Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.
An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.
A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Toxic, chlorinated, saturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. The latter is considerably more toxic. It has a sweet taste, ethereal odor and has been used as a fumigant and intoxicant among sniffers. Has many household and industrial uses.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Used as a solvent, in the manufacture of insecticides, and for treating sweet potatoes before planting. May cause nausea, vomiting, pains in head and chest, stupefaction. Irritates mucous membranes and causes kidney and liver degeneration.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.
A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.
A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. Members contain dianthins, which are ribosome inactivating proteins.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent and cooling liquid in electrical transformers. It is a potential carcinogen.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Diseases of plants.
Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. This subclass contains the DECARBOXYLASES, the ALDEHYDE-LYASES, and the OXO-ACID-LYASES. EC 4.1.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
A plant species of the family ACTINIDIACEAE, order Theales.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A compound that inhibits aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity in vivo, thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues.
A plant genus of the family POLYGONACEAE that contains patientosides and other naphthalene glycosides.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
Phylum of green nonsulfur bacteria including the family Chloroflexaceae, among others.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.

The mechanism of rhythmic ethylene production in sorghum. The role of phytochrome B and simulated shading. (1/1376)

Mutant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) deficient in functional phytochrome B exhibits reduced photoperiodic sensitivity and constitutively expresses a shade-avoidance phenotype. Under relatively bright, high red:far-red light, ethylene production by seedlings of wild-type and phytochrome B-mutant cultivars progresses through cycles in a circadian rhythm; however, the phytochrome B mutant produces ethylene peaks with approximately 10 times the amplitude of the wild type. Time-course northern blots show that the mutant's abundance of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase mRNA SbACO2 is cyclic and is commensurate with ethylene production, and that ACC oxidase activity follows the same pattern. Both SbACO2 abundance and ACC oxidase activity in the wild-type plant are very low under this regimen. ACC levels in the two cultivars did not demonstrate fluctuations coincident with the ethylene produced. Simulated shading caused the wild-type plant to mimic the phenotype of the mutant and to produce high amplitude rhythms of ethylene evolution. The circadian feature of the ethylene cycle is conditionally present in the mutant and absent in the wild-type plant under simulated shading. SbACO2 abundance in both cultivars demonstrates a high-amplitude diurnal cycle under these conditions; however, ACC oxidase activity, although elevated, does not exhibit a clear rhythm correlated with ethylene production. ACC levels in both cultivars show fluctuations corresponding to the ethylene rhythm previously observed. It appears that at least two separate mechanisms may be involved in generating high-amplitude ethylene rhythms in sorghum, one in response to the loss of phytochrome B function and another in response to shading.  (+info)

Microbial oxidation and assimilation of propylene. (2/1376)

Hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms in our culture collection oxidized propylene but could not utilize it as the sole source of carbon and energy. When propane-grown cells of Mycobacterium convulutum were placed on propylene, acrylate, the terminally oxidized, three-carbon unsaturated acid, accumulated. A mixed culture and an axenic culture (strain PL-1) that utilized propylene as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from soil. Respiration rates, enzyme assays, fatty acid profiles, and 14CO2 incorporation experiments suggest that both the mixed culture and strain PL-1 oxidize propylene via attack at the double bond, resulting in a C2+C1 cleavage of the molecule.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and ethylene-inducible expression of Chib1 chitinase from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). (3/1376)

A soybean seed-specific PR-8 chitinase, named Chib2, has a markedly extended C-terminal segment compared to other plant Chib1 homologues of the PR-8 chitinase family known to date. To further characterize the molecular structure and the expression pattern of this chitinase family, we cloned two typical Chib1-similar cDNAs (Chib1-1 and Chib1-2) from soybeans by PCR-cloning techniques. The deduced primary sequence of Chib1-1 chitinase is composed of a signal peptide segment (26 amino acid residues) and a mature 273 amino acid sequence (calculated molecular mass 28,794, calculated pI 3.7). This Chib1-1 enzyme is more than 90% identical to Chib1-2 chitinase but is below 50% identical to Chib2 enzyme. Thus, we confirmed the occurrence of two distinct classes, Chib1 and Chib2 in the plant PR-8 chitinase family. The Chib1 genes, interrupted by one intron, were found to be up-regulated in response to ethylene in stems and leaves, but scarcely expressed in developing soybean seeds. Chib1 chitinases may be responsible for protecting the plant body from various pathogenic attacks.  (+info)

An allele of the ripening-specific 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene (ACS1) in apple fruit with a long storage life. (4/1376)

An allele of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase gene (Md-ACS1), the transcript and translated product of which have been identified in ripening apples (Malus domestica), was isolated from a genomic library of the apple cultivar, Golden Delicious. The predicted coding region of this allele (ACS1-2) showed that seven nucleotide substitutions in the corresponding region of ACS1-1 resulted in just one amino acid transition. A 162-bp sequence characterized as a short interspersed repetitive element retrotransposon was inserted in the 5'-flanking region of ACS1-2 corresponding to position -781 in ACS1-1. The XhoI site located near the 3' end of the predicted coding region of ACS1-2 was absent from the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction product, revealing that exclusive transcription from ACS1-1 occurs during ripening of cv Golden Delicious fruit. DNA gel-blot and polymerase chain reaction analyses of genomic DNAs showed clearly that apple cultivars were either heterozygous for ACS1-1 and ACS1-2 or homozygous for each type. RNA gel-blot analysis of the ACS1-2 homozygous Fuji apple, which produces little ethylene and has a long storage life, demonstrated that the level of transcription from ACS1-2 during the ripening stage was very low.  (+info)

Synthesis and degradation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid by Penicillium citrinum. (5/1376)

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), which is a precursor of ethylene in plants, has never been known to occur in microorganisms. We describe the synthesis of ACC by Penicillium citrinum, purification of ACC synthase [EC 4.4.1.14] and ACC deaminase [EC 4.1.99.4], and their properties. Analyses of P. citrinum culture showed occurrence of ACC in the culture broth and in the cell extract. ACC synthase was purified from cells grown in a medium containing 0.05% L-methionine and ACC deaminase was done from cells incubated in a medium containing 1% 2-aminoisobutyrate. The purified ACC synthase, with a specific activity of 327 milliunit/mg protein, showed a single band of M(r) 48,000 in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular mass of the native enzyme by gel filtration was 96,000 Da. The ACC synthase had the Km for S-adenosyl-L-methionine of 1.74 mM and kcat of 0.56 s-1 per monomer. The purified ACC deaminase, with a specific activity of 4.7 unit/mg protein, showed one band in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of M(r) 41,000. The molecular mass of the native ACC deaminase was 68,000 Da by gel filtration. The enzyme had a Km for ACC of 4.8 mM and kcat of 3.52 s-1. The presence of 7 mM Cu2+ in alkaline buffer solution was effective for increasing the stability of the ACC deaminase in the process of purification.  (+info)

Expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase during leaf ontogeny in white clover. (6/1376)

We examined the expression of three distinct 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase genes during leaf ontogeny in white clover (Trifolium repens). Significant production of ethylene occurs at the apex, in newly initiated leaves, and in senescent leaf tissue. We used a combination of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends to identify three distinct DNA sequences designated TRACO1, TRACO2, and TRACO3, each with homology to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. Southern analysis confirmed that these sequences represent three distinct genes. Northern analysis revealed that TRACO1 is expressed specifically in the apex and TRACO2 is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in developing leaf tissue. The third gene, TRACO3, is expressed in senescent leaf tissue. Antibodies were raised to each gene product expressed in Escherichia coli, and western analysis showed that the TRACO1 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 205 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed preferentially in apical tissue. The TRACO2 antibody recognizes a protein of approximately 36.4 kD (as determined by gradient sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacylamide gel electrophoresis) that is expressed in the apex and in developing and mature green leaves, with maximum expression in mature green tissue. No protein recognition by the TRACO3 antibody could be detected in senescent tissue or at any other stage of leaf development.  (+info)

Differential expression of two novel members of the tomato ethylene-receptor family. (7/1376)

The phytohormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development, and environmental responses. Much of the developmental regulation of ethylene responses in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) occurs at the level of hormone sensitivity. In an effort to understand the regulation of ethylene responses, we isolated and characterized tomato genes with sequence similarity to the Arabidopsis ETR1 (ethylene response 1) ethylene receptor. Previously, we isolated three genes that exhibit high similarity to ETR1 and to each other. Here we report the isolation of two additional genes, LeETR4 and LeETR5, that are only 42% and 40% identical to ETR1, respectively. Although the amino acids known to be involved in ethylene binding are conserved, LeETR5 lacks the histidine within the kinase domain that is predicted to be phosphorylated. This suggests that histidine kinase activity is not necessary for an ethylene response, because mutated forms of both LeETR4 and LeETR5 confer dominant ethylene insensitivity in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression analysis indicates that LeETR4 accounts for most of the putative ethylene-receptor mRNA present in reproductive tissues, but, like LeETR5, it is less abundant in vegetative tissues. Taken together, ethylene perception in tomato is potentially quite complex, with at least five structurally divergent, putative receptor family members exhibiting significant variation in expression levels throughout development.  (+info)

RESPONSIVE-TO-ANTAGONIST1, a Menkes/Wilson disease-related copper transporter, is required for ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. (8/1376)

