Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A peptide initiation factor that binds specifically to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE of MRNA in the CYTOPLASM. It is a component of the trimeric complex EIF4F.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
A component of eukaryotic initiation factor-4F that is involved in multiple protein interactions at the site of translation initiation. Thus it may serve a role in bringing together various initiation factors at the site of translation initiation.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A trimeric peptide initiation factor complex that associates with the 5' MRNA cap structure of RNA (RNA CAPS) and plays an essential role in MRNA TRANSLATION. It is composed of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4A; EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4E; and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4G.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
A multisubunit eukaryotic initiation factor that contains at least 8 distinct polypeptides. It plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits to the site of transcription initiation by promoting the dissociation of non-translating ribosomal subunits. It also is involved in promoting the binding of a ternary complex of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2; GTP; and INITIATOR TRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A component of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F that as an RNA helicase involved in unwinding the secondary structure of the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGION of MRNA. The unwinding facilitates the binding of the 40S ribosomal subunit.
A eukaryotic initiation factor that binds to 40S ribosomal subunits. Although initially considered a "non-essential" factor for eukaryotic transcription initiation, eukaryotic initiation factor-1 is now thought to play an important role in localizing RIBOSOMES at the initiation codon of MRNA.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that acts to restore EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 to its GTP bound form.
Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.

Phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E by protein kinase Mnk1 in vivo. (1/2412)

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binds to the mRNA 5' cap and brings the mRNA into a complex with other protein synthesis initiation factors and ribosomes. The activity of mammalian eIF4E is important for the translation of capped mRNAs and is thought to be regulated by two mechanisms. First, eIF4E is sequestered by binding proteins, such as 4EBP1, in quiescent cells. Mitogens induce the release of eIF4E by stimulating the phosphorylation of 4EBP1. Second, mitogens and stresses induce the phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser 209, increasing the affinity of eIF4E for capped mRNA and for an associated scaffolding protein, eIF4G. We previously showed that a mitogen- and stress-activated kinase, Mnk1, phosphorylates eIF4E in vitro at the physiological site. Here we show that Mnk1 regulates eIF4E phosphorylation in vivo. Mnk1 binds directly to eIF4G and copurifies with eIF4G and eIF4E. We identified activating phosphorylation sites in Mnk1 and developed dominant-negative and activated mutants. Expression of dominant-negative Mnk1 reduces mitogen-induced eIF4E phosphorylation, while expression of activated Mnk1 increases basal eIF4E phosphorylation. Activated mutant Mnk1 also induces extensive phosphorylation of eIF4E in cells overexpressing 4EBP1. This suggests that phosphorylation of eIF4E is catalyzed by Mnk1 or a very similar kinase in cells and is independent of other mitogenic signals that release eIF4E from 4EBP1.  (+info)

Analysis of a ubiquitous promoter element in a primitive eukaryote: early evolution of the initiator element. (2/2412)

Typical metazoan core promoter elements, such as TATA boxes and Inr motifs, have yet to be identified in early-evolving eukaryotes, underscoring the extensive divergence of these organisms. Towards the identification of core promoters in protists, we have studied transcription of protein-encoding genes in one of the earliest-diverging lineages of Eukaryota, that represented by the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis. A highly conserved element, comprised of a motif similar to a metazoan initiator (Inr) element, surrounds the start site of transcription in all examined T. vaginalis genes. In contrast, a metazoan-like TATA element appears to be absent in trichomonad promoters. We demonstrate that the conserved motif found in T. vaginalis protein-encoding genes is an Inr promoter element. This trichomonad Inr is essential for transcription, responsible for accurate start site selection, and interchangeable between genes, demonstrating its role as a core promoter element. The sequence requirements of the trichomonad Inr are similar to metazoan Inrs and can be replaced by a mammalian Inr. These studies show that the Inr is a ubiquitous, core promoter element for protein-encoding genes in an early-evolving eukaryote. Functional and structural similarities between this protist Inr and the metazoan Inr strongly indicate that the Inr promoter element evolved early in eukaryotic evolution.  (+info)

An evaluation of elongation factor 1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes. (3/2412)

Elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is a highly conserved ubiquitous protein involved in translation that has been suggested to have desirable properties for phylogenetic inference. To examine the utility of EF-1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes, we studied three properties of EF-1 alpha trees: congruency with other phyogenetic markers, the impact of species sampling, and the degree of substitutional saturation occurring between taxa. Our analyses indicate that the EF-1 alpha tree is congruent with some other molecular phylogenies in identifying both the deepest branches and some recent relationships in the eukaryotic line of descent. However, the topology of the intermediate portion of the EF-1 alpha tree, occupied by most of the protist lineages, differs for different phylogenetic methods, and bootstrap values for branches are low. Most problematic in this region is the failure of all phylogenetic methods to resolve the monophyly of two higher-order protistan taxa, the Ciliophora and the Alveolata. JACKMONO analyses indicated that the impact of species sampling on bootstrap support for most internal nodes of the eukaryotic EF-1 alpha tree is extreme. Furthermore, a comparison of observed versus inferred numbers of substitutions indicates that multiple overlapping substitutions have occurred, especially on the branch separating the Eukaryota from the Archaebacteria, suggesting that the rooting of the eukaryotic tree on the diplomonad lineage should be treated with caution. Overall, these results suggest that the phylogenies obtained from EF-1 alpha are congruent with other molecular phylogenies in recovering the monophyly of groups such as the Metazoa, Fungi, Magnoliophyta, and Euglenozoa. However, the interrelationships between these and other protist lineages are not well resolved. This lack of resolution may result from the combined effects of poor taxonomic sampling, relatively few informative positions, large numbers of overlapping substitutions that obscure phylogenetic signal, and lineage-specific rate increases in the EF-1 alpha data set. It is also consistent with the nearly simultaneous diversification of major eukaryotic lineages implied by the "big-bang" hypothesis of eukaryote evolution.  (+info)

Unusually high evolutionary rate of the elongation factor 1 alpha genes from the Ciliophora and its impact on the phylogeny of eukaryotes. (4/2412)

The elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) has become widely employed as a phylogenetic marker for studying eukaryotic evolution. However, a disturbing problem, the artifactual polyphyly of ciliates, is always observed. It has been suggested that the addition of new sequences will help to circumvent this problem. Thus, we have determined 15 new ciliate EF-1 alpha sequences, providing for a more comprehensive taxonomic sampling of this phylum. These sequences have been analyzed together with a representation of eukaryotic sequences using distance-, parsimony-, and likelihood-based phylogenetic methods. Such analyses again failed to recover the monophyly of Ciliophora. A study of the substitution rate showed that ciliate EF-1 alpha genes exhibit a high evolutionary rate, produced in part by an increased number of variable positions. This acceleration could be related to alterations of the accessory functions acquired by this protein, likely to those involving interactions with the cytoskeleton, which is very modified in the Ciliophora. The high evolutionary rate of these sequences leads to an artificial basal emergence of some ciliates in the eukaryotic tree by effecting a long-branch attraction artifact that produces an asymmetric topology for the basal region of the tree. The use of a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic method (which is less sensitive to long-branch attraction) and the addition of sequences to break long branches allow retrieval of more symmetric topologies, which suggests that the asymmetric part of the tree is most likely artifactual. Therefore, the sole reliable part of the tree appears to correspond to the apical symmetric region. These kinds of observations suggest that the general eukaryotic evolution might have consisted of a massive radiation followed by an increase in the evolutionary rates of certain groups that emerge artificially as early branches in the asymmetric base of the tree. Ciliates in the case of the EF-1 alpha genes would offer clear evidence for this hypothesis.  (+info)

Cdc42: An essential Rho-type GTPase controlling eukaryotic cell polarity. (5/2412)

Cdc42p is an essential GTPase that belongs to the Rho/Rac subfamily of Ras-like GTPases. These proteins act as molecular switches by responding to exogenous and/or endogenous signals and relaying those signals to activate downstream components of a biological pathway. The 11 current members of the Cdc42p family display between 75 and 100% amino acid identity and are functional as well as structural homologs. Cdc42p transduces signals to the actin cytoskeleton to initiate and maintain polarized gorwth and to mitogen-activated protein morphogenesis. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cdc42p plays an important role in multiple actin-dependent morphogenetic events such as bud emergence, mating-projection formation, and pseudohyphal growth. In mammalian cells, Cdc42p regulates a variety of actin-dependent events and induces the JNK/SAPK protein kinase cascade, which leads to the activation of transcription factors within the nucleus. Cdc42p mediates these processes through interactions with a myriad of downstream effectors, whose number and regulation we are just starting to understand. In addition, Cdc42p has been implicated in a number of human diseases through interactions with its regulators and downstream effectors. While much is known about Cdc42p structure and functional interactions, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which it transduces signals within the cell. Future research should focus on this question as well as on the detailed analysis of the interactions of Cdc42p with its regulators and downstream effectors.  (+info)

EDS1, an essential component of R gene-mediated disease resistance in Arabidopsis has homology to eukaryotic lipases. (6/2412)

A major class of plant disease resistance (R) genes encodes leucine-rich-repeat proteins that possess a nucleotide binding site and amino-terminal similarity to the cytoplasmic domains of the Drosophila Toll and human IL-1 receptors. In Arabidopsis thaliana, EDS1 is indispensable for the function of these R genes. The EDS1 gene was cloned by targeted transposon tagging and found to encode a protein that has similarity in its amino-terminal portion to the catalytic site of eukaryotic lipases. Thus, hydrolase activity, possibly on a lipid-based substrate, is anticipated to be central to EDS1 function. The predicted EDS1 carboxyl terminus has no significant sequence homologies, although analysis of eight defective eds1 alleles reveals it to be essential for EDS1 function. Two plant defense pathways have been defined previously that depend on salicylic acid, a phenolic compound, or jasmonic acid, a lipid-derived molecule. We examined the expression of EDS1 mRNA and marker mRNAs (PR1 and PDF1.2, respectively) for these two pathways in wild-type and eds1 mutant plants after different challenges. The results suggest that EDS1 functions upstream of salicylic acid-dependent PR1 mRNA accumulation and is not required for jasmonic acid-induced PDF1.2 mRNA expression.  (+info)

Evolutionary relationships of Metazoa within the eukaryotes based on molecular data from Porifera. (7/2412)

Recent molecular data provide strong support for the view that all metazoan phyla, including Porifera, are of monophyletic origin. The relationship of Metazoa, including the Porifera, to Plantae, Fungi and unicellular eukaryotes has only rarely been studied by using cDNAs coding for proteins. Sequence data from rDNA suggested a relationship of Porifera to unicellular eukaryotes (choanoflagellates). However, ultrastructural studies of choanocytes did not support these findings. In the present study, we compared amino acid sequences that are found in a variety of metazoans (including sponges) with those of Plantae, Fungi and unicellular eukaryotes, to obtain an answer to this question. We used the four sequences from 70 kDa heat-shock proteins, the serine-threonine kinase domain found in protein kinases, beta-tubulin and calmodulin. The latter two sequences were deduced from cDNAs, isolated from the sponge Geodia cydonium for the phylogenetic analyses presented. These revealed that the sponge molecules were grouped into the same branch as the Metazoa, which is statistically (significantly) separated from those branches that comprise the sequences from Fungi, Plantae and unicellular eukaryotes. From our molecular data it seems evident that the unicellular eukaryotes existed at an earlier stage of evolution, and the Plantae and especially the Fungi and the Metazoa only appeared later.  (+info)

Cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G by exogenously added hybrid proteins containing poliovirus 2Apro in HeLa cells: effects on gene expression. (8/2412)

Efficient cleavage of both forms of eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G-1 and eIF4G-2) has been achieved in HeLa cells by incubation with hybrid proteins containing poliovirus 2Apro. Entry of these proteins into cells is promoted by adenovirus particles. Substantial levels of ongoing translation on preexisting cellular mRNAs still continue for several hours after eIF4G degradation. Treatment of control HeLa cells with hypertonic medium causes an inhibition of translation that is reversed upon restoration of cells to normal medium. Protein synthesis is not restored in cells lacking intact eIF4G after hypertonic treatment. Notably, induction of synthesis of heat shock proteins still occurs in cells pretreated with poliovirus 2Apro, suggesting that transcription and translation of these mRNAs takes place even in the presence of cleaved eIF4G. Finally, the synthesis of luciferase was examined in a HeLa cell line bearing the luciferase gene under control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter. Transcription of the luciferase gene and transport of the mRNA to the cytoplasm occurs at control levels in eIF4G-deficient cells. However, luciferase synthesis is strongly inhibited in these cells. These findings indicate that intact eIF4G is necessary for the translation of mRNAs not engaged in translation with the exception of heat shock mRNAs but is not necessary for the translation of mRNAs that are being translated.  (+info)

