Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A peptide initiation factor that binds specifically to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE of MRNA in the CYTOPLASM. It is a component of the trimeric complex EIF4F.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
A component of eukaryotic initiation factor-4F that is involved in multiple protein interactions at the site of translation initiation. Thus it may serve a role in bringing together various initiation factors at the site of translation initiation.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A trimeric peptide initiation factor complex that associates with the 5' MRNA cap structure of RNA (RNA CAPS) and plays an essential role in MRNA TRANSLATION. It is composed of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4A; EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4E; and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4G.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A multisubunit eukaryotic initiation factor that contains at least 8 distinct polypeptides. It plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits to the site of transcription initiation by promoting the dissociation of non-translating ribosomal subunits. It also is involved in promoting the binding of a ternary complex of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2; GTP; and INITIATOR TRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A component of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F that as an RNA helicase involved in unwinding the secondary structure of the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGION of MRNA. The unwinding facilitates the binding of the 40S ribosomal subunit.
A eukaryotic initiation factor that binds to 40S ribosomal subunits. Although initially considered a "non-essential" factor for eukaryotic transcription initiation, eukaryotic initiation factor-1 is now thought to play an important role in localizing RIBOSOMES at the initiation codon of MRNA.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that acts to restore EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 to its GTP bound form.
Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.
A eukaryotic initiation factor that interacts with the 40S initiation complex and promotes the hydrolysis of the bound GTP. The hydrolysis of GTP causes the release of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-3 from the 40S subunit and the subsequent joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit to the 40S complex to form the functional 80S initiation complex
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.
Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
The large subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5.8S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 50 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that specifically phosphorylates PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2. The enzyme lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE, however it is regulated by phosphorylation by PROTEIN KINASE A and through intramolecular autophosphorylation.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Proteins found in any species of algae.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.

Phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E by protein kinase Mnk1 in vivo. (1/2412)

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binds to the mRNA 5' cap and brings the mRNA into a complex with other protein synthesis initiation factors and ribosomes. The activity of mammalian eIF4E is important for the translation of capped mRNAs and is thought to be regulated by two mechanisms. First, eIF4E is sequestered by binding proteins, such as 4EBP1, in quiescent cells. Mitogens induce the release of eIF4E by stimulating the phosphorylation of 4EBP1. Second, mitogens and stresses induce the phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser 209, increasing the affinity of eIF4E for capped mRNA and for an associated scaffolding protein, eIF4G. We previously showed that a mitogen- and stress-activated kinase, Mnk1, phosphorylates eIF4E in vitro at the physiological site. Here we show that Mnk1 regulates eIF4E phosphorylation in vivo. Mnk1 binds directly to eIF4G and copurifies with eIF4G and eIF4E. We identified activating phosphorylation sites in Mnk1 and developed dominant-negative and activated mutants. Expression of dominant-negative Mnk1 reduces mitogen-induced eIF4E phosphorylation, while expression of activated Mnk1 increases basal eIF4E phosphorylation. Activated mutant Mnk1 also induces extensive phosphorylation of eIF4E in cells overexpressing 4EBP1. This suggests that phosphorylation of eIF4E is catalyzed by Mnk1 or a very similar kinase in cells and is independent of other mitogenic signals that release eIF4E from 4EBP1.  (+info)

Analysis of a ubiquitous promoter element in a primitive eukaryote: early evolution of the initiator element. (2/2412)

Typical metazoan core promoter elements, such as TATA boxes and Inr motifs, have yet to be identified in early-evolving eukaryotes, underscoring the extensive divergence of these organisms. Towards the identification of core promoters in protists, we have studied transcription of protein-encoding genes in one of the earliest-diverging lineages of Eukaryota, that represented by the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis. A highly conserved element, comprised of a motif similar to a metazoan initiator (Inr) element, surrounds the start site of transcription in all examined T. vaginalis genes. In contrast, a metazoan-like TATA element appears to be absent in trichomonad promoters. We demonstrate that the conserved motif found in T. vaginalis protein-encoding genes is an Inr promoter element. This trichomonad Inr is essential for transcription, responsible for accurate start site selection, and interchangeable between genes, demonstrating its role as a core promoter element. The sequence requirements of the trichomonad Inr are similar to metazoan Inrs and can be replaced by a mammalian Inr. These studies show that the Inr is a ubiquitous, core promoter element for protein-encoding genes in an early-evolving eukaryote. Functional and structural similarities between this protist Inr and the metazoan Inr strongly indicate that the Inr promoter element evolved early in eukaryotic evolution.  (+info)

An evaluation of elongation factor 1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes. (3/2412)

Elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is a highly conserved ubiquitous protein involved in translation that has been suggested to have desirable properties for phylogenetic inference. To examine the utility of EF-1 alpha as a phylogenetic marker for eukaryotes, we studied three properties of EF-1 alpha trees: congruency with other phyogenetic markers, the impact of species sampling, and the degree of substitutional saturation occurring between taxa. Our analyses indicate that the EF-1 alpha tree is congruent with some other molecular phylogenies in identifying both the deepest branches and some recent relationships in the eukaryotic line of descent. However, the topology of the intermediate portion of the EF-1 alpha tree, occupied by most of the protist lineages, differs for different phylogenetic methods, and bootstrap values for branches are low. Most problematic in this region is the failure of all phylogenetic methods to resolve the monophyly of two higher-order protistan taxa, the Ciliophora and the Alveolata. JACKMONO analyses indicated that the impact of species sampling on bootstrap support for most internal nodes of the eukaryotic EF-1 alpha tree is extreme. Furthermore, a comparison of observed versus inferred numbers of substitutions indicates that multiple overlapping substitutions have occurred, especially on the branch separating the Eukaryota from the Archaebacteria, suggesting that the rooting of the eukaryotic tree on the diplomonad lineage should be treated with caution. Overall, these results suggest that the phylogenies obtained from EF-1 alpha are congruent with other molecular phylogenies in recovering the monophyly of groups such as the Metazoa, Fungi, Magnoliophyta, and Euglenozoa. However, the interrelationships between these and other protist lineages are not well resolved. This lack of resolution may result from the combined effects of poor taxonomic sampling, relatively few informative positions, large numbers of overlapping substitutions that obscure phylogenetic signal, and lineage-specific rate increases in the EF-1 alpha data set. It is also consistent with the nearly simultaneous diversification of major eukaryotic lineages implied by the "big-bang" hypothesis of eukaryote evolution.  (+info)

Unusually high evolutionary rate of the elongation factor 1 alpha genes from the Ciliophora and its impact on the phylogeny of eukaryotes. (4/2412)

The elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) has become widely employed as a phylogenetic marker for studying eukaryotic evolution. However, a disturbing problem, the artifactual polyphyly of ciliates, is always observed. It has been suggested that the addition of new sequences will help to circumvent this problem. Thus, we have determined 15 new ciliate EF-1 alpha sequences, providing for a more comprehensive taxonomic sampling of this phylum. These sequences have been analyzed together with a representation of eukaryotic sequences using distance-, parsimony-, and likelihood-based phylogenetic methods. Such analyses again failed to recover the monophyly of Ciliophora. A study of the substitution rate showed that ciliate EF-1 alpha genes exhibit a high evolutionary rate, produced in part by an increased number of variable positions. This acceleration could be related to alterations of the accessory functions acquired by this protein, likely to those involving interactions with the cytoskeleton, which is very modified in the Ciliophora. The high evolutionary rate of these sequences leads to an artificial basal emergence of some ciliates in the eukaryotic tree by effecting a long-branch attraction artifact that produces an asymmetric topology for the basal region of the tree. The use of a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic method (which is less sensitive to long-branch attraction) and the addition of sequences to break long branches allow retrieval of more symmetric topologies, which suggests that the asymmetric part of the tree is most likely artifactual. Therefore, the sole reliable part of the tree appears to correspond to the apical symmetric region. These kinds of observations suggest that the general eukaryotic evolution might have consisted of a massive radiation followed by an increase in the evolutionary rates of certain groups that emerge artificially as early branches in the asymmetric base of the tree. Ciliates in the case of the EF-1 alpha genes would offer clear evidence for this hypothesis.  (+info)

Cdc42: An essential Rho-type GTPase controlling eukaryotic cell polarity. (5/2412)

Cdc42p is an essential GTPase that belongs to the Rho/Rac subfamily of Ras-like GTPases. These proteins act as molecular switches by responding to exogenous and/or endogenous signals and relaying those signals to activate downstream components of a biological pathway. The 11 current members of the Cdc42p family display between 75 and 100% amino acid identity and are functional as well as structural homologs. Cdc42p transduces signals to the actin cytoskeleton to initiate and maintain polarized gorwth and to mitogen-activated protein morphogenesis. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cdc42p plays an important role in multiple actin-dependent morphogenetic events such as bud emergence, mating-projection formation, and pseudohyphal growth. In mammalian cells, Cdc42p regulates a variety of actin-dependent events and induces the JNK/SAPK protein kinase cascade, which leads to the activation of transcription factors within the nucleus. Cdc42p mediates these processes through interactions with a myriad of downstream effectors, whose number and regulation we are just starting to understand. In addition, Cdc42p has been implicated in a number of human diseases through interactions with its regulators and downstream effectors. While much is known about Cdc42p structure and functional interactions, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which it transduces signals within the cell. Future research should focus on this question as well as on the detailed analysis of the interactions of Cdc42p with its regulators and downstream effectors.  (+info)

EDS1, an essential component of R gene-mediated disease resistance in Arabidopsis has homology to eukaryotic lipases. (6/2412)

A major class of plant disease resistance (R) genes encodes leucine-rich-repeat proteins that possess a nucleotide binding site and amino-terminal similarity to the cytoplasmic domains of the Drosophila Toll and human IL-1 receptors. In Arabidopsis thaliana, EDS1 is indispensable for the function of these R genes. The EDS1 gene was cloned by targeted transposon tagging and found to encode a protein that has similarity in its amino-terminal portion to the catalytic site of eukaryotic lipases. Thus, hydrolase activity, possibly on a lipid-based substrate, is anticipated to be central to EDS1 function. The predicted EDS1 carboxyl terminus has no significant sequence homologies, although analysis of eight defective eds1 alleles reveals it to be essential for EDS1 function. Two plant defense pathways have been defined previously that depend on salicylic acid, a phenolic compound, or jasmonic acid, a lipid-derived molecule. We examined the expression of EDS1 mRNA and marker mRNAs (PR1 and PDF1.2, respectively) for these two pathways in wild-type and eds1 mutant plants after different challenges. The results suggest that EDS1 functions upstream of salicylic acid-dependent PR1 mRNA accumulation and is not required for jasmonic acid-induced PDF1.2 mRNA expression.  (+info)

Evolutionary relationships of Metazoa within the eukaryotes based on molecular data from Porifera. (7/2412)

Recent molecular data provide strong support for the view that all metazoan phyla, including Porifera, are of monophyletic origin. The relationship of Metazoa, including the Porifera, to Plantae, Fungi and unicellular eukaryotes has only rarely been studied by using cDNAs coding for proteins. Sequence data from rDNA suggested a relationship of Porifera to unicellular eukaryotes (choanoflagellates). However, ultrastructural studies of choanocytes did not support these findings. In the present study, we compared amino acid sequences that are found in a variety of metazoans (including sponges) with those of Plantae, Fungi and unicellular eukaryotes, to obtain an answer to this question. We used the four sequences from 70 kDa heat-shock proteins, the serine-threonine kinase domain found in protein kinases, beta-tubulin and calmodulin. The latter two sequences were deduced from cDNAs, isolated from the sponge Geodia cydonium for the phylogenetic analyses presented. These revealed that the sponge molecules were grouped into the same branch as the Metazoa, which is statistically (significantly) separated from those branches that comprise the sequences from Fungi, Plantae and unicellular eukaryotes. From our molecular data it seems evident that the unicellular eukaryotes existed at an earlier stage of evolution, and the Plantae and especially the Fungi and the Metazoa only appeared later.  (+info)

Cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G by exogenously added hybrid proteins containing poliovirus 2Apro in HeLa cells: effects on gene expression. (8/2412)

Efficient cleavage of both forms of eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G-1 and eIF4G-2) has been achieved in HeLa cells by incubation with hybrid proteins containing poliovirus 2Apro. Entry of these proteins into cells is promoted by adenovirus particles. Substantial levels of ongoing translation on preexisting cellular mRNAs still continue for several hours after eIF4G degradation. Treatment of control HeLa cells with hypertonic medium causes an inhibition of translation that is reversed upon restoration of cells to normal medium. Protein synthesis is not restored in cells lacking intact eIF4G after hypertonic treatment. Notably, induction of synthesis of heat shock proteins still occurs in cells pretreated with poliovirus 2Apro, suggesting that transcription and translation of these mRNAs takes place even in the presence of cleaved eIF4G. Finally, the synthesis of luciferase was examined in a HeLa cell line bearing the luciferase gene under control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter. Transcription of the luciferase gene and transport of the mRNA to the cytoplasm occurs at control levels in eIF4G-deficient cells. However, luciferase synthesis is strongly inhibited in these cells. These findings indicate that intact eIF4G is necessary for the translation of mRNAs not engaged in translation with the exception of heat shock mRNAs but is not necessary for the translation of mRNAs that are being translated.  (+info)