Ethylene is an important regulator of plant growth. We identified an Arabidopsis mutant, responsive-to-antagonist1 (ran1), that shows ethylene phenotypes in response to treatment with trans-cyclooctene, a potent receptor antagonist. Genetic epistasis studies revealed an early requirement for RAN1 in the ethylene pathway. RAN1 was cloned and found to encode a protein with similarity to copper-transporting P-type ATPases, including the human Menkes/Wilson proteins and yeast Ccc2p. Expression of RAN1 complemented the defects of a ccc2delta mutant, demonstrating its function as a copper transporter. Transgenic CaMV 35S::RAN1 plants showed constitutive expression of ethylene responses, due to cosuppression of RAN1. These results provide an in planta demonstration that ethylene signaling requires copper and reveal that RAN1 acts by delivering copper to create functional hormone receptors.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of ethylene (ethene) is mainly performed by plants and some bacteria and fungi, via two distinct metabolic routes. Plants use two steps, starting with S-adenosylmethionine, while the ethylene-forming microbes perform an oxygen dependent reaction using 2-oxoglutarate and arginine. Introduction of these systems into Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied in silico. The reactions were added to a metabolic network of yeast and flux over the two networks was optimised for maximal ethylene formation. The maximal ethylene yields obtained for the two systems were similar in the range of 7-8-mol ethylene/10-mol glucose. The microbial metabolic network was used for testing different strategies to increase the ethylene formation. It was suggested that supplementation of exogenous proline, using a solely NAD-coupled glutamate dehydrogenase, and using glutamate as the nitrogen source, could increase the ethylene formation. Comparison of these in silico results with published experimental data for yeast
Fruit ripening represents a complex system of genetic and hormonal regulation of eukaryotic development unique to plants. We are using tomato ripening mutants as tools to elucidate genetic components of ripening regulation and have recently demonstrated that the Never-ripe (Nr) mutant is insensitive to the plant growth regulator ethylene (M.B. Lanahan, H.-C. Yen, J.J. Giovannoni, H.J. Klee [1994] Plant Cell 6: 521-530). We report here ethylene sensitivity over a range of concentrations in normal and Nr tomato seedlings and show that the Nr mutant retains residual sensitivity to as little as 1 part per million of ethylene. Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in normal and mutant ethylene-treated fruit demonstrates that Nr exerts its influence on development at least in part at the level of ethylene-inducible gene expression. We have additionally used cloned tomato and Arabidopsis sequences known to influence ethylene perception as restriction fragment length polymorphism probes, and have ...
Recent work has shown that the ethylene receptors function as negative regulators in ethylene signaling. Mutational loss of multiple receptors results in plants that display a constitutive ethylene response phenotype (Hua and Meyerowitz, 1998), presumably through the loss of activators of CTR1, a downstream MAPKKK that actively suppresses ethylene responses (Kieber et al., 1993). It is probable that the receptors regulate CTR1 activity directly because ETR1, ERS1, and, as we have demonstrated, ETR2, associate with CTR1s amino-terminal regulatory domain in the yeast two-hybrid assay and in vitro (Clark et al., 1998). It was not reported that single or double loss-of-function receptor mutants displayed ethylene response phenotypes (Hua and Meyerowitz, 1998). Through careful analysis of the receptor null mutants, we have found that loss of even one ethylene receptor, specifically ETR1, results in a significant increase in ethylene responsiveness in Arabidopsis. This is consistent with what has ...
By protein-protein interaction screening with OBF4 we have isolated an Arabidopsis GCC box-binding protein called AtEBP. The GCC box, also referred to as the AGC box (10), GCC element (11), or AGCCGCC sequence (13), is an ethylene-responsive element found in the promoters of a large number of PR genes whose expression is up-regulated following pathogen attack. However, the GCC box has not been found in the promoters of ethylene-regulated genes involved in other ethylene responses, such as fruit ripening (37). AtEBP shares strong homology with the DNA-binding domains of a group of tobacco GCC box-binding proteins called EREBPs (12). However, there is no homology between AtEBP and the tobacco EREBPs outside the EREBP DNA-binding domain. While further studies will be required to determine the range of DNA-binding sites for AtEBP and related EREBPs, the 11-bp GCC box is very conserved in PR gene promoters, suggesting it may be an optimal site, at least for some of these proteins.. Southern blot ...
We have detected a physical association between the presumed regulatory domain of the CTR1 protein kinase and the predicted histidine protein kinase domain of the ETR1 and ERS ethylene receptors in both the yeast two-hybrid assay and in vitro. We also observed an in vitro association between the amino-terminal domain of CTR1 and the receiver domain of ETR1. These findings support previous genetic data indicating that CTR1 acts at or downstream of both ETR1 and ERS in the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Arabidopsis. Furthermore, our results suggest that CTR1 might be part of an ethylene receptor complex(es) in Arabidopsis and that the regulation of CTR1 activity by ethylene may involve direct interactions with the two-component receptors.. Based on sequence analysis, CTR1 is a member of the Raf family of serine/threonine protein kinases identified in Caenorhabditis, Drosophila, and mammals (4). Activation of mammalian Raf is known to involve a number of factors: interaction with the small ...
Exogenous ethylene is commonly used as a commercial sprouting inhibitor of potato tubers. The role of ethylene in the control of sprouting of sweetpotato roots, however, is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ethylene in control of sprouting in sweetpotato roots by observing the effect of an ethylene synthesis inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), and the ethylene antagonist, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), in the presence and absence of exogenous ethylene on root sprouting and associated sugar accumulation. Continuous exposure to 10 μl L−1 ethylene, 24 h exposure to 625 nl L−1 1-MCP or dipping in 100 μl L−1 AVG all inhibited sprout growth in sweetpotato roots of two varieties over 4 weeks of storage at 25 °C. The observations that both ethylene on its own and 1-MCP, which inhibits ethylene action, inhibit sprout growth indicate that while continuous exposure to exogenous ethylene leads to sprout growth inhibition, ethylene is also required for sprouting. ...
Increase in ACC increases both endogenous ethylene and the concentration of the activated form of auxin receptor, Ra*. Ethylene and Ra* contribute antagonistica
Abstract. In order to efficiently utilize natural cellulose materials to produce ethylene, three expression vectors containing the ethylene-forming enzyme (efe) gene from Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea were constructed. The target gene was respectively controlled by different promoters: cbh I promoter from Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases I gene, gpd promoter from Aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene and pgk I promoter from T. reesei 3-phosphoglycerate kinase I gene. After transforming into T. reesei QM9414, 43 stable transformants were obtained by PCR amplification and ethylene determination. Southern blot analysis of 14 transformants demonstrated that the efe gene was integrated into chromosomal DNA with copy numbers from 1 to 4. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of 6 transformants showed that the heterologous gene was transcribed. By using wheat straw as a carbon source, the ethylene production rates of aforementioned 14 ...