Critical ReviewsTM in Eukaryotic Gene Expression (CRE) publishes original research findings and critical reviews that contribute to advances in mechanistic understanding for genetic and epigenetic control of gene expression, organization and structure within the contexts of biological control and the diagnosis/treatment of disease. Contributions include molecular, cellular, biochemical, genetic, genomic, proteomic and bioinformatic approaches to eukaryotic gene expression. The relationship between gene structure and function is stressed, with emphasis on coordinate control of integration of biological processes. Regulatory mechanisms are explored from the perspective of sequences and regulatory molecules that influence organization and expression of eukaryotic genes as well as in relation to cellular architecture and development of cell specialization and tissue organization. Processes that include genetic and epigenetic control, cell cycle regulation, differentiation, transformation and tumorigenesis,
Collection of Where In A Eukaryotic Cell Does Translation Occur | Unit 6 Dna Protein Synthesis Ppt Download, Dna The Molecule Of Life Ppt Download, Where In A Eukaryotic Cell Does Translation Occur, Pearson The Biology Place, Dna Transcription Part 1 | Docirs.net
Overview. The function of the nervous system is determined by the complex and highly polarized morphology of neurons. The generation and maintenance of the neurons functional morphology is directed by genetic programs, signaling pathways and environmental cues that impinge on the organization of the cytoskeleton and the secretory pathway. The interaction between these subcellular systems is essential for the establishment of functional domains such as axons, dendrites and synapses.. The ER in dendrites and axons. In all eukaryotic cells the availability of membrane components is regulated by coordinated mechanisms that deliver newly synthesized proteins to the plasma membrane and remove them for storage, recycling or degradation. Decades of studies support the clearly organized sequence of organelles along the biosynthetic secretory route. The structure-function relationships of these organelles are most likely conserved in all eukaryote cells. However, the size, complex geometry of neurons and ...
Structures inside a eukaryotic cell include a nucleus, genetic material, a plasma membrane, ribosomes and a cytoplasm. The majority of eukaryotic cells also include internal structures within their...
15. cell membrane controls the space they enclose help with cellular mobility and maintain the cell u s s on eukaryotic cell components chart
Does anyone know any good links to a site with a detailed drawing/photograph/diagram of a eukaryotic cells as seen under and electron microscope with the following structures ...
whats a Eucaryotic cell?http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.html. thanx, you guys are awesome!!. Any time!. eucaryote= no nucleu...
மெய்க்கருவுயிரி (Eukaryote) எனப்படுவது, மென்சவ்வுகளால் சூழப்பட்ட சிக்கலான அமைப்புக்களைக் கொண்ட உயிரணுக்களாலான உயிரினம் ஆகும். இது நிலைக்கருவிலி உயிரினங்களிலிருந்து வேறுபடுவது முக்கியமாக மரபணு அல்லது பாரம்பரியப் பொருளைக் கொண்டிருக்கும் நிலையான கருவையும், அதனை மூடியுள்ள கருமென்சவ்வையும் கொண்டிருப்பதனால் ஆகும்[1][2][3]. அனேகமான மெய்க்கருவுயிரிகள் மென்சவ்வால் மூடப்பட்ட ...
Background:. Characterizing genome-scale data from diverse eukaryotes is essential for gene discovery and for inferring major transitions across the eukaryotic tree of life. Yet, the bulk of eukaryotic diversity remains undersampled, particularly for free-living microbial lineages. Analysis of transcriptome data generated from high throughput (e.g. 454) sequencing of mRNAs provides an efficient way to characterize genes from diverse eukaryotes.. Results:. Here we report analyses of RNA-Seq data from the rhizarian net-like amoeba Corallomyxa tenera, the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata and a recently-described genus representing a novel major clade of eukaryotes, Subulatomonas tetraspora. We generated 16,983, 11,529 and 10,630 contigs plus single reads for these taxa respectively. Given that these organisms cannot be cultured axenically, we developed custom scripts to remove bacterial contaminants through an iterative BLAST based protocol and we then identified expressed genes using BLAST2GO [1;2]. ...
Genomics and Evolution of Eukaryotic Microbes synthesizes the rapidly emerging fields of eukaryotic diversity and genome evolution. Eukaryotes, cells with nuclei, evolved as microbes and have existed on Earth for approximately two billion years. The tremendous diversity of eukaryotic microbes (protists) is often overlooked by those who study the macroscopic eukaryotic lineages: plants, animals, and fungi.
Define eukaryotic cells, give examples and describe their general structure. Eukaryotic cells are the type of living cells that form the organisms of all of the life kingdoms except monera. Protista, fungi, plants and animals are all composed of eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, including a nucleus, and replicate via cell division by mitosis.
2.3: Eukaryotic Evolution and Diversity pg. 67 For about 1.5 billion years Prokaryotes were on the only living organism on Earth. 3.5 to 2 billion years ago Prokaryotes thrive in many different environments.
There are many significant differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication. One such difference is the complexity of the replication process of eukaryotic cells in comparison to the...
What is the difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic mRNA? Prokaryotic mRNA is polycistronic while eukaryotic mRNA is monocistronic. In prokaryotic mRNA,..
Example: Collenchyma Cell - By: Zoe Lodato and Kenneth Barragan What plant cells lack: What animal cells lack: - Flagellum Types of Cells Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotic cells make up bacteria and archea, whereas protists, fungi, plants, and animals are composed of eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are much smaller and less complex than eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus, a cytoplasm, and other organelles. Not all eukaryotic cells are equipped with a cell wall which the prokaryotic cell does not lack. The eukaryotic cell also lacks a sticky capsule. - ...
Seven NO PREP Sub lesson science articles with text-dependent questions OR use as homework OR align your lessons with Common Core informational text! Lessons included in Cell Sub/HW Bundle: - Macromolecules - Plasma Membranes, Osmosis, & Diffusion - Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes - Plant, Animal, & Prokaryote Cell Structures - Eukaryote Cells, Structure, & Function - Cell Cycle, Mitosis, & Meiosis - Infectious Diseases
From: mskelly at freenet2.scri.fsu.edu (Mark Skelly) , Subject: abiogenesis , Basically, this states that it took 3 billion years just for a cell to , evolve into one with a nucleus(eukaryote). And it took ONLY 1 billion , years to go from a eukaryote[ cell w/ nucleus ] to a modern humanoid. , Quite illogical. What a silly statement. Where does logic come into it? Are you forgetting a few trifling necessities for higher evolution, like an enriched oxygen-containing atmosphere? , It has been said that if a Creator exists, than who created the , Creator? We are forgeting that the Creator is infinite, therefore , to ask who created God? It the same as to purpose the question: , When did infinity begin? This is a paradox. And this is getting even more silly. And what if there IS NO CREATOR? What then, Mahavira? _____________________________________________________ , Ed Rybicki, PhD , (ed at molbiol.uct.ac.za) , , Dept Microbiology , University of Cape Town , , Private Bag, Rondebosch , 7700, South ...
Study Regulation of Eukaryotic Gene Expression (Biochem Ch 5) flashcards from dheeraj chintapalli's garranps class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
A eukaryote (/juːˈkæri.oʊt/ or /juːˈkæriət/) is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other structures (organelles) enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes are formally the taxon Eukarya or Eukaryota. The defining membrane-bound structure that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells is the nucleus, or nuclear envelope, within which the genetic material is contained.[1][2][3]The presence of a nucleus gives eukaryotes their name, which comes from the Greek ευ (eu, well) and κάρυον (karyon, nut or kernel).[4] Most eukaryotic cells also contain…
In this lesson, we discuss the similarities and differences between the eukaryotic cells of your body and prokaryotic cells such as bacteria....
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Technology Development for the Comprehensive Determination of Functional Elements in Eukaryotic Genomes (R01) RFA-HG-07-029. NHGRI
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells, Distinguish Among Plant, Animal, and Protist Cells, and Identifying the Organelles that are Evident in Them Introduction
Buy Architecture of Eukaryotic Genes for $699.99 at Mighty Ape NZ. Twenty-eight articles by leading international researchers survey the statics and dynamics of chromatin architecture and highlight their current resea...
Shop for eukaryotic framed prints designed by millions of artists from all over the world. Each museum-quality framed print may be customized with hundreds of different frame and mat options. Our eukaryotic framed art prints ship within 48 hours and include a 30-day money-back guarantee.
This exploration of plant and animal cell organelles and cell structure is presented in a mobile-friendly interactive model with detailed descriptive text.
Mitochondria are one of the major ancient endomembrane systems in eukaryotic cells. Owing to their ability to produce ATP through respiration, they became a ...
Organelle is a specialized structure suspended in the cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cells and contributes to specific cellular function. The. Read more ...
Magda Bienkos research focuses on understanding the design principles of how DNA is organized in the three-dimensional space of the eukaryotic cell...
In terms of differences, eukaryotic cells are much larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. On average, a typical eukaryotic cell is about 1,000 X larger in volume than a typical prokaryotic cell. Because of their much larger size, eukaryotic cells generally have much more DNA than prokaryotic cells, and there is a much greater degree of compartmentalization and division of labor within a eukaryotic cell. The interior of eukaryotic cells is generally divided into many specialized compartments by internal membranes (membranes separate from the plasma membrane) and membrane-bound organelles (organelles completely surrounded by membranes). Usually, prokaryotic cells lack internal membranes and membrane-bound organelles. In addition, the DNA of eukaryotic cells is enclosed within a membrane-bound nucleus, while the DNA of prokaryotic cells is located in the cytoplasm ...
prokaryotic cells are simple cells. eukaryotic cells are more complex. what structures do eukaryotic cells have that, Hire Biology Expert, Ask Academics Expert, Assignment Help, Homework Help, Textbooks Solutions
Eukaryotes include such microorganisms as fungi, protozoa, and simple algae. Viruses are considered neither prokaryotes nor eukaryotes because they lack the characteristics of living things, except the ability to replicate (which they accomplish only in living cells). Viruses are much, much smaller than prokaryotes. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells are both alive, while viruses are not. Viruses have very few organelles, similar to the prokaryotic cells. They contain a plasma membrane, cell wall, RNA or DNA, and a protein capsule. Prokaryotic cells lack internal membrane-bound structures and are unicellular organisms. One example of a prokaryote is bacteria. Prokaryotic cells are about one-tenth the size of a eukaryotic cell. A prokaryotes DNA is double-stranded, and it prokaryotic cell is also experiences chemiosmosis. Eukaryotic cells are multicellular organisms that have membrane-bound organelles, such as animal cells. Some eukaryotic cells, however, are unicellular organisms such as amoebas. ...
All living things are made up of a cell or cells, and all cells are either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. A eukaryotic cell is a complex cell with a nucleus and many organelles. Eukaryotic cells are the building blocks of all animals, plants and fungi. Prokaryotic cells are very simple cells with fewer structures than eukaryotic cells; one primary difference is that they lack a nucleus. Bacteria are an example of prokaryotes.. ...
Biochemical Roles of Eukaryotic Cell Surface Macromolecules By Abhijit Chakrabarti, Avadhesha Surolia 2015 | 424 Pages | ISBN: 3319112791 | PDF | 14 MB Biochemical Roles of Eukaryotic Cell S
Amazing pictures of 6 Fabulous Dog Tags With Pictures Engraved is totally great for your biological science knowledge. The image Resolution 800 x 800 px and the image size only 222 kb. Click the thumbnail to see the larger version.. Tagged with: army tag, dog name tag, dog necklace, dog tag machine, dog tag with picture engraved, .. ...
I believe the corporation is a another type of life-form and that to understand it you need to have a solid understanding of accounting. I have been looking into it for a good time now. I have worked in these large multinationals at various levels and my conclusion is that these beasts have all the characteristics of the most sophisticated eukaryote cells and even mimic behavior of multi-cell organisms. You may laugh but accounting is to these creatures as the Standard Model is to physics. Accounting explains how they operate and is useful in predicting how they can do new stuff. What is missing is an organized brain to pull it all tightly together. CEOs have to work through too many layers to do much. AI would be the next logical step and I am sure shareholders would be for it as long as the share price benefits. They might already be there in some ways and could be an evolutionary process. My question to you is to look at the legal aspects. Can an AI be named to head a corporation and if yes ...
I believe the corporation is a another type of life-form and that to understand it you need to have a solid understanding of accounting. I have been looking into it for a good time now. I have worked in these large multinationals at various levels and my conclusion is that these beasts have all the characteristics of the most sophisticated eukaryote cells and even mimic behavior of multi-cell organisms. You may laugh but accounting is to these creatures as the Standard Model is to physics. Accounting explains how they operate and is useful in predicting how they can do new stuff. What is missing is an organized brain to pull it all tightly together. CEOs have to work through too many layers to do much. AI would be the next logical step and I am sure shareholders would be for it as long as the share price benefits. They might already be there in some ways and could be an evolutionary process. My question to you is to look at the legal aspects. Can an AI be named to head a corporation and if yes ...
We analyzed length differences of eukaryotic, bacterial and archaeal proteins in relation to function, conservation and environmental factors. Comparing Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, we found that the greater length of eukaryotic proteins is pervasive over all functional categories and involves the va …
I need to describe prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes. I think I got prokaryotic the circular DNA molecule of prokaryotic organisms, containing the majority of the genes for the cell. I cant seem to define eukaryotic can u help ...
