Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Twins, Monozygotic: Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cleft Palate: Congenital fissure of the soft and/or hard palate, due to faulty fusion.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Genetic Association Studies: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Child, Hospitalized: Child hospitalized for short term care.Fever of Unknown Origin: Fever in which the etiology cannot be ascertained.Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.United StatesAlleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.46, XX Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals with a female karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Cleft Lip: Congenital defect in the upper lip where the maxillary prominence fails to merge with the merged medial nasal prominences. It is thought to be caused by faulty migration of the mesoderm in the head region.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Gene-Environment Interaction: The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Twins, Dizygotic: Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.IndiaCommunity-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Hypospadias: A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is below its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the ventral surface of the PENIS or on the PERINEUM. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is in the VAGINA.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Ulcer: A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.BrazilDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Epidemiologic Research Design: The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a diagnosis in itself.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Abnormalities, MultipleNervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Genetic Heterogeneity: The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Clubfoot: A deformed foot in which the foot is plantarflexed, inverted and adducted.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Spasms, Infantile: An epileptic syndrome characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and arrest of psychomotor development at seizure onset. The majority present between 3-12 months of age, with spasms consisting of combinations of brief flexor or extensor movements of the head, trunk, and limbs. The condition is divided into two forms: cryptogenic (idiopathic) and symptomatic (secondary to a known disease process such as intrauterine infections; nervous system abnormalities; BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC, INBORN; prematurity; perinatal asphyxia; TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS; etc.). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp744-8)Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.JapanMice, Inbred C57BLEnvironmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)TurkeyGenetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome: An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities.Exome: That part of the genome that corresponds to the complete complement of EXONS of an organism or cell.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Parotitis: INFLAMMATION of the PAROTID GLAND.Syncope: A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Burning Mouth Syndrome: A group of painful oral symptoms associated with a burning or similar sensation. There is usually a significant organic component with a degree of functional overlay; it is not limited to the psychophysiologic group of disorders.Biliary Atresia: Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Holoprosencephaly: Anterior midline brain, cranial, and facial malformations resulting from the failure of the embryonic prosencephalon to undergo segmentation and cleavage. Alobar prosencephaly is the most severe form and features anophthalmia; cyclopia; severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY; CLEFT LIP; CLEFT PALATE; SEIZURES; and microcephaly. Semilobar holoprosencepaly is characterized by hypotelorism, microphthalmia, coloboma, nasal malformations, and variable degrees of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Lobar holoprosencephaly is associated with mild (or absent) facial malformations and intellectual abilities that range from mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY to normal. Holoprosencephaly is associated with CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES.Dermatitis, Exfoliative: The widespread involvement of the skin by a scaly, erythematous dermatitis occurring either as a secondary or reactive process to an underlying cutaneous disorder (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, etc.), or as a primary or idiopathic disease. It is often associated with the loss of hair and nails, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and pruritus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Balkan Nephropathy: A form of chronic interstitial nephritis that is endemic to limited areas of BULGARIA, the former YUGOSLAVIA, and ROMANIA. It is characterized by a progressive shrinking of the KIDNEYS that is often associated with uroepithelial tumors.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Skin DiseasesLod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods for using more than one primer set in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify more than one segment of the target DNA sequence in a single reaction.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Rare Diseases: A large group of diseases which are characterized by a low prevalence in the population. They frequently are associated with problems in diagnosis and treatment.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Genetic Diseases, Inborn: Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Dermatitis, Seborrheic: A chronic inflammatory disease of the skin with unknown etiology. It is characterized by moderate ERYTHEMA, dry, moist, or greasy (SEBACEOUS GLAND) scaling and yellow crusted patches on various areas, especially the scalp, that exfoliate as dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis is common in children and adolescents with HIV INFECTIONS.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Osteolysis, Essential: Syndromes of bone destruction where the cause is not obvious such as neoplasia, infection, or trauma. The destruction follows various patterns: massive (Gorham disease), multicentric (HAJDU-CHENEY SYNDROME), or carpal/tarsal.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Lichenoid Eruptions: Conditions in which there is histological damage to the lower epidermis along with a grouped chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the papillary dermis disturbing the interface between the epidermis and dermis. LICHEN PLANUS is the prototype of all lichenoid eruptions. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p398)Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gastroparesis: Chronic delayed gastric emptying. Gastroparesis may be caused by motor dysfunction or paralysis of STOMACH muscles or may be associated with other systemic diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS.Scalp DermatosesCaliforniaFamily: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Disease: A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
"Primary thrombocytopenic purpura and acquired hemolytic anemia; evidence for a common etiology". AMA Archives of Internal ...