Metabolic engineering and synthetic biology of cyanobacteria offer a promising sustainable alternative approach for fossil-based ethylene production, by using sunlight via oxygenic photosynthesis, to convert carbon dioxide directly into ethylene. Towards this, both well-studied cyanobacteria, i.e., Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, have been engineered to produce ethylene by introducing the ethylene-forming enzyme (Efe) from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola PK2 (the Kudzu strain), which catalyzes the conversion of the ubiquitous tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate 2-oxoglutarate into ethylene. This study focuses on Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 and shows stable ethylene production through the integration of a codon-optimized version of the efe gene under control of the Ptrc promoter and the core Shine-Dalgarno sequence (5′-AGGAGG-3′) as the ribosome-binding site (RBS), at the slr0168 neutral site. We have increased ethylene production twofold by RBS screening and
The role of ethylene in the development of nonclimacteric fruits has received much less attention than for climacteric fruits. However, it is well known that citrus, as well as other nonclimacteric fruits, respond to treatment with ethylene (Goldschmidt, 1997) and that antagonists of ethylene action can inhibit normal developmental changes in citrus (Goldschmidt et al., 1993; Sisler et al., 1999; Zhong et al., 2001) lending further support for the role of ethylene.. Ethylene treatment leads to the loss of green color in grapefruit (Figs. 1 and 4) and other citrus fruits (Eilati and Goldschmidt, 1969; Garcia-Luis et al., 1986; Goldschmidt et al., 1977; Purvis and Barmore, 1981; Shimokawa et al., 1978). The effect of ethylene on color change in citrus fruit has been shown to be related to an increase in chlorophyllase activity (Purvis and Barmore, 1981; Shimokawa et al., 1978; Trebitsh et al., 1993) and also an increase in the abundance of chlorophyllase messenger RNA (Jacob-Wilk et al., 1999). In ...
Mutations in the ETR1 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana confer insensitivity to ethylene, which indicates a role for the gene product in ethylene signal transduction. Saturable binding sites for [14C]ethylene were detected in transgenic yeast expressing the ETR1 protein, whereas control yeast lacking ETR1 showed no detectable ethylene binding. Yeast expressing a mutant form of ETR1 (etr1-1) also showed no detectable ethylene binding, which provides an explanation for the ethylene-insensitive phenotype observed in plants carrying this mutation. Expression of truncated forms of ETR1 in yeast provided evidence that the amino-terminal hydrophobic domain of the protein is the site of ethylene binding. It was concluded from these results that ETR1 acts as an ethylene receptor in Arabidopsis.. ...
Analysis of ethylene biosynthesis gene expression profile during titanium dioxide (TiO2) treatment to develop a new banana postharvest technology
106566-58-9 - AXWLPMGUUAIGJK-UHFFFAOYSA-O - Ammonium trichloro(dioxoethylene-O,O-)tellurate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
ERS (ethylene response sensor), a gene in the Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene hormone-response pathway, was uncovered by cross-hybridization with the Arabidopsis ETR1 gene. The deduced ERS protein has sequence similarity with the amino-terminal domain and putative histidine protein kinase domain of ETR1, but it does not have a receiver domain as found in ETR1. A missense mutation identical to the dominant etr1-4 mutation was introduced into the ERS gene. The altered ERS gene conferred dominant ethylene insensitivity to wild-type Arabidopsis. Double-mutant analysis indicates that ERS acts upstream of the CTR1 protein kinase gene in the ethylene-response pathway. ...
The phytohormone ethylene is widely involved in many developmental processes and is a crucial regulator of defense responses against biotic and abiotic str
Phytohormones are essential for integrating many aspects of plant development and responses to the environment. Regulation of hormonally controlled events occurs at multiple levels: synthesis, catabolism and perception (Trewavas 1983, Bradford and Trewavas 1994). At the level of perception, sensitivity to hormones can be regulated both spatially and temporally during the life cycle. An example of spatial regulation is the differential response to a hormone that occurs during organ abscission. Temporally, sensitivity of an organ to a hormone may change during maturation, as occurs during fruit ripening. In this review, we will focus on the initial event in recognition of one hormone, ethylene. The ethylene receptor was the first plant hormone receptor to be unambiguously identified. Over the last few years, great progress has been made in elucidating the genes involved in ethylene action. Nonetheless, the mechanisms of signal transduction remain to be established. Here, we will address the status ...
Disclosed is a microcapsule composition for inhibiting an ethylene response in plants, which comprises a plurality of microcapsules, each including an agent for blocking an ethylene binding site in plants in an oil droplet, and a coating encapsulating the oil droplet and the agent for blocking the ethylene binding site in plants. A method for preparing microcapsules of an agent for blocking the ethylene binding site in plants, and a method for inhibiting an ethylene response in plants are also disclosed.
J. Haubrich, Conrad Becker, K. Wandelt. Adsorption and interaction energy of π ethene on Pt(111) and Pt alloys: A detailed analysis of vibrational, energetic and electronic properties. Surface Science, Elsevier, 2009, 603 (10-12), pp.1476-1485. ⟨hal-02024050⟩ ...
Biology and Biotechnology of the Plant Hormone Ethylene II by Klee, H. and Eu-Tmr-Euroconference Symposium on Biolo and Kanellis, A. K. available in Hardcover on Powells.com, also read synopsis and rThese papers assess existing knowledge and develop ideas on the mechanisms of ethylene synthesis,...
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During the ripening of tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill Dahong) the ultrasturture of nucleus in pericarp cell was observed by freeze-fracture and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that before the onset of ripening (green mature, G), the volume of heterochromatin was 45% of nuclear volume (Plate Ⅰ1). From the onset of ripening (B stage), heterochromatin was dispersed and decreased in volume (Plate Ⅰ 2). At the turning stage the volume of heterochromatin decreased and was dispersed evenly (Plate Ⅰ 3). At the fully ripening and overripening stages, the nucleus became abnormal, and the structure of chromatin collapsed (Plate Ⅰ 4, 5). When the ripening of fruit was accelerated by treatment with ethylene at B stage, heterochromatin was converted into euchromatin and disappeared, and, in the meantime, the number of nuclear pore increased to that at advanced ripening stage (Plate Ⅰ 1-4). The effect of ethylene was eliminated by adding NBD, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene
The potential for ethylene-induced abscission among Verticordia species used for cut flowers (V. nitens, V. chrysantha, V. plumosa, and V. densiflora) was studied by treating them with 2-chloroethyl-phosphonic acid (ethephon) or exposing them to dilute ethylene gas. The possibility that ethylene production induced by water stress may cause flower abscission was also investigated. Dipping in ethephon (500 or 1000 mg/L) failed to induce flower abscission in V chrysantha or V plumosa. Treatment with ethylene (8.6 μL/L) failed to induce flower abscission in V. densiflora. Ethephon and ethylene both induced substantial flower, pedicel, and leaf abscission in V. nitens. Pretreatment with silver thiosulfate prevented ethylene-induced flower abscission in V nitens. Dehydrating stems for periods of 6, 12, 24, or 48 h at about 20°C did not induce flower abscission in either V plunzosa or V nitens. Dehydration periods of 6 and 12 h had no effect on longevity. Longer drying periods (24 and 48 h) induced ...
Perception from the flower hormone ethylene is vital to start and progress ripening of climacteric fruits. in ethylene insensitivity and nonripening fruits (Lanahan et al., 1994; Wilkinson et al.,1995). An ethyl-methanesulfonate-induced tomato mutant having an individual amino acid modification just like also exhibited a postponed ripening phenotype although the consequences were more humble than (Okabe et al., 2011). Ethylene insensitivity within prominent mutants (e.g. 0.7 with small rings at R0.9 and 1.0 in mature green (MG) fruits. From breaker through crimson ripe levels, doublet rings were discovered at R0.9 and 1.0. Evaluation of the antisense line where expression is normally greatly decreased validated the identification from the immunoreactive rings (Fig. 1A). Treatment of microsomal protein with alkaline phosphatase provided a single music group at the cheapest placement (R1.0; Fig. 1B), indicating that LeETR4 protein discovered buy Finasteride at R1.0 match the nonphosphorylated buy ...