Eukaryotic And Prokaryotic Cell Structures: Understanding Cells With And Without A Nucleus (THE LIBRARY OF CELLS) de Lesli J., Ph.D. Favor sur AbeBooks.fr - ISBN 10 : 1404203230 - ISBN 13 : 9781404203235 - Rosen Pub Group - 2004
A Possible Mechanism of DNA to DNA Transcription in Eukaryotic Cells: Endonuclease Dependent Transcript Cutout. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Citation Machine™ helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. Cite your federal report in Eukaryotic Cell format for free.
View Notes - quiz08_keyS10 from BTNY 210 at Purdue. 9:3:3:1 6. Name one feature which separates all prokaryotic organisms from eukaryotic organisms. Contains a nucleus, or/and any membrane bound
2016 CEGR Fall Retreat Every year, the PIs leading the labs in The Center for Eukaryotic Gene Regulation (CEGR) invite their staff and families to a Fall retreat. Our faculty host a Center-wide activity outside of normal collaborative lab work and the Megameeting on Tuesdays. This years event will be hosted at the Civil Engineering Lodge on Lake…. ...
Host Organisms: Bacteria are usually used as hosts in genetic engineering. There are several reasons why they are chosen. 1. Bacterial DNA can be easily isolated and reintroduced into bacterial cells. 2. Bacterial cultures grow quickly. Some disadvantages surface as well: 1. Bacteria, being prokaryotic, may not be able to use the information in eukaryotic genes. 2. Bacterial cells cannot make the the necessary changes in transcription to produce some eukaryotic proteins. Eukaryotic cells can also be used as hosts. Yeast cells and some plant and animal cells can be a host for foreign DNA, but it is often difficult to get such cells to take up engineered DNA ...
An example of a complex eukaryotic KOG: globins and related hemoproteins. The systematic protein names of the KOG members are listed under each species. To the
What is the difference between Vesicle and Vacuole? Vesicles are found in eukaryotic cells while vacuoles are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
A housekeeping gene is a gene which is constitutively or constantly expressed and is necessary for basic cellular functions. Contingency genes, on the other hand, produce gene products which are, shall we say, slightly more expendable should a mutation arise. Contingency genes were first identified and have been well-studied in prokaryotes such as bacteria, because…
ASM journals are the most prominent publications in the field, delivering up-to-date and authoritative coverage of both basic and clinical microbiology.. About ASM , Contact Us , Press Room. ASM is a member of. ...
The major and extremely significant difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that eukaryotes have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, while prokaryotes do not. The DNA of prokaryotes floats freely around the cell; the DNA of eukaryotes is held within its nucleus. The organelles of eukaryotes allow them to exhibit much higher levels of intracellular division of labor than is possible in prokaryotic cells. ...
void:inDataset: http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/void.ttl#Agrovoc. Created: 2014-02-26T08:58:39Z. Last modified: 2014-07-03T20:22:48Z. skos:notation: 330944 ...
talk contribs‎ 307 bytes +307‎ Created page with {{organelle}} ==Definition== The Golgi apparatus (also called the Golgi body or Golgi apparatus) is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells whose ... ...
Chromosoma publishes research and review articles on the functional organization of the eukaryotic cell nucleus, with a particular emphasis on the structure ...
"Unconventional mechanisms of protein transport to the cell surface of eukaryotic cells". Annual Review of Cell and ... Eukaryotic cells, including human cells, have a highly evolved process of secretion. Proteins targeted for the outside are ... Many human cell types have the ability to be secretory cells. They have a well-developed endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi ... The classical mechanism of cell secretion is via secretory portals at the cell plasma membrane called porosomes.[1] Porosomes ...
"Photoreceptor for Curling Behavior in Peranema trichophorum and Evolution of Eukaryotic Rhodopsins". Eukaryotic Cell. 4 (10): ... The cell is spindle or cigar-shaped, somewhat pointed at the anterior end. It has a pellicle with finely-ridged microtubules (a ... At the anterior of the cell, there is a narrow aperture, opening into a flask-shaped "reservoir", from which the organism's two ... It does not float freely, like the trailing flagella of Dinema and Entosiphon, but adheres to the outside of the cell membrane ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 4 (8): 1420-33. doi:10.1128/EC.4.8.1420-1433.2005. PMC 1214536 . PMID 16087747. Alspaugh JA, Granger DL (1991 ... Infecting C. neoformans cells are usually phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages in the lung. The invading C. neoformans cells ... Studies have shown that hosts with higher levels of immune response cells such as monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and ... Th1-type cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is required for clearance of a fungal infection. Candida albicans is a kind of diploid ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 2 (2): 306-17. doi:10.1128/EC.2.2.306-317.2003. PMC 154842 . PMID 12684380. Craven RJ, Mallory JC, Hand RA ( ... Hand RA, Craven RJ (Oct 2003). "Hpr6.6 protein mediates cell death from oxidative damage in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells". ... PGRMC1 also promotes survival in human cancer cells after treatment with chemotherapy. In contrast, PGRMC1 promotes cell death ... Yeast cells lacking the DAP1 gene are sensitive to DNA damage, and heme-binding is essential for damage resistance. Dap1 is ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 11 (7): 932-42. doi:10.1128/EC.05319-11. PMC 3416500 . PMID 22544908. Schmittgen TD, Livak KJ (2008). " ... RT-PCR can also be very useful in the insertion of eukaryotic genes into prokaryotes. Because most eukaryotic genes contain ... Circulating tumor cells produce unique mRNA transcripts depending on the type of cancer. The goal is to determine which mRNA ... used qRT-PCR to measure expression of Gal genes in yeast cells. First, Lin et al. engineered a mutation of a protein suspected ...
ISBN 1-4292-7634-7. Cambronne, E. D.; Roy, C. R. (2006). "Recognition and Delivery of Effector Proteins into Eukaryotic Cells ... Steinberg, G. (2007). "Hyphal growth: a tale of motors, lipids, and the spitzenkörper". Eukaryotic Cell. 6 (3): 351-360. doi: ... Bacterial effector proteins are injected by bacterial cells, usually pathogens, into the cells of their host. The injection is ... It has been shown that cytoplasmic effectors can move through a few layers of plant cells, probably a way to prepare them for ...
nov., a new sibling species of A. fumigatus". Eukaryotic Cell. 4 (3): 625-632. doi:10.1128/EC.4.3.625-632.2005. Swilaiman SS, ... Eukaryotic Cell. 12 (7): 962-9. doi:10.1128/EC.00040-13. PMC 3697472 . PMID 23650087. ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 4 (2): 356-64. doi:10.1128/EC.4.2.356-364.2005. Papanikolaou S, Aggelis G (2010). "Yarrowia lipolytica: A ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 6 (1): 110-6. doi:10.1128/EC.00233-06. PMC 1800358 . PMID 17056743. ...
Eukaryotic cell. 5 (12): 2184-2188. doi:10.1128/EC.00274-06. PMC 1694807 . PMID 17056742. Miyazaki Taiga; Miyazaki Yoshitsugu; ... In fungi C5SD catalyzes the dehydration of episterol as a step in the synthesis of ergosterol, a sterol that regulates cell ... This patient was also found to have low levels of blood cholesterol and high levels of lathosterol in cell membranes when ... Cholesterol serves multiple roles in the cell including modulating membrane fluidity serving as a precursor to steroid hormones ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 3 (2): 536-45. doi:10.1128/EC.3.2.536-545.2004. PMC 387656 . PMID 15075282. Mok S, Ashley EA, Ferreira PE, Zhu ... The flow cell is imaged up to four times during each sequencing cycle, with tens to hundreds of cycles in total. Flow cell ... disease is expanding rapidly due to the ability to dissect immune cell populations and to sequence T cell and B cell receptor ... "Massively parallel single-cell RNA-seq for marker-free decomposition of tissues into cell types". Science. 343 (6172): 776-9. ...
Steinberg, G. (2007). "Hyphal growth: a tale of motors, lipids, and the Spitzenkörper". Eukaryotic Cell. 6 (3): 351-360. doi: ... Eukaryotic cell. 4 (2): 225-229. doi:10.1128/EC.4.2.225-229.2005. PMC 549335 . PMID 15701784. Webster, John; Weber, R. W. S. ( ...
Eukaryotic Cell. American Society for Microbiology. 6 (4): 650-657. doi:10.1128/EC.00392-06. PMC 1865656 . PMID 17293483. Kloer ... In cone cells the disks are defined by the cell's plasma membrane so that the N-terminus head extends outside of the cell. ... In rod cells the opsin molecules are embedded in the membranes of the disks which are entirely inside of the cell. The N- ... 6 occur in rod cell outer segments; Steps 1, 2, and 7 occur in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. RPE65 isomerohydrolases ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 3 (2): 359-68. PMC 387655 . PMID 15075266. doi:10.1128/ec.3.2.359-368.2004. Intracellular at the US National ... "inside the cell". It is used in contrast to extracellular (outside the cell). The cell membrane (and, in many organisms, the ... In most organisms, for example, a Na+/K+ ATPase maintains a high potassium level inside cells while keeping sodium low, leading ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means " ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 4 (5): 911-919. doi:10.1128/EC.4.5.911-919.2005. PMC 1140100 . PMID 15879525. Sowing Seeds A survey of seed ... One of these cells is a tube cell. Once the pollen grain lands on the stigma of a receptive flower (or a female cone in ... A variety of cells can be formed from the germinating conidia. The most common are germ tubes which grow and develop into ... Another type of cell is a conidial anastomosis tube (CAT); these differ from germ tubes in that they are thinner, shorter, lack ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 8 (3): 353-361. doi:10.1128/EC.00373-08. PMC 2653247 . PMID 19151324. http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/ ... These spores are smooth, globose to ellipsoid, and germinate by hyphal tube or by yeast cells. Conidiophores are often present ... Tremella species produce hyphae that are typically (but not always) clamped and have haustorial cells from which hyphal ... producing conidiospores that are similar to yeast cells. Species are mainly parasitic on wood-rotting fungi in the phyla ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 5 (4): 650-7. doi:10.1128/EC.5.4.650-657.2006. PMC 1459663 . PMID 16607012. Machida, M; Gomi, K, eds. (2010). ... Eukaryotic Cell. 12 (7): 962-9. doi:10.1128/EC.00040-13. PMC 3697472 . PMID 23650087. Arabatzis M, Velegraki A (2013). "Sexual ... These findings with Aspergillus species are consistent with accumulating evidence, from studies of other eukaryotic species, ...
... each of which with a long history of use to investigate issues in eukaryotic cell biology and genetics, such as cell cycle ... Daniels KJ, Srikantha T, Lockhart SR, Pujol C, Soll DR (May 2006). "Opaque cells signal white cells to form biofilms in Candida ... In contrast, similar-looking organisms, such as filamentous green algae, grow by repeated cell division within a chain of cells ... Eukaryotic Cell. 4 (8): 1420-33. doi:10.1128/EC.4.8.1420-1433.2005. PMC 1214536 . PMID 16087747. Lin X, Hull CM, Heitman J ( ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 11 (5): 705-706. doi:10.1128/EC.00081-12. Qiu-Xia, Chen; Chang-Xing, Li; Wen-Ming, Huang; Jiang-Qiang, Shi; ... The addition of lactophenol blue with this test turns the chitin in the cell wall blue but leaves the budding conidia and ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 9 (7): 1039-1048. doi:10.1128/EC.00080-10. ISSN 1535-9778. PMC 2901662 . PMID 20495057. Wellen, Kathryn E.; ... All cells with mitochondria can take ketone bodies up from the blood and reconvert them into acetyl-CoA, which can then be used ... Unlike free fatty acids, ketone bodies can cross the blood-brain barrier and are therefore available as fuel for the cells of ... This acetylation affects cell growth, mitosis, and apoptosis. Allosteric regulator Acetyl-CoA serves as an allosteric regulator ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 4 (12): 2057-65. doi:10.1128/EC.4.12.2057-2065.2005. PMC 1317489 . PMID 16339723. Akhtar A, Becker PB ( ... An ongoing clinical trial is evaluating Zinc finger nucleases that disrupt the CCR5 gene in CD4+ human T-cells as a potential ... Kim HJ, Lee HJ, Kim H, Cho SW, Kim JS (July 2009). "Targeted genome editing in human cells with zinc finger nucleases ... Tebas P, Stein D (2009). "Autologous T-Cells Genetically Modified at the CCR5 Gene by Zinc Finger Nucleases SB-728 for HIV". ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 5 (9): 1517-31. doi:10.1128/EC.00106-06. PMC 1563581 . PMID 16963634. Emiliani G, Fondi M, Fani R, Gribaldo S ... Horizontal gene transfer could bypass eukaryotic barrier features like linear chromatin-based chromosomes, intron-exon gene ... The Plant Cell. 21 (7): 1897-911. doi:10.1105/tpc.109.065805. PMID 19584142. Jain R, Rivera MC, Lake JA (March 1999). " ... The Plant Cell. 21 (7): 1897-911. doi:10.1105/tpc.109.065805. PMC 2729602 . PMID 19584142. Rosewich UL, Kistler HC (2000). " ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 9 (10): 1577-87. doi:10.1128/EC.00026-10. PMC 2950428 . PMID 20400466. Marinov GK, Lynch M. "Diversity and ... Eukaryotic DNA with a typical length of dozens of centimeters should be orderly packed to be readily accessible inside the ... In other eukaryotes, DNA is arranged in the cell nucleus with the help of histones. In this case, the basic level of DNA ... During the cell division, chromatin compaction increases even more to form chromosomes, which can cope with large mechanical ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 5 (8): 1184-1193. doi:10.1128/EC.00133-06. ISSN 1535-9778. PMC 1539135 . PMID 16896204. McClung, C. Robertson ... The Plant Cell. 16 (suppl 1): S18-S31. doi:10.1105/tpc.015958. ISSN 1532-298X. PMC 2643402 . PMID 15037730. Alabadı́, David; ... The Plant Cell. 22 (3): 594-605. doi:10.1105/tpc.109.072892. ISSN 1532-298X. PMC 2861452 . PMID 20233950. Golembeski, Greg S.; ... Plant Cell Physiology. 41: 1002-1012. Pokhilko, Alexandra; Fernández, Aurora Piñas; Edwards, Kieron D.; Southern, Megan M.; ...
Idnurm A (November 2011). "Sex determination in the first-described sexual fungus". Eukaryotic Cell. 10 (11): 1485-91. doi: ... The zygote develops a resistant cell wall, forming a single-celled zygospore, the characteristic that gives its name to this ...
5 (2): 368 --." Eukaryotic Cell. 16 Dec. 2005. Web. 31 Jan. 2010. . National Toxicology Program (August 15, 2005). "Executive ... However, SYBR Green I was actually found to be more mutagenic than EtBr to the bacterial cells exposed to UV (which is used to ... Ethidium bromide can be added to YPD media and used as an inhibitor for cell growth. Ethidium bromide is not regulated as ... The level is high enough that exposure may interfere with replication of mitochondrial DNA in some human cell lines, although ...
