Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)National Socialism: The doctrines and policies of the Nazis or the National Social German Workers party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933-1945. These doctrines and policies included racist nationalism, expansionism, and state control of the economy. (from Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. and American Heritage College Dictionary, 3d ed.)Population Control: Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.Political Systems: The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.Sterilization, Involuntary: Reproductive sterilization without the consent of the patient.Genetic Enhancement: The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.Greek World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the influence of Greek civilization, culture, and science. The Greek Empire extended from the Greek mainland and the Aegean islands from the 16th century B.C., to the Indus Valley in the 4th century under Alexander the Great, and to southern Italy and Sicily. Greek medicine began with Homeric and Aesculapian medicine and continued unbroken to Hippocrates (480-355 B.C.). The classic period of Greek medicine was 460-136 B.C. and the Graeco-Roman period, 156 B.C.-576 A.D. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed)Genocide: The deliberate annihilation of a national, ethnic, or religious group, in part or in whole.Mandatory Programs: Programs in which participation is required.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Genetics, Medical: A subdiscipline of human genetics which entails the reliable prediction of certain human disorders as a function of the lineage and/or genetic makeup of an individual or of any two parents or potential parents.Wedge Argument: An assertion that an action apparently unobjectionable in itself would set in motion a train of events leading ultimately to an undesirable outcome. (From Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995)Supreme Court Decisions: Decisions made by the United States Supreme Court.Genetic Diseases, Inborn: Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Philosophy, MedicalPhilosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Historiography: The writing of history; the principles, theory, and history of historical writing; the product of historical writing. (Webster, 3d ed)HistoryBibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Carbazoles: Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Poetry as Topic: Literary and oral genre expressing meaning via symbolism and following formal or informal patterns.Humanism: An ethical system which emphasizes human values and the personal worth of each individual, as well as concern for the dignity and freedom of humankind.Europe, EasternPaintingsWilliams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.AustriaParthenogenesis: A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Heredity: The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Sterilization, Tubal: Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.Torture: The intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and the 'new' eugenics. (1/64)

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PID) is often seen as an improvement upon prenatal testing. I argue that PID may exacerbate the eugenic features of prenatal testing and make possible an expanded form of free-market eugenics. The current practice of prenatal testing is eugenic in that its aim is to reduce the numbers of people with genetic disorders. Due to social pressures and eugenic attitudes held by clinical geneticists in most countries, it results in eugenic outcomes even though no state coercion is involved. I argue that technological advances may soon make PID widely accessible. Because abortion is not involved, and multiple embryos are available, PID is radically more effective as a tool of genetic selection. It will also make possible selection on the basis of non-pathological characteristics, leading, potentially, to a full-blown free-market eugenics. For these reasons, I argue that PID should be strictly regulated.  (+info)

Can we learn from eugenics? (2/64)

Eugenics casts a long shadow over contemporary genetics. Any measure, whether in clinical genetics or biotechnology, which is suspected of eugenic intent is likely to be opposed on that ground. Yet there is little consensus on what this word signifies, and often only a remote connection to the very complex set of social movements which took that name. After a brief historical summary of eugenics, this essay attempts to locate any wrongs inherent in eugenic doctrines. Four candidates are examined and rejected. The moral challenge posed by eugenics for genetics in our own time, I argue, is to achieve social justice.  (+info)

Genetic screening with the DNA chip: a new Pandora's box? (3/64)

The ethically controversial option of genetic population screening used to be restricted to a small number of rather rare diseases by methodological limitations which are now about to be overcome. With the new technology of DNA microarrays ("DNA chip"), emerging from the synthesis of microelectronics and molecular biology, methods are now at hand for the development of mass screening programmes for a wide spectrum of genetic traits. Thus, the DNA chip may be the key technology for a refined preventive medicine as well as a new dimension of eugenics. The forthcoming introduction of the DNA chip technology into medical practice urgently requires an internationally consistent framework of ethical standards and legal limitations if we do not want it to become a new Pandora's box.  (+info)

Some ethical issues at the population level raised by 'soft' eugenics, euphenics, and isogenics. (4/64)