Critical ReviewsTM in Eukaryotic Gene Expression (CRE) publishes original research findings and critical reviews that contribute to advances in mechanistic understanding for genetic and epigenetic control of gene expression, organization and structure within the contexts of biological control and the diagnosis/treatment of disease. Contributions include molecular, cellular, biochemical, genetic, genomic, proteomic and bioinformatic approaches to eukaryotic gene expression. The relationship between gene structure and function is stressed, with emphasis on coordinate control of integration of biological processes. Regulatory mechanisms are explored from the perspective of sequences and regulatory molecules that influence organization and expression of eukaryotic genes as well as in relation to cellular architecture and development of cell specialization and tissue organization. Processes that include genetic and epigenetic control, cell cycle regulation, differentiation, transformation and tumorigenesis,
Collection of Where In A Eukaryotic Cell Does Translation Occur | Unit 6 Dna Protein Synthesis Ppt Download, Dna The Molecule Of Life Ppt Download, Where In A Eukaryotic Cell Does Translation Occur, Pearson The Biology Place, Dna Transcription Part 1 | Docirs.net
Overview. The function of the nervous system is determined by the complex and highly polarized morphology of neurons. The generation and maintenance of the neurons functional morphology is directed by genetic programs, signaling pathways and environmental cues that impinge on the organization of the cytoskeleton and the secretory pathway. The interaction between these subcellular systems is essential for the establishment of functional domains such as axons, dendrites and synapses.. The ER in dendrites and axons. In all eukaryotic cells the availability of membrane components is regulated by coordinated mechanisms that deliver newly synthesized proteins to the plasma membrane and remove them for storage, recycling or degradation. Decades of studies support the clearly organized sequence of organelles along the biosynthetic secretory route. The structure-function relationships of these organelles are most likely conserved in all eukaryote cells. However, the size, complex geometry of neurons and ...
Structures inside a eukaryotic cell include a nucleus, genetic material, a plasma membrane, ribosomes and a cytoplasm. The majority of eukaryotic cells also include internal structures within their...
Eukaryotic cells are the structural components of a broad lineage of organisms characterized by having cells with a membrane-bound nucleus and having a set of organelles. Among the most prominent organelles of eukaryotes we have the mitochondria, responsible for cellular respiration
15. cell membrane controls the space they enclose help with cellular mobility and maintain the cell u s s on eukaryotic cell components chart
Does anyone know any good links to a site with a detailed drawing/photograph/diagram of a eukaryotic cells as seen under and electron microscope with the following structures ...
whats a Eucaryotic cell?http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.html. thanx, you guys are awesome!!. Any time!. eucaryote= no nucleu...
மெய்க்கருவுயிரி (Eukaryote) எனப்படுவது, மென்சவ்வுகளால் சூழப்பட்ட சிக்கலான அமைப்புக்களைக் கொண்ட உயிரணுக்களாலான உயிரினம் ஆகும். இது நிலைக்கருவிலி உயிரினங்களிலிருந்து வேறுபடுவது முக்கியமாக மரபணு அல்லது பாரம்பரியப் பொருளைக் கொண்டிருக்கும் நிலையான கருவையும், அதனை மூடியுள்ள கருமென்சவ்வையும் கொண்டிருப்பதனால் ஆகும்[1][2][3]. அனேகமான மெய்க்கருவுயிரிகள் மென்சவ்வால் மூடப்பட்ட ...
Background:. Characterizing genome-scale data from diverse eukaryotes is essential for gene discovery and for inferring major transitions across the eukaryotic tree of life. Yet, the bulk of eukaryotic diversity remains undersampled, particularly for free-living microbial lineages. Analysis of transcriptome data generated from high throughput (e.g. 454) sequencing of mRNAs provides an efficient way to characterize genes from diverse eukaryotes.. Results:. Here we report analyses of RNA-Seq data from the rhizarian net-like amoeba Corallomyxa tenera, the ciliate Chilodonella uncinata and a recently-described genus representing a novel major clade of eukaryotes, Subulatomonas tetraspora. We generated 16,983, 11,529 and 10,630 contigs plus single reads for these taxa respectively. Given that these organisms cannot be cultured axenically, we developed custom scripts to remove bacterial contaminants through an iterative BLAST based protocol and we then identified expressed genes using BLAST2GO [1;2]. ...
Genomics and Evolution of Eukaryotic Microbes synthesizes the rapidly emerging fields of eukaryotic diversity and genome evolution. Eukaryotes, cells with nuclei, evolved as microbes and have existed on Earth for approximately two billion years. The tremendous diversity of eukaryotic microbes (protists) is often overlooked by those who study the macroscopic eukaryotic lineages: plants, animals, and fungi.
Define eukaryotic cells, give examples and describe their general structure. Eukaryotic cells are the type of living cells that form the organisms of all of the life kingdoms except monera. Protista, fungi, plants and animals are all composed of eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, including a nucleus, and replicate via cell division by mitosis.
2.3: Eukaryotic Evolution and Diversity pg. 67 For about 1.5 billion years Prokaryotes were on the only living organism on Earth. 3.5 to 2 billion years ago Prokaryotes thrive in many different environments.
There are many significant differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication. One such difference is the complexity of the replication process of eukaryotic cells in comparison to the...
What is the difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic mRNA? Prokaryotic mRNA is polycistronic while eukaryotic mRNA is monocistronic. In prokaryotic mRNA,..
Example: Collenchyma Cell - By: Zoe Lodato and Kenneth Barragan What plant cells lack: What animal cells lack: - Flagellum Types of Cells Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotic cells make up bacteria and archea, whereas protists, fungi, plants, and animals are composed of eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells are much smaller and less complex than eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells lack a nucleus, a cytoplasm, and other organelles. Not all eukaryotic cells are equipped with a cell wall which the prokaryotic cell does not lack. The eukaryotic cell also lacks a sticky capsule. - ...
Seven NO PREP Sub lesson science articles with text-dependent questions OR use as homework OR align your lessons with Common Core informational text! Lessons included in Cell Sub/HW Bundle: - Macromolecules - Plasma Membranes, Osmosis, & Diffusion - Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes - Plant, Animal, & Prokaryote Cell Structures - Eukaryote Cells, Structure, & Function - Cell Cycle, Mitosis, & Meiosis - Infectious Diseases
From: mskelly at freenet2.scri.fsu.edu (Mark Skelly) , Subject: abiogenesis , Basically, this states that it took 3 billion years just for a cell to , evolve into one with a nucleus(eukaryote). And it took ONLY 1 billion , years to go from a eukaryote[ cell w/ nucleus ] to a modern humanoid. , Quite illogical. What a silly statement. Where does logic come into it? Are you forgetting a few trifling necessities for higher evolution, like an enriched oxygen-containing atmosphere? , It has been said that if a Creator exists, than who created the , Creator? We are forgeting that the Creator is infinite, therefore , to ask who created God? It the same as to purpose the question: , When did infinity begin? This is a paradox. And this is getting even more silly. And what if there IS NO CREATOR? What then, Mahavira? _____________________________________________________ , Ed Rybicki, PhD , (ed at molbiol.uct.ac.za) , , Dept Microbiology , University of Cape Town , , Private Bag, Rondebosch , 7700, South ...
Study Regulation of Eukaryotic Gene Expression (Biochem Ch 5) flashcards from dheeraj chintapalli's garranps class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
A eukaryote (/juːˈkæri.oʊt/ or /juːˈkæriət/) is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other structures (organelles) enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes are formally the taxon Eukarya or Eukaryota. The defining membrane-bound structure that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells is the nucleus, or nuclear envelope, within which the genetic material is contained.[1][2][3]The presence of a nucleus gives eukaryotes their name, which comes from the Greek ευ (eu, well) and κάρυον (karyon, nut or kernel).[4] Most eukaryotic cells also contain…
In this lesson, we discuss the similarities and differences between the eukaryotic cells of your body and prokaryotic cells such as bacteria....
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Technology Development for the Comprehensive Determination of Functional Elements in Eukaryotic Genomes (R01) RFA-HG-07-029. NHGRI
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells, Distinguish Among Plant, Animal, and Protist Cells, and Identifying the Organelles that are Evident in Them Introduction
Buy Architecture of Eukaryotic Genes for $699.99 at Mighty Ape NZ. Twenty-eight articles by leading international researchers survey the statics and dynamics of chromatin architecture and highlight their current resea...
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This exploration of plant and animal cell organelles and cell structure is presented in a mobile-friendly interactive model with detailed descriptive text.
Mitochondria are one of the major ancient endomembrane systems in eukaryotic cells. Owing to their ability to produce ATP through respiration, they became a ...
Organelle is a specialized structure suspended in the cytoplasm of the eukaryotic cells and contributes to specific cellular function. The. Read more ...
Magda Bienkos research focuses on understanding the design principles of how DNA is organized in the three-dimensional space of the eukaryotic cell...
In terms of differences, eukaryotic cells are much larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. On average, a typical eukaryotic cell is about 1,000 X larger in volume than a typical prokaryotic cell. Because of their much larger size, eukaryotic cells generally have much more DNA than prokaryotic cells, and there is a much greater degree of compartmentalization and division of labor within a eukaryotic cell. The interior of eukaryotic cells is generally divided into many specialized compartments by internal membranes (membranes separate from the plasma membrane) and membrane-bound organelles (organelles completely surrounded by membranes). Usually, prokaryotic cells lack internal membranes and membrane-bound organelles. In addition, the DNA of eukaryotic cells is enclosed within a membrane-bound nucleus, while the DNA of prokaryotic cells is located in the cytoplasm ...
prokaryotic cells are simple cells. eukaryotic cells are more complex. what structures do eukaryotic cells have that, Hire Biology Expert, Ask Academics Expert, Assignment Help, Homework Help, Textbooks Solutions
Eukaryotes include such microorganisms as fungi, protozoa, and simple algae. Viruses are considered neither prokaryotes nor eukaryotes because they lack the characteristics of living things, except the ability to replicate (which they accomplish only in living cells). Viruses are much, much smaller than prokaryotes. Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells are both alive, while viruses are not. Viruses have very few organelles, similar to the prokaryotic cells. They contain a plasma membrane, cell wall, RNA or DNA, and a protein capsule. Prokaryotic cells lack internal membrane-bound structures and are unicellular organisms. One example of a prokaryote is bacteria. Prokaryotic cells are about one-tenth the size of a eukaryotic cell. A prokaryotes DNA is double-stranded, and it prokaryotic cell is also experiences chemiosmosis. Eukaryotic cells are multicellular organisms that have membrane-bound organelles, such as animal cells. Some eukaryotic cells, however, are unicellular organisms such as amoebas. ...
Prokaryotic cells, in contrast to eukaryotic cells, lack membrane-bound nuclei and have few organelles. Bacteria and blue-green algae contain prokaryotic cells, but more complex animals contain eukaryotic cells.
Biochemical Roles of Eukaryotic Cell Surface Macromolecules By Abhijit Chakrabarti, Avadhesha Surolia 2015 | 424 Pages | ISBN: 3319112791 | PDF | 14 MB Biochemical Roles of Eukaryotic Cell S
Amazing pictures of 6 Fabulous Dog Tags With Pictures Engraved is totally great for your biological science knowledge. The image Resolution 800 x 800 px and the image size only 222 kb. Click the thumbnail to see the larger version.. Tagged with: army tag, dog name tag, dog necklace, dog tag machine, dog tag with picture engraved, .. ...
I believe the corporation is a another type of life-form and that to understand it you need to have a solid understanding of accounting. I have been looking into it for a good time now. I have worked in these large multinationals at various levels and my conclusion is that these beasts have all the characteristics of the most sophisticated eukaryote cells and even mimic behavior of multi-cell organisms. You may laugh but accounting is to these creatures as the Standard Model is to physics. Accounting explains how they operate and is useful in predicting how they can do new stuff. What is missing is an organized brain to pull it all tightly together. CEOs have to work through too many layers to do much. AI would be the next logical step and I am sure shareholders would be for it as long as the share price benefits. They might already be there in some ways and could be an evolutionary process. My question to you is to look at the legal aspects. Can an AI be named to head a corporation and if yes ...
I believe the corporation is a another type of life-form and that to understand it you need to have a solid understanding of accounting. I have been looking into it for a good time now. I have worked in these large multinationals at various levels and my conclusion is that these beasts have all the characteristics of the most sophisticated eukaryote cells and even mimic behavior of multi-cell organisms. You may laugh but accounting is to these creatures as the Standard Model is to physics. Accounting explains how they operate and is useful in predicting how they can do new stuff. What is missing is an organized brain to pull it all tightly together. CEOs have to work through too many layers to do much. AI would be the next logical step and I am sure shareholders would be for it as long as the share price benefits. They might already be there in some ways and could be an evolutionary process. My question to you is to look at the legal aspects. Can an AI be named to head a corporation and if yes ...
We analyzed length differences of eukaryotic, bacterial and archaeal proteins in relation to function, conservation and environmental factors. Comparing Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, we found that the greater length of eukaryotic proteins is pervasive over all functional categories and involves the va …
I need to describe prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes. I think I got prokaryotic the circular DNA molecule of prokaryotic organisms, containing the majority of the genes for the cell. I cant seem to define eukaryotic can u help ...
EUKARYOTIC Meaning: characterized by well-defined cells (with nuclei and cell walls), 1957, from French eucaryote (1925),… See definitions of eukaryotic.
Eukaryotic And Prokaryotic Cell Structures: Understanding Cells With And Without A Nucleus (THE LIBRARY OF CELLS) de Lesli J., Ph.D. Favor sur AbeBooks.fr - ISBN 10 : 1404203230 - ISBN 13 : 9781404203235 - Rosen Pub Group - 2004
A Possible Mechanism of DNA to DNA Transcription in Eukaryotic Cells: Endonuclease Dependent Transcript Cutout. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Feng, X., Noguchi, Y., Barbon, M., Stillman, B., Speck, C., Li, H. (2021). The structure of ORC-Cdc6 on an origin DNA reveals the mechanism of ORC activation by the replication initiator Cdc6. Nature Communications 12, 3883 ...
View Notes - quiz08_keyS10 from BTNY 210 at Purdue. 9:3:3:1 6. Name one feature which separates all prokaryotic organisms from eukaryotic organisms. Contains a nucleus, or/and any membrane bound
2016 CEGR Fall Retreat Every year, the PIs leading the labs in The Center for Eukaryotic Gene Regulation (CEGR) invite their staff and families to a Fall retreat. Our faculty host a Center-wide activity outside of normal collaborative lab work and the Megameeting on Tuesdays. This years event will be hosted at the Civil Engineering Lodge on Lake…. ...
Host Organisms: Bacteria are usually used as hosts in genetic engineering. There are several reasons why they are chosen. 1. Bacterial DNA can be easily isolated and reintroduced into bacterial cells. 2. Bacterial cultures grow quickly. Some disadvantages surface as well: 1. Bacteria, being prokaryotic, may not be able to use the information in eukaryotic genes. 2. Bacterial cells cannot make the the necessary changes in transcription to produce some eukaryotic proteins. Eukaryotic cells can also be used as hosts. Yeast cells and some plant and animal cells can be a host for foreign DNA, but it is often difficult to get such cells to take up engineered DNA ...