The Arabidopsis root produces a position-dependent pattern of hair-bearing and hairless cell types during epidermis development. Five loci (TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA [TTG], GLABRA2 [GL2], ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE6 [RHD6], CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 [CTR1], and AUXIN RESISTANT2 [AXR2]) and the plant hormones ethylene and auxin have been reported to affect the production of root hair and hairless cells in the Arabidopsis root. In this study, genetic, molecular, and physiological tests were employed to define the roles of these loci and hormones. Epistasis tests and reporter gene studies indicated that the hairless cell-promoting genes TTG and GL2 are likely to act early to negatively regulate the ethylene and auxin pathways. Studies of the developmental timing of the hormone effects indicated that ethylene and auxin pathways promote root hair outgrowth after cell-type differentiation has been initiated. The genetic analysis of ethylene-and auxin-related mutations showed that root hair formation is ...
Author Summary Plant immunity, similar to that in animals, also involves mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. However, plants use unique MAPK substrates and secondary signaling molecules in the process. Among them, ethylene, a gaseous plant hormone, plays critical roles. Ethylene-regulated responses begin with the induction of ethylene biosynthesis. 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) catalyzes the committing and rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthetic pathway. The Arabidopsis genome encodes nine different ACS isoforms. Two of them, ACS2 and ACS6, were previously shown to be phosphorylated and stabilized by MPK3 and MPK6, two Arabidopsis pathogen-responsive MAPKs. Using a genetic approach, we identified additional ACS isoforms including ACS7, ACS8, and ACS11 that also contribute to pathogen-induced ethylene production. In addition to direct phosphorylation modification and stabilization of ACS2 and ACS6 proteins, MPK3 and MPK6 also regulate the expression of ACS2 and
The plant hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of growth and development. Loss-of-function mutations in ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2) result in ethylene insensitivity in Arabidopsis, indicating an essential role of EIN2 in ethylene signaling. However, little is known about the role of EIN2 in spec …
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/The_Plant_Hormone_Ethylene.html?id=tYfwAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareThe Plant Hormone Ethylene ...
EFE was inserted in two B. subtilis plasmids under the control of two different inducible promoters. We tried to express EFE and measure ethylene by GC. However, ethylene was not detected. We are now trying to understand if it is a problem of expression or functionality of the enzyme. Interestingly, induced samples showed a distinct smell of sulfur. The presence of sulfur was confirmed by exposure of the culture to a lead acetate paper strip. One hypothesis could be that B. subtilis is capable of converting rapidly ethylene into other mercapto-compounds. Ethylene diffusion in jars Different fruits need different concentrations of ethylene to ripen. To create a ripening machine device, we also thought to estimate the diffusion of ethylene. We performed then a kinetic assay for ethylene diffusion in jars of different volumes (1000 ml and 1500 ml) connected to a flask of induced culture by micro gas chromatography. The data obtained were then compared with ethylene expected values calculated on the ...
GbERF belongs to the ERF (ethylene responsive factor) family of transcription factors and regulates the GCC-box containing pathogen-related (PR) genes in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To study the function of GbERF in the process of biotic stress, transgenic tobacco plants ...
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When plants are exposed to ozone (O3), foliage frequently responds by emitting ethylene. A number of researchers have suggested that O3-induced ethylene is responsible for many subsequent effects of this pollutant. This hypothesis has been tested by using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and demonstrating that other O3 responses were repressed as well. The inhibitors used in all of these studies were pyridoxal phosphate inhibitors, which are largely nonspecific. As such, while the results of the inhibitor studies were consistent with the notion of ethylene as a potential regulator of the O3 response, they could not provide a reliable test of the hypothesis. The enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase regulates ethylene biosynthesis. In this laboratory, a gene has been isolated for O3-induced foliar ACC synthase (ST-ACS4) in potato foliage. The objectives of this research project are to produce transformed potato plants which carry antisense for ST-ACS4, and then to test ...
Ethylene gas is a vintage phytohormone regulating many areas of vegetable protection and advancement. and facilitates its nuclear localization to stabilize EIN3 proteins. It had been reported Gedatolisib that constitutive manifestation of EIN2 carboxyl terminal end (CEND, proteins 459-1 294) potential clients to incomplete activation of ethylene reactions in light-grown vegetation3, implying that CEND may function in sign transmission. The CEND fragment consists of a putative nuclear localization sign (NLS, proteins 1 262-1 269), which can be extremely conserved among several EIN2 orthologs of angiosperms (Shape 1A)7. To determine whether CEND can be nuclear-localized, we indicated CEND-GFP in cigarette leaf cells and discovered that GFP fluorescence was recognized in both nucleus and cytoplasm (Shape 1B). In comparison, deletion from the NLS maintained the CEND-GFP fusion proteins specifically in the cytoplasm (Shape 1B), suggesting how the NLS sequence is in charge of CENDs nuclear ...
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Title- Jasmonate and Ethylene co-actions. There are currently dozens of identified phytohormones in plant cells and they act in concert to regulate plant growth, development, metabolism and defense. Among phytohormones, jasmonate and ethylene present a fascinating case of synergism and antagonism. They are commonly recognized as defense hormones that act synergistically as well as in antagonistic manner. Plants impaired in jasmonate and/or ethylene signaling are susceptible to infections by necrotrophic fungi, suggesting that both of these hormones are required for defense. JA promotes ethylene biosynthesis in apple fruit ripening through the regulation of MdERFs and ethylene biosynthetic genes by MdMYC2. It supports co action mechanism of both hormones. Moreover, jasmonate and ethylene also act antagonistically, such as in the regulation of apical hook curvature and wounding responses. Ethylene stabilized transcription factors (EIN3 and EIL1) integrate ET and JA signaling in the regulation of ...
After organ initiation, much of plant development consists of regulated organ growth. The regulation of organ growth is mediated by the coordination of cell division and expansion. This coordination involves signals that are endogenous to the plant (e.g., phytohormones) and exogenous environmental signals and requires the integration of these multiple signals into a single output.. By investigating phenomena that traditionally have been regarded as ethylene responses, we have identified the previously described DELLA proteins as agents of signal integration in plant growth regulation. Ethylene causes exaggeration of the apical hook, shortening and thickening of the hypocotyls, and inhibition of root growth, a phenomenon known as the triple response (Abeles et al., 1992). Although recent advances identified several components of the signal transduction cascade that specifically modulate plant growth in response to ethylene, the way in which ethylene regulates growth remained unknown. Our results ...
토양으로 부터 분리, 동정된 Micrococcus sp. No-32는 pH 10.3에서 잘 증식하고 ethylene을 생성하는 균주이다. 이 균주로 부터 ethylene 생산성을 높이기 위해 intact cell에 의한 발효조건을 조사하였다. 회분발효시 최적 ethylene 생성온도는 30℃, 초기 pH는 10.2, 초기 접종농도는 0.4 mg of DCW/ml of culture였다. 각종 아미노산, 유기산, 당류의 다양한 기질전환효과를 검토한 결과 대체로 아미노산과 유기산의 효과가 높았다. 특히 methionine에서 효과가 있었으며 적정농도는 균의 증식과 ethylene생성에도 좋은 100 mM로 결정하였다. 빛과 산소에 의한 영향을 살펴보면 빛과 산소가 있을 때가 없을시보다 약 2배에 가까운 ethylene을 생성하였고, 진탕배양이 정치배양보다 5배 높은 ethylene 생성량을 나타냈다. 반연속식 발효시 배양액의 50, 40, 30, 20%를 새 배지로 치환해 주었는데 치환율이 낮을 ...