It is argued that at the population level there are three central genetic developments raising ethical issues. The first is the emergence of 'soft' eugenics, due primarily to the increasing ability to detect carriers of genetic diseases, to monitor their pregnancies, and to provide the option to abort a fetus predisposed to major genetic disease. The second development is the recognition of the extent to which many serious diseases of adult life are due to a disturbance of ancient genetic homeostatic mechanisms due to changing life style, raising the question of whether a society that increasingly pays the medical bills should attempt to impose healthier standards of living on its members. Such an attempt at 'euphenics' may be thought of as the antithesis to eugenics. The third development relates to recognition of the need to regulate the size of the earth's population to numbers that can be indefinitely sustained; this regulation in a fashion (isogenic) that will preserve existing genetic diversity.  (+info)

Progressing from eugenics to human genetics. celebrating the 70th birthday of professor Newton E. Morton. (5/64)

Eugenics, unlike science, involves decision making on various issues, and decision making involves the risk of making errors. This communication first clarifies the nature and seriousness of making errors known as type II in the statistical literature, i.e. the error of punishing a person when he is not guilty of the crime attributed to him. Eugenic laws in China and the eugenic movements in England and the United States are briefly reviewed. The explosive advances made in medical and population genetics in the last 40 years are replacing the conventional eugenics programs by new approaches. Modern genetic counseling has been introduced as the intermediate agent between the scientist and the family that needs advice. It is stressed that individual rights must be respected under all circumstances.  (+info)

Disability, gene therapy and eugenics--a challenge to John Harris. (6/64)

This article challenges the view of disability presented by Harris in his article, "Is gene therapy a form of eugenics?" It is argued that his definition of disability rests on an individual model of disability, where disability is regarded as a product of biological determinism or "personal tragedy" in the individual. Within disability theory this view is often called "the medical model" and it has been criticised for not being able to deal with the term "disability", but only with impairment. The individual model of disability presupposes a necessary causal link between a certain condition in the individual and disablement. The shortcomings of such a view of disability are stated and it is argued that in order to have an adequate ethical discourse on gene therapy perspectives from disability research need to be taken into consideration.  (+info)

Screening for disability: a eugenic pursuit? (7/64)

This article is written in response to the idea that selective termination may be eugenic. It points out that a mixture of motives and goals may inform screening programmes and selective termination for fetal abnormality without the intention being "eugenic". The paper locates modern genetics within the tradition of humanist medicine by suggesting that parents who choose to terminate a pregnancy because of fetal abnormalities are not making moral judgments about those who are living with these abnormalities already. Rather they are making judgments about their own lives and the lives of their children in relation to this genetic disorder. It concludes by introducing several caveats about the counselling that parents receive after the results of the testing and suggests that counselling inevitably contains a directive element because of the nature of the information covered.  (+info)

Response to: What counts as success in genetic counselling? (8/64)

Clinical genetics encompasses a wider range of activities than discussion of reproductive risks and options. Hence, it is possible for a clinical geneticist to reduce suffering associated with genetic disease without aiming to reduce the birth incidence of such diseases. Simple cost-benefit analyses of genetic-screening programmes are unacceptable; more sophisticated analyses of this type have been devised but entail internal inconsistencies and do not seem to result in changed clinical practice. The secondary effects of screening programmes must be assessed before they can be properly evaluated, including the inadvertent diagnosis of unsought conditions, and the wider social effects of the programmes on those with mental handicap. This has implications for the range of prenatal tests that should be made available. While autonomy must be fully respected, it cannot itself constitute a goal of clinical genetics. The evaluation of these services requires interdepartmental comparisons of workload, and quality judgements of clients and peers.  (+info)