Heddergott, C.; Calvo, A. M.; Latgé, J. P. (2017-02-02). "The Volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus". Eukaryotic Cell. 13 (8): 1014 ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 4 (2): 346-55. doi:10.1128/EC.4.2.346-355.2005. PMC 549337 . PMID 15701797. Human ATP5I genome location and ... Ying H, Yu Y, Xu Y (2002). "Antisense of ATP synthase subunit e inhibits the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells". ... Oster G, Wang H (2003). "Rotary protein motors". Trends Cell Biol. 13 (3): 114-21. doi:10.1016/S0962-8924(03)00004-7. PMID ... Gubin AN, Njoroge JM, Bouffard GG, Miller JL (1999). "Gene expression in proliferating human erythroid cells". Genomics. 59 (2 ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 2 (5): 830-840. doi:10.1128/EC.2.5.830-840.2003. PMC 219355 . PMID 14555465. Dixon RJ, Eperon IC, Samani NJ ( ... Li H, Wang J, Mor G, Sklar J (Sep 2008). "A neoplastic gene fusion mimics trans-splicing of RNAs in normal human cells". ...
Souza, Colin P. C. De; Osmani, Stephen A. (2007-09-01). "Mitosis, Not Just Open or Closed". Eukaryotic Cell. 6 (9): 1521-1527. ... Interphase cells must also keep up a level of NPC generation to keep the levels of NPC in the cell constant as some may get ... For example, cycling mammalian and yeast cells double the amount of NPC in the nucleus between the G1 and G2 phase of the cell ... which is the double membrane surrounding the eukaryotic cell nucleus. There are about an average of 2000 nuclear pore complexes ...
"Cell. 136 (2): 272-83. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.11.047. PMC 2859625. PMID 19167329.. ... "Structure of the yeast oligosaccharyltransferase complex gives insight into eukaryotic N-glycosylation". Science. 359 (6375): ... "J. Cell Biol. 161 (4): 715-25. doi:10.1083/jcb.200301043. PMC 2199356. PMID 12756234.. ... The high sequence similarity between the prokaryotic and the eukaryotic STT3 suggests that their structures are similar. ...
regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (January 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ...
... and two eukaryotic genomes (nucleus of host cell and nucleomorph). ... The unique combination of host cell and complex plastid results in cells with four genomes: two prokaryotic genomes ( ... They retained only three chromosomes and many genes were transferred to the nucleus of the host cell, while others were lost ... Most of the genes that moved to the host cell involved protein synthesis, leaving behind a compact genome with mostly single- ...
Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree. Biol Lett 6 (3): 342-5. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0948 ... Reproduction occurs exclusively through cell division. During mitosis, the nuclear membrane remains intact, and the spindle ... two other tubules support the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the cell.[2] ...
"Methods for High-Content, High-Throughput Image-Based Cell Screening" (PDF). Proceedings of the Workshop on Microscopic Image ... "The Biology of Eukaryotic Promoter Prediction-a Review". Computers & Chemistry 23 (3-4). Páxs. 191-207. ...
Eukaryotic chloroplasts have an RNAP very similar to bacterial RNAP ("plastid-encoded polymerase"). Eukaryotic chloroplasts ... So the two classes of enzyme have arisen independently twice in the early evolution of cells. One line led to the modern DNA ... Structure of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (light blue) in complex with α-amanitin (red), a strong poison found in death cap ... Eukaryotic mitochondria contain an unrelated RNAP (member of the "single-subunit RNAP" protein family). ...
BaP was shown to cause genetic damage in lung cells that was identical to the damage observed in the DNA of most malignant lung ... which is a eucaryotic receptor for bacterial surface structures such as lipoteichoic acid. ... BaP has an effect on the number of white blood cells, inhibiting some of them from differentiating into macrophages, the body's ... This gene is a transcription factor that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as a tumor suppressor. By inducing G ( ...
Esophageal squamous cell cancer. Over-expression. 47%. Immunohistochemistry. [24]. Renal cell carcinoma. Under-expression. 100% ... RAD51 is a eukaryotic gene. The enzyme encoded by this gene is a member of the RAD51 protein family which assists in repair of ... "Association of BRCA1 with Rad51 in mitotic and meiotic cells". Cell. 88 (2): 265-75. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81847-4. PMID ... Non-small-cell lung cancer. Over-expression. 29%. Immunohistochemistry. [22]. Soft tissue sarcoma. Over-expression. 95%. ...
Some types of cell adhesion proteins or cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) such as integrins, cadherins, NCAMs, or selectins ... "Genome-wide analysis of integral membrane proteins from eubacterial, archaean, and eukaryotic organisms". Protein Science. 7 ... The C terminal end of the protein is in the cytosol while the N terminal region is in the outside of the cell. A membrane that ... Steven R. Goodman (2008). Medical cell biology. Academic Press. pp. 37-. ISBN 978-0-12-370458-0. . Retrieved 24 November 2010. ...
Gerald Karp (19 October 2009). Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 14-. ISBN 978-0- ... and the term for true algae is restricted to eukaryotic organisms.[11] Like true algae, cyanobacteria are photosynthetic and ... Toxic effects from anatoxin-a progress very rapidly because it acts directly on the nerve cells (neurons) as a neurotoxin. The ... It acts on the voltage-gated sodium channels of nerve cells, preventing normal cellular function and leading to paralysis. The ...
This machinery is related to the eukaryotic ESCRT-III machinery which, while best known for its role in cell sorting, also has ... Further information: Cell wall § Archaeal cell walls. Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall.[ ... Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes ... In euryarchaea the cell division protein FtsZ, which forms a contracting ring around the cell, and the components of the septum ...
"Molecular Cell. 68 (1): 130-143.e5. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2017.08.016. PMC 5632562. PMID 28918903.. ... The TATA box is a component of the eukaryotic core promoter and generally contains the consensus sequence 5'-TATA(A/T)A(A/T)-3 ... In specific cell types or on specific promoters TBP can be replaced by one of several TBP-related factors (TRF1 in Drosophila, ... Compounds that trap the protein-DNA intermediate could result in it being toxic to the cell once they encounter a DNA ...
... s are found in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells, and in certain Archaea, namely Proteoarchaea and Euryarchaea, but not in ... In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into ... SLBP levels are controlled by cell-cycle proteins, causing SLBP to accumulate as cells enter S phase and degrade as cells leave ... "Cell. 148 (4): 664-78. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.12.029. PMC 3281992. PMID 22325148.. ...
... s also control release of virons when the insect stings an infected plant cell or a cell near the infected cells. ... Viroplasms have been reported in many unrelated groups of Eukaryotic viruses that replicate in cytoplasm, however, viroplasms ... They may be thought of as viral factories in the cell. There are many viroplasms in one infected cell, where they appear dense ... The viroplasm formation is caused by the interactions between the virus and the infected cell, where viral products and cell ...
Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells, making prokaryotic cells the smallest form of life.[11] Cytologists ... Cell biology focuses more on the study of eukaryotic cells, and their signalling pathways, rather than on prokaryotes which is ... This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the ... In the case of eukaryotic cells - which are made up of animal, plant, fungi, and protozoa cells - the shapes are generally ...
"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"[۳۷] ۲۰۰۹ عادا یونات Israel "for studies of the structure ... "for their discovery of جی پروتئینs and the role of these proteins in ورارسانی پیام in cells"[۷۳] ... "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[۶۱] ... for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[۸۱] ...
Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (Jan 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... Cell. 154 (2): 452-64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207 . PMID 23870131. "Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping ( ... "Transcriptional regulation of squalene epoxidase by sterols and inhibitors in HeLa cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
A peroxisome (IPA: [pɛɜˈɹɒksɪˌsoʊm])[1] is a type of organelle known as a microbody, found in virtually all eukaryotic cells.[2 ... when excess H2O2 accumulates in the cell, catalase converts it to H2O through this reaction: 2. H. 2. O. 2. →. 2. H. 2. O. +. O ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 119 (5): 1129-36. doi:10.1083/jcb.119.5.1129. PMC 2289717. PMID 1447292.. ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.04.025. PMID 16009135.. *^ Saleem RA, Smith JJ, Aitchison JD (Dec 2006). "Proteomics of the peroxisome" ...
The cytosols of virtually all eukaryotic cells contain an SOD enzyme with copper and zinc (Cu-Zn-SOD). For example, Cu-Zn-SOD ... "The expression of different superoxide dismutase forms is cell-type dependent in olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves". Plant & Cell ... Human white blood cells use enzymes such as NADPH oxidase to generate superoxide and other reactive oxygen species to kill ... Thus, SOD is an important antioxidant defense in nearly all living cells exposed to oxygen. One exception is Lactobacillus ...
Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell (Fourth ed.). New York: ... Keeling, PJ; Palmer, JD (August 2008). "Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotic evolution.". Nature Reviews Genetics 9 (8): 605- ... "Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli essential genes and minimal cell factories after one decade of genome engineering.". ... Molecular Biology of the Cell (Fourth ed.). New York: Garland Science. ISBN 978-0-8153-3218-3. ...
The post glycolytic reactions take place in the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells, and in the cytoplasm in prokaryotic cells. ... In cells which use oxygen, the pyruvate is used in a second process, the Krebs cycle, which produces more ATP molecules. ... Cellular respiration is the process of breaking sugar into a form that the cell can use as energy. This happens in all forms of ... Cellular respiration takes in food and uses it to create ATP, a chemical which the cell uses for energy. ...
Cell. Biol. 24 (4): 1493-504. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.4.1493-1504.2004. PMC 344167. PMID 14749367.. الوسيط ,CitationClass=. تم ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. PMID 16169070.. الوسيط ,CitationClass=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة). ... 2005). "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. ...
Their work discovered how T-cells recognize their targets and led to a much-improved understanding of the immune system ... She discovered the molecular nature of telomeres - the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes that serve as protective caps essential ... recognises virus-infected cells. Professor Barry Jones AO FAA FAHA FTSE FASSA Dist FRSN. Politician. 2012. He was the longest ...
... of cells in the cell cycle.[253]. *Mark Oliphant (1901-2000): Australian physicist and humanitarian. He played a fundamental ... He won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1993 for the discovery of introns in eukaryotic DNA and the mechanism of ... She is the George Barth Geller Professor of Research in Molecular Biology and Chair of the Department of Cell Biology at Duke ... Brigid Hogan FRS (1943-): British developmental biologist noted for her contributions to stem cell research and transgenic ...
Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_Clathr_ClatBox_1. *Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_Clathr_ ... "Journal of Cell Biology. 202 (3): 463-78. doi:10.1083/jcb.201211127. PMC 3734082 . PMID 23918938.. ... "J Cell Biol. 202 (3): 463-78. doi:10.1083/jcb.201211127. PMC 3734082 . PMID 23918938.. ... In a cell, a triskelion floating in the cytoplasm binds to an adaptor protein, linking one of its feet to the membrane at a ...
"Cell. 137 (1): 133-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.041. PMC 2668214. PMID 19345192.. ... In archaea such as Thermoplasma acidophilum, all the α and all the β subunits are identical, whereas eukaryotic proteasomes ... Cell cycle controlEdit. Cell cycle progression is controlled by ordered action of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), activated by ... Apoptosis is mediated through disrupting the regulated degradation of pro-growth cell cycle proteins.[88] However, some cell ...
56,0 56,1 56,2 Fitt WK, Trench RK (1983) The relation of diel patterns of cell division to diel patterns of motility in the ... Rowan R, Whitney SM, Fowler A, Yellowlees D (1996) Rubisco in marine symbiotic dinoflagellates: Form II enzymes in eukaryotic ... Markell DA, Trench RK, Iglesias-Prieto R (1992) Macromolecules associated with the cell-walls of symbiotic dinoflagellates. ... Thornhill DJ, LaJeunesse TC, Santos SR (2007) Measuring rDNA diversity in eukaryotic microbial systems: how intragenomic ...
... of a DNA ligase I deficiency by DNA ligase III and its impact on cell survival and telomere stability in mammalian cells". Cell ... "Eukaryotic DNA ligases: structural and functional insights". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 77: 313-38. PMC 2933818. PMID 18518823. doi ... Cell. Biol. 19 (5): 3869-76. PMC 84244. PMID 10207110.. *↑ 12,0 12,1 12,2 Mackey ZB, Ramos W, Levin DS, Walter CA, McCarrey JR ... Cell. Biol. 17 (2): 989-98. PMC 231824. PMID 9001252.. *↑ Wei YF, Robins P, Carter K, Caldecott K, Pappin DJ, Yu GL, Wang RP, ...
"Autophagy in the eukaryotic cell". Eukaryotic Cell. 1 (1): 11-21. doi:10.1128/EC.01.1.11-21.2002. PMC 118053 . PMID 12455967.. ... Mechanism of cell death[edit]. Cells that undergo an extreme amount of stress experience cell death either through apoptosis or ... "Cannabisin B induces autophagic cell death by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR pathway and S phase cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells". ... Tavassoly, Iman (2015). Dynamics of Cell Fate Decision Mediated by the Interplay of Autophagy and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells. ...
Cell. Biol. 29 (1): 157-71. doi:10.1128/MCB.01082-08. PMC 2612494 . PMID 18936157. Ganley IG, Lam du H, Wang J, et al. (2009 ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... Cell. 20 (7): 1981-91. doi:10.1091/mbc.E08-12-1248. PMC 2663915 . PMID 19211835. Chan EY, Longatti A, McKnight NC, Tooze SA ( ... Cell. 20 (7): 1992-2003. doi:10.1091/mbc.E08-12-1249. PMC 2663920 . PMID 19225151. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. ( ...
The majority of eukaryotic cells also include internal structures within their... ... Structures inside a eukaryotic cell include a nucleus, genetic material, a plasma membrane, ribosomes and a cytoplasm. ... A eukaryotic cell is a cell that contains a membrane-bound nucleus. The nucleus is the control center of the cell, and it is ... Structures inside a eukaryotic cell include a nucleus, genetic material, a plasma membrane, ribosomes and a cytoplasm. The ...