An example of a complex eukaryotic KOG: globins and related hemoproteins. The systematic protein names of the KOG members are listed under each species. To the
What is the difference between Vesicle and Vacuole? Vesicles are found in eukaryotic cells while vacuoles are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
A housekeeping gene is a gene which is constitutively or constantly expressed and is necessary for basic cellular functions. Contingency genes, on the other hand, produce gene products which are, shall we say, slightly more expendable should a mutation arise. Contingency genes were first identified and have been well-studied in prokaryotes such as bacteria, because…
ASM journals are the most prominent publications in the field, delivering up-to-date and authoritative coverage of both basic and clinical microbiology.. About ASM , Contact Us , Press Room. ASM is a member of. ...
The major and extremely significant difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that eukaryotes have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, while prokaryotes do not. The DNA of prokaryotes floats freely around the cell; the DNA of eukaryotes is held within its nucleus. The organelles of eukaryotes allow them to exhibit much higher levels of intracellular division of labor than is possible in prokaryotic cells. ...
void:inDataset: http://aims.fao.org/aos/agrovoc/void.ttl#Agrovoc. Created: 2014-02-26T08:58:39Z. Last modified: 2014-07-03T20:22:48Z. skos:notation: 330944 ...
talk contribs‎ 307 bytes +307‎ Created page with {{organelle}} ==Definition== The Golgi apparatus (also called the Golgi body or Golgi apparatus) is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells whose ... ...
Chromosoma publishes research and review articles on the functional organization of the eukaryotic cell nucleus, with a particular emphasis on the structure ...
Chromosoma publishes research and review articles on the functional organization of the eukaryotic cell nucleus, with a particular emphasis on the structure ...
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms. They are part of the biological kingdom Animalia. The study of genes and the processes of reproduction are vital to the understanding of animal diversity. Read More ...
"Unconventional mechanisms of protein transport to the cell surface of eukaryotic cells". Annual Review of Cell and ... Eukaryotic cells, including human cells, have a highly evolved process of secretion. Proteins targeted for the outside are ... Many human cell types have the ability to be secretory cells. They have a well-developed endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi ... The classical mechanism of cell secretion is via secretory portals at the cell plasma membrane called porosomes.[1] Porosomes ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 13 (8): 950-957. doi:10.1128/EC.00093-14. PMC 4135787. PMID 24951441. v t e. ... "Innate immune cell response upon Candida albicans infection". Virulence. 7 (5): 512-26. doi:10.1080/21505594.2016.1138201. PMC ... and produced by Acinus cells. Here they offer some early defense against incoming microbes. The three major histatins are 1, 3 ... "Histatins are the major wound-closure stimulating factors in human saliva as identified in a cell culture assay". FASEB Journal ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 2 (2): 306-17. doi:10.1128/EC.2.2.306-317.2003. PMC 154842. PMID 12684380. Craven RJ, Mallory JC, Hand RA (Dec ... Hand RA, Craven RJ (Oct 2003). "Hpr6.6 protein mediates cell death from oxidative damage in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells". ... PGRMC1 also promotes survival in human cancer cells after treatment with chemotherapy. In contrast, PGRMC1 promotes cell death ... Yeast cells lacking the DAP1 gene are sensitive to DNA damage, and heme-binding is essential for damage resistance. Dap1 is ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 11 (7): 932-42. doi:10.1128/EC.05319-11. PMC 3416500. PMID 22544908. Schmittgen TD, Livak KJ (2008). " ... RT-PCR can also be very useful in the insertion of eukaryotic genes into prokaryotes. Because most eukaryotic genes contain ... Circulating tumor cells produce unique mRNA transcripts depending on the type of cancer. The goal is to determine which mRNA ... used qRT-PCR to measure expression of Gal genes in yeast cells. First, Lin et al. engineered a mutation of a protein suspected ...
nov., a new sibling species of A. fumigatus". Eukaryotic Cell. 4 (3): 625-632. doi:10.1128/EC.4.3.625-632.2005. PMC 1087803. ... Eukaryotic Cell. 12 (7): 962-9. doi:10.1128/EC.00040-13. PMC 3697472. PMID 23650087. v t e. ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 4 (2): 356-64. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.318.2901. doi:10.1128/EC.4.2.356-364.2005. PMC 549329. PMID 15701798. ... Y. lipolytica is part of the group of oleaginous yeast, which means that its cells are made up of more than 20% fat content. ... The usual form of the cells can be described as round and spherical. When exposed to stress conditions such as temperature, pH ... mechanical or osmotic stress, the cell can switch into a filamentous growth form (also see hyphae). The genome of Y. lipolytica ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 9 (10): 1635-47. doi:10.1128/EC.00078-10. PMC 2950436. PMID 20675578. Chasteen, Thomas G.; Bentley, Ronald ( ... Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar panels exhibit some of the greatest efficiencies for solar cell electric power generators. (Cd, ... This feature is the basis for potential applications in photoconductive materials, solar cells, infrared detectors. The main ... which accumulates and causes a characteristic and often dramatic darkening of cells. In yeast, this reduction is mediated by ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 6 (1): 110-6. doi:10.1128/EC.00233-06. PMC 1800358. PMID 17056743. Cavender, James (September 2000). "The ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 10: 1485-1491. doi:10.1128/ec.05149-11. PMC 3209044. PMID 21908600. Hesseltine, C.W. (1957). "The genus ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 5 (12): 2184-2188. doi:10.1128/EC.00274-06. PMC 1694807. PMID 17056742. Miyazaki Taiga; Miyazaki Yoshitsugu; ... In fungi C5SD catalyzes the dehydration of episterol as a step in the synthesis of ergosterol, a sterol that regulates cell ... This patient was also found to have low levels of blood cholesterol and high levels of lathosterol in cell membranes when ... Cholesterol serves multiple roles in the cell including modulating membrane fluidity serving as a precursor to steroid hormones ...
Steinberg, G. (2007). "Hyphal growth: a tale of motors, lipids, and the Spitzenkörper". Eukaryotic Cell. 6 (3): 351-360. doi: ... Eukaryotic cell. 4 (2): 225-229. doi:10.1128/EC.4.2.225-229.2005. PMC 549335. PMID 15701784. Webster, John; Weber, R. W. S. ( ...
Roca MG, Arlt J, Jeffree CE, Read ND (May 2005). "Cell biology of conidial anastomosis tubes in Neurospora crassa". Eukaryotic ... Endospores are formed inside the mother cell, and, exospores are formed at the end of the mother cell as a bud. As mentioned ... One of these cells is a tube cell. Once the pollen grain lands on the stigma of a receptive flower (or a female cone in ... A variety of cells can be formed from the germinating conidia. The most common are germ tubes which grow and develop into ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 8 (3): 353-361. doi:10.1128/EC.00373-08. PMC 2653247. PMID 19151324. http://www.indexfungorum.org/Names/ ... These spores are smooth, globose to ellipsoid, and germinate by hyphal tube or by yeast cells. Conidiophores are often present ... Tremella species produce hyphae that are typically (but not always) clamped and have haustorial cells from which hyphal ... producing conidiospores that are similar to yeast cells. Species are mainly parasitic on wood-rotting fungi in the phyla ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 6 (5): 868-74. doi:10.1128/EC.00319-06. PMC 1899244. PMID 17384199. Murtagh GJ, Dyer PS, Crittenden PD (April ... In yeast, heterothallic cells have mating types a and α. An experienced mother cell (one that has divided at least once) will ... The opposite sexual functions are performed by different cells of a single mycelium. It can be contrasted to heterothallic. It ... fungi by a wide variety of genetically distinct mechanisms that all result in sexually reproducing cultures from a single cell ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 13 (1): 10-20. doi:10.1128/EC.00155-13. PMC 3910950. PMID 24058169. Portman, Neil; Šlapeta, Jan (2014). "The ... Unlike other eukaryotic algae which use only UGG codons to encode the amino acid tryptophan in plastid genomes, the plastid ... The Chromera cells could be cultured from the M.digitata eggs and were subsequently used to transiently colonise Acropora coral ... such as the development of an apical complex of organelles that were used by later descendants to invade host cells. In July ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 5 (12): 2138-46. doi:10.1128/EC.00258-06. PMC 1694820. PMID 17071828. Pyruvate+kinase at the US National ... When compared to healthy cells, cancer cells have elevated levels of the PKM2 isoform, specifically the low activity dimer. ... This effect is especially devastating in cells that lack mitochondria, because these cells must use anaerobic glycolysis as ... This inhibitory mechanism provides insight into the role of pyruvate kinase in brain cell damage. Cancer cells have ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 7 (5): 848-858. doi:10.1128/EC.00456-07. ISSN 1535-9778. PMC 2394967. PMID 18375614. Fidel, Paul L.; Vazquez, ... Cell. 175 (6): 1533-1545.e20. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.10.023. ISSN 0092-8674. PMC 6291210. PMID 30415838. Dr. Fungus's "Candida ... The Cell Wall of the Human Pathogen Candida glabrata: Differential Incorporation of Novel Adhesin-Like Wall Proteins ▿ †. ... glabrata can affect the urogenital tract or even cause systemic infections by entrance of the fungal cells in the bloodstream ( ...
... each of which with a long history of use to investigate issues in eukaryotic cell biology and genetics, such as cell cycle ... Daniels KJ, Srikantha T, Lockhart SR, Pujol C, Soll DR (May 2006). "Opaque cells signal white cells to form biofilms in Candida ... In contrast, similar-looking organisms, such as filamentous green algae, grow by repeated cell division within a chain of cells ... Eukaryotic Cell. 4 (8): 1420-33. doi:10.1128/EC.4.8.1420-1433.2005. PMC 1214536. PMID 16087747. Lin X, Hull CM, Heitman J ( ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 11 (5): 705-706. doi:10.1128/EC.00081-12. PMC 3346424. PMID 22544899. Qiu-Xia, Chen; Chang-Xing, Li; Wen-Ming ... The addition of lactophenol blue with this test turns the chitin in the cell wall blue but leaves the budding conidia and ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 9 (7): 1039-1048. doi:10.1128/EC.00080-10. ISSN 1535-9778. PMC 2901662. PMID 20495057. Wellen, Kathryn E.; ... All cells with mitochondria can take ketone bodies up from the blood and reconvert them into acetyl-CoA, which can then be used ... Unlike free fatty acids, ketone bodies can cross the blood-brain barrier and are therefore available as fuel for the cells of ... This acetylation affects cell growth, mitosis, and apoptosis. Allosteric regulator Acetyl-CoA serves as an allosteric regulator ...
However, it has been found to encompass a wide variety of differing protein structures in eukaryotic cells. Xenopus laevis ... Eukaryotic Cell. 4 (12): 2057-65. doi:10.1128/EC.4.12.2057-2065.2005. PMC 1317489. PMID 16339723. Akhtar A, Becker PB (February ... An ongoing clinical trial is evaluating Zinc finger nucleases that disrupt the CCR5 gene in CD4+ human T-cells as a potential ... Kim HJ, Lee HJ, Kim H, Cho SW, Kim JS (July 2009). "Targeted genome editing in human cells with zinc finger nucleases ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 13 (11): 1439-1449. doi:10.1128/EC.00139-14. PMC 4248694. PMID 25239978. Zou, Cheng; Ye, Rui-Min; Zheng, Jian- ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 9 (10): 1577-87. doi:10.1128/EC.00026-10. PMC 2950428. PMID 20400466. Marinov GK, Lynch M (2016). "Diversity ... Eukaryotic DNA with a typical length of dozens of centimeters should be orderly packed to be readily accessible inside the ... In most eukaryotes, DNA is arranged in the cell nucleus with the help of histones. In this case, the basic level of DNA ... During the cell division, chromatin compaction increases even more to form chromosomes, which can cope with large mechanical ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 5 (8): 1184-1193. doi:10.1128/EC.00133-06. ISSN 1535-9778. PMC 1539135. PMID 16896204. McClung, C. Robertson ( ... The Plant Cell. 16 (suppl 1): S18-S31. doi:10.1105/tpc.015958. ISSN 1532-298X. PMC 2643402. PMID 15037730. Alabadí, David; ... The Plant Cell. 22 (3): 594-605. doi:10.1105/tpc.109.072892. ISSN 1532-298X. PMC 2861452. PMID 20233950. Golembeski, Greg S.; ... Plant Cell Physiology. 41 (9): 1002-1012. doi:10.1093/pcp/pcd043. PMID 11100772. Pokhilko, Alexandra; Fernández, Aurora Piñas; ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 8 (3): 353-361. doi:10.1128/EC.00373-08. PMC 2653247. PMID 19151324. Chen C-J. (1998). Morphological and ... Basidiospores in most (but not all) species germinate by producing germ tubes (normal for basidiomycetes) or yeast cells. Many ... Microscopically, all have hyphae bearing haustorial cells which produce filaments that connect to the hyphae of their host ...
Idnurm A (November 2011). "Sex determination in the first-described sexual fungus". Eukaryotic Cell. 10 (11): 1485-91. doi: ... The zygote develops a resistant cell wall, forming a single-celled zygospore, the characteristic that gives its name to this ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 5 (2): 368-78. doi:10.1128/EC.5.2.368-378.2006. PMC 1405896. PMID 16467477. "Executive Summary Ethidium ... However, SYBR Green I was actually found to be more mutagenic than EtBr to the bacterial cells exposed to UV (which is used to ... Ethidium bromide can be added to YPD media and used as an inhibitor for cell growth. Ethidium bromide is not regulated as ... The level is high enough that exposure may interfere with replication of mitochondrial DNA in some human cell lines, although ...
Heddergott, C.; Calvo, A. M.; Latgé, J. P. (2017-02-02). "The Volatome of Aspergillus fumigatus". Eukaryotic Cell. 13 (8): 1014 ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 4 (2): 346-55. doi:10.1128/EC.4.2.346-355.2005. PMC 549337. PMID 15701797. Human ATP5ME genome location and ... Ying H, Yu Y, Xu Y (2002). "Antisense of ATP synthase subunit e inhibits the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells". ... Oster G, Wang H (2003). "Rotary protein motors". Trends Cell Biol. 13 (3): 114-21. doi:10.1016/S0962-8924(03)00004-7. PMID ... Gubin AN, Njoroge JM, Bouffard GG, Miller JL (1999). "Gene expression in proliferating human erythroid cells". Genomics. 59 (2 ...
Eukaryotic Cell. 7 (5): 859-871. doi:10.1128/EC.00414-07. PMC 2394968. PMID 18326586. Wilks A, Schmitt MP (1998). "Expression ... HO-1 protects cells by reducing superoxide and other reactive oxygen species. Heme oxygenase 2 (HO-2) is a constitutive isoform ... A critical role of the prokaryotic HO systems is to facilitate acquisition of nutritional iron from a eukaryotic host. Some HO- ... HO is located in the endoplasmic reticulum, though it has also been reported in the mitochondria, cell nucleus, and plasma ...
"Cell. 136 (2): 272-83. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.11.047. PMC 2859625. PMID 19167329.. ... "Structure of the yeast oligosaccharyltransferase complex gives insight into eukaryotic N-glycosylation". Science. 359 (6375): ... "J. Cell Biol. 161 (4): 715-25. doi:10.1083/jcb.200301043. PMC 2199356. PMID 12756234.. ... The high sequence similarity between the prokaryotic and the eukaryotic STT3 suggests that their structures are similar. ...
regulation of metanephric nephron tubule epithelial cell differentiation. • cell differentiation. • mesonephric tubule ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (January 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... positive regulation of metanephric DCT cell differentiation. • negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process ... pancreatic islet cells and lymphoid cells.[8] PAX8 and other transcription factors play a role in binding to DNA and regulating ...
... and two eukaryotic genomes (nucleus of host cell and nucleomorph). ... The unique combination of host cell and complex plastid results in cells with four genomes: two prokaryotic genomes ( ... They retained only three chromosomes and many genes were transferred to the nucleus of the host cell, while others were lost ... Most of the genes that moved to the host cell involved protein synthesis, leaving behind a compact genome with mostly single- ...
Molecular genetic testing on a blood specimen or cells from a cheek swab is available to identify mutations in the RSK2 gene. ... RSK2 phosphorylates cellular proteins (including histone H3, and CREB), which regulate eukaryotic gene expression. In ... The protein is involved in cell signaling pathways that are required for learning, the formation of long-term memories, and the ... There is some experimental evidence that RSK2 regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity in neuronal cell types.[3] ...
Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree. Biol Lett 6 (3): 342-5. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0948 ... Reproduction occurs exclusively through cell division. During mitosis, the nuclear membrane remains intact, and the spindle ... two other tubules support the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the cell.[2] ...
"Methods for High-Content, High-Throughput Image-Based Cell Screening" (PDF). Proceedings of the Workshop on Microscopic Image ... "The Biology of Eukaryotic Promoter Prediction-a Review". Computers & Chemistry 23 (3-4). Páxs. 191-207. ...
Eukaryotic chloroplasts have an RNAP very similar to bacterial RNAP ("plastid-encoded polymerase"). Eukaryotic chloroplasts ... So the two classes of enzyme have arisen independently twice in the early evolution of cells. One line led to the modern DNA ... Structure of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (light blue) in complex with α-amanitin (red), a strong poison found in death cap ... Eukaryotic mitochondria contain an unrelated RNAP (member of the "single-subunit RNAP" protein family). ...
BaP was shown to cause genetic damage in lung cells that was identical to the damage observed in the DNA of most malignant lung ... which is a eucaryotic receptor for bacterial surface structures such as lipoteichoic acid. ... BaP has an effect on the number of white blood cells, inhibiting some of them from differentiating into macrophages, the body's ... This gene is a transcription factor that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as a tumor suppressor. By inducing G ( ...
Esophageal squamous cell cancer. Over-expression. 47%. Immunohistochemistry. [24]. Renal cell carcinoma. Under-expression. 100% ... RAD51 is a eukaryotic gene. The enzyme encoded by this gene is a member of the RAD51 protein family which assists in repair of ... "Association of BRCA1 with Rad51 in mitotic and meiotic cells". Cell. 88 (2): 265-75. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81847-4. PMID ... Non-small-cell lung cancer. Over-expression. 29%. Immunohistochemistry. [22]. Soft tissue sarcoma. Over-expression. 95%. ...
Some types of cell adhesion proteins or cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) such as integrins, cadherins, NCAMs, or selectins ... "Genome-wide analysis of integral membrane proteins from eubacterial, archaean, and eukaryotic organisms". Protein Science. 7 ... The C terminal end of the protein is in the cytosol while the N terminal region is in the outside of the cell. A membrane that ... Steven R. Goodman (2008). Medical cell biology. Academic Press. pp. 37-. ISBN 978-0-12-370458-0. . Retrieved 24 November 2010. ...
Gerald Karp (19 October 2009). Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 14-. ISBN 978-0- ... and the term for true algae is restricted to eukaryotic organisms.[11] Like true algae, cyanobacteria are photosynthetic and ... Toxic effects from anatoxin-a progress very rapidly because it acts directly on the nerve cells (neurons) as a neurotoxin. The ... It acts on the voltage-gated sodium channels of nerve cells, preventing normal cellular function and leading to paralysis. The ...
This machinery is related to the eukaryotic ESCRT-III machinery which, while best known for its role in cell sorting, also has ... Further information: Cell wall § Archaeal cell walls. Most archaea (but not Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma) possess a cell wall.[ ... Cell division is controlled in a cell cycle; after the cell's chromosome is replicated and the two daughter chromosomes ... In euryarchaea the cell division protein FtsZ, which forms a contracting ring around the cell, and the components of the septum ...
"Molecular Cell. 68 (1): 130-143.e5. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2017.08.016. PMC 5632562. PMID 28918903.. ... The TATA box is a component of the eukaryotic core promoter and generally contains the consensus sequence 5'-TATA(A/T)A(A/T)-3 ... In specific cell types or on specific promoters TBP can be replaced by one of several TBP-related factors (TRF1 in Drosophila, ... Compounds that trap the protein-DNA intermediate could result in it being toxic to the cell once they encounter a DNA ...
... s are found in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells, and in certain Archaea, namely Proteoarchaea and Euryarchaea, but not in ... In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into ... SLBP levels are controlled by cell-cycle proteins, causing SLBP to accumulate as cells enter S phase and degrade as cells leave ... "Cell. 148 (4): 664-78. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.12.029. PMC 3281992. PMID 22325148.. ...
... s also control release of virons when the insect stings an infected plant cell or a cell near the infected cells. ... Viroplasms have been reported in many unrelated groups of Eukaryotic viruses that replicate in cytoplasm, however, viroplasms ... They may be thought of as viral factories in the cell. There are many viroplasms in one infected cell, where they appear dense ... The viroplasm formation is caused by the interactions between the virus and the infected cell, where viral products and cell ...
Prokaryotic cells are much smaller than eukaryotic cells, making prokaryotic cells the smallest form of life.[11] Cytologists ... Cell biology focuses more on the study of eukaryotic cells, and their signalling pathways, rather than on prokaryotes which is ... This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the ... In the case of eukaryotic cells - which are made up of animal, plant, fungi, and protozoa cells - the shapes are generally ...
"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"[۳۷] ۲۰۰۹ عادا یونات Israel "for studies of the structure ... "for their discovery of جی پروتئینs and the role of these proteins in ورارسانی پیام in cells"[۷۳] ... "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[۶۱] ... for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[۸۱] ...
Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (Jan 1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... Cell. 154 (2): 452-64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207 . PMID 23870131. "Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping ( ... "Transcriptional regulation of squalene epoxidase by sterols and inhibitors in HeLa cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
A peroxisome (IPA: [pɛɜˈɹɒksɪˌsoʊm])[1] is a type of organelle known as a microbody, found in virtually all eukaryotic cells.[2 ... when excess H2O2 accumulates in the cell, catalase converts it to H2O through this reaction: 2. H. 2. O. 2. →. 2. H. 2. O. +. O ... "The Journal of Cell Biology. 119 (5): 1129-36. doi:10.1083/jcb.119.5.1129. PMC 2289717. PMID 1447292.. ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.04.025. PMID 16009135.. *^ Saleem RA, Smith JJ, Aitchison JD (Dec 2006). "Proteomics of the peroxisome" ...
nov., a cell-fusing hyperthermophilic archaeon from Suiyo Seamount". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 55 (Pt 6): 2507-14. PMID ... Lake JA (xaneiro de 1988). "Origin of the eukaryotic nucleus determined by rate-invariant analysis of rRNA sequences". Nature ... Bernander R (1998). "Archaea and the cell cycle". Mol. Microbiol. 29 (4): 955-61. PMID 9767564. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2958.1998. ... Talbert PB, Henikoff S (2010). "Histone variants - ancient wrap artists of the epigenome". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell ...
The cytosols of virtually all eukaryotic cells contain an SOD enzyme with copper and zinc (Cu-Zn-SOD). For example, Cu-Zn-SOD ... "The expression of different superoxide dismutase forms is cell-type dependent in olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves". Plant & Cell ... Human white blood cells use enzymes such as NADPH oxidase to generate superoxide and other reactive oxygen species to kill ... Thus, SOD is an important antioxidant defense in nearly all living cells exposed to oxygen. One exception is Lactobacillus ...
Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell (Fourth ed.). New York: ... Keeling, PJ; Palmer, JD (August 2008). "Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotic evolution.". Nature Reviews Genetics 9 (8): 605- ... "Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli essential genes and minimal cell factories after one decade of genome engineering.". ... Molecular Biology of the Cell (Fourth ed.). New York: Garland Science. ISBN 978-0-8153-3218-3. ...
The post glycolytic reactions take place in the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells, and in the cytoplasm in prokaryotic cells. ... In cells which use oxygen, the pyruvate is used in a second process, the Krebs cycle, which produces more ATP molecules. ... Cellular respiration is the process of breaking sugar into a form that the cell can use as energy. This happens in all forms of ... Cellular respiration takes in food and uses it to create ATP, a chemical which the cell uses for energy. ...
Cell. Biol. 24 (4): 1493-504. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.4.1493-1504.2004. PMC 344167. PMID 14749367.. الوسيط ,CitationClass=. تم ... Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. PMID 16169070.. الوسيط ,CitationClass=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة). ... 2005). "A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. ...
Their work discovered how T-cells recognize their targets and led to a much-improved understanding of the immune system ... She discovered the molecular nature of telomeres - the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes that serve as protective caps essential ... recognises virus-infected cells. Professor Barry Jones AO FAA FAHA FTSE FASSA Dist FRSN. Politician. 2012. He was the longest ...
... of cells in the cell cycle.[253]. *Mark Oliphant (1901-2000): Australian physicist and humanitarian. He played a fundamental ... He won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1993 for the discovery of introns in eukaryotic DNA and the mechanism of ... She is the George Barth Geller Professor of Research in Molecular Biology and Chair of the Department of Cell Biology at Duke ... Brigid Hogan FRS (1943-): British developmental biologist noted for her contributions to stem cell research and transgenic ...
Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_Clathr_ClatBox_1. *Eukaryotic Linear Motif resource motif class LIG_Clathr_ ... "Journal of Cell Biology. 202 (3): 463-78. doi:10.1083/jcb.201211127. PMC 3734082 . PMID 23918938.. ... "J Cell Biol. 202 (3): 463-78. doi:10.1083/jcb.201211127. PMC 3734082 . PMID 23918938.. ... In a cell, a triskelion floating in the cytoplasm binds to an adaptor protein, linking one of its feet to the membrane at a ...
"Cell. 137 (1): 133-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.041. PMC 2668214. PMID 19345192.. ... In archaea such as Thermoplasma acidophilum, all the α and all the β subunits are identical, whereas eukaryotic proteasomes ... Cell cycle controlEdit. Cell cycle progression is controlled by ordered action of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), activated by ... Apoptosis is mediated through disrupting the regulated degradation of pro-growth cell cycle proteins.[88] However, some cell ...
56,0 56,1 56,2 Fitt WK, Trench RK (1983) The relation of diel patterns of cell division to diel patterns of motility in the ... Rowan R, Whitney SM, Fowler A, Yellowlees D (1996) Rubisco in marine symbiotic dinoflagellates: Form II enzymes in eukaryotic ... Markell DA, Trench RK, Iglesias-Prieto R (1992) Macromolecules associated with the cell-walls of symbiotic dinoflagellates. ... Thornhill DJ, LaJeunesse TC, Santos SR (2007) Measuring rDNA diversity in eukaryotic microbial systems: how intragenomic ...
... of a DNA ligase I deficiency by DNA ligase III and its impact on cell survival and telomere stability in mammalian cells". Cell ... "Eukaryotic DNA ligases: structural and functional insights". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 77: 313-38. PMC 2933818. PMID 18518823. doi ... Cell. Biol. 19 (5): 3869-76. PMC 84244. PMID 10207110.. *↑ 12,0 12,1 12,2 Mackey ZB, Ramos W, Levin DS, Walter CA, McCarrey JR ... Cell. Biol. 17 (2): 989-98. PMC 231824. PMID 9001252.. *↑ Wei YF, Robins P, Carter K, Caldecott K, Pappin DJ, Yu GL, Wang RP, ...
... starts with providing examples of prokaryotes and eukaryotes before comparing and contrasting prokaryotic cells with eukaryotic ... 2:23 Similarities of Prokaryotic Cells and Eukaryotic Cells. 3:18 Differences of Prokaryotic Cells and Eukaryotic Cells. ... Introduction to Cells: The Grand Cell Tour - Duration: 9:27. Amoeba Sisters 918,470 views ... with providing examples of prokaryotes and eukaryotes before comparing and contrasting prokaryotic cells with eukaryotic cells ...
The eukaryotic cell is the basic unit of animals and plants. At the microscope, it looks highly structured and subdivided in ... One essential component of each eukaryotic cell is the cytoskeleton. Microtubules, tiny tubes consisting of a protein called ... Yeast cell machinery seamlessly reads the unnatural ingredients in the genetic recipe If the genome is the recipe of life, ... A new study, led by researchers at the University of Chicago, provides an answer to why cancer cells consume and use nutrients ...
Prokaryotic cells, however, do not possess any membrane-bound cellular compartments. ... Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells possess a nucleus enclosed within a cell membrane. ... Structure of a eukaryotic cell. (Arisa_J / Shutterstock). Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Cell size. ... Similarities between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Cell Membrane. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells bear a lipid ...
... these are eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. They are both similar and... ... Eukaryotes and prokaryotes There are only two types of cell in the world, ... Eukaryotic Cells. * The Structure Of Eukaryotic Cells. 1416 Words , 6 Pages * The Evolution Of Eukaryotic Cells. 1102 Words , 5 ... Eukaryotic Cells And Its Functions. 978 Words , 4 Pages "Eukaryotic cells are complex and include all animal and plant cells. ...
Cas9-mediated RNA targeting in eukaryotic cells. Aryn A. Price, Timothy R. Sampson, Hannah K. Ratner, Arash Grakoui, David S. ... Cas9-mediated RNA targeting in eukaryotic cells. Aryn A. Price, Timothy R. Sampson, Hannah K. Ratner, Arash Grakoui, David S. ... Cas9-mediated targeting of viral RNA in eukaryotic cells. Aryn A. Price, Timothy R. Sampson, Hannah K. Ratner, Arash Grakoui, ... Therefore, FnCas9 can be programmed by a single rgRNA to target the RNA of a human virus in eukaryotic cells, leading to viral ...
The eocyte hypothesis and the origin of eukaryotic cells. John M. Archibald ... Few questions capture the imagination of biologists like the origin of eukaryotic (nucleus-containing) cells such as our own, ... 1988) Origin of the eukaryotic nucleus determined by rate-invariant analysis of rRNA sequences. Nature 331:184-186. ... Many adhere to the textbook concept of 2 basic types of cells, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, as championed by Stanier and van ...
Yes, your skin cells, your kidney cells, and your bone cells are fundamentally similar to the leaf cells and root cells of a ... All cells, at least all eukaryotic cells, are alike. Plants, animals, and fungi are eukaryotes (organisms made up of eukaryotic ... Prokaryotic cells are very different from and much simpler than eukaryotic cells in their basic structure and organization. ... The figure shows the general structure of a eukaryotic cell.. Illustration by Kathryn Born, MA A cutaway view of a basic animal ...
The Impact of Gene Transfer Techniques in Eukaryotic CeU Biology brought together a number of speakers interested in various ... followed by their introduction into living cells and even into the germ cells of multicellular organisms, have pervaded nearly ... Introduction of DNA into Animal Cells and Its Use to Study Gene Function. * Front Matter Pages 1-1 ... The 35th N:osbach Colloquium "The Impact of Gene Transfer Techniques in Eukaryotic CeU Biology" brought together a number of ...
... isolated as a potent inducer of differentiation in murine erythroleukemia cells, caused reversible arrest of rat 3Y1 fibroblast ... Effects of leptomycin B on the cell cycle of fibroblasts and fission yeast cells, Exp. Cell Res. 187, 150-156.PubMedCrossRef ... Novel Specific Inhibitors for Analysis of Eukaryotic Cell Cycle Control. In: Sasaki R., Ikura K. (eds) Animal Cell Culture and ... also blocks the cell cycle of 3Y1 and fission yeast cells in both Cl and G2. Cells released from the G2-arrest by both drugs ...
The simplest cells such as bacteria are known as... ... and Prokaryotic Cells There are two main types of cells in the ... and human cells are known as Eukaryotic cells. The main difference between each of these cells is that a eukaryotic cell has a ... Eukaryotic Cells Essay. 1219 Words , 5 Pages Eukaryotic Cells The cell may be regarded as the basic unit of an organism, it ... Eukaryotic and Prokatyotic Cell Structure Essay. 690 Words , 3 Pages Eukaryotic Cell Structure Plant cells are unique among the ...
... receive a measured cell density of the eukaryotic cells in the culture medium ... The system is configured to receive a target cell density and a target time and for each of a plurality of time intervals; ... Further, the eukaryotic cells may be NS0 cells, Sp2/0 cells, COS cells, K562 cells or HEK cells. ... the eukaryotic cells are mammalian cells, in particular Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Alternatively, the eukaryotic cells ...
