 6th, 1865. (
  • A Grexit would likely result in tremendous loss of share value throughout the continent, the value of the Euro would be called in to question, the ability of other distressed European economies to avoid default would once again become a front burner issue, and the entire Euro experiment would be seen as a giant question mark. (
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  • Eastern Europe is the eastern half of the European continent which had been aligned with the Soviet Union during the Cold War. (
  • European leaders were shocked this week when Defense Secretary Robert Gates told a NATO audience that the alliance faces a "crisis" because the continent has largely demilitarized. (
  • During the 20th century Europe experienced periods of considerable economic growth and prosperity, and industrial development proliferated much more widely throughout the continent. (
  • Europeans may prefer -- and their economies may even be able to withstand -- more leisure time, but they cannot also afford a steady decline in their working-age population. (
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  • Britain , Ireland ) Continental Europe, typically the western portion, and excluding the island nations or the larger Mediterranean islands. (
  • Similarly, most mainstream definitions of Eastern Europe include the former communist nations of the Caucasus , although there are a few sources that list them as transcontinental or Eurasian . (
  • Something that "everyone knows" is that the relatively low-tax United States with its relatively weak labor unions and relatively stingy welfare state has much more wage and income inequality than the high-tax nations of Europe. (
  • This cultural sensitivity, which was famously highlighted in Quentin Tarantino's 1994 movie Pulp Fiction (which actually calls the hamburger a "Royale with Cheese") explains why McDonald's can be found on the Champs Elysée as well as nearly every major highway exit in the U.S. And lately, the world's biggest restaurant chain has generated strong sales and earnings overseas, especially in France and other European nations. (
  • Troops from most southern European nations are barred from fighting in snow. (
  • Cities in both nations, as well as formerly occupied cities in Western Europe, put out flags and banners, rejoicing in the defeat of the Nazi war machine. (
  • By the 1870s the governments of the European nations had recognized the vital importance of factory production and had taken steps to encourage local development through subsidies and tariff protection against foreign competition. (
  • With nearly 17m Europeans out of work, politicians are susceptible to pleading from industries claiming that competition from imports is costing jobs. (
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  • In a post at the International Institute for Strategic Studies, Lucie Béraud-Sudreau and Nick Childs try to push back on the notion that providing for European defense is all that costly for the United States. (
  • Gates: Defense secretary shocked Europe by telling truth out loud. (
  • Just four of NATO's European members (Bulgaria, France, Greece and Britain) spend the alliance's recommended benchmark of 2 percent of gross domestic product on defense. (
  • Hundreds of ludicrous directives and misguided projects are churned out by armies of Eurocrats in the three European capitals, whose allure has dulled as a consequence. (
  • The following are member organisations of GERA Europe: Austrian Entertainment Retailers Association - Austria BERA - Belgian Entertainment Retailers Association - Belgium SDSD - Syndicat des Détaillants Spécialisés du Disque - France GDM - Gesamtverband Deutscher Musikfachgeschäfte - Germany HAMM - Handelsverband Musik und Medien - Germany NVGD - Nederlandse Vereniging van Grammofoonplaten Detailhandelaren - Netherlands ERA - Entertainment Retailers Association - United Kingdom GERA Europe is supported by a secretariat based in Brussels. (
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  • Large areas, however, remained virtually untouched by industrial development, including most of the Iberian Peninsula , southern Italy , a broad belt of eastern Europe extending from the Balkans northward to the Baltic Sea , and Finland and northern Scandinavia. (
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  • After ultimately checking the Persian advance in Europe through the Greco-Persian Wars in the 5th century BC, Greek influence reached its zenith under the expansive empire of Alexander the Great , spreading throughout Asia , Africa, and other parts of Europe. (
  • However, fertility rates in Central Europe are also well below replacements levels, meaning the EU will ultimately have to look to North Africa, Turkey and the Middle East -- where a youth bulge coupled with high unemployment will provide an abundance of willing workers for decades to come. (
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  • As one Italian friend lamented to me recently, the supra-national Utopia of the United States of Europe, a dream in the making since the end of World War II and sanctioned by the 1957 Treaty of Rome, is becoming an ever-expanding nightmare. (
  • I. Celtic Europe and the Third World from the Jardin Sylvestre Website Natural perspectives on living on the Earth, personal economics, politics & culture. (