Böttiger LE, Westerholm B (March 1973). "Acquired haemolytic anaemia. I. Incidence and aetiology". Acta Med Scand. 193 (3): 223 ... Following this, laboratory investigations are carried out to determine the etiology of the disease. A positive DAT test has ... Classification of the antibodies is based on their activity at different temperatures and their etiology. Antibodies with high ... A clear distinction between congenital and acquired hemolytic anemia was not drawn, however, until Dameshek and Schwartz in ...
Two years later the etiology agent for AIDS, the HIV was described. HIV is a retrovirus and has two major serotypes, HIV-1 and ... Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a leading cause of death in the world. It was identified as a disease in 1981. ...
Acquired causes include atherosclerosis, Kawasaki disease and coronary catheterization. It can also be congenital. It is often ... Nichols L, Lagana S, Parwani A (May 2008). "Coronary artery aneurysm: a review and hypothesis regarding etiology". Arch. Pathol ...
Sadun, A (1998). "Acquired mitochondrial impairment as a cause of optic nerve disease". Transactions of the American ... The duration of onset can vary between immediate and insidious, owing to the specific etiology. Two key features may be helpful ... Optic neuropathies that are acquired can be the result of several processes. These include prolonged use of certain antibiotics ... Even though dysfunction of the mitochondria can be either congenital or acquired, both causes share a common pathophysiology: ...
In the case of acquired brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases there is a clear neurological etiology producing ... Patients with acquired brain injury have also been exposed to goal management training (GMT). GMT skills are associated with ... Although the etiology is not completely understood, it is closely related to dopaminergic activity and is strongly associated ... demonstrate that creative thinking in schizophrenia is mediated by executive dysfunction, and they establish a firm etiology ...
2001). "Study of community acquired pneumonia aetiology (SCAPA) in adults admitted to hospital: implications for management ... 2003). "Defining community acquired pneumonia severity on presentation to hospital: an international derivation and validation ... 2005). "Prospective comparison of three validated prediction rules for prognosis in community-acquired pneumonia". Am. J. Med. ... British Thoracic Society Standards of Care Committee (2001). "BTS Guidelines for the Management of Community Acquired Pneumonia ...
According to Beck's theory of the etiology of depression, depressed people acquire a negative schema of the world in childhood ... Depressed people acquire such schemas through a loss of a parent, rejection by peers, bullying, criticism from teachers or ... and adolescence; children and adolescents who experience depression acquire this negative schema earlier. ...
... can be acquired or congenital, and may also be transient in certain instances. Acquired cortical blindness ... Etiology, Diagnosis, and Prognosis. Annals of Neurology. 21. pp. 149-158. doi:10.1002/ana.410210207. "Archived copy". Archived ... In patients with acquired cortical blindness, a permanent complete loss of vision is rare. The development of cortical ... Rarely, a patient with acquired cortical blindness may have little or no insight that they have lost vision, a phenomenon known ...
Aetiology[edit]. The primary etiological factor for periodontal disease is plaque biofilm of dental biofilm. A dental biofilm ... Developmental or Acquired Deformities and Conditions. A. Localised tooth-related factors that modify or predispose to plaque- ... Formation of an acquired pellicle: Involves selective absorption of salivary and GCF molecules through an electrostatic ... When gingival disease remain established and the aetiology is not removed there is further recruitment of cells such as ...