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Fig. 7: E. coli NEB10β transformed with BBa_1065309 was grown until O.D. 0.7 was reached. The culture was then split and kept under the two different conditions. In the dark we could appreciate ethylene production (37 ±15 ppm) instead in the presence of blue light there was no ethylene produced. However note that for both circuits not every colony behaved correctly and sometimes we saw ethylene in the controls or just no ethylene at all. However the on/off switch was better defined with the circuit without an inverter. Further experiments need to be done in order to obtain the perfect and complete switch, for instance we could remove the reporter gene before the EFE sequence: this could be the right move to get a more efficient behavior. EFE in B. subtilis In order to transform B. subtilis with EFE, we decided to exploit two type of vectors designed by the LMU-Munich 2012 iGEM team: pXyl and pSpac. These two vectors were not functionally active: pXyl had a point mutation resulting in a ...
For beans, ethylene was the most effective abscission accelerant examined, with decreasing activity shown by propene, carbon monoxide, acetylene, vinyl fluoride, 1-butene, and 1,3-butadiene. Carbon dioxide inhibited abscission, but its effect was overcome by ethylene. Oxygen was required for abscission as an electron acceptor for respiration and not as a potentiator or activator of the ethylene attachment site. The molecular requirements for abscission were similar to those shown by other workers for other biological processes under the influence of ethylene. (Author)(*PLANT TISSUE
There are no in vivo data on the toxicokinetics of trichloro(3-chloropropyl)silane. The following summary has therefore been prepared based on validated predictions of the physicochemical properties of the substance itself and its hydrolysis products. Trichloro(3 -chloropropyl)silane is a moisture-sensitive, volatile liquid that hydrolyses rapidly in contact with water (half-life ,1 minute at pH 7), generating HCl and 3-chloropropylsilanetriol. Human exposure can occur via the inhalation or dermal routes. Relevant inhalation exposure would be to the hydrolysis products (hydrolysis would occur rapidly when inhaled, even if a mixture of parent and hydrolysis products were present in air). The substance would also hydrolyse rapidly in contact with moist skin. The resulting HCl hydrolysis product would be severely irritating or corrosive. Absorption Oral: Significant oral exposure is not expected for this corrosive substance. Dermal: The molecular weights of the parent and hydrolysis products do not ...
Morgan, P.W.; Sarquis, J.I.; He, C.J.; Jordan, W.R.; Drew, M.C., 1993: Regulation of ethylene synthesis in maize root responses to stress
Citation: Bent, A.F., Hoffman, T.K., Schmidt, S., Hartman, G.L., Xue, P., Tucker, M.L., Hoffman, D.D. 2006. Disease- and performance-related traits of ethylene-insensitive soybean. Crop Science. 46:893-901. Interpretive Summary: Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most economically damaging pathogen of soybean causing an estimated annual loss of one billion dollars to the soybean crop in the USA. The plant hormone ethylene plays an important role in many plant defense responses. To determine how ethylene responses contribute to defense against diseases of soybean, an ethylene-resistant mutant was tested against several soybean diseases, including nematodes. Disease responses are complex and often greenhouse and laboratory experiments differ from field trials. Therefore, several soybean diseases and ethylene responses were observed under laboratory, greenhouse and field conditions. In regard to nematodes, although it might be expected that a fully functional ethylene response would increase ...
bond, with two hydrogen atoms (represented by H) connected to each carbon.. In ethylene the carbon-hydrogen bonds are single covalent bonds, while the carbon-carbon bond is a double covalent bond. In the presence of heat, light, and an appropriate catalyst the ethylene molecule can be excited into a reactive state in which the carbon-carbon double bond is dissociated.. If two excited molecules come into contact, it is possible to link the ethylene molecules with single covalent bonds between molecules. When this process repeats itself, on the order of thousands of times, a chain is produced with a carbon backbone and a formula. The building unit or monomer in this case is ethylene. After n units of ethylene have been linked, the reaction may be terminated by the addition of a hydrogen to each end of the polyethylene chain. Such polymerizations are referred to as addition polymerization, in contrast to condensation polymerization in which molecules with diverse end groups react to give chains ...
To make this vision a reality, we attempted to transfer the plant ethylene biosynthesis pathway into E. coli. Plants produce ethylene through the Yang Cycle, which uses methionine as a base molecule to produce several different products. We studied the enzymes involved and designed a genetic circuit composed of SAM synthase, ACC synthase and ACC oxidase. E coli already possesses a gene for SAM synthase, so we added a second copy to our construct to ramp up production. ACC synthase and ACC oxidase are only found in plants, so we explored enzyme characterisation databases to find the most efficient and specific catalysts from the plant world. Our analysis pointed to apple for ACC synthase and tomato for ACC oxidase. With this in silico work done, our plan was to have all three genes synthesised by Mr. Gene after codon optimising them for E. coli. We would then add ribosome binding sites and link these three genes together in one construct for efficient ethylene production from E. coli. Naturally, ...
To make this vision a reality, we attempted to transfer the plant ethylene biosynthesis pathway into E. coli. Plants produce ethylene through the Yang Cycle, which uses methionine as a base molecule to produce several different products. We studied the enzymes involved and designed a genetic circuit composed of SAM synthase, ACC synthase and ACC oxidase. E coli already possesses a gene for SAM synthase, so we added a second copy to our construct to ramp up production. ACC synthase and ACC oxidase are only found in plants, so we explored enzyme characterisation databases to find the most efficient and specific catalysts from the plant world. Our analysis pointed to apple for ACC synthase and tomato for ACC oxidase. With this in silico work done, our plan was to have all three genes synthesised by Mr. Gene after codon optimising them for E. coli. We would then add ribosome binding sites and link these three genes together in one construct for efficient ethylene production from E. coli. Naturally, ...
Phytohormones are organic compounds that exist naturally in plants and that even in low concentrations, orchestrate a broad range of physiological processes, including growth and development, as well as responses to abiotic and biotic stresses [1]. These hormones overlap signal transduction pathways or gene expression profiles by rapid induction or by preventing the degradation of transcriptional regulators [2-5].. Among all of the described phytohormones, ethylene, a naturally occurring triple response growth regulator (shoot elongation, stem thickening and horizontal growth habit) in seedlings, has been studied since ancient times [6]. Ethylene is also involved in leaf abscission, fruit ripening and senescence [6, 7] as well as seed germination, growth of adventitious roots under flooding conditions, epinasty stimulation, inhibition of shoot growth and stomatal closing and flowering [8, 9]. Moreover, it is involved in a wide variety of stresses, including wounding, pathogen attack, flooding, ...
1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) applied alone did not influence significantly the chlorophyll and carotenoid content of the older leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., but retarded the senescence of the younger ones (6th and 7th leaf nodes). However, 1-MCP effectively blocks the ethylene induced senescence of excised rosette leaves. The preliminary application of 1-MCP (3 h in advance to the treatment by Ethrel) almost totally eliminated the ethylene action. Similar trend was also observed after simultaneous application of Ethrel and 1-MCP, and the effects of both treatments on the chlorophyll and carotenoid destruction are comparable ...