Does anyone know any good links to a site with a detailed drawing/photograph/diagram of a eukaryotic cells as seen under and ... eukaryotic cells - link?. Discussion of all aspects of cellular structure, physiology and communication. ... eukaryotic cells - link?. by Boku » Sat Oct 15, 2011 2:20 pm ... Home ‹ Board index ‹ General Biology ‹ Cell Biology. *Change ...
... library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.html. thanx, you guys are awesome!!. Any time!. eucaryote= no nucleu... ...
cell membrane controls the space they enclose help with cellular mobility and maintain the cell u s s on eukaryotic cell ... Of answers organelles in eukaryotic cells eukaryotes flow chart of cell organelles and their functions, eukaryotic cell ... eukaryotic plant cell with diagram flow chart of cell flow chart of cell organelles ... eukaryotic cell structure and function chart google search biology biology cell structure animal cell ...
Where In A Eukaryotic Cell Does Translation Occur, Pearson The Biology Place, Dna Transcription Part 1 , Docirs.net ... Collection of Where In A Eukaryotic Cell Does Translation Occur , Unit 6 Dna Protein Synthesis Ppt Download, Dna The Molecule ... Home ,Where In A Eukaryotic Cell Does Translation Occur ,Where In A Eukaryotic Cell Does Translation Occur ... Where In A Eukaryotic Cell Does Translation Occur is match and guidelines that suggested for you, for enthusiasm about you ...
In all eukaryotic cells the availability of membrane components is regulated by coordinated mechanisms that deliver newly ... Using cell lines and cutting-edge optical microscopy we also seek to understand some fundamental properties of the structure ... This intriguing spatial distribution was already implied by Camilo Golgi in his classical drawings of Purkinje cells more than ... The structure-function relationships of these organelles are most likely conserved in all eukaryote cells. However, the size, ...
Eukaryotic Cell was an academic journal published by the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). The journal published ... findings from basic research studies of simple eukaryotic microorganisms. In January 2016, EC was merged into the cross- ...
... starts with providing examples of prokaryotes and eukaryotes before comparing and contrasting prokaryotic cells with eukaryotic ... 2:23 Similarities of Prokaryotic Cells and Eukaryotic Cells. 3:18 Differences of Prokaryotic Cells and Eukaryotic Cells. ... Introduction to Cells: The Grand Cell Tour - Duration: 9:27. Amoeba Sisters 918,470 views ... with providing examples of prokaryotes and eukaryotes before comparing and contrasting prokaryotic cells with eukaryotic cells ...
Prokaryotic cells, however, do not possess any membrane-bound cellular compartments. ... Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells possess a nucleus enclosed within a cell membrane. ... Structure of a eukaryotic cell. (Arisa_J / Shutterstock). Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Cell size. ... Similarities between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Cell Membrane. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells bear a lipid ...
... these are eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. They are both similar and... ... Eukaryotes and prokaryotes There are only two types of cell in the world, ... Eukaryotic Cells. * The Structure Of Eukaryotic Cells. 1416 Words , 6 Pages * The Evolution Of Eukaryotic Cells. 1102 Words , 5 ... Eukaryotic Cells And Its Functions. 978 Words , 4 Pages "Eukaryotic cells are complex and include all animal and plant cells. ...
Cas9-mediated RNA targeting in eukaryotic cells. Aryn A. Price, Timothy R. Sampson, Hannah K. Ratner, Arash Grakoui, David S. ... Cas9-mediated RNA targeting in eukaryotic cells. Aryn A. Price, Timothy R. Sampson, Hannah K. Ratner, Arash Grakoui, David S. ... Cas9-mediated targeting of viral RNA in eukaryotic cells. Aryn A. Price, Timothy R. Sampson, Hannah K. Ratner, Arash Grakoui, ... Therefore, FnCas9 can be programmed by a single rgRNA to target the RNA of a human virus in eukaryotic cells, leading to viral ...
The eocyte hypothesis and the origin of eukaryotic cells. John M. Archibald ... Few questions capture the imagination of biologists like the origin of eukaryotic (nucleus-containing) cells such as our own, ... 1988) Origin of the eukaryotic nucleus determined by rate-invariant analysis of rRNA sequences. Nature 331:184-186. ... Many adhere to the textbook concept of 2 basic types of cells, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, as championed by Stanier and van ...
Yes, your skin cells, your kidney cells, and your bone cells are fundamentally similar to the leaf cells and root cells of a ... All cells, at least all eukaryotic cells, are alike. Plants, animals, and fungi are eukaryotes (organisms made up of eukaryotic ... Prokaryotic cells are very different from and much simpler than eukaryotic cells in their basic structure and organization. ... The figure shows the general structure of a eukaryotic cell.. Illustration by Kathryn Born, MA A cutaway view of a basic animal ...
The Impact of Gene Transfer Techniques in Eukaryotic CeU Biology brought together a number of speakers interested in various ... followed by their introduction into living cells and even into the germ cells of multicellular organisms, have pervaded nearly ... Introduction of DNA into Animal Cells and Its Use to Study Gene Function. * Front Matter Pages 1-1 ... The 35th N:osbach Colloquium "The Impact of Gene Transfer Techniques in Eukaryotic CeU Biology" brought together a number of ...
... isolated as a potent inducer of differentiation in murine erythroleukemia cells, caused reversible arrest of rat 3Y1 fibroblast ... Effects of leptomycin B on the cell cycle of fibroblasts and fission yeast cells, Exp. Cell Res. 187, 150-156.PubMedCrossRef ... Novel Specific Inhibitors for Analysis of Eukaryotic Cell Cycle Control. In: Sasaki R., Ikura K. (eds) Animal Cell Culture and ... also blocks the cell cycle of 3Y1 and fission yeast cells in both Cl and G2. Cells released from the G2-arrest by both drugs ...
The simplest cells such as bacteria are known as... ... and Prokaryotic Cells There are two main types of cells in the ... and human cells are known as Eukaryotic cells. The main difference between each of these cells is that a eukaryotic cell has a ... Eukaryotic Cells Essay. 1219 Words , 5 Pages Eukaryotic Cells The cell may be regarded as the basic unit of an organism, it ... Eukaryotic and Prokatyotic Cell Structure Essay. 690 Words , 3 Pages Eukaryotic Cell Structure Plant cells are unique among the ...
... receive a measured cell density of the eukaryotic cells in the culture medium ... The system is configured to receive a target cell density and a target time and for each of a plurality of time intervals; ... Further, the eukaryotic cells may be NS0 cells, Sp2/0 cells, COS cells, K562 cells or HEK cells. ... the eukaryotic cells are mammalian cells, in particular Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Alternatively, the eukaryotic cells ...
... are found in either unicellular or multi-cellular organisms and are complex cells which have ... Animal cells are circular and plants cells are rectangular in shape.. *Plant cells contain a cell wall and animal cells do not. ... In comparison to prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells contain a true nucleus. The majority of eukaryotic organisms are multi- ... 2. Describe differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Plant and animal cell structures are compared.. What are the ...
If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. ...
E. coli hemolysin interactions with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell membranes.. Hughes C1, Stanley P, Koronakis V. ... causing cell dysfunction and death. The processes underlying the interaction of HlyA with the bacterial and mammalian cell ... of a transporter superfamily central to import and export of a wide range of substrates by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. ... The separate process by which HlyA is targetted to mammalian cell membranes is dependent upon fatty acylation of a non-toxic ...
Can you name the Regulating the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare ... Tags:cell, cycle, eukaryotic, Eukaryotic Cell. Top Quizzes Today. Top Quizzes Today in Science. *Find the Black & White Animals ... Science Quiz / Regulating the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle. Random Science Quiz Can you name the Regulating the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle? ...
The main approach will be across the eukaryotic kingdom, the main aim will be to understand these types of cell death in humans ... Programmed cell death (PCD) is normally invoked during development and immunity, but inappropriate PCD is associated with ... This TransDeath project will focus on cellular and molecular events in these less well known cell death types. Thus, the ... However, phylogenetically conserved PCD types other than apoptosis exist i n animal and non-animal cells. ...
... Genomics. 1992 Dec;14(4):897-911. doi: 10.1016/ ... Fourteen localization sites were distinguished for animal cells and 17 for plant cells. When sorting signals were not well ... We collected data for 401 eukaryotic proteins with known localization sites (subcellular and extracellular) and divided them ...
... or the S phase of the cell cycle. In its normal state, a chromosome is a long, thin chromatin fiber containing one DNA... ... In a eukaryotic cell, chromosome replication occurs during DNA synthesis, ... What are the various specialized structures in a eukaryotic cell?. A: Structures inside a eukaryotic cell include a nucleus, ... Where does DNA replication take place in a eukaryotic cell?. * During which stage of the cell cycle does DNA replication occur? ...
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in terms of their ability to form a complex organism, whether they have a nucleus, and ... Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are the two basic forms cells can take. Prokaryotic cells form single-cell organisms such as ... Prokaryotic cells are more primitive than eukaryotic cells. The most noticeable difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ... While both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have ribosomes, the ribosomes in eukaryotic cells are larger and more developed. ...
If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. ...
Cells,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology ... Mammalian Hamster fibro...,Examples,of,Electro-Transfected,Eukaryotic,and,Prokaryotic, ... Examples of Electro-transfected Eukaryotic. and Prokaryotic Cells Fungal Cells. Aspergillus (4 species). Candida (2 species). ... Mouse, D10.G4.1, T-cell, helper Mammalian (continued). Mouse, embryonic stem cells (ES-D3, E14). Mouse, erythroleukemia cells. ...
The translation of mRNA in eukaryotic cells is regulated by amino acids through multiple mechanisms. One such mechanism ... Regulation of translation initiation by amino acids in eukaryotic cells.. Kimball SR1. ... increasing the translational capacity of the cell. Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 prohibits its association with eIF4E, allowing ... regulated directly by the accumulation of deacylated-tRNA caused by treatment with inhibitors of tRNA synthetases or in cells ...
... the formation of the first euakryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells are discretely different to prokaryotic cells, primarily because ... Recently, our research group has been able to demonstrate that eukaryotic cells consist of a complex community of genes with ... The enduring impact of this project will be in the way undergraduate textbooks represent our knowledge of eukaryotic origins. ... immediate products of this research will be a collection of publications based on empirical data and relating to eukaryotic ...
... eukaryotic cells are much larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. On average, a typical eukaryotic cell is about 1,000 ... of cells each of the following characteristics applies to by writing P for prokaryotic cells only, E for eukaryotic cells only ... What are the main characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?. Biologists recognize 2 basic cell types: prokaryotic ... Because of their much larger size, eukaryotic cells generally have much more DNA than prokaryotic cells, and there is a much ...
Some eukaryotic cells have a flagellum, whip-like projection from the cell membrane that aids in the cells locomotion. Others ... Eukaryotae, or eukaryotic cells, are large and complex cells bounded by an outer plasma membrane. They contain many organelles ... with the liver cells producing more liver cells, and bone cells producing other bone cells. ... The types and arrangement of a cells organelles enable eukaryotic cells of multicellular organisms to perform specialized ...
Gene context of Eukaryotic Cells. *Actin, a major cytoskeletal component of all eukaryotic cells, is one of the most highly ... Biological context of Eukaryotic Cells. *Hsp90 molecular chaperones in eukaryotic cells play essential roles in the folding and ... Anatomical context of Eukaryotic Cells. *In eukaryotic cells, the Golgi apparatus receives newly synthesized proteins from the ... Associations of Eukaryotic Cells with chemical compounds. *Cells from four of the five patients grew successfully in high ...
Host Cell Invasion by Toxoplasma gondii Is Temporally Regulated by the Host Microtubule Cytoskeleton Kristin R. Sweeney, Naomi ... Hyperglutamylation of Tubulin Can either Stabilize or Destabilize Microtubules in the Same Cell Dorota Wloga, Drashti Dave, ... Microtubules in Candida albicans Hyphae Drive Nuclear Dynamics and Connect Cell Cycle Progression to Morphogenesis Kenneth R. ...
Expression of a Mitochondrial Peroxiredoxin Prevents Programmed Cell Death in Leishmania donovani Simone Harder, Meike Bente, ... of Mitochondrial Leishmania major Ascorbate Peroxidase Enhances Tolerance to Oxidative Stress-Induced Programmed Cell Death and ...
A molecule Specific for a receptor on the surface of the target cell is introduced onto the surface of the virus or cell. The ... The method provides vectors for selective delivery of nucleic acids to specific cell types in vivo and a means to alter the ... modified virus or cell binds the receptor in vive and is internalized by the target cell. ... Viruses or cells are targeted for selective internalization into a target in vive. ...
  • A eukaryotic cell is a cell that contains a membrane-bound nucleus. (reference.com)
  • The nucleus is the control center of the cell, and it is sometimes referred to as the brain as it dictates how the cell grows, reproduces and functions. (reference.com)
  • The nuclear membrane contains pores through which the nucleus communicates with other parts of the cell. (reference.com)
  • In all eukaryotic cells the availability of membrane components is regulated by coordinated mechanisms that deliver newly synthesized proteins to the plasma membrane and remove them for storage, recycling or degradation. (couvelab.org)
  • Today, compelling electron microscopy evidence indicates that in neuronal projections the SER is constituted by long tubules and three-way junctions that resemble the archetypal eukaryotic ER. (couvelab.org)
  • This intriguing spatial distribution was already implied by Camilo Golgi in his classical drawings of Purkinje cells more than a century ago. (couvelab.org)
  • The majority of eukaryotic cells also include internal structures within their membranes, known as organelles. (reference.com)
  • The cytoskeleton is a structure composed of protein that traffics cell particles. (reference.com)