Acquired Brain Injury Outreach Service (2011). "Understanding Emotional Lability" (PDF). The State of Queensland (Queensland ... 16 (10). doi:10.1007/s11920-014-0478-4. Paris, Joel (1993). Borderline Personality Disorder: Etiology and Treatment. American ...
The etiology of this condition has not been fully elucidated. Lipodystrophy is often associated with glomerulonephritis, low C3 ... It is a rare syndrome with no known prevalence, although it is more common than the generalized form of acquired lipodystrophy ... A single report has suggested a beneficial effect from treatment with rosiglitazone on fat distribution in acquired partial ... In general, treatment for acquired partial lipodystrophy is limited to cosmetic, dietary, or medical options. Currently, no ...
A "malignant microenvironment" could be to blame, a hypothesis that had a consensus behind it in the aetiology of the middle of ... "acquire" the property of contagion. ... "Commentary: Behind the Broad Street pump: aetiology, ...
acquired CJD, caused by contamination with tissue from an infected person, usually as the result of a medical procedure ( ... "Molecular analysis of prion strain variation and the aetiology of 'new variant' CJD". Nature. 383 (6602): 685-90. doi:10.1038/ ... There have been no other known healthcare-acquired CJD deaths in Australia. A case was reported in 1989 in a 25-year-old man ... Collinge J, Whitfield J, McKintosh E (June 2006). "Kuru in the 21st century-an acquired human prion disease with very long ...
... s are responsible for initiating excitotoxicity and have been implicated in the etiology of ... In contrast to synaptic NMDA receptors that promote acquired neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity, extrasynaptic NMDA ...
However, there is currently no expert consensus on the etiology of these diseases and conditions. Initial funding for the ... and effective treatments to patients with illnesses that are caused by acquired dysregulation of both the immune system and the ... with an underlying infectious or environmental exposure etiology. ...
Acquired neutropenia (immune-associated neutropenia) is due to anti-neutrophil antibodies that target neutrophil-specific ... emerging research suggests neutropenia without an identifiable etiology (idiopathic neutropenia) may be the result of a low- ... Meanwhile, several subtypes of neutropenia exist which are rarer and chronic, including: acquired (idiopathic) neutropenia, ... The pathophysiology of neutropenia can be divided into congenital and acquired. In congenital neutropenia (cyclic neutropenia) ...
... acquired brain injuries or developmental conditions such as autism or learning disabilities. Developmental Disabilities Speech ... Neurological conditions of varying etiology (epilepsy, hydrocephalus, cysts, demyelination) Systemic illness affecting brain ... Acquired Neuropsychological Disorders Prenatal Substance Exposure (e.g., Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Alcohol Related ... Neglect Acquired Traumatic Brain Injuries Cerebrovascular disease (ischemia, thrombosis, embolism, infarct, arteriovenous ...
This condition could be innate or acquired and the concept had no reference to a necessarily irreversible condition. It is the ... This holds that dementia is understood in terms of criteria relating to aetiology, age and course which excludes former members ... Kraepelin realized nothing could be said with certainty about the aetiology of dementia praecox, and he left out speculation ... of the family of the demented such as adults with acquired head trauma or children with cognitive deficits. Moreover, it was ...
"Hospital Acquired Infections Are a Serious Risk - Consumer Reports". www.consumerreports.org. Archived from the original on 10 ... Larson HE, Price AB, Honour P, Borriello SP (May 1978). "Clostridium difficile and the aetiology of pseudomembranous colitis". ... In the United States healthcare acquired infections increase cost of care by US$1.5 billion each year. Signs and symptoms of ... Increasing rates of community-acquired CDI are associated with the use of medication to suppress gastric acid production: H2- ...
Historically, the etiology and prognosis of nursing home pneumonia appeared to differ from other types of community acquired ... occurring less commonly than community-acquired pneumonia but more frequently than hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator- ... Hospital-acquired pneumonia can also be spread by health care workers, who can pass germs from their hands or clothes from one ... Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at ...