The plant hormone ethylene regulates fruit ripening, other developmental processes, and a subset of defense responses. Here, we show that 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS)-silenced apple (Malus domestica) fruit that express a sense construct of ACS were more susceptible to Botrytis cinerea than untransformed apple, demonstrating that ethylene strengthens fruit resistance to B. cinerea infection. Because ethylene response factors (ERFs) are known to contribute to resistance against B. cinerea via the ethylene-signaling pathway, we cloned four ERF cDNAs from fruit of M. domestica: MdERF3, -4, -5, and -6. Expression of all four MdERF mRNAs was ethylene dependent and induced by wounding or by B. cinerea infection. B. cinerea infection suppressed rapid induction of wound-related MdERF expression. MdERF3 was the only mRNA induced by wounding and B. cinerea infection in ACS-suppressed apple fruit, although its induction was reduced compared with wild-type apple. Promoter regions of ...
Purchase Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10410437. The Report Provides Insights on Major Ethylene Oxide and Ethylene Glycol Sales Market Points such as:. • Applications of Ethylene Oxide and Ethylene Glycol Sales Market. • Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Ethylene Oxide and Ethylene Glycol Sales Market. • Raw Materials Sources Analysis of Ethylene Oxide and Ethylene Glycol Sales Market. • Price, Cost, Gross and Gross Margin Analysis of Ethylene Oxide and Ethylene Glycol Sales Market. • Supply, Consumption and Gap of Ethylene Oxide and Ethylene Glycol Sales Market 2016-2021. • New Project SWOT Analysis of Ethylene Oxide and Ethylene Glycol Sales Market. Inquiry for Buying Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/10410437 Analysis of Price, Cost, Gross Margin for Major Regions:. This particular section of the Ethylene Oxide and Ethylene Glycol Sales market report includes analysis of gross margin, cost and price. The Ethylene Oxide ...
Characterization and Expression of Genes Involved in the Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signal Transduction during Ripening of Mulberry Fruit. PubMed Central. Liu, Changying; Zhao, Aichun; Zhu, Panpan; Li, Jun; Han, Leng; Wang, Xiling; Fan, Wei; Lü, Ruihua; Wang, Chuanhong; Li, Zhengang; Lu, Cheng; Yu, Maode. 2015-01-01. Although ethylene is well known as an essential regulator of fruit development, little work has examined the role ethylene plays in the development and maturation of mulberry (Morus L.) fruit. To study the mechanism of ethylene action during fruit development in this species, we measured the ethylene production, fruit firmness, and soluble solids content (SSC) during fruit development and harvest. By comparing the results with those from other climacteric fruit, we concluded that Morus fruit are probably climacteric. Genes associated with the ethylene signal transduction pathway of Morus were characterized from M. notabilis Genome Database, including four ethylene receptor genes, a ...
The exact role of ethylene in xylogenesis remains unclear, but the Zinnia elegans cell culture system provides an excellent model with which to study its role during the differentiation of tracheary elements (TEs) in vitro. • Here, we analysed ethylene homeostasis and function during Z. elegans TE differentiation using biochemical, molecular and pharmacological methods. • Ethylene evolution was confined to specific stages of TE differentiation. It was found to peak at the time of TE maturation and to correlate with the activity of the ethylene biosynthetic 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase. The ethylene precursor ACC was exported and accumulated to high concentrations in the extracellular medium, which also displayed a high capacity to convert ACC into ethylene. The effects of adding inhibitors of the ethylene biosynthetic ACC synthase and ACC oxidase enzymes to the TE cultures demonstrated for the first time strict dependence of TE differentiation on ethylene biosynthesis ...
In plants, undifferentiated meristem tissue provides stem cells to produce roots and shoots. The root meristem contains a few of these stem cells in a region called the quiescent center. Ortega-Martínez et al. studied Arabidopsis plants with a defect in a gene that controls ethylene biosynthesis and found that it produced more of the gaseous hormone ethylene. The quiescent center cells in these mutants went through more cell divisions than normal, resulting in extra stem cells in the root meristem. Adding exogenous ethylene also increased quiescent cell division, and blocking its synthesis in the mutants prevented extra divisions.. O. Ortega-Martínez, M. Pernas, R. J. Carol, L. Dolan, Ethylene modulates stem cell division in the Arabidopsis thaliana root. Science 317, 507-510 (2007). [Abstract] [Full Text] ...
Method: (1) Preparation of ethene:. Pour some ethanol into the boiling tube to a 2-3 cm depth. Add some glass wool to soak up the ethanol, using a glass rod to push the wool down the tube.. Clamp the boiling tube in a horizontal position using a retort stand.. Put a small amount of aluminium oxide about half way along the boiling tube.. Complete the set up of the apparatus as shown in the diagram above.. Light the Bunsen burner, adjust it to a blue flame and heat the aluminium oxide. (Make sure the test tube is filled with water when you start to collect the gas produced.). As the aluminium oxide gets hot the heat reaches the ethanol at the end of the tube. The ethanol then changes to vapour, passes over the hot aluminium oxide and is dehydrated to produce ethene gas.. Let the bubbles produced escape for a short time (these are mainly bubbles of displaced air). Collect 5 test tubes of the gas and put a stopper on each tube when it is filled.. When the test tubes have all been filled, loosen the ...
Chlorinated ethylenes are among the most common and pervasive groundwater contaminants in the United States. The chlorinated ethylenes are produced in large quantities and they are widely used in industry including food packaging, synthetic fibers, and industrial solvents. Because chlorinated ethylenes are barely soluble in water, they can accumulate in groundwater and emerge in water supplies, posing serious carcinogenic and neurological risks to human health.. A potential solution to remove the chlorinated ethylenes is in situ, or on site, bioremediation (ISB). ISB is an appealing technology that encourages natural bacteria to grow and produce to remove harmful organic elements, such as chlorinated ethylenes, through the process of biological degradation. ISB occurs when the oil-based chlorinated ethylenes and water come into contact and the biodegrading bacteria are attached to the oil-water interface, absorbing and digesting the harmful oils. The ISB process becomes very effective if the ...
Water-soluble, nonionic, relatively inert, liquids or solids. Confers slip and humectant properties to coatings. See poly(ethylene oxide) for higher molecular weights. The terms poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(ethylene oxide) refer to polymers which are chemically identical. Polymer chains are hydroxyl-terminated at both ends. At all except the lowest molecular weights poly(ethylene glycol) has a broad molecular weight distribution ranging from ~ 0.5x to 1.5x the values shown.. Soluble in: alcohol, acetone, chloroform, toluene, dichloromethane. PEG Learn More ...
Looking for online definition of Ethylenes in the Medical Dictionary? Ethylenes explanation free. What is Ethylenes? Meaning of Ethylenes medical term. What does Ethylenes mean?
Most endophytic bacteria in consortia, which provide robust and broad metabolic capacity, are attractive for applications in plant metabolic engineering. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of engineered endophytic bacterial strains on rice sprout ethylene level and growth under saline stress. A protocol was developed to synthesize engineered strains by expressing bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase gene on cells of endophytic Enterobacter sp. E5 and Kosakonia sp. S1 (denoted as E5P and S1P, respectively). Results showed that ACC deaminase activities of the engineered strains E5P and S1P were significantly higher than those of the wild strains E5 and S1. About 32-41% deaminase was expressed on the surface of the engineered strains. Compared with the controls without inoculation, inoculation with the wild and engineered strains increased the deaminase activities of sprouts. Inoculation with the engineered strains increased 15-21% more deaminase activities of