  • Indiana passed the first compulsory sterilization law in 1907, although other states had tried and failed before (Document A). Prominent Americans - among them Theodore Roosevelt, Stanford University President David Starr Jordan, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Margaret Sanger - supported the eugenics movement, as did such organizations as the National Federation of Women's Clubs, the National Conference of Charities and Corrections, and various religious organizations. (teachingamericanhistory.org)
  • It is true, as Thomas said, that Margaret Sanger, the founder of Planned Parenthood, supported eugenics and that she had some pretty offensive views. (historynewsnetwork.org)
  • Since the 1980s and 1990s, with new assisted reproductive technology procedures available, such as gestational surrogacy (available since 1985), preimplantation genetic diagnosis (available since 1989), and cytoplasmic transfer (first performed in 1996), concern has grown about the possible revival of a more potent form of eugenics after decades of promoting human rights. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major criticism of eugenics policies is that, regardless of whether negative or positive policies are used, they are susceptible to abuse because the genetic selection criteria are determined by whichever group has political power at the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another criticism is that eugenics policies eventually lead to a loss of genetic diversity , thereby resulting in inbreeding depression due to a loss of genetic variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet another criticism of contemporary eugenics policies is that they propose to permanently and artificially disrupt millions of years of evolution, and that attempting to create genetic lines "clean" of "disorders" can have far-reaching ancillary downstream effects in the genetic ecology, including negative effects on immunity and species resilience. (wikipedia.org)
  • He hasn't said much of anything about CRISPR 'gene editing' technology that can readily alter the genetic code of cells of nearly any organism, including humans, but Trump has a fascination with the concept of "good genes" that sounds eerily similar to eugenics and could link together CRISPR & Eugenics. (ipscell.com)
  • What does it mean if your country's president believes in eugenics and that he is superior to pretty much everyone else due to his genetic makeup? (ipscell.com)
  • That said, I refuse to take a luddite approach to genetic testing in general, or even eugenics as a whole. (techdirt.com)
  • The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. (amphilsoc.org)
  • Modern bioethicists who advocate new eugenics describe it as a way of enhancing individual traits, regardless of group membership. (wikipedia.org)
  • The practice of eugenics was not limited to Nazi Germany nor is it a well kept secret that's been waiting to be discovered by organizations opposed to reproductive justice. (alternet.org)
  • The word 'eugenics' can be taken literally to mean good birth or good genes. (ipscell.com)
  • It's easy to find odd quotes from Trump about topics related to "good genes" that ring a eugenics kind of bell. (ipscell.com)
  • Eugenics literally means "good genes", "good race", or "good stock. (lifecharity.org.uk)
  • The Foundation functions as a clearinghouse to assist victims of the former N.C. Eugenics Board program and thereby serves as the primary point of contact for victims, potential victims and the general public who are seeking guidance about North Carolina's former sterilization laws and program. (robertjprince.net)
  • By the time the eugenics law was scrapped in 1996, around 25,000 people had been sterilized on the basis of their disabilities - including some 16,500 without their consent - according to the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry and the Japan Federation of Bar Associations. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • Previous work had shown that the eugenics program had disproportionately targeted Black people, but the new paper shed light on the mechanics by which the program worked and its motives. (presstv.com)
  • Federal and state courts regularly found forced sterilization laws unconstitutional because they were cruel and unusual punishments or because the application of the laws denied equal treatment (Document D). In addition to more conservative Protestants, Catholics and their clergy largely opposed eugenics. (teachingamericanhistory.org)
  • The grant will support the production of an online resource on the history of eugenics in the United States, containing a privacy-protected dataset on approximately 30,000 individuals who experienced involuntary sterilization, along with contextual features such as data visualizations, story lines, and thematic pathways. (umich.edu)
  • Colorado has its own sordid history with eugenics that will be treated in a later entry. (robertjprince.net)
  • The "pseudoscientific" methods used to screen for mental and behavioral abnormalities are a legacy from the discredited ideology of eugenics. (ahrp.org)
  • The "pseudoscientific" methods of screening for mental and behavioral abnormalities are a legacy from the discredited ideology of eugenics. (ahrp.org)
  • Our study shows that North Carolina restricted reproductive freedom, using eugenics to disenfranchise Black residents. (presstv.com)
  • The horrific legacy of these state eugenics boards is one of the reasons why I embrace the reproductive justice framework advocating for the right to have children, not have children, and to parent children in safe and healthy environments. (alternet.org)
  • In China, eugenics has taken a more prominent role, with the PRC's Marriage Law requiring a doctor's approval prior to marriage (harsher language against specific illnesses found in previous iterations of the law have been removed over the years). (techdirt.com)
  • Eugenics is often defined as the science of "improving" a human population by controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of "desirable" heritable characteristics. (alternet.org)
  • Early advocates of eugenics considered it as a way of improving groups of people. (wikipedia.org)
  • SENDAI - Two men sued the state Monday for damages over their forced sterilization under a now-defunct eugenics protection law that mandated the prevention of people with intellectual disabilities from reproducing. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • Sloan, much like Bill Gates, was a globalist eugenics promoter who believed in eliminating the "undesirable" people from the planet, leaving only a superior race in charge. (naturalnews.com)
  • The reason many advocates of this kind of screening won't use that word is because it long ago became associated with Nazi philosophy, even though (as you can read in the Wiki article) many other nations did and still do some flavor of eugenics. (techdirt.com)