  • The structure-function relationships of these organelles are most likely conserved in all eukaryote cells. (couvelab.org)
  • Sheets and tubules interconvert in response to intra/extracellular signals and the network suffers profound modifications in its architecture during the cell cycle. (couvelab.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells the chromosomes remain together inside the nucleus and there is a clear nuclear membrane that is surrounding the nucleus. (bartleby.com)
  • I) Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbial chromosomes. (brainmass.com)
  • During which stage of the cell cycle are chromosomes duplicated? (reference.com)
  • The chromosomes and genes contained within DNA are replicated during the S phase of the interphase cell cycle. (reference.com)
  • Eukaryotic DNA binds with histone proteins to form chromosomes, while prokaryotic DNA does not. (wisegeek.com)
  • The nucleus of a eukaryotic cell is a membrane-bound compartment containing genetic information in the form of DNA organized into chromosomes. (jrank.org)
  • Our research is focused on understanding how the last events in eukaryotic cell division are coordinated so as to prevent damage to any lagging chromosomes. (cam.ac.uk)
  • MetaphaseDuring metaphase, spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of the chromosomes, and the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell. (glogster.com)
  • During mitosis, microtubules form the spindle that pulls the chromosomes apart and distributes them equally to the two daughter cells that result after the cell splits. (thoughtco.com)
  • This Amoeba Sisters video starts with providing examples of prokaryotes and eukaryotes before comparing and contrasting prokaryotic cells with eukaryotic cells! (youtube.com)
  • Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes are able to be divided into further subcategories, eukaryotes can be either animal or plant cells, and prokaryotes can be classified based on the composition of their cell wall, for example bacteria. (bartleby.com)
  • However, it has also been conjectured that eukaryotic cell may have originated from prokaryotes. (bartleby.com)
  • Many adhere to the textbook concept of 2 basic types of cells, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, as championed by Stanier and van Niel ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • DETAILED DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EUKARYOTIC AND PROKARYOTIC CELLS Cells are divided into two categories namely the Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. (bartleby.com)
  • Prokaryotes are all single-cell organisms while eukaryotes include plants, fungi , and animals. (wisegeek.com)
  • I took 3 different Biology classes in College and understand: -diffusion and homeostasis -Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes -Microbiology of the cell -transcription and translation -Mitosis and Meiosis -Mendel and Darwin -Punnet Squares. (wyzant.com)
  • These cells have been evolved from prokaryotes. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • Like prokaryotes, eukaryotic cells have a plasma membrane, a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins that separates the internal contents of the cell from its surrounding environment. (imedecin.com)
  • The major enzymatic functions carried out at the replication fork are well conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, but the replication machinery in eukaryotic DNA replication is a much larger complex, coordinating many proteins at the site of replication, forming the replisome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Koval provides an interdisciplinary forum for the diverse studies involved in the stress biology of eukaryotic cells. (springer.com)
  • Next to life itself, the origin of complex cells is one of the most fundamental, and intractable, problems in evolutionary biology. (pnas.org)
  • This difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms is the great divide in biology. (dummies.com)
  • The 35th N:osbach Colloquium "The Impact of Gene Transfer Techniques in Eukaryotic CeU Biology" brought together a number of speakers interested in various aspects of cellular and developmental biology and over 600 other scientists, who listened to the lectures and participated in the lively discussions. (springer.com)
  • The powerful techniques of identifying and isolating DNA sequences, followed by their introduction into living cells and even into the germ cells of multicellular organisms, have pervaded nearly every branch of molecular biology. (springer.com)
  • I remember in college biology we had to compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (wisegeek.com)
  • From the unicellular bacteria to multicellular animals, the cell is one of the basic organizational principles of biology . (thoughtco.com)
  • Due to its mitogenic activity, PDGF is useful as an important component of a defined medium for the growth of mammalian cells in culture, making it a valuable research reagent with multiple applications in the study of animal cell biology. (google.com.au)
  • The physical separation of daughter cells, termed abscission, is a fundamental process in biology that occurs as the final cytokinetic event, as it results in the physical cleavage of the midbody that forms between daughter cells. (cam.ac.uk)
  • This platform provides new genetic components for synthetic biology and enables bottom-up approaches to understanding the design principles of eukaryotic transcriptional complexes and networks. (mit.edu)
  • Our natural world also utilizes the principle of form following function, especially in cell biology, and this will become clear as we explore eukaryotic cells. (imedecin.com)
  • Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells bear a lipid bilayer, which is an arrangement of phospholipids and proteins that acts as a selective barrier between the internal and external environment of the cell. (news-medical.net)
  • This genetic material is needed to regulate and inform cell function through the creation of RNA by transcription, followed by the generation of proteins through translation. (news-medical.net)
  • Eukaryotic ribosomes also show more complexity than prokaryotic - they are constructed of five kinds of ribosomal RNA and about eighty kinds of proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Given the ability of specific Cas9 proteins to be reprogrammed to target and cleave DNA in numerous biological systems ( 7 , 9 , 10 ), we hypothesized that FnCas9 could be retargeted to a distinct RNA in eukaryotic cells and lead to its inhibition. (pnas.org)
  • Function of Endoplasmic reticulum: - Transports chemicals, proteins, and lipids between cells and within cells - The endoplasmic reticulum provides a large surface area for the organization of chemical reactions to take place and synthesis. (bartleby.com)
  • The secretory pathway in eukaryotic cells is responsible for biogenesis and proper intracellular distribution of a wide range of proteins, complex carbohydrates and lipids. (bartleby.com)
  • Secretion of HlyA occurs without a periplasmic intermediate and is directed by an uncleaved C-terminal targetting signal and the HlyB and HlyD translocator proteins, the former being a member of a transporter superfamily central to import and export of a wide range of substrates by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • II) A system designed to deliver bacterial proteins into eukaryotic target cells. (nih.gov)
  • IV) A set of effector Yop proteins designed to disarm these cells or disrupt their communications (YopE, YopH, YpkA/YopO, and YopM). (nih.gov)
  • We collected data for 401 eukaryotic proteins with known localization sites (subcellular and extracellular) and divided them into training data and testing data. (nih.gov)
  • Ribosomes use amino acids and ribonucleic acid ( RNA ) to create proteins within the cell. (wisegeek.com)
  • The prominent role of Ca2+ in cell physiology is mediated by a whole set of proteins constituting a Ca2+-signalling toolkit involved in Ca2+-signal generation, deciphering and arrest. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Due to its ubiquitous expression in eukaryotic cells and the variety of proteins it interacts with, CaM is central in Ca2+-signalling networks. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The resulting calcium response will vary depending on which interactions between CaM and target proteins are altered by the molecules and on the specific Ca2+-toolkit expressed in a given cell, even in the resting state. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The recent identification of proteins that recognize origins of DNA replication and control the initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication has provided critical molecular tools to dissect this process. (nih.gov)
  • Herein, we review the key proteins required for the initiation of DNA replication, their involvement in the protein complex assembly at replication origins, and how the cell cycle machinery regulates this process. (nih.gov)
  • For example, at the beginning of the division cycle, the cell makes proteins but no lipids. (rug.nl)
  • Some substances, such as oxygen, cross the cell membrane easily, while others, such as large carbohydrates or proteins, are prevented from freely crossing. (coursehero.com)
  • Many microbial pathogens use specialized secretion systems to inject proteins referred to as effectors directly into eukaryotic host cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • These effectors directly target various eukaryotic signaling pathways and cellular processes, often by mimicking the activity of host cell proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Effectors of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium can also act as molecular scaffolds that not only recruit but also directly regulate the activity and localization of multiple eukaryotic proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bacterial effector proteins can act as novel scaffolds for signaling proteins in infected mammalian cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, we show that multiple proteins safeguard the fidelity of transcription and provide evidence suggesting that errors that evade these layers of RNA quality control profoundly affect the physiology of living cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind bacterial pathogenesis, it is important to study whether these effector proteins are translocated into eukaryotic target cells. (springer.com)
  • The classic method for validating the cytosolic localization of secreted effector proteins is based on lysing infected cells and then using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting to identify translocated effectors. (springer.com)
  • Here, we present a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based method that can be used to identify the localization of bacterial proteins in the eukaryotic cell cytosol. (springer.com)
  • A proto-eukaryote possessing a very simple trafficking system could thus have evolved to near modern complexity in the last common eukaryotic ancestor (LCEA) via paralogous gene family expansion of the proteins encoding organelle identity. (biologists.org)
  • Vast data volumes have been accumulated in cell-free expression databases, covering a whole range of existing proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present paper, an approach to identify the multiple physicochemical and structural properties of amino acid sequences associated with soluble expression of eukaryotic proteins in cell-free bacterial extracts is presented. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the folding of eukaryotic proteins is greatly compromised in bacterial extracts due to intrinsic differences between the cytoplasmic environments of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, many eukaryotic proteins require multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs) to attain a native, biologically active state. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present paper, we describe an approach aimed at identification of numerous physicochemical, structural and functional properties of amino acid sequences, including the sites of multiple PTMs, associated with soluble expression of eukaryotic proteins in bacterial cell-free extracts, and highlight major correlations obtained using this approach. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, the focus is set on the processing of experimental data with the purpose of identification of multiple physicochemical and structural properties associated with soluble expression of eukaryotic proteins in cell-free bacterial extracts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Y. pestis lacks several adhesin proteins present in the enteropathogenic Yersinia , and it is not known what promotes binding of Y. pestis to the surface of infected cells ( 63 ). (asm.org)
  • The eukaryotic plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with proteins and cholesterol embedded in it. (imedecin.com)
  • However, eIF-5A1 and eIF-5A2 proteins were both up-regulated within 24 hours of the initiation of serum starvation, and this coincided temporally with the onset of apoptosis as measured by TUNEL and a subsequent decline in viable cells. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Structural proteins within a eukaryotic cell come together to create a system known as the cytoskeleton. (thoughtco.com)
  • Microfilaments also aid the microtubules in moving nutrients and wastes, as well as newly made proteins, around to different parts of the cell. (thoughtco.com)
  • Even though eukaryotes are the only types of cells that have cytoskeletons, prokaryotic cells have proteins that are very close in structure to those used to create the cytoskeleton. (thoughtco.com)
  • The ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1 together are required for the stable association of the minichromosome maintenance (Mcm 2-7) complex proteins with replicative origins during G1 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells possess a nucleus enclosed within a cell membrane, making up one of the three domains of life, Eukaryota. (news-medical.net)
  • In this essay I will also go on to talk about why prokaryotic cells still exist in the microscopic world even though eukaryotes are so much more advanced. (bartleby.com)
  • Plants, animals, and fungi are eukaryotes (organisms made up of eukaryotic cells), and all their cells, in all their enormous complexity and variation, are fundamentally alike. (dummies.com)
  • In eukaryotes, mitotic cell division involves the distribution of identical genetic material to two daughter cells. (reference.com)
  • With the help of selected examples, in this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we highlight emerging concepts in the ribosome biogenesis field in yeast and higher eukaryotes, as well as diseases that are caused by mutations in associated factors (see Box 1 ). (biologists.org)
  • How many cells do eukaryotes generally consist of? (brainscape.com)
  • Eukaryotes are much larger than the more primitive prokaryotic cells. (thoughtco.com)
  • In eukaryotes, the vast majority of DNA synthesis occurs during S phase of the cell cycle, and the entire genome must be unwound and duplicated to form two daughter copies. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was written: Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) binds to an unknown receptor at the cell surface through the pentameric subunit (purple), and the catalytic subunit (brown) is translocated to the cytosol. (frontiersin.org)