... are found in either unicellular or multi-cellular organisms and are complex cells which have ... Animal cells are circular and plants cells are rectangular in shape.. *Plant cells contain a cell wall and animal cells do not. ... In comparison to prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells contain a true nucleus. The majority of eukaryotic organisms are multi- ... 2. Describe differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Plant and animal cell structures are compared.. What are the ...
E. coli hemolysin interactions with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell membranes.. Hughes C1, Stanley P, Koronakis V. ... causing cell dysfunction and death. The processes underlying the interaction of HlyA with the bacterial and mammalian cell ... of a transporter superfamily central to import and export of a wide range of substrates by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. ... The separate process by which HlyA is targetted to mammalian cell membranes is dependent upon fatty acylation of a non-toxic ...
Can you name the Regulating the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare ... Tags:cell, cycle, eukaryotic, Eukaryotic Cell. Top Quizzes Today. Top Quizzes Today in Science. *Find the Black & White Animals ... Science Quiz / Regulating the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle. Random Science Quiz Can you name the Regulating the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle? ...
The main approach will be across the eukaryotic kingdom, the main aim will be to understand these types of cell death in humans ... Programmed cell death (PCD) is normally invoked during development and immunity, but inappropriate PCD is associated with ... This TransDeath project will focus on cellular and molecular events in these less well known cell death types. Thus, the ... However, phylogenetically conserved PCD types other than apoptosis exist i n animal and non-animal cells. ...
... Genomics. 1992 Dec;14(4):897-911. doi: 10.1016/ ... Fourteen localization sites were distinguished for animal cells and 17 for plant cells. When sorting signals were not well ... We collected data for 401 eukaryotic proteins with known localization sites (subcellular and extracellular) and divided them ...
... or the S phase of the cell cycle. In its normal state, a chromosome is a long, thin chromatin fiber containing one DNA... ... In a eukaryotic cell, chromosome replication occurs during DNA synthesis, ... What are the various specialized structures in a eukaryotic cell?. A: Structures inside a eukaryotic cell include a nucleus, ... Where does DNA replication take place in a eukaryotic cell?. * During which stage of the cell cycle does DNA replication occur? ...
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in terms of their ability to form a complex organism, whether they have a nucleus, and ... Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are the two basic forms cells can take. Prokaryotic cells form single-cell organisms such as ... Prokaryotic cells are more primitive than eukaryotic cells. The most noticeable difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ... While both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have ribosomes, the ribosomes in eukaryotic cells are larger and more developed. ...
If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. ...
Cells,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology ... Mammalian Hamster fibro...,Examples,of,Electro-Transfected,Eukaryotic,and,Prokaryotic, ... Examples of Electro-transfected Eukaryotic. and Prokaryotic Cells Fungal Cells. Aspergillus (4 species). Candida (2 species). ... Mouse, D10.G4.1, T-cell, helper Mammalian (continued). Mouse, embryonic stem cells (ES-D3, E14). Mouse, erythroleukemia cells. ...
... are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. They also contain a variety of cellular bodies ... Cell walls provide support for eukaryotic cells and help the cells resist mechanical pressures while giving them a boxlike ... The DNA replicates in eukaryotic cells during the process of mitosis.. The nucleus of eukaryotic cells is surrounded by an ... The cell wall. Many species of eukaryotes, such as fungi, contain a cell wall outside the cell membrane. In fungi, the cell ...
The majority of eukaryotic cells also include internal structures within their... ... Structures inside a eukaryotic cell include a nucleus, genetic material, a plasma membrane, ribosomes and a cytoplasm. ... A eukaryotic cell is a cell that contains a membrane-bound nucleus. The nucleus is the control center of the cell, and it is ... Structures inside a eukaryotic cell include a nucleus, genetic material, a plasma membrane, ribosomes and a cytoplasm. The ...
The translation of mRNA in eukaryotic cells is regulated by amino acids through multiple mechanisms. One such mechanism ... Regulation of translation initiation by amino acids in eukaryotic cells.. Kimball SR1. ... increasing the translational capacity of the cell. Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 prohibits its association with eIF4E, allowing ... regulated directly by the accumulation of deacylated-tRNA caused by treatment with inhibitors of tRNA synthetases or in cells ...
This online quiz is called Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic Cells ...
Like a prokaryotic cell, a eukaryotic cell has a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes, but a eukaryotic cell is typically ... Eukaryotic cells do not have a cell envelope, as both animal and plant cells lack pili and a capsule and plant cells do not ... like eukaryotic cells. Figure 1.2. Eukaryotic can be classified base on movement. C) Eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound ... B) Eukaryotic cells have flagella, while prokaryotic cells do not. A prokaryotic cell is a simple, single-celled (unicellular) ...
... the formation of the first euakryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells are discretely different to prokaryotic cells, primarily because ... Recently, our research group has been able to demonstrate that eukaryotic cells consist of a complex community of genes with ... The enduring impact of this project will be in the way undergraduate textbooks represent our knowledge of eukaryotic origins. ... immediate products of this research will be a collection of publications based on empirical data and relating to eukaryotic ...
Some eukaryotic cells have a flagellum, whip-like projection from the cell membrane that aids in the cells locomotion. Others ... Eukaryotae, or eukaryotic cells, are large and complex cells bounded by an outer plasma membrane. They contain many organelles ... with the liver cells producing more liver cells, and bone cells producing other bone cells. ... The types and arrangement of a cells organelles enable eukaryotic cells of multicellular organisms to perform specialized ...
Gene context of Eukaryotic Cells. *Actin, a major cytoskeletal component of all eukaryotic cells, is one of the most highly ... Biological context of Eukaryotic Cells. *Hsp90 molecular chaperones in eukaryotic cells play essential roles in the folding and ... Anatomical context of Eukaryotic Cells. *In eukaryotic cells, the Golgi apparatus receives newly synthesized proteins from the ... Associations of Eukaryotic Cells with chemical compounds. *Cells from four of the five patients grew successfully in high ...
Host Cell Invasion by Toxoplasma gondii Is Temporally Regulated by the Host Microtubule Cytoskeleton Kristin R. Sweeney, Naomi ... Hyperglutamylation of Tubulin Can either Stabilize or Destabilize Microtubules in the Same Cell Dorota Wloga, Drashti Dave, ... Microtubules in Candida albicans Hyphae Drive Nuclear Dynamics and Connect Cell Cycle Progression to Morphogenesis Kenneth R. ...
Expression of a Mitochondrial Peroxiredoxin Prevents Programmed Cell Death in Leishmania donovani Simone Harder, Meike Bente, ... of Mitochondrial Leishmania major Ascorbate Peroxidase Enhances Tolerance to Oxidative Stress-Induced Programmed Cell Death and ...
  • The cytoplasm is the medium in which the biochemical reactions of the cell take place, of which the primary component is cytosol. (news-medical.net)
  • Eukaryotic cells contain many membrane-enclosed, large, complex organelles in the cytoplasm whereas prokaryotic cells do not contain these membrane-bound organelles. (news-medical.net)
  • All eukaryotic cells contain a plasma membrane, as well as cytoplasm and organelles such as mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, smooth ER, ribosomes, a nucleus which is surrounded by a double membrane known as the nuclear envelope, and secretory vesicles. (bartleby.com)
  • Structures inside a eukaryotic cell include a nucleus, genetic material, a plasma membrane, ribosomes and a cytoplasm. (reference.com)
  • Both types are deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) based organisms containing a cell membrane, flagellum, cytoplasm , and ribosomes. (wisegeek.com)
  • These membrane-bound elements perform specific functions within the cell and are distinct from the cell's cytoplasm. (wisegeek.com)
  • Cytoplasm is a viscous liquid contained within a cell. (wisegeek.com)
  • Pores exist in the nuclear membrane, and the internal nuclear environment can therefore communicate with the cytoplasm of the cell. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • An example of an organelle is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) , a series of membranes that extend throughout the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • In addition, the DNA of eukaryotic cells is enclosed within a membrane-bound nucleus, while the DNA of prokaryotic cells is located in the cytoplasm. (austincc.edu)
  • In prokaryotes, they occur in the cytoplasm and/or within the cell membrane . (thoughtco.com)
  • Prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells differ in size and complexity, but they contain some common structures, including chromosomes, a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and ribosomes. (coursehero.com)
  • Common structures between both cell types include a cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, and chromosomes or genetic material. (coursehero.com)
  • The inside of the cell contains cytoplasm , a combination of cytosol, a jellylike fluid primarily made up of water and dissolved substances that fill the spaces around the internal cell structures, and organelles (excluding the nucleus). (coursehero.com)
  • Free' ribosomes are suspended in the cytoplasm and make proteins that remain in the cell. (coursehero.com)
  • Further, unlike other viruses, it does not construct its own enclosed "viral factory" in the cytoplasm of the cell within which to replicate its DNA and contains none of the genes required to carry out the replication process. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Cytoplasm is a thick solution and it is enclosed by the cell membrane. (glogster.com)
  • In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm includes all of the material inside the cell and outside of the nucleus. (glogster.com)
  • Before turning to organelles, let's first examine two important components of the cell: the plasma membrane and the cytoplasm. (imedecin.com)
  • Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells bear a lipid bilayer, which is an arrangement of phospholipids and proteins that acts as a selective barrier between the internal and external environment of the cell. (news-medical.net)
  • This genetic material is needed to regulate and inform cell function through the creation of RNA by transcription, followed by the generation of proteins through translation. (news-medical.net)
  • Eukaryotic ribosomes also show more complexity than prokaryotic - they are constructed of five kinds of ribosomal RNA and about eighty kinds of proteins. (news-medical.net)
  • Given the ability of specific Cas9 proteins to be reprogrammed to target and cleave DNA in numerous biological systems ( 7 , 9 , 10 ), we hypothesized that FnCas9 could be retargeted to a distinct RNA in eukaryotic cells and lead to its inhibition. (pnas.org)
  • The main function of the Endoplasmic Reticulum is to produce, store and transport proteins and lipid to most of the cell organelles. (bartleby.com)
  • Function of Endoplasmic reticulum: - Transports chemicals, proteins, and lipids between cells and within cells - The endoplasmic reticulum provides a large surface area for the organization of chemical reactions to take place and synthesis. (bartleby.com)
  • The secretory pathway in eukaryotic cells is responsible for biogenesis and proper intracellular distribution of a wide range of proteins, complex carbohydrates and lipids. (bartleby.com)
  • Secretion of HlyA occurs without a periplasmic intermediate and is directed by an uncleaved C-terminal targetting signal and the HlyB and HlyD translocator proteins, the former being a member of a transporter superfamily central to import and export of a wide range of substrates by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • II) A system designed to deliver bacterial proteins into eukaryotic target cells. (nih.gov)
  • IV) A set of effector Yop proteins designed to disarm these cells or disrupt their communications (YopE, YopH, YpkA/YopO, and YopM). (nih.gov)
  • We collected data for 401 eukaryotic proteins with known localization sites (subcellular and extracellular) and divided them into training data and testing data. (nih.gov)
  • When a cell enters the cell cycle for division, it first begins to grow by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. (reference.com)
  • Eukaryotic DNA binds with histone proteins to form chromosomes, while prokaryotic DNA does not. (wisegeek.com)
  • Ribosomes use amino acids and ribonucleic acid ( RNA ) to create proteins within the cell. (wisegeek.com)
  • Eukaryotic ribosomes are 80S bodies where the amino acids are bound together to form proteins. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The prominent role of Ca2+ in cell physiology is mediated by a whole set of proteins constituting a Ca2+-signalling toolkit involved in Ca2+-signal generation, deciphering and arrest. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Due to its ubiquitous expression in eukaryotic cells and the variety of proteins it interacts with, CaM is central in Ca2+-signalling networks. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The resulting calcium response will vary depending on which interactions between CaM and target proteins are altered by the molecules and on the specific Ca2+-toolkit expressed in a given cell, even in the resting state. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The recent identification of proteins that recognize origins of DNA replication and control the initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication has provided critical molecular tools to dissect this process. (nih.gov)
  • Herein, we review the key proteins required for the initiation of DNA replication, their involvement in the protein complex assembly at replication origins, and how the cell cycle machinery regulates this process. (nih.gov)
  • and the endomembrane system, which is responsible for ferrying proteins and lipids about the cell. (science20.com)
  • PALM composite of an E.coli bacterial cell shows the organization of proteins in the chemotaxis signaling network. (science20.com)
  • For example, at the beginning of the division cycle, the cell makes proteins but no lipids. (rug.nl)
  • Some substances, such as oxygen, cross the cell membrane easily, while others, such as large carbohydrates or proteins, are prevented from freely crossing. (coursehero.com)
  • Many microbial pathogens use specialized secretion systems to inject proteins referred to as effectors directly into eukaryotic host cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • These effectors directly target various eukaryotic signaling pathways and cellular processes, often by mimicking the activity of host cell proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Effectors of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium can also act as molecular scaffolds that not only recruit but also directly regulate the activity and localization of multiple eukaryotic proteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bacterial effector proteins can act as novel scaffolds for signaling proteins in infected mammalian cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition, we show that multiple proteins safeguard the fidelity of transcription and provide evidence suggesting that errors that evade these layers of RNA quality control profoundly affect the physiology of living cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Histones are proteins that keep DNA strands curled up and packed into the cell nucleus. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Every part of the cell needs proteins to do its job, so by containing the blueprint to make proteins, the nucleus controls the activities of the other organelles. (study.com)
  • Eventually, the host cell evolved the machinery to produce the proteins needed by the former endosymbiont and processes to transport those proteins into the organelle's interior. (reasons.org)