Pasqualini S, Paolocci F, Borgogni A, Morettini R, Ederli L. (2007). The overexpression of an alternative oxidase gene triggers ozone sensitivity in tobacco plants . PLANT, CELL AND ENVIRONMENT, 30: 1545-1556.. - Castagna A, Ederli L, Pasqualini S, Mensuali-Sodi A, Baldan B, Ranieri A. (2007). Role of ethylene in triggering ROS production in the tomato mutant Nr subjected to acute ozone treatment. . In: -. Avances in Plant Ethylene Research. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on the Plant Hormone Ethylene. p. 287-288, Dordrecht (The Netherlands): A. Ramina, C. Chang, J. Giovannoni, H. Klee, P. Perata, E. Woltering, ISBN: 9781402060137.. - Pasqualini S, Morettini R, Borgogni A, Ederli L. (2007). Cross talk between ethylene, nitric oxide and salicylic acid in ozone fumigated tobacco plants. . In: -. Advances in Plant Ethylene Research. Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on the Plant Hormone Ethylene.. p. 383-385, Dordrecht (The Netherlands): A. Ramina, C. Chang, J. ...
When you also, leave fruits closed in a bag, the Ethylene production is high. Hence, you get ripened fruits faster. Knowing the need for Ethylene, fruit vendors/producers have started producing Ethylene to their produce in order to escalate its process.. The development stage of the fruit is when photosynthate is converted to starch and ripening stage is when starch is converted to sugar. For example, If bananas from Mexico are being shipped to California then they are plucked at the Development stage and Ethylene is produced to escalate the process to reach to the ripening stage for commercial reasons. Fruits are digestible only when they are ripened and are easily absorbed , and the nutrient content is high. At the same time, too much Ethylene production could also lead to ruining the enzymes and could lead to destruction of the produce.. Technology has improved so much that Ethylene production can be alternated, hence controlling the ripening process of the fruit. Now the big question? Does ...
EPA also must offer the opportunity for public hearings on proposed air quality rules.. Top of Page. Is the EPA planning on setting regulations for EtO and what is the expected timeframe? What regulations are they working on, handling as well as emissions?. EPA has existing rules for industries that emit ethylene oxide, and we have begun to review those. We are starting with our air toxics emissions standards for miscellaneous organic chemical manufacturing facilities, some of which emit ethylene oxide. We also are beginning work to look at emissions standards for commercial sterilizers.. Top of Page. What does the EPA think of the Ontario Canada standards for ambient air concentration published in 2007 based upon their own work and review of various standards including North Carolina and California?. EPAs 2016 unit risk estimate (URE) for ethylene oxide is based on the best available science and follows the EPA guidelines. Ontarios 2007 air quality standards for ethylene oxide are based on ...
AbstractIn the ethylene glycol generation unit of petrochemical plants, first a reaction of ethylene oxide takes place which is then followed by other side reactions. These reactions include water absorption with ethylene oxide, which leads to the generation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Over the lifetime of the alpha-alumina-based silver catalyst there is an increase in side reactions, increasing the amount of the formaldehyde and acetaldehyde generated by the ethylene oxide reactor which leads to reduced MEG product purity. Given the need of a petrochemical complex to further strip the aldehyde (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) to increase the quality of the MEG and increase the lifetime of the alpha-alumina-based silver catalyst, resin beds are designed and their surface absorption capacity is investigated to optimize aldehyde (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) removal in the recirculating water flow of the ethylene oxide unit. Experiments show that the ion exchange system based on strong anionic
Wholesale Colorless Ethylene Glycol - Select 2018 high quality Wholesale Colorless Ethylene Glycol products in best price from certified Chinese Ethylene Chloride manufacturers, Ethylene Diamine suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
Looking for Ethylene Cyanohydrin? Find out information about Ethylene Cyanohydrin. C3H5ON A colorless liquid that is miscible with water and boils at 221°C. , HOCH2CH2CN, a colorless, viscous liquid.Ethylene cyanohydrin has a melting point... Explanation of Ethylene Cyanohydrin
There is evidence that abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene both play important roles in the physiological processes of grape maturation. However, the interaction between ABA and ethylene metabolism in grape maturation is unclear. We applied 50 μM (±) abscinazole-E3 (Abz, ABA 8-hydroxylase inhibitor) or 500 μM ethephon to grape berries at 44 DAFB (days after full bloom). Grape berries were sampled at 44, 48, 54, 64, 94 DAFB. The ABA, ethylene concentrations and related gene expressions were analyzed. The results showed that Abz or ethephon treatment decreased the firmness and titratable acid concentration. Abz treatment inhibited VvCYP707A1 gene expression levels at 48 DAFB and increased endogenous ABA accumulation at 54 DAFB. Ethephon treatment significantly up-regulated VvNCED1 gene expression levels at 48 DAFB and VvCYP707A1 at 54 DAFB, but had no effect on ABA concentration. Ethylene and gene expression levels of VvACO1 and VvERF2 in Abz- and ethephon-treated berries at 48 DAFB were ...
Erie, Pennsylvania 16501. Dear Mr. Rohleder:. This is in response to your inquiry of September 6, regarding procedures for ethylene oxide (EtO) spills and ethylene oxide disposal.. All spills should be immediately cleaned up with non-combustible adsorbent material that is readily available on the market. OSHA does not specify any one type of spill cleaning and adsorbing material or equipment; however, water should be used to wash down spill areas.. Since EtO is a gas at room temperature, you are dealing with the gaseous form of EtO predominantly in your work air that will not produce a spill. For example, when EtO leaks from a high pressure vessel, the EtO would be in a liquid form for only a short period of time as it leaks into the air. It then quickly equilibrates with the room air to form a gas. Both the gaseous and, when necessary, the liquid phase of EtO exposure must be taken into consideration.. See enclosed excerpts from appendices of 29 CFR 1910.1047 (Ethylene Oxide) which includes ...
China Ethylene Glycol Market currently implements traditional processes for the production of ethylene glycol; manufacturers in china produce ethylene glycol from coal as compared to traditional petrochemical route
When a single dose of 2 mg labelled ethylene oxide in propanediol/kg body weight was applied intraperitoneally to rats, 43% of the administered radioactivity was excreted in the urine within 50 h (41% within 24 h) of exposure, 9% as S-(2- hydroxyethyl)cysteine and 33% as N-acetyl- S-(2-hydroxyethyl) cysteine, both products of glutathione conjugation. Via the lungs, 1.5% was excreted as carbon dioxide and 1% as unmetabolized ethylene oxide (Jones & Wells, 1981). The involvement of glutathione-epoxide- S-transferase (EC 4.4.1.7) has not been investigated further. In vitro glutathione conjugation of the homologue propylene oxide was shown to proceed only in the presence of an enzyme (Fjellstedt et al., 1973). In rabbits, no effect was found on liver- and blood-glutathione levels, after 12 weeks of exposure to concentrations of ethylene oxide at 18, 90, or 450 mg/m3, for 5 days per week, 6 h per day (Yager & Benz, 1982). As ethylene oxide can react with chloride ions, and this reaction is acid ...
BD Bard came under fire last summer, when a report was released correlating elevated cancer rates in the Covington area with the companys use of ethylene oxide, a gas that made the environmantal Protection Agencys list of gases that definitely cause cancer. In January, BD Bard was was ordered to pay the cities of Madison and Covington $65,000 each due to the companys previous violations in the production of ethylene oxide. Madison is home to one of the seven industrial plants in Georgia that use ethylene oxide. The spotlight fell on Madisons BD Bard plant after its sister