  • ACT is translocated into the cell cytosol either via binding to the α m β 2 integrin as a cell receptor or by direct translocation to the eukaryotic cells cytosol. (frontiersin.org)
  • Yops and LcrV are secreted by a type III mechanism (Ysc), and Yops are unidirectionally targeted into the cytosol of associated eukaryotic cells in a tissue culture infection model. (asm.org)
  • Both LcrV and YopE were secreted by contact-activated, extracellularly localized yersiniae and were targeted to the HeLa cell cytosol. (asm.org)
  • LcrV secreted by the Ysc reaches the bacterial surface and the surrounding medium, whereas the second is a novel, Ysc-independent pathway which results in localization of LcrV in the cytosol of infected cells but not the surrounding medium. (asm.org)
  • Cytosol has the eukaryotic form of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, but it is not known that fatty acid synthetase is located in cytosol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Bacteria and Archaea, the other two domains of life, are prokaryotic cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Others posit that at its deepest level life is not a dichotomy but a trichotomy comprised of cells belonging to the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya, each monophyletic and sufficiently distinct from one another to warrant equal status ( , 5 , , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • The organisms called bacteria (singular, bacterium) are made up of prokaryotic cells. (dummies.com)
  • The simplest cells such as bacteria are known as Prokaryotic cells, and human cells are known as Eukaryotic cells. (bartleby.com)
  • However the biggest division is between the cells of the prokaryote kingdom (monera, the bacteria) and those of the other four kingdoms (animals, plants, fungi and protoctista), which are all eukaryotic cells. (bartleby.com)
  • Prokaryotic cells form single-cell organisms such as bacteria and archaea , while eukaryotic cells are the basis of all other types of life. (wisegeek.com)
  • All living things on Earth , except bacteria and blue-green algae (cyanobacteria), which are Prokaryotae, are composed of eukaryotic cells. (jrank.org)
  • By assembling and localizing disparate signaling pathways, the bacteria can reengineer host cell processes to generate novel processes not previously observed in eukaryotic cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this lesson, we discuss the similarities and differences between the eukaryotic cells of your body and prokaryotic cells such as bacteria. (study.com)
  • Our cells, though - they're still small to the naked eye, but they're huge in comparison to bacteria. (study.com)
  • Bacteria that live in the environment have evolved pathways specialized to defend against eukaryotic organisms or other bacteria. (prolekare.cz)
  • There are two general classes of cells that exist: the self-sustaining simple cells known as prokaryotic (bacteria and archaea) and the more complex dependent cells known as e ukaryotic . (kenhub.com)
  • Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) is a highly complex multiprotein assembly with multiple functions in translation. (asm.org)
  • For rhinoviruses and enteroviruses, the shutoff has been explained in part by the cleavage of eukaryotic initiation factor 4GI (eIF4GI), a component of the cap-binding protein complex eIF4F. (asm.org)
  • In rhinovirus- and enterovirus-infected cells, a cap-binding protein complex, the eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), is altered, both structurally and functionally ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • O-GlcNAc transferase activates stem-like cell potential in hepatocarcinoma through O-GlcNAcylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E. (stembook.org)
  • Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is the only known cellular protein that contains the post-translationally derived amino acid, hypusine. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • A eukaryotic cell not only has a plasma membrane as its external boundary, but it also has a variety of membranes that divide its interior into discrete partitions, separating processes and cell mechanisms (National Center for Biotechnology Information, 2012). (bartleby.com)
  • In addition, both types of cells may have a thick, rigid cell wall surrounding the plasma membrane. (austincc.edu)
  • Eukaryotae, or eukaryotic cells, are large and complex cells bounded by an outer plasma membrane . (jrank.org)
  • The cells have a definitive plasma membrane which is selectively permeable in nature. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • A CV in a compressed cell is observed in side view undergoing cycles of filling (diastole) and expulsion (systole) of its fluid content as the CV membrane fuses then separates from the plasma membrane and with one radial arm. (ucsd.edu)
  • The plasma membrane controls the passage of organic molecules, ions, water, and oxygen into and out of the cell. (imedecin.com)
  • Wastes (such as carbon dioxide and ammonia) also leave the cell by passing through the plasma membrane. (imedecin.com)
  • The plasma membrane is the outermost layer of the cell. (kenhub.com)
  • The main function of the plasma membrane is to protect the cell from its environment. (kenhub.com)
  • E. coli hemolysin interactions with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell membranes. (nih.gov)
  • The hemolysin toxin (HlyA) is secreted across both the cytoplasmic and outer membranes of pathogenic Escherichia coli and forms membrane pores in cells of the host immune system, causing cell dysfunction and death. (nih.gov)
  • The processes underlying the interaction of HlyA with the bacterial and mammalian cell membranes are remarkable. (nih.gov)
  • The separate process by which HlyA is targetted to mammalian cell membranes is dependent upon fatty acylation of a non-toxic precursor, proHlyA. (nih.gov)
  • Internal membranes are a recurring difference between the two cell types. (wisegeek.com)
  • The hyaluronate synthase complex was identified in plasma membranes from B6 cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • The specific lipids in cell membranes are called phospholipids . (coursehero.com)
  • Blood cells infected by Plasmodium falciparum (malaria parasite) were, however, entered readily, and the OAs went all the way through a couple of membranes into the parasite. (biomedsearch.com)
  • They have various structures inside the cell but they are not encapsulated by membranes. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • Ascorbic acid regenerates membrane bound alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) that has been oxidized by lipid peroxyl radicals and indirectly limits lipid peroxidation in cell membranes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The plasma membranes of cells that specialize in absorption are folded into fingerlike projections called microvilli (singular = microvillus). (imedecin.com)
  • Most single celled organisms have a cell wall around their plasma membranes in order to protect them from environmental dangers. (thoughtco.com)
  • Ribosomes facilitate RNA translation and the creation of protein, which is essential to the functioning of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. (news-medical.net)
  • however the ribosomes of the eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic ribosomes i.e. 80S compared to 70S. (news-medical.net)
  • While both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have ribosomes, the ribosomes in eukaryotic cells are larger and more developed. (wisegeek.com)
  • Ribosomes play a pivotal role in the molecular life of every cell. (biologists.org)
  • The biogenesis of ribosomes is a tightly regulated activity and it is inextricably linked to other fundamental cellular processes, including growth and cell division. (biologists.org)
  • The purpose of this lab is to observe living and prepared bacterial cells, then describe their morphology, observe and describe the primary features of the eukaryotic cell, and to investigate and observe the organisms involved in a symbiotic relationship. (bartleby.com)
  • In humans, the eukaryotic cells of a number of organs are highly specialized, but nevertheless maintain most of the defining features of the eukaryotic cell. (jrank.org)
  • During mitosis, the sister chromatids are separated and distributed to two daughter cells. (reference.com)
  • According to Hartnell College, the cell cycle is divided into two primary phases, interphase and mitosis. (reference.com)
  • During mitosis, the cell divides into two daughter cells, with each cell containing one of the sister chromatids. (reference.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells are discretely different to prokaryotic cells, primarily because of their possession of a true nucleus, decoupled transcription and translation, possession of mitochondria or mitochondrial remnants, Golgi apparatus, mitosis and a host of other features. (templeton.org)
  • The nuclei of eukaryotic cells divide by mitosis , a process which results in two daughter nuclei that are identical to the parent cell. (jrank.org)
  • For example, the cells of the brain , liver, bone, muscle of a growing baby divide by mitosis under the control of the DNA in the nucleus, with the liver cells producing more liver cells, and bone cells producing other bone cells. (jrank.org)
  • InterphaseInterphase prepares the cell for mitosis. (glogster.com)
  • Interphase ensures that the cell is the right size and has everything it needs to go through mitosis. (glogster.com)
  • The end result of mitosis is an identical daughter cell. (glogster.com)
  • Replication processes permit the copying of a single DNA double helix into two DNA helices, which are divided into the daughter cells at mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, one copy of the genomes is segregated to each daughter cell at mitosis or M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, we will look at how eukaryotic cell division might have arisen, by exploring the commonalities between archaeal and eukaryotic cell division, using Asgard archaea as a bridge between kingdoms. (cam.ac.uk)
  • evidence to bolster the fact that fusion between a-proteobacteria and archaebacteria is an integral event in evolution of eukaryotic cells. (bartleby.com)
  • Intrabody expression in eukaryotic cells. (inserm.fr)
  • Cells are categorized as being either prokaryotic or eukaryotic, which is determined by the organization of cell structures. (coursehero.com)
  • Here we review studies conducted using flow cytometry as a technique to assess the impact of antimicrobials from the bacteriocin family on individual cells, either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. (omicsonline.org)
  • The invention relates to the introduction of nucleic acids into higher eukaryotic cells. (google.es)
  • The following table gives you an overview of the structures found within a eukaryotic cell. (dummies.com)
  • Choose five internal structures of plant or animal cells and describe their functions. (brainmass.com)
  • Plant and animal cell structures are compared. (brainmass.com)
  • What are the various specialized structures in a eukaryotic cell? (reference.com)
  • Use the interactive exercise below to identify the structures found in typical prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (austincc.edu)
  • There are also many distinctions between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell structures. (thoughtco.com)
  • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have several structures and functions in common. (coursehero.com)
  • The plant cell has a cell wall, chloroplasts, plastids, and a central vacuole-structures not found in animal cells. (imedecin.com)
  • The eukaryotic ribosome, however, consists of five types of rRNA and around 80 types of protein. (wisegeek.com)
  • In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we summarise the current knowledge on eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, with an emphasis on the yeast model system. (biologists.org)
  • Recently, our research group has been able to demonstrate that eukaryotic cells consist of a complex community of genes with prokaryotic ancestry and that eukaryote genomes are chimaeric. (templeton.org)
  • CIL:11558, unknown eukaryote, eukaryotic cell. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • The emerging picture is that early eukaryotic ancestors had a complex endomembrane system, which implies that this cellular system evolved relatively rapidly after the proto-eukaryote diverged away from the other prokaryotic lines. (biologists.org)
  • We now demonstrate that Cas9 from the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella novicida (FnCas9) can be reprogrammed to target a specific RNA substrate, the genome of the +ssRNA virus, hepatitis C virus, in eukaryotic cells. (pnas.org)
  • Using database searches, sequence alignments, phylogenetic analyses, genome and metabolic resonstructions, we will shed considerable light on the events surrounding eukaryogenesis - the formation of the first euakryotic cells. (templeton.org)
  • By this is meant viruses in which the gene to be expressed in the cell has been integrated in the genome by recombinant methods. (google.es)
  • The cell-free systems allow genome-scale expression of various amino acid sequences under strictly controlled uniform conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Eukaryotic DNA replication of chromosomal DNA is central for the duplication of a cell and is necessary for the maintenance of the eukaryotic genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A prokaryotic cell is simpler and requires far fewer genes to function than the eukaryotic cell. (news-medical.net)
  • These are the genes that were no longer required in their new host cell environment. (bartleby.com)
  • Unfortunately, with the sequences of hundreds of eubacterial, archaebacterial, and eukaryotic genomes has come the realization that the number of universally distributed genes suitable for global phylogenetic analysis is frustratingly small ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Lateral (or horizontal) gene transfer has shown itself to be a pervasive force in the evolution of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, and even if a "core" set of genes can be identified (and there is much debate on this issue), how confident are we that the phylogenetic signal in these genes reflects the vertical history of cells? (pnas.org)
  • Transcription of the genes is controlled both by temperature and by contact with a eukaryotic cell. (nih.gov)
  • This involves delivering genes into cells in order to achieve, in vivo, the synthesis of therapeutically effective gene products, e.g. in order to replace a defective gene in the event of a genetic defect. (google.es)
  • For transferring genes into the cells, viral vectors are used, for example, which make use of the efficient entry mechanisms of their original viruses. (google.es)
  • One problem that limits progress is that regulatory regions of eukaryotic genes sometimes extend over large regions of DNA. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • This part of the cytoskeleton attaches to the sister chromatids at the centromere and separates them evenly so each resulting cell is an exact copy and contains all of the genes it needs to survive. (thoughtco.com)
  • Can you name the Regulating the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle? (sporcle.com)
  • In a eukaryotic cell, chromosome replication occurs during DNA synthesis, or the S phase of the cell cycle. (reference.com)