  • Thus, to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind bacterial pathogenesis, it is important to study whether these effector proteins are translocated into eukaryotic target cells. (springer.com)
  • The classic method for validating the cytosolic localization of secreted effector proteins is based on lysing infected cells and then using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting to identify translocated effectors. (springer.com)
  • Here, we present a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based method that can be used to identify the localization of bacterial proteins in the eukaryotic cell cytosol. (springer.com)
  • Rough ER transport materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane). (glogster.com)
  • A proto-eukaryote possessing a very simple trafficking system could thus have evolved to near modern complexity in the last common eukaryotic ancestor (LCEA) via paralogous gene family expansion of the proteins encoding organelle identity. (biologists.org)
  • The genes encoding these membrane-trafficking proteins are, therefore, amenable to molecular evolutionary analyses of the type that has yielded information on the emergence and history of the other eukaryotic organelles. (biologists.org)
  • Vast data volumes have been accumulated in cell-free expression databases, covering a whole range of existing proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present paper, an approach to identify the multiple physicochemical and structural properties of amino acid sequences associated with soluble expression of eukaryotic proteins in cell-free bacterial extracts is presented. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the folding of eukaryotic proteins is greatly compromised in bacterial extracts due to intrinsic differences between the cytoplasmic environments of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, many eukaryotic proteins require multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs) to attain a native, biologically active state. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the present paper, we describe an approach aimed at identification of numerous physicochemical, structural and functional properties of amino acid sequences, including the sites of multiple PTMs, associated with soluble expression of eukaryotic proteins in bacterial cell-free extracts, and highlight major correlations obtained using this approach. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, the focus is set on the processing of experimental data with the purpose of identification of multiple physicochemical and structural properties associated with soluble expression of eukaryotic proteins in cell-free bacterial extracts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Y. pestis lacks several adhesin proteins present in the enteropathogenic Yersinia , and it is not known what promotes binding of Y. pestis to the surface of infected cells ( 63 ). (asm.org)
  • Like prokaryotes, eukaryotic cells have a plasma membrane, a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins that separates the internal contents of the cell from its surrounding environment. (imedecin.com)
  • The eukaryotic plasma membrane is a phospholipid bilayer with proteins and cholesterol embedded in it. (imedecin.com)
  • The major enzymatic functions carried out at the replication fork are well conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, but the replication machinery in eukaryotic DNA replication is a much larger complex, coordinating many proteins at the site of replication, forming the replisome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Association of the origin recognition complex (ORC) with a replication origin recruits the cell division cycle 6 protein (Cdc6) to form a platform for the loading of the minichromosome maintenance (Mcm 2-7) complex proteins, facilitated by the chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1 protein (Cdt1). (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells the chromosomes remain together inside the nucleus and there is a clear nuclear membrane that is surrounding the nucleus. (bartleby.com)
  • I) Compare and contrast eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbial chromosomes. (brainmass.com)
  • During which stage of the cell cycle are chromosomes duplicated? (reference.com)
  • The chromosomes and genes contained within DNA are replicated during the S phase of the interphase cell cycle. (reference.com)
  • The nucleus of a eukaryotic cell is a membrane-bound compartment containing genetic information in the form of DNA organized into chromosomes. (jrank.org)
  • Our research is focused on understanding how the last events in eukaryotic cell division are coordinated so as to prevent damage to any lagging chromosomes. (cam.ac.uk)
  • MetaphaseDuring metaphase, spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of the chromosomes, and the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell. (glogster.com)
  • The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in chromosomes). (glogster.com)
  • They are usually around 5-100μm in size which allows them to contain many organelles, which for cells with specific functions, such as plant leaf cells, they are able to contain many more chloroplasts. (bartleby.com)
  • Describe the Structure of Eukaryotic Cells You can identify a eukaryotic cell by its encased nucleus, containing the majority of its DNA and organelles surrounded by a membrane. (bartleby.com)
  • The eukaryotic cell is made up of many membrane bound organelles which all have a specific function. (bartleby.com)
  • There are some eukaryotic cells which contain more organelles as well as theses. (bartleby.com)
  • As their name suggests, organelles are functional subunits of a cell, as organs are functional subunits of an organism. (dummies.com)
  • A cutaway view of a basic animal cell and its organelles. (dummies.com)
  • Speaking in simple cell biology words, prokaryotes are primitive, simple organisms that lack membranous cell organelles. (bartleby.com)
  • The opposite of this are eukaryotes, which are advanced and complex organisms having membrane bound cell organelles. (bartleby.com)
  • Plant cells have organelles called plastids. (wisegeek.com)
  • A eukaryotic cell is filled with distinct miniature organs called organelles . (wisegeek.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells contain a distinct organelle called a mitochondrion, and plant cells also have organelles called plastids. (wisegeek.com)
  • The organelles function in the activities of the cell and are compartments for localizing metabolic function. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Various functions of the cell go on within these organelles. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Eukaryotic flagella , like prokaryotic flagella, are long, hairlike organelles that extend from the cell. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The majority of eukaryotic cells also include internal structures within their membranes, known as organelles. (reference.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells have membrane-bound organelles, while prokaryotic cells do … Q. Eukaryotic flagella and cilia are alternative names for the slender cylindrical protrusions exclusively of eukaryotic cells that propel a cell or move fluid. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells have organelles, membrane-bound structures that perform different functions in the cell, and prokaryotic cells do not. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • The interior of eukaryotic cells is generally divided into many specialized compartments by internal membranes (membranes separate from the plasma membrane) and membrane-bound organelles (organelles completely surrounded by membranes). (austincc.edu)
  • Usually, prokaryotic cells lack internal membranes and membrane-bound organelles. (austincc.edu)
  • In both animal and plant eukaryotic cells, the cellular energy is generated by organelles called mitochondria. (jrank.org)
  • The types and arrangement of a cell's organelles enable eukaryotic cells of multicellular organisms to perform specialized functions. (jrank.org)
  • The following table compares the cell organelles and structures found in a typical prokaryotic cell to those found in a typical animal eukaryotic cell. (thoughtco.com)
  • All complex life, including plants, animals and fungi, consists if of eukaryotic cells, cells with a nucleus, transport mechanisms and often organelles like mitochondria that perform the functions an organism needs to stay alive and healthy. (science20.com)
  • Though many origin stories have been postulated since the discovery of organelles inside cells in the 1800s, prevailing belief is now that eukaryotes came to be when a bacterium was swallowed by an archaeon. (science20.com)
  • The eukaryotic cell is neatly compartmentalized into membrane-bound organelles that perform various functions. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells have several types of organelles working inside them. (study.com)
  • These organelles also divide in a way that is reminiscent of bacterial cells. (reasons.org)
  • During interphase, organelles and DNA are replicated and cell growth occurs. (glogster.com)
  • Mitochondria-They are organelles that act like a digestive system which takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy rich molecules for the cell. (glogster.com)
  • The presence of nucleus and organelles is the basic difference between a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • Prokaryotic cell lacks nucleus and organelles. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • Eukaryotic cells have both the nucleus and the cell organelles. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • Cell organelles like Mitochondria, Golgi Apparatus, Endoplasmic Reticulum are present. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • This 360-degree animation depicts the nucleus and organelles of a typical eukaryotic cell. (smartimagebase.com)
  • Organelles are the biggest difference between bacteria and cells that make up the human body. (study.com)
  • The number one biggest difference between the bacteria in your body and the cells making up your body are these tiny cellular components called organelles . (study.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, including a nucleus. (study.com)
  • Having organelles is a big deal for a cell. (study.com)
  • A bacteria cell gets along just fine without organelles, but bacteria are tiny. (study.com)
  • Bigger cells create the need for organelles. (study.com)
  • Eukaryotes contain membrane bound organelles, most notably the nucleus which contains the DNA of the cell. (brainscape.com)
  • In addition, eukaryotic cells tend to be larger and have a variety of membrane-bound organelles that perform specific, compartmentalized functions. (imedecin.com)
  • Organelles allow different functions to be compartmentalized in different areas of the cell. (imedecin.com)
  • These figures show the major organelles and other cell components of (a) a typical animal cell and (b) a typical eukaryotic plant cell. (imedecin.com)
  • This Amoeba Sisters video starts with providing examples of prokaryotes and eukaryotes before comparing and contrasting prokaryotic cells with eukaryotic cells! (youtube.com)
  • Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells possess a nucleus enclosed within a cell membrane, making up one of the three domains of life, Eukaryota. (news-medical.net)
  • Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes are able to be divided into further subcategories, eukaryotes can be either animal or plant cells, and prokaryotes can be classified based on the composition of their cell wall, for example bacteria. (bartleby.com)
  • In this essay I will also go on to talk about why prokaryotic cells still exist in the microscopic world even though eukaryotes are so much more advanced. (bartleby.com)
  • Many adhere to the textbook concept of 2 basic types of cells, prokaryotes and eukaryotes, as championed by Stanier and van Niel ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Plants, animals, and fungi are eukaryotes (organisms made up of eukaryotic cells), and all their cells, in all their enormous complexity and variation, are fundamentally alike. (dummies.com)
  • DETAILED DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EUKARYOTIC AND PROKARYOTIC CELLS Cells are divided into two categories namely the Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. (bartleby.com)
  • In eukaryotes, mitotic cell division involves the distribution of identical genetic material to two daughter cells. (reference.com)
  • Prokaryotes are all single-cell organisms while eukaryotes include plants, fungi , and animals. (wisegeek.com)
  • Many species of eukaryotes, such as fungi, contain a cell wall outside the cell membrane. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • With the help of selected examples, in this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we highlight emerging concepts in the ribosome biogenesis field in yeast and higher eukaryotes, as well as diseases that are caused by mutations in associated factors (see Box 1 ). (biologists.org)
  • The inside-out idea proposed by the Baums suggests that eukaryotes evolved gradually as cell protrusions, called blebs, reached out to trap free-living mitochondria-like bacteria. (science20.com)
  • However, with a more granular understanding of how complex cells evolved, it may be possible to identify living intermediates, says David Baum: "I do hold out hope that once we figure out how the eukaryotic tree is rooted, we might find a few eukaryotes that have intermediate traits. (science20.com)
  • I took 3 different Biology classes in College and understand: -diffusion and homeostasis -Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes -Microbiology of the cell -transcription and translation -Mitosis and Meiosis -Mendel and Darwin -Punnet Squares. (wyzant.com)
  • How many cells do eukaryotes generally consist of? (brainscape.com)
  • In eukaryotes, the vast majority of DNA synthesis occurs during S phase of the cell cycle, and the entire genome must be unwound and duplicated to form two daughter copies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribosomes facilitate RNA translation and the creation of protein, which is essential to the functioning of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. (news-medical.net)
  • however the ribosomes of the eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic ribosomes i.e. 80S compared to 70S. (news-medical.net)
  • While both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have ribosomes, the ribosomes in eukaryotic cells are larger and more developed. (wisegeek.com)
  • Ribosomes play a pivotal role in the molecular life of every cell. (biologists.org)
  • The biogenesis of ribosomes is a tightly regulated activity and it is inextricably linked to other fundamental cellular processes, including growth and cell division. (biologists.org)
  • Koval provides an interdisciplinary forum for the diverse studies involved in the stress biology of eukaryotic cells. (springer.com)
  • Next to life itself, the origin of complex cells is one of the most fundamental, and intractable, problems in evolutionary biology. (pnas.org)
  • This difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms is the great divide in biology. (dummies.com)
  • The 35th N:osbach Colloquium "The Impact of Gene Transfer Techniques in Eukaryotic CeU Biology" brought together a number of speakers interested in various aspects of cellular and developmental biology and over 600 other scientists, who listened to the lectures and participated in the lively discussions. (springer.com)
  • The powerful techniques of identifying and isolating DNA sequences, followed by their introduction into living cells and even into the germ cells of multicellular organisms, have pervaded nearly every branch of molecular biology. (springer.com)
  • I remember in college biology we had to compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (wisegeek.com)
  • From the unicellular bacteria to multicellular animals, the cell is one of the basic organizational principles of biology . (thoughtco.com)
  • Due to its mitogenic activity, PDGF is useful as an important component of a defined medium for the growth of mammalian cells in culture, making it a valuable research reagent with multiple applications in the study of animal cell biology. (google.com.au)
  • The physical separation of daughter cells, termed abscission, is a fundamental process in biology that occurs as the final cytokinetic event, as it results in the physical cleavage of the midbody that forms between daughter cells. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In the recent decades, with exponential advancement in the fields of genomics, molecular biology, and virology, several scientists on this quest have taken to looking into the evolutionary twists and turns that have resulted in eukaryotic cells, the type of cell that makes up most life forms today. (eurasiareview.com)
  • This platform provides new genetic components for synthetic biology and enables bottom-up approaches to understanding the design principles of eukaryotic transcriptional complexes and networks. (mit.edu)
  • Lewisville, TX, September 19, 2011 --( PR.com )-- In response to increased demand for custom molecular and cell biology products and services, Bio-Synthesis Inc , a U.S-based biotech company, is announcing a major expansion. (pr.com)