  • Everything that was done over the centuries to the "third world" by the European colonialists was first practiced against the Celtic peoples of Europe. (
  • The continuity between Celtic Europe and the third world of later centuries is clear in the language of the Greeks and Romans, who, sounding very much like the English speaking of the Irish, Scottish Highlanders or Welsh, described the Celtic peoples of Europe as primitive, savage, barbarian, bestial and insane. (
  • Celtic Europe must be seen as being of a kind with the other indigenous cultures of the world oppressed by imperialism. (
  • Our report compares European marketing trends with the rest of the world and highlights the key differences between European markets such as the UK, France, Germany, Italy and the Nordics. (
  • The guide is a component of the 'SAFE Project: A European partnership to promote the sexual and reproductive health and rights of youth', which involves IPPF European Network Regional Office and 26 Member Associations, along with Lund University and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. (
  • Europe was the first of the major world regions to develop a modern economy based on commercial agriculture, industrial development, and the provision of specialized services. (
  • World markets were shaken Tuesday by new fears that the European debt deal might come unglued. (
  • And, anyway, what has kept the peace in Europe since 1945 is not a bunch of overpaid bureaucrats but, rather, NATO , with no small contribution by the United States. (
  • On this day in 1945, both Great Britain and the United States celebrate Victory in Europe Day. (
  • During the 4th and 5th centuries, the Germanic peoples of northern Europe grew in strength and repeated attacks led to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire . (
  • The Roman Empire is not described as the root of the feudal and then global imperialist systems which evolved in Europe, it is described as the root of European society and culture. (
  • [i] The shale gas development in the US was already in full force by 2008 and led to a natural gas bonanza, with gas prices that are roughly a third of those in Europe. (
  • Many in continental Europe, particularly in France, think that is no bad thing. (
  • Through 2008, many assumed that continental Europe wasn't stepping up to the plate because its leaders didn't like George W. Bush. (
  • She is europe a erectile spam and became disfigured in love 1997 when she was exposed to a season face. (
  • A December 1997 European Commission directive explicitly encourages 'development of telecommunications service options such as alternative payment facilities which allow anonymous or strictly private access,' and a German law says Internet providers should offer 'anonymous use and payment' for accounts. (
  • Britain has lost 265 - more than the rest of Europe combined . (
  • With a few honorable exceptions (such as Britain, Poland, Denmark, Estonia and the Netherlands), NATO's European members (especially France, Germany, Italy and Spain) have stinted on resources for the UN-mandated mission in Afghanistan. (
  • According to the study, written by Patrick Messerlin, an economist at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques in Paris, the EU 's banana-import restrictions cost European consumers up to $2 billion a year-that is 55 cents per kilo of bananas. (
  • All of this help does not come cheap: it costs Europeans $14.6 billion a year in higher prices and taxes, or around $1.60 per kilo of beef. (
  • European stocks and the corresponding exchange-traded funds are among this year's most resurgent asset classes, a theme made all the impressive when considering the euro's strength against the dollar and some political volatility in the region earlier this year. (
  • If we look at the summer of 2003,' said Viner -- this was the year that an unprecedented, scorching wave at temperatures of above 100 degrees Fahrenheit settled over Europe for more than a week -- 'that's a very good analogy for the future. (
  • The Association of British Insurers (ABI) said the UK was now the "whiplash capital of Europe", with one out of every 140 people claiming for a whiplash injury each year. (
  • McDonald's reported that March sales at European restaurants that have been opened a year or more were 11% higher than March 2006 sales. (
  • Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. (
  • Celtic Europe is not to be lumped together with Greece and Rome or with the Germanic and Slavic powers which supplanted it and were largely derived from it (Rome especially). (
  • Repeating the Græco-Roman propaganda, Europe is seen as uncivilized until the development of Greece and Rome. (
  • Today, many Europeans are more uncertain than ever about the unchartered waters they are about to enter into with the Greek government, and depending on what happens next, Greeks themselves may either reaffirm that electing Syriza was exactly the right thing to do, or that the economic pain Greece has felt since 2008 has merely been an appetizer compared to what may lay ahead. (
  • Extra-European or extra-Atlantic affiliations have never helped Greece since its independence and have in the past created more problems than they have solved. (