  • The S phase occurs within a key stage of the cell cycle known as interphase. (reference.com)
  • Dynamic changes in the assembly and disassembly of protein complexes at origins are important for the initiation of DNA replication and occur throughout the cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Evidence suggests that the metabolic oscillations drive the cell through its division cycle, that is, tell the cell when to commit for reproduction and when to split in two cells. (rug.nl)
  • Since baker's yeast is a model organism similar to human cells, investigating the nature of the metabolic oscillations controlling the cell division cycle in yeast will eventually help to better understand cancer, a disease with uncontrollably dividing cells. (rug.nl)
  • With an advanced computational modelling, we found that this temporal segregation dramatically changes metabolism, for instance, the cell alters sugar consumption during the division cycle. (rug.nl)
  • The cell cycle makes a genetically identical copy of a cell. (glogster.com)
  • The resulting daughter cells can then go through the cell cycle themselves, forming even more new cells. (glogster.com)
  • Serum starvation, which induces cell cycle arrest and ensuing apoptosis, followed by the re-addition of serum had no effect on the transcript levels of either eIF-5A1 or eIF-5A2. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Eukaryotic DNA replication is a conserved mechanism that restricts DNA replication to once per cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of the cell cycle is built around ensuring that DNA replication occurs without errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In G1 phase of the cell cycle, many of the DNA replication regulatory processes are initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Association of the origin recognition complex (ORC) with a replication origin is required to recruit both cell division cycle 6 protein (Cdc6) and chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1 protein (Cdt1), which initiate the assembly of the pre-RC. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process takes place in the G1 stage of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Describe five similarities and three differences between plant and animal cells. (brainmass.com)
  • What are the differences between plant and animal cell structure? (brainmass.com)
  • In terms of differences, eukaryotic cells are much larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. (austincc.edu)
  • Differences between plant and animal cells Plant Cells Animal Cells Structure X Cannot produce its own food Chloroplast  Can produce its own food. (slideserve.com)
  • The major differences between animal and plant cells will be explored as well. (kenhub.com)
  • For many members of the Picornaviridae family, infection of cells results in a shutoff of host protein synthesis. (asm.org)
  • Recently, we discovered a functional homolog of eIF4GI, termed eIF4GII, and showed that cleavage of eIF4GII coincides with the shutoff of host cell protein synthesis after poliovirus infection (Gradi et al. (asm.org)
  • These results suggest that cleavage of both eIF4GI and eIF4GII is required for HRV-mediated inhibition of host cell protein synthesis and that the cleavage of eIF4GII is the rate-limiting step in the shutoff of host cell protein synthesis after rhinovirus infection. (asm.org)
  • To establish an efficient infection, picornaviruses have evolved mechanisms to inhibit host cell protein synthesis. (asm.org)
  • This is an attractive target for cancer therapy because inhibiting EEF2 causes the rapid arrest of protein synthesis, inducing apoptosis and leading ultimately to cell death. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This transition involves the ordered assembly of additional replication factors to unwind the DNA and accumulate the multiple eukaryotic DNA polymerases around the unwound DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The methods generally comprise introducing into a eucaryotic host cell a DNA construct capable of directing the expression and secretion of biologically active PDGF analogs in eucaryotic cells. (google.com.au)
  • Cornelis GR (2000) Type III secretion: a bacterial device for close combat with cells of their eukaryotic host. (springer.com)
  • These results indicate that two mechanisms exist for the secretion of LcrV by Y. pestis , both of which are activated by contact with eukaryotic cells. (asm.org)
  • The LcrE-, TyeA-, and LcrG-mediated block is displaced during cultivation in the absence of Ca 2+ or upon contact with eukaryotic cells, resulting in secretion of LcrQ and YopD and dissipation of negative feedback control. (asm.org)
  • In this manuscript, we systematically examined the role of the five type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) of Burkholderia thailandensis ( B. thai ) in eukaryotic and bacterial cell interactions. (prolekare.cz)
  • Some of these, such as type III secretion systems (T3SSs) and bacteriocins, provide specialized protection against eukaryotic or bacterial cells, respectively [1] , [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Our streamlined PCR-free workflow takes you from one single cell (mammalian cell or microbial cell) to a high-quality NGS library with exceptional fidelity and superior accuracy in about 3.5 hours. (qiagen.com)
  • Methods of promoting the growth of mammalian cells, comprising incubating the cells with a biologically active PDGF analog expressed by a eucaryotic host cell transformed with such a DNA construct, are also disclosed. (google.com.au)
  • Transcriptional Regulatory Mechanisms for the Response to Amino Acid Deprivation of Mammalian Cells. (nhbs.com)
  • Starting from a scFv gene cloned in a phage-display vector, we describe the cloning step into a mammalian expression vector, the transient transfection of a HeLa cell line, and the monitoring of intrabody expression by immunofluorescence staining and FACS analysis. (inserm.fr)
  • The eukaryotic cells types are generally found in animals, plants, algae, and fungi. (kenhub.com)
  • A eukaryotic cell is a cell that contains a membrane-bound nucleus. (reference.com)
  • DNA is also found in mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells. (coursehero.com)
  • The materials are already fairly close to each other and there is only a 'nucleoid' which is the central open region of the cell where the DNA is located. (news-medical.net)
  • DNA in a prokaryotic cell is not separated from the rest of the cell but coiled up in a region called the nucleoid. (thoughtco.com)
  • They have a nucleoid , the area inside a prokaryotic cell where genetic material ( DNA ) is found. (coursehero.com)
  • DNA in the nucleoid of a prokaryotic cell is a single circular chromosome. (coursehero.com)
  • They have a much more complex structure and can thus carry out many more complicated functions than prokaryotic cells can. (bartleby.com)
  • The complex and varied design of the phospholipid bilayer allows the membrane to serve the variety of specific functions required by different types of cells. (bartleby.com)
  • The most noticeable difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells cells is the latter's ability to form a complex organism. (wisegeek.com)
  • Over billions of years, some of these early prokaryotic cells evolved into present-day prokaryotic cells, while others evolved into much larger and more complex eukaryotic cells. (austincc.edu)
  • The cilia of prokaryotic cells are less complex than those of eukaryotic cells. (jrank.org)
  • Eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) perform complex and combinatorial functions within transcriptional networks. (mit.edu)
  • At this point, it should be clear to you that eukaryotic cells have a more complex structure than prokaryotic cells. (imedecin.com)
  • As life on Earth started to undergo evolution and become more complex, the simpler type of cell called a prokaryote underwent several changes over a long period of time to become eukaryotic cells. (thoughtco.com)
  • There is a logical progression of change for these cells to become more complex. (thoughtco.com)
  • I. T. Tai and A. M. Sun, "Microencapsulation of recombinant cells: a new delivery system for gene therapy," The FASEB Journal , vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1061-1069, 1993. (hindawi.com)
  • A high throughput, real-time assay was developed to simultaneously identify (1) eukaryotic cell-penetrant antimicrobials targeting an intracellular bacterial pathogen, and (2) assess eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity. (jove.com)
  • Here we show specific cytotoxicity resulting from siRNA-induced silencing of EEF2, as well as specific delivery to PSMA-expressing prostate cancer cells. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Our lab has recently discovered metabolic oscillations in single cells of baker's yeast, where crucial energy compounds show concentration waves with the period of several hours. (rug.nl)
  • In the past 15 years, studies of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) and metazoan cells have revealed a common core of protein factors involved in transport carrier formation, compartment specificity and membrane fusion ( Bonifacino and Glick, 2004 ). (biologists.org)
  • Plant Cell. (slideserve.com)
  • In a plant cell, this happens by the formation of a cell plate, and in an animal cell, the membrane just pinches closed. (glogster.com)
  • Acetyl-CoA carboxylase in higher planto : Most plants other than Gramineae have both the prokaryotic and eukaryotic forms of this enzyme' Plant Cell Physiol.37. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Induction of cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase in pealeaves by ultraviolet-B irradiation' Plant Cell Physiol.37. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Introduction In this lab, we observed different prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and then we observed a termite gut to see the different unicellular microorganisms that it contained. (bartleby.com)
  • Protozoa are a type of eukaryotic and unicellular microorganism. (brainmass.com)
  • This is well documented by numerous studies of platelet extracts or purified PDGF induction of either cell multiplication or DNA synthesis (a prerequisite for cell division) in cultured smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and glial cells (Ross et al. (google.com.au)
  • Most often, the purpose of heterologous cell-free synthesis is to produce properly folded and functionally active protein product in the amounts sufficient for structural and functional studies. (frontiersin.org)
  • Do plant cells have the eukaryotic type apparatus of fatty acid synthesis? (nii.ac.jp)
  • So, it seems likely that plants do not have the eukaryotic forms of fatty-acid synthesis apparatus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication is the first stage of DNA synthesis where the DNA double helix is unwound and an initial priming event by DNA polymerase α occurs on the leading strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of Selenium on Oxidative Damage and Antioxidant Enzymes of Eukaryotic Cells: Wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (bioportfolio.com)
  • They often store food, enzymes, and other materials needed by the cell, and some vacuoles store waste products. (study.com)
  • The larger gene and protein family discussed here comprises not only Nox enzymes but also ferric reductases, which play an important role in the mechanism and regulation of iron uptake into cells. (springermedizin.at)
  • On average, a typical eukaryotic cell is about 1,000 X larger in volume than a typical prokaryotic cell. (austincc.edu)
  • Methods for expressing a variety of biologically active PDGF analogs in eucaryotic cells are disclosed. (google.com.au)
  • and the single cell of microorganisms called protists that live in water and soil. (dummies.com)
  • Because a eukaryotic cell's nucleus is surrounded by a membrane, it is often said to have a "true nucleus. (imedecin.com)
  • There is a need for an efficient system of introducing nucleic acid into living cells particularly in gene therapy. (google.es)
  • The objective of this research is to show the gene of eukaryotic form of fatty acid synthetase in plants. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This is a key difference because it allows a high level of intracellular division of labor and contributes to the greater complexity characteristic of eukaryotic cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Calcium (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous second messenger which promotes cell responses through transient changes in intracellular concentrations. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We describe procedures for intracellular expression of scFv in eukaryotic cells. (inserm.fr)
  • Life on Earth is classified into five kingdoms, and they each have their own characteristic kind of cell. (bartleby.com)
  • Others may have cilia, shorter, hair-like strands arranged around the perimeter of the cell in a characteristic way. (jrank.org)
  • To understand the molecular mechanisms that control the fidelity of transcription, we used novel sequencing technology to provide the first comprehensive analysis of the fidelity of transcription in eukaryotic cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • We knocked down expression of the PCI domain-containing eIF3c and eIF3a subunits and of eIF3j in human HeLa and HEK293 cells and analyzed the functional consequences. (asm.org)
  • Although a significant amount of LcrV partitioned to the culture medium (unlike YopE), this extracellular pool of LcrV was not the source of the LcrV that entered HeLa cells. (asm.org)
  • In HRV-14-infected HeLa cells, almost no intact eIF4GI could be detected by 4 h postinfection, while only 4% of eIF4GII was cleaved at this time. (asm.org)
  • however, it was concluded that the major eIF4G-specific cleavage activity in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells is not associated with a 2A pro ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • For example, there is no good temporal correlation between the proteolysis of eIF4G and the shutoff of host translation in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • I can help students understand microbial ( prokaryotic and eukaryotic) taxonomy, morphology, metabolism and genetics. (wyzant.com)
  • Prokaryotic cells are very different from and much simpler than eukaryotic cells in their basic structure and organization. (dummies.com)
  • Unlike genetic mutations, transcription errors are transient events that are not stably inherited from cell to cell, which makes them difficult to detect. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we present a synthetic framework for systematically constructing eukaryotic transcription functions using artificial zinc fingers, modular DNA-binding domains found within many eukaryotic TFs. (mit.edu)
  • A Specific mRNA Binding Factor Regulates the Iron-Dependent Stability of Cytoplasmic Transferrin Receptor mRNA, Cell 58:373-382 (1989). (patents.com)
  • It was observed for both normal and cancer cells that eIF-5A1 protein is up-regulated during apoptosis induced by Actinomycin D or SNP, whereas eIF-5A1 mRNA is constitutively expressed and does not change in abundance during this treatment. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • We used an aptamer that binds specifically to PSMA, a cell surface glycoprotein found in abundance on prostate cancer cells, and joined its 3 end to a siRNA specific for Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 mRNA (EEF2). (eurekaselect.com)