  • Bio-Synthesis Incorporated has been serving the life science community in the fields of proteomics, epigenetics, synthetic biology, carbohydrate chemistry, peptide synthesis, cell line identification and other areas since 1984, specializing in constructing such bio-conjugates as peptides, DNA, RNA and small-molecule drugs. (pr.com)
  • Integrated solutions spanning across genomics, proteomics and cell biology. (pr.com)
  • Our natural world also utilizes the principle of form following function, especially in cell biology, and this will become clear as we explore eukaryotic cells. (imedecin.com)
  • A eukaryotic cell not only has a plasma membrane as its external boundary, but it also has a variety of membranes that divide its interior into discrete partitions, separating processes and cell mechanisms (National Center for Biotechnology Information, 2012). (bartleby.com)
  • In addition, both types of cells may have a thick, rigid cell wall surrounding the plasma membrane. (austincc.edu)
  • Eukaryotae, or eukaryotic cells, are large and complex cells bounded by an outer plasma membrane . (jrank.org)
  • Our results present accurate quantification of nucleic envelope and plasma membrane fluctuations in embryonic stem cells. (mit.edu)
  • Plasma membrane- The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. (glogster.com)
  • They form a thin skeleton just inside plasma membranes called the cortical cytoskeleton to provide stiffness, structure, and shape to the membrane.Intermediate filaments- provide mechanical support for the plasma membrane where it comes into contact with other cells or with the extracellular matrix. (glogster.com)
  • The cells have a definitive plasma membrane which is selectively permeable in nature. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • A CV in a compressed cell is observed in side view undergoing cycles of filling (diastole) and expulsion (systole) of its fluid content as the CV membrane fuses then separates from the plasma membrane and with one radial arm. (ucsd.edu)
  • The plasma membrane controls the passage of organic molecules, ions, water, and oxygen into and out of the cell. (imedecin.com)
  • Wastes (such as carbon dioxide and ammonia) also leave the cell by passing through the plasma membrane. (imedecin.com)
  • However, it has also been conjectured that eukaryotic cell may have originated from prokaryotes. (bartleby.com)
  • These cells have been evolved from prokaryotes. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • Bacteria and Archaea, the other two domains of life, are prokaryotic cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Others posit that at its deepest level life is not a dichotomy but a trichotomy comprised of cells belonging to the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya, each monophyletic and sufficiently distinct from one another to warrant equal status ( , 5 , , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • The organisms called bacteria (singular, bacterium) are made up of prokaryotic cells. (dummies.com)
  • The simplest cells such as bacteria are known as Prokaryotic cells, and human cells are known as Eukaryotic cells. (bartleby.com)
  • However the biggest division is between the cells of the prokaryote kingdom (monera, the bacteria) and those of the other four kingdoms (animals, plants, fungi and protoctista), which are all eukaryotic cells. (bartleby.com)
  • Prokaryotic cells form single-cell organisms such as bacteria and archaea , while eukaryotic cells are the basis of all other types of life. (wisegeek.com)
  • Fimbriae are protein appendages used by bacteria to attach to other cells. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • All living things on Earth , except bacteria and blue-green algae (cyanobacteria), which are Prokaryotae, are composed of eukaryotic cells. (jrank.org)
  • It is generally agreed that eukaryotic cells arose from a symbiotic (mutualistic, not parasitic) relationship between bacteria and archaea. (science20.com)
  • Modern eukaryotic cells, says Buzz Baum, can be interrogated in the context of the new hypothesis to answer many of their unexplained features, including why nuclear events appear to be inherited from archaea while other features seem to be derived from the bacteria. (science20.com)
  • By assembling and localizing disparate signaling pathways, the bacteria can reengineer host cell processes to generate novel processes not previously observed in eukaryotic cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • The most widely accepted theories that have emerged state that the eukaryotic cell is the evolutionary product of the intracellular evolution of proto-eukaryotic cells, which were the first complex cells, and symbiotic relationships between proto-eukaryotic cells and other unicellular and simpler organisms such as bacteria and archaea. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Bacteria and archaea are prokaryotic cells. (eurasiareview.com)
  • In this lesson, we discuss the similarities and differences between the eukaryotic cells of your body and prokaryotic cells such as bacteria. (study.com)
  • Our cells, though - they're still small to the naked eye, but they're huge in comparison to bacteria. (study.com)
  • Bacteria that live in the environment have evolved pathways specialized to defend against eukaryotic organisms or other bacteria. (prolekare.cz)
  • It was written: Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) binds to an unknown receptor at the cell surface through the pentameric subunit (purple), and the catalytic subunit (brown) is translocated to the cytosol. (frontiersin.org)
  • ACT is translocated into the cell cytosol either via binding to the α m β 2 integrin as a cell receptor or by direct translocation to the eukaryotic cells cytosol. (frontiersin.org)
  • Yops and LcrV are secreted by a type III mechanism (Ysc), and Yops are unidirectionally targeted into the cytosol of associated eukaryotic cells in a tissue culture infection model. (asm.org)
  • Both LcrV and YopE were secreted by contact-activated, extracellularly localized yersiniae and were targeted to the HeLa cell cytosol. (asm.org)
  • LcrV secreted by the Ysc reaches the bacterial surface and the surrounding medium, whereas the second is a novel, Ysc-independent pathway which results in localization of LcrV in the cytosol of infected cells but not the surrounding medium. (asm.org)
  • E. coli hemolysin interactions with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell membranes. (nih.gov)
  • The hemolysin toxin (HlyA) is secreted across both the cytoplasmic and outer membranes of pathogenic Escherichia coli and forms membrane pores in cells of the host immune system, causing cell dysfunction and death. (nih.gov)
  • The processes underlying the interaction of HlyA with the bacterial and mammalian cell membranes are remarkable. (nih.gov)
  • The separate process by which HlyA is targetted to mammalian cell membranes is dependent upon fatty acylation of a non-toxic precursor, proHlyA. (nih.gov)
  • Internal membranes are a recurring difference between the two cell types. (wisegeek.com)
  • The cell walls are not selective devices, as are the cell membranes. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The hyaluronate synthase complex was identified in plasma membranes from B6 cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • The specific lipids in cell membranes are called phospholipids . (coursehero.com)
  • Blood cells infected by Plasmodium falciparum (malaria parasite) were, however, entered readily, and the OAs went all the way through a couple of membranes into the parasite. (biomedsearch.com)
  • They have various structures inside the cell but they are not encapsulated by membranes. (assignmenthelp.net)
  • Ascorbic acid regenerates membrane bound alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) that has been oxidized by lipid peroxyl radicals and indirectly limits lipid peroxidation in cell membranes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The plasma membranes of cells that specialize in absorption are folded into fingerlike projections called microvilli (singular = microvillus). (imedecin.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells make up many different living organisms, all animals and plants are made up of these cells. (bartleby.com)
  • The purpose of this lab is to observe living and prepared bacterial cells, then describe their morphology, observe and describe the primary features of the eukaryotic cell, and to investigate and observe the organisms involved in a symbiotic relationship. (bartleby.com)
  • outline the division between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and explore the reasoning behind such differences with regard to general structure, storage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and its replication, metabolic processes, protein synthesis and ribonucleic acid (RNA) processing. (bartleby.com)
  • This process is regulated by the cells of an organism, it is very important to the survival of organisms at all levels. (bartleby.com)
  • Yet for all of its majesty, all organisms are composed of the fundamental unit of life, the cell . (thoughtco.com)
  • In organisms that also reproduce sexually , the reproductive cells are produced by a type of cell division called meiosis . (thoughtco.com)
  • Some eukaryotic organisms also reproduce asexually through processes such as budding, regeneration, and parthenogenesis . (thoughtco.com)
  • Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms get the energy they need to grow and maintain normal cellular function through cellular respiration . (thoughtco.com)
  • Cells of all living organisms have the ability to respond to altered nutritional conditions. (nhbs.com)
  • All organisms are composed of cells, the basic fundamental unit of life. (study.com)
  • Organisms can consist of how many cells? (brainscape.com)
  • Inactivation of T6SS-1 renders B. thai greatly more susceptible to cell contact-induced stasis by Pseudomonas putida , Pseudomonas fluorescens and Serratia proteamaculans -leaving it 100- to 1000-fold less fit than the wild-type in competition experiments with these organisms. (prolekare.cz)
  • This process allows for the high-fidelity passage of hereditary/genetic information from parental cell to daughter cell and is thus essential to all organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • During mitosis, the sister chromatids are separated and distributed to two daughter cells. (reference.com)
  • According to Hartnell College, the cell cycle is divided into two primary phases, interphase and mitosis. (reference.com)
  • During mitosis, the cell divides into two daughter cells, with each cell containing one of the sister chromatids. (reference.com)
  • The DNA replicates in eukaryotic cells during the process of mitosis. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells are discretely different to prokaryotic cells, primarily because of their possession of a true nucleus, decoupled transcription and translation, possession of mitochondria or mitochondrial remnants, Golgi apparatus, mitosis and a host of other features. (templeton.org)
  • The nuclei of eukaryotic cells divide by mitosis , a process which results in two daughter nuclei that are identical to the parent cell. (jrank.org)
  • For example, the cells of the brain , liver, bone, muscle of a growing baby divide by mitosis under the control of the DNA in the nucleus, with the liver cells producing more liver cells, and bone cells producing other bone cells. (jrank.org)
  • InterphaseInterphase prepares the cell for mitosis. (glogster.com)
  • Interphase ensures that the cell is the right size and has everything it needs to go through mitosis. (glogster.com)
  • The end result of mitosis is an identical daughter cell. (glogster.com)
  • Replication processes permit the copying of a single DNA double helix into two DNA helices, which are divided into the daughter cells at mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, one copy of the genomes is segregated to each daughter cell at mitosis or M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) is a highly complex multiprotein assembly with multiple functions in translation. (asm.org)
  • For rhinoviruses and enteroviruses, the shutoff has been explained in part by the cleavage of eukaryotic initiation factor 4GI (eIF4GI), a component of the cap-binding protein complex eIF4F. (asm.org)
  • In rhinovirus- and enterovirus-infected cells, a cap-binding protein complex, the eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), is altered, both structurally and functionally ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • O-GlcNAc transferase activates stem-like cell potential in hepatocarcinoma through O-GlcNAcylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E. (stembook.org)
  • In humans, the eukaryotic cells of a number of organs are highly specialized, but nevertheless maintain most of the defining features of the eukaryotic cell. (jrank.org)
  • Introduction In this lab, we observed different prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and then we observed a termite gut to see the different unicellular microorganisms that it contained. (bartleby.com)
  • Protozoa are a type of eukaryotic and unicellular microorganism. (brainmass.com)
  • Microscopic protozoa, unicellular algae, and fungi have eukaryotic cells. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum is the site of protein synthesis in the cell. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • For many members of the Picornaviridae family, infection of cells results in a shutoff of host protein synthesis. (asm.org)
  • Recently, we discovered a functional homolog of eIF4GI, termed eIF4GII, and showed that cleavage of eIF4GII coincides with the shutoff of host cell protein synthesis after poliovirus infection (Gradi et al. (asm.org)
  • These results suggest that cleavage of both eIF4GI and eIF4GII is required for HRV-mediated inhibition of host cell protein synthesis and that the cleavage of eIF4GII is the rate-limiting step in the shutoff of host cell protein synthesis after rhinovirus infection. (asm.org)
  • To establish an efficient infection, picornaviruses have evolved mechanisms to inhibit host cell protein synthesis. (asm.org)
  • During this lab, you will use the brightfield microscope to examine and compare the features of several types of prokaryotic cells, and several types of eukaryotic cells. (austincc.edu)
  • Intrabody expression in eukaryotic cells. (inserm.fr)
  • Cells are categorized as being either prokaryotic or eukaryotic, which is determined by the organization of cell structures. (coursehero.com)
  • Here we review studies conducted using flow cytometry as a technique to assess the impact of antimicrobials from the bacteriocin family on individual cells, either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. (omicsonline.org)
  • The invention relates to the introduction of nucleic acids into higher eukaryotic cells. (google.es)
  • We now demonstrate that Cas9 from the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella novicida (FnCas9) can be reprogrammed to target a specific RNA substrate, the genome of the +ssRNA virus, hepatitis C virus, in eukaryotic cells. (pnas.org)
  • Using database searches, sequence alignments, phylogenetic analyses, genome and metabolic resonstructions, we will shed considerable light on the events surrounding eukaryogenesis - the formation of the first euakryotic cells. (templeton.org)
  • By this is meant viruses in which the gene to be expressed in the cell has been integrated in the genome by recombinant methods. (google.es)
  • The 2001 hypothesis by Prof Takemura and PJ Bell is based on striking similarities between the eukaryotic cell nucleus and poxviruses: in particular, the property of keeping the genome separate in a compartment. (eurasiareview.com)
  • The cell-free systems allow genome-scale expression of various amino acid sequences under strictly controlled uniform conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Eukaryotic DNA replication of chromosomal DNA is central for the duplication of a cell and is necessary for the maintenance of the eukaryotic genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, with the sequences of hundreds of eubacterial, archaebacterial, and eukaryotic genomes has come the realization that the number of universally distributed genes suitable for global phylogenetic analysis is frustratingly small ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Lateral (or horizontal) gene transfer has shown itself to be a pervasive force in the evolution of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, and even if a "core" set of genes can be identified (and there is much debate on this issue), how confident are we that the phylogenetic signal in these genes reflects the vertical history of cells? (pnas.org)
  • Recently, our research group has been able to demonstrate that eukaryotic cells consist of a complex community of genes with prokaryotic ancestry and that eukaryote genomes are chimaeric. (templeton.org)
  • TEs are ubiquitous components of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes [3] Even though TEs are best viewed as molecular parasites that propagate themselves using resources of the host cells, their long-term coexistence with their host has provided ample examples of mutual adaptation. (prolekare.cz)
  • A prokaryotic cell is simpler and requires far fewer genes to function than the eukaryotic cell. (news-medical.net)