  • In its March 2010 review, the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors pegged Ireland, Spain, Greece, and central and Eastern Europe as having the most depressed markets in 2009. (
  • Interview filmed with Dr Laurent Garderet, Department of Hematology at Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, France, to summarise the most important updates presented in the European Hematology Asso. (
  • At least that's how it seems in France and Germany, where the contest over war in the Middle East now shifts to the future of Europe. (
  • Until now, Europe has meant Germany plus France. (
  • Belgium , France , and the United Kingdom are included because they have suffered some of the largest terrorist attacks in Europe in recent years. (
  • WHEN IT UNVEILED a plan last month offering parents new financial incentives to have more children, the French government was seeking to redress a looming and deeply worrisome demographic crisis -- one that affects not just France but all of Europe. (
  • Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou flew to France late Wednesday to explain his sudden call for a referendum on a new European bailout for his country. (
  • Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. (
  • Existing Muslim communities in Europe are not well integrated into the social mainstream. (
  • Our work in Europe includes strengthening policy, engaging leading companies to advance sustainable development, encouraging private philanthropy, and developing impact investing strategies. (
  • Ericsson Employees in Western and Central Europe do more than just work together - we have fun together too! (
  • The forests also support the traditional cultures of the Komi and Nenets (or Samoyeds) who inhabit the Arkhangelsk Region and Komi Republic of European Russia. (
  • Home to eagle-owls, wolverines, brown bears, rare plants and animals, the Dvinsky Forest is one of the last remaining Intact Forest Landcapes in the European part of Russia. (
  • The post-Soviet transition for democracy has been successful in some Eastern European States, but more difficult in those closer to Russia. (
  • To adequately respond to the protection needs of refugees and migrants arriving in Europe, UNHCR launched the regional Refugee and Migrant Response Plan (RRMP), involving 60 partners. (
  • This call comes from Friends of the Earth Europe as foreign affairs ministers meet today to discuss progress on EU-US trade talks. (
  • Frederick Studemann, comment and analysis editor, talks to Tony Barber, Europe editor, and Ferdinando Giugliano, leader writer, about how much further austerity measures can be taken and what political upheaval they might cause in the run-up to the EU budget. (
  • However, talks of acquiring banks in Europe suggests that the bank has enough money to consider such a large scale operation. (
  • Europe is generally considered as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. (
  • To the east and southeast, Europe is generally considered as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . (
  • If current experience in Hungary is anything to go by the church in Eastern Europe has anything but waning involvement in politics as you asser t . (
  • The Slavic peoples' ancestors entered Eastern Europe between the 5th and 7th centuries from their original common homeland. (
  • The boundaries of Eastern Europe are not always clearly defined. (
  • While no country is untouched, Eastern Europe is facing a particular problem in the loss of its young women. (
  • Women from Eastern Europe may be trafficked to any number of destinations in the East or West, wherever the money is. (
  • During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. (
  • The anxiety leading up to this week's NATO summit is unusually intense, thanks in large part to President Trump's fractious relationship with European allies. (
  • Trump's political values are often in tension with that of his transatlantic counterparts, and the White House is inching ever closer to an all-out trade war with Europe and Canada, but the real drama of the NATO summit will center on Trump's brash accusations of allied free-riding. (
  • Yet Europe is sending just over 7,000 more troops - and at least 1,500 of them will come from non-NATO members, including 900 from war-torn Georgia. (
  • However, European governments can do something about the energy cost difference. (
  • In Europe, it is the governments which own the resources below the surface, and the popular argument today opines this situation impedes fast development of shale gas production. (
  • The university's Climate Research Unit is one of the key centers of its kind in Europe. (
  • The report estimates that by 2100 the climate will be an average of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C warmer, but again Europe will be more affected, warming by 2.0 to 6.3 degrees C. Heat extremes will increase in frequency. (
  • The Committee of Ministers expressed concern about the very high rates of child poverty in Europe. (
  • European finance ministers moved to reassure banking customers by agreeing to raise the threshold for bank-deposit guarantees to 50,000 euros ($67,930), from the current level of 20,000 euros, Reuters reported. (