February 1999). "Etiology and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in ambulatory children". The Pediatric Infectious ... Infants can acquire lung infections before birth by breathing infected amniotic fluid or through a blood-borne infection which ... Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia (any of several lung diseases) contracted by a person with little ... Another cause of CAP in this group is Chlamydia trachomatis, acquired at birth but not causing pneumonia until two to four ...
There is no known etiology for MS and therefore no etiology-based definition is possible. Therefore, all meanings for the words ... It can be considered among the acquired demyelinating syndromes with a multiphasic instead of monophasic behaviour. Multiple ... Inflammatory demyelinating diseases (IDDs), sometimes called Idiopathic (IIDDs) because the unknown etiology of some of them, ...
"Acquired mirror writing and reading: evidence for reflected graphemic representations" (PDF). CS1 maint: Multiple names: ... Tashiro K, Matsumoto A, Hamada T, Moriwaka F (1987). "The aetiology of mirror writing: a new hypothesis". J. Neurol. Neurosurg ...
In some cases, the etiology of the disease is known and can be attributed to an infectious agent, a physical trauma or a ... In 2007, the newly formed International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (IHTSDO) acquired all the ... and Symptoms 1993-98 SNOMED International versions 3.1-3.5 2002 First release of SNOMED CT 2007 All versions of SNOMED acquired ...
... this is not usually the first avenue of investigation one would choose to determine etiology.[citation needed] ... theory of speciation invoked the idea that species become distinct from one another as one species or the other acquires a ...
In 1957, Landau and Kleffner initially described acquired epileptic aphasia and subsequently reluctantly agreed ... ... Acquired epileptic aphasia (AEA) typically develops in healthy children who acutely or progressively lose receptive and ... Etiology. Most cases of acquired epileptic aphasia (AEA) do not have a well-defined cause. However, a few cases of secondary ... encoded search term (Acquired%20Epileptic%20Aphasia) and Acquired Epileptic Aphasia What to Read Next on Medscape. Medscape ...
Epidemiology and etiology of community-acquired pneumonia.. Mandell LA1.. Author information. 1. Division of Infectious ... The seriousness of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), despite being a reasonably common and potentially lethal disease, often ...
Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia: increased microbiological yield with new diagnostic methods.. Johansson N1, Kalin M, ... The microbial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still not well characterized. During the past few years, ... A microbial etiology could be identified for 67% of the patients (n = 124). For patients with complete sampling, a ... The aim of this study was to determine the etiology of CAP among adults-especially the occurrence of mixed infections among ...
... Updated: Jul 30, 2018 ... encoded search term (What is the role of aerobic gram-negative bacilli in the etiology of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)?) ... and What is the role of aerobic gram-negative bacilli in the etiology of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)? What to Read Next ... Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (Nosocomial Pneumonia) and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia * 2002 225976-overview Diseases & ...
... Rolf ... M. Akram, M. Shahid, and A. U. Khan, "Etiology and antibiotic resistance patterns of community-acquired urinary tract ... J. Bahadin, S. S. H. Teo, and S. Mathew, "Aetiology of community-acquired urinary tract infection and antimicrobial ... C. O. Odongo, D. A. Anywar, K. Luryamamoi, and P. Odongo, "Antibiograms from community-acquired uropathogens in Gulu, northern ...
The article discusses about the aetiology and epidemiology of community acquired pneumonia (CAP). studies of the aetiology of ... Aetiology and Clinical Presentation of Mild Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia. Beović, B.; Bonač, B.; Keše, D.; Avšič- ... The community-acquired pneumonia in children guidelines have just been updated with new evidence on incidence, aetiology and ... Microbial aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia and its relation to severity. Catia Cillóniz // Thorax;Apr2011, Vol. 66 ...
The aim of the present investigation was to determine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in ho ... but there have been relatively few comprehensive studies of the viral and bacterial etiology in developed countries. ... AbstractBackground.Childhood community-acquired pneumonia is a common illness, ... The aim of the present investigation was to determine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children by ...
Microbial etiology of community acquired pneumonia among infants and children admitted to zagazig university pediatric hospital ... Microbial etiology of community acquired pneumonia among infants and children admitted to zagazig university pediatric hospital ... Background: While recognizing the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is necessary for formulating local antimicrobial ... guidelines, limited data is published about this etiology in Egyptian pediatric patients. The aim of this study is to elucidate ...
Factors associated with unknown aetiology in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. S. Ewig, A. Torres, M. Ángeles Marcos ... Factors associated with unknown aetiology in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. S. Ewig, A. Torres, M. Ángeles Marcos ... Factors associated with unknown aetiology in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. S. Ewig, A. Torres, M. Ángeles Marcos ... Factors associated with unknown aetiology in patients with community-acquired pneumonia Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ...
Factors associated with unknown aetiology in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. S. Ewig, A. Torres, M. Ángeles Marcos ... Factors associated with unknown aetiology in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. S. Ewig, A. Torres, M. Ángeles Marcos ... Factors associated with unknown aetiology in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. S. Ewig, A. Torres, M. Ángeles Marcos ... Aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective study among adults requiring admission to hospital. Thorax 1995;50:543 ...
Immune-mediated etiology of acquired von Willebrand syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus and in benign monoclonal ... Immune-mediated etiology of acquired von Willebrand syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus and in benign monoclonal ... "Immune-mediated Etiology of Acquired Von Willebrand Syndrome in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and in Benign Monoclonal ... Immune-mediated etiology of acquired von Willebrand syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus and in benign monoclonal ...
Aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective study among adults requiring admission to hospital. ... Aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective study among adults requiring admission to hospital. ... The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia was definite in 108 cases, and probable or possible in 73 and 27 cases, ... METHODS--Between January 1991 and April 1993 all patients with community-acquired pneumonia admitted to six hospitals were ...
Etiology of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Hospitalized Patients in Chile*: The Increasing Prevalence of Respiratory Viruses ... The aim of this study was to determine the microbial etiology of CAP in adults and to identify the risk factors for various ... Microbial etiology was determined in 98 patients (55%). S pneumoniae (49 of 98 patients; 50%) and respiratory viruses (32%) ... The range and relative impact of microbial pathogens, particularly viral pathogens, as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia ...
Disease severity and outcome in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) depend on the host and on the challenge of the causal ... Complement, Etiology, Immunoglobulin, Mannose-binding lectin, Mannose-binding protein-associated serine proteases, Mortality, ... Disease severity and outcome in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) depend on the host and on the challenge of the causal ... Disease severity and outcome in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) depend on the host and on the challenge of the causal ...
Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in ambulatory patients. Usefulness of a diagnostic investigation protocol using ... To determine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in ambulatory patients and to assess the efficiency of a ... Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in ambulatory patients. Usefulness of a diagnostic investigation protocol using ... Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in ambulatory patients. Usefulness of a diagnostic investigation protocol using ...
Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is a frequently encountered lower respiratory tract parenchymal lung infection which ... Bacterial Etiology of Community Acquired Pneumonia and their Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Patients Admitted to Alshaab ... Objective: This study was aimed to determine frequency and susceptibility pattern of bacterial etiology of community acquired ... Background: Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is a frequently encountered lower respiratory tract parenchymal lung infection ...
Bacterial Aetiology of Community Acquired Pneumonia in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Southern India DC05-DC09 ... Aim: To determine the bacterial aetiology of CAP among hospitalised patients in a tertiary care hospital of Southern India.. ... Introduction: Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Knowledge of common ... The clinical specimens were further subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to confirm the bacterial aetiology of S. ...
Acquired vWD. Acquired vWD is a rare disorder that results from the development of antibodies to vWF. Acquired vWD may arise ... Etiology. In the great majority of cases, vWD is an inherited condition. The vWF gene is located near the tip of the short arm ... See Etiology, Workup, and Treatment.) In a review of 670 French families with von Willebrand Disease, the distribution of VWD ... 5] Acquired vWD has also been reported as a cause of postoperative bleeding in patients with congenital heart disease, ...
... clinical pictures and risk factors of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the Vietnamese adult population. A prospective ... including Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious disease that is associated with significant morbidity and ... Open Peer Review Reports for: The incidence and aetiology of hospitalised community-acquired pneumonia among Vietnamese adults ...
Etiology and clinical study of community-acquired pneumonia in 157 hospitalized children. ... Etiology and clinical study of community-acquired pneumonia in 157 hospitalized children. J Infect Chemother. 2006; 12(6): 372- ...
Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) Study ... Rhinovirus in Children Hospitalized with Community Acquired ...
Available data on the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Australia are very limited. Local treatment guidelines ... Available data on the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Australia are very limited. Local treatment guidelines ... The etiology was identified in 404 (45.6%) of 885 episodes, with the most frequent causes being Streptococcus pneumoniae (14 ...
What are the effects of treatments for community-acquired pneumonia in outpatient settings and in persons admitted to a ... What are the effects of interventions to prevent community-acquired pneumonia? ... Etiology. More than 100 microorganisms have been implicated in community-acquired pneumonia, but most cases are caused by S. ... Community-acquired pneumonia is pneumonia contracted in the community rather than in a hospital. It is defined by clinical ...
Shetty S, Bhave M, Ghosh K. Acquired hemophilia a: diagnosis, aetiology, clinical spectrum and treatment options. Autoimmun Rev ... DDAVP in acquired hemophilia A: case report and review of the literature. Am J Hematol. 1993 Aug. 43(4):295-9. [Medline]. ... encoded search term (What is the role of gene deletions in the etiology of hemophilia A?) and What is the role of gene ... Bitting RL, Bent S, Li Y, Kohlwes J. The prognosis and treatment of acquired hemophilia: a systematic review and meta-analysis ...
  • Two or more pathogens were present in 43 (35%) of 124 cases with a determined etiology. (nih.gov)
  • Our study investigates the causative pathogens of hospital-acquired conjunctivitis in our neonatal intensive care unit and their susceptibility patterns. (bgu.ac.il)
  • In contrast, acquired bone marrow failure, or acquired aplastic anemia (AA), can occur during any decade of life and usually responds to treatment with either intensive immunosuppressive therapy or HLA-matched sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, both of which are successful in the majority of cases. (bloodjournal.org)
  • D. A. Lewis and O. Perovic, "Antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms causing community-acquired urinary tract infections in Gauteng Province, South Africa," South African Medical Journal , vol. 103, no. 6, pp. e1-e9, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • One case of otherwise typical acquired epileptic aphasia has been described in association with mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Abnormalities include hereditary and acquired cell membrane disorders (eg, spherocytosis), disorders of RBC metabolism (eg, G6PD deficiency ), and hemoglobinopathies (eg, sickle cell diseases , thalassemias ). (merckmanuals.com)
  • Our study indicates that the distribution of bacteria causing hospital-acquired conjunctivitis in our neonates shifted from gram-negative to gram-positive microorganisms during their neonatal intensive care unit stay. (bgu.ac.il)
  • therefore, we designed a study with the objective of defining the incidence, etiology, timing, and risk factors associated with clinical failure related to CAP and unrelated to CAP. (maradentrospa.com)
  • We performed a study on the aetiology of CAP and assessed possible implications for patient management in the Netherlands. (njmonline.nl)
  • Given the link between SDS and telomere attrition, in the present study we investigated whether mutations in the SBDS gene also occurred in acquired AA, and we explored the role of SBDS protein in telomere maintenance. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The etiology of bronchitis is an inflammation or swelling of the bronchial tubes (bronchi), the air passages between the nose and the lungs. (allbest.ru)
  • The etiology of infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in Nepal often remains unrecognized because of underdeveloped laboratory facilities. (ajtmh.org)