  • These are the genes that were no longer required in their new host cell environment. (bartleby.com)
  • Transcription of the genes is controlled both by temperature and by contact with a eukaryotic cell. (nih.gov)
  • This involves delivering genes into cells in order to achieve, in vivo, the synthesis of therapeutically effective gene products, e.g. in order to replace a defective gene in the event of a genetic defect. (google.es)
  • For transferring genes into the cells, viral vectors are used, for example, which make use of the efficient entry mechanisms of their original viruses. (google.es)
  • Independent phylogenetic analyses suggested that genes had been transferred between these viruses and eukaryotic cells as they interacted at various points down the evolutionary road, in a process called "lateral gene transfer. (eurasiareview.com)
  • One problem that limits progress is that regulatory regions of eukaryotic genes sometimes extend over large regions of DNA. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • The eukaryotic ribosome, however, consists of five types of rRNA and around 80 types of protein. (wisegeek.com)
  • In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we summarise the current knowledge on eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis, with an emphasis on the yeast model system. (biologists.org)
  • In fungi, the cell wall contains a complex polysaccharide called chitin as well as some cellulose. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • A potentially more fruitful avenue to explore, he suggests, would be to look for intermediate forms of cells with some, but not all, of the features of a full-blown eukaryote. (science20.com)
  • CIL:11558, unknown eukaryote, eukaryotic cell. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • The emerging picture is that early eukaryotic ancestors had a complex endomembrane system, which implies that this cellular system evolved relatively rapidly after the proto-eukaryote diverged away from the other prokaryotic lines. (biologists.org)
  • Few questions capture the imagination of biologists like the origin of eukaryotic (nucleus-containing) cells such as our own, and as additional support accumulated (e.g., refs. (pnas.org)
  • 1 In this article, these researchers point out the insufficiency of the endosymbiont hypothesis-the leading evolutionary model for the origin of eukaryotic cells-to account for the origin of mitochondria and, hence, eukaryogenesis. (reasons.org)
  • Lynn Margulis (1938-2011) advanced the endosymbiont hypothesis for the origin of eukaryotic cells in the 1960s, building on the ideas of Russian botanist, Konstantin Mereschkowski . (reasons.org)
  • In addition, we will look at how eukaryotic cell division might have arisen, by exploring the commonalities between archaeal and eukaryotic cell division, using Asgard archaea as a bridge between kingdoms. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Many eukaryotic cells contain flagella and cilia. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Eukaryotic flagella and cilia have a conserved common structure, named the 9+2 structure, in which nine doublet microtubules surround a pair of central singlet microtubules. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • Functions Of Eukaryotic Flagella And Cilia, Which Eukaryotic Microorganisms Usually Have Flagella And Cilia? (cichlidresearch.com)
  • Describe five similarities and three differences between plant and animal cells. (brainmass.com)
  • What are the differences between plant and animal cell structure? (brainmass.com)
  • In terms of differences, eukaryotic cells are much larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. (austincc.edu)
  • Differences between plant and animal cells Plant Cells Animal Cells Structure X Cannot produce its own food Chloroplast  Can produce its own food. (slideserve.com)
  • Can you name the Regulating the Eukaryotic Cell Cycle? (sporcle.com)
  • In a eukaryotic cell, chromosome replication occurs during DNA synthesis, or the S phase of the cell cycle. (reference.com)
  • The S phase occurs within a key stage of the cell cycle known as interphase. (reference.com)
  • Dynamic changes in the assembly and disassembly of protein complexes at origins are important for the initiation of DNA replication and occur throughout the cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Evidence suggests that the metabolic oscillations drive the cell through its division cycle, that is, tell the cell when to commit for reproduction and when to split in two cells. (rug.nl)
  • Since baker's yeast is a model organism similar to human cells, investigating the nature of the metabolic oscillations controlling the cell division cycle in yeast will eventually help to better understand cancer, a disease with uncontrollably dividing cells. (rug.nl)
  • With an advanced computational modelling, we found that this temporal segregation dramatically changes metabolism, for instance, the cell alters sugar consumption during the division cycle. (rug.nl)
  • The cell cycle makes a genetically identical copy of a cell. (glogster.com)
  • The resulting daughter cells can then go through the cell cycle themselves, forming even more new cells. (glogster.com)
  • Eukaryotic DNA replication is a conserved mechanism that restricts DNA replication to once per cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of the cell cycle is built around ensuring that DNA replication occurs without errors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In G1 phase of the cell cycle, many of the DNA replication regulatory processes are initiated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1 together are required for the stable association of the Mcm2-7 complex with replicative origins during G1 phase of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process takes place in the G1 stage of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a key difference because it allows a high level of intracellular division of labor and contributes to the greater complexity characteristic of eukaryotic cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Calcium (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous second messenger which promotes cell responses through transient changes in intracellular concentrations. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We describe procedures for intracellular expression of scFv in eukaryotic cells. (inserm.fr)
  • A high throughput, real-time assay was developed to simultaneously identify (1) eukaryotic cell-penetrant antimicrobials targeting an intracellular bacterial pathogen, and (2) assess eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity. (jove.com)
  • This transition involves the ordered assembly of additional replication factors to unwind the DNA and accumulate the multiple eukaryotic DNA polymerases around the unwound DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The methods generally comprise introducing into a eucaryotic host cell a DNA construct capable of directing the expression and secretion of biologically active PDGF analogs in eucaryotic cells. (google.com.au)
  • Cornelis GR (2000) Type III secretion: a bacterial device for close combat with cells of their eukaryotic host. (springer.com)
  • These results indicate that two mechanisms exist for the secretion of LcrV by Y. pestis , both of which are activated by contact with eukaryotic cells. (asm.org)
  • The LcrE-, TyeA-, and LcrG-mediated block is displaced during cultivation in the absence of Ca 2+ or upon contact with eukaryotic cells, resulting in secretion of LcrQ and YopD and dissipation of negative feedback control. (asm.org)
  • In this manuscript, we systematically examined the role of the five type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) of Burkholderia thailandensis ( B. thai ) in eukaryotic and bacterial cell interactions. (prolekare.cz)
  • Some of these, such as type III secretion systems (T3SSs) and bacteriocins, provide specialized protection against eukaryotic or bacterial cells, respectively [1] , [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Our streamlined PCR-free workflow takes you from one single cell (mammalian cell or microbial cell) to a high-quality NGS library with exceptional fidelity and superior accuracy in about 3.5 hours. (qiagen.com)
  • Methods of promoting the growth of mammalian cells, comprising incubating the cells with a biologically active PDGF analog expressed by a eucaryotic host cell transformed with such a DNA construct, are also disclosed. (google.com.au)
  • Transcriptional Regulatory Mechanisms for the Response to Amino Acid Deprivation of Mammalian Cells. (nhbs.com)
  • Starting from a scFv gene cloned in a phage-display vector, we describe the cloning step into a mammalian expression vector, the transient transfection of a HeLa cell line, and the monitoring of intrabody expression by immunofluorescence staining and FACS analysis. (inserm.fr)
  • These enzymes are used for digestion in the cell. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Effects of Selenium on Oxidative Damage and Antioxidant Enzymes of Eukaryotic Cells: Wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (bioportfolio.com)
  • They often store food, enzymes, and other materials needed by the cell, and some vacuoles store waste products. (study.com)
  • The larger gene and protein family discussed here comprises not only Nox enzymes but also ferric reductases, which play an important role in the mechanism and regulation of iron uptake into cells. (springermedizin.at)
  • Along with University College London cell biologist Buzz Baum (his cousin), he formulated a new hypothesis for how eukaryotic cells evolved - the "inside-out" hypothesis of eukaryotic cell evolution. (science20.com)
  • In a way, Prof Takemura's hypothesis has its roots in 2001 when, along with PJ Bell, he made the revolutionary proposal that large DNA viruses, like the poxvirus, had something to do with the rise of the eukaryotic cell nucleus. (eurasiareview.com)
  • According to the hypothesis, complex cells originated when symbiotic relationships formed among single-celled microbes after free-living bacterial and/or archaeal cells were engulfed by a "host" microbe. (reasons.org)
  • The following table gives you an overview of the structures found within a eukaryotic cell. (dummies.com)
  • Choose five internal structures of plant or animal cells and describe their functions. (brainmass.com)
  • Plant and animal cell structures are compared. (brainmass.com)
  • What are the various specialized structures in a eukaryotic cell? (reference.com)
  • The structures and pattern of movement of prokaryotic and eukaryotic flagella are different. (cichlidresearch.com)
  • Use the interactive exercise below to identify the structures found in typical prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (austincc.edu)
  • There are also many distinctions between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell structures. (thoughtco.com)
  • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have several structures and functions in common. (coursehero.com)
  • The plant cell has a cell wall, chloroplasts, plastids, and a central vacuole-structures not found in animal cells. (imedecin.com)
  • They have a much more complex structure and can thus carry out many more complicated functions than prokaryotic cells can. (bartleby.com)
  • The complex and varied design of the phospholipid bilayer allows the membrane to serve the variety of specific functions required by different types of cells. (bartleby.com)
  • The most noticeable difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells cells is the latter's ability to form a complex organism. (wisegeek.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Over billions of years, some of these early prokaryotic cells evolved into present-day prokaryotic cells, while others evolved into much larger and more complex eukaryotic cells. (austincc.edu)
  • The cilia of prokaryotic cells are less complex than those of eukaryotic cells. (jrank.org)
  • The existing QPM tools, however, have not been utilized to study biomechanics of complex eukaryotic cells either due to lack of depth sectioning, limited phase measurement sensitivity, or both. (mit.edu)
  • Eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) perform complex and combinatorial functions within transcriptional networks. (mit.edu)
  • At this point, it should be clear to you that eukaryotic cells have a more complex structure than prokaryotic cells. (imedecin.com)
  • Microtubules, tiny tubes consisting of a protein called tubulin, are part of this skeleton of cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Unlike microfilaments and microtubules, intermediate filamentsdo not participate in cell motility. (glogster.com)
  • An enzyme identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly known as brewer's or baker's yeast, has passed in vitro trials, demonstrating its capacity to kill acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Our lab has recently discovered metabolic oscillations in single cells of baker's yeast, where crucial energy compounds show concentration waves with the period of several hours. (rug.nl)
  • In the past 15 years, studies of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) and metazoan cells have revealed a common core of protein factors involved in transport carrier formation, compartment specificity and membrane fusion ( Bonifacino and Glick, 2004 ). (biologists.org)
  • A eukaryotic cell is a cell that contains a membrane-bound nucleus. (reference.com)
  • DNA is also found in mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotic cells. (coursehero.com)
  • They have a nucleoid , the area inside a prokaryotic cell where genetic material ( DNA ) is found. (coursehero.com)
  • An exchange of genetic material that occurred when ancient giant viruses infected ancient eukaryotic cells could have caused the nucleus of the eukaryotic cell-its defining feature-to form. (eurasiareview.com)
  • They must enter a "host" cell and use that cell's machinery to replicate its genetic material, and therefore multiply. (eurasiareview.com)
  • I. T. Tai and A. M. Sun, "Microencapsulation of recombinant cells: a new delivery system for gene therapy," The FASEB Journal , vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1061-1069, 1993. (hindawi.com)
  • Likewise, are cilia in plant and animal cells? (cichlidresearch.com)
  • Others may have cilia, shorter, hair-like strands arranged around the perimeter of the cell in a characteristic way. (jrank.org)
  • A longitudinal section of basal bodies and the axonemes of cilia is revealed as they emerge from the cell cortex of Didinium. (ucsd.edu)
  • I can help students understand microbial ( prokaryotic and eukaryotic) taxonomy, morphology, metabolism and genetics. (wyzant.com)
  • The biochemical processes of the cell are known as cellular respiration. (glogster.com)
  • These systems are likely to be a decisive factor in the survival of bacterial cells of one species in intimate association with those of another, such as in polymicrobial communities present both in the environment and in many infections. (prolekare.cz)
  • One essential component of each eukaryotic cell is the cytoskeleton. (news-medical.net)
  • Still another organelle within the cell is the cytoskeleton , an interconnected system of fibers, threads, and interwoven molecules that give structure to the cell. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The cytoskeleton is a structure composed of protein that traffics cell particles. (reference.com)
  • These rely on remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton, the microtubule cytoskeleton, and on changes in cell-substrate adhesion. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Cytoskeleton- The three parts of the cytoskeleton are microtubles, microfilaments, intermediate filaments.Microtubles- are conveyer belts inside the cells. (glogster.com)
  • and (iii) the function of both Yno1 and Nox4 in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, which may be important for the mobility of cancer cells, as studied in a neuroblastoma cell line. (springermedizin.at)
  • The organelle where much energy is released in the eukaryotic cell is the mitochondrion (plural, mitochondria ). (cliffsnotes.com)
  • On average, a typical eukaryotic cell is about 1,000 X larger in volume than a typical prokaryotic cell. (austincc.edu)
  • Methods for expressing a variety of biologically active PDGF analogs in eucaryotic cells are disclosed. (google.com.au)
  • and the single cell of microorganisms called protists that live in water and soil. (dummies.com)
  • Because a eukaryotic cell's nucleus is surrounded by a membrane, it is often said to have a "true nucleus. (imedecin.com)
  • Prokaryotic cells are very different from and much simpler than eukaryotic cells in their basic structure and organization. (dummies.com)
  • Life on Earth is classified into five kingdoms, and they each have their own characteristic kind of cell. (bartleby.com)
  • Readers gain access to the most recent information available for eukaryotic systems ranging from plants to humans. (springer.com)
  • The main approach will be across the eukaryotic kingdom, the main aim will be to understand these types of cell death in humans. (europa.eu)
  • Humans have 220 different kinds of eukaryotic cells which control everything from thinking and locomotion to reproduction and immune defense. (science20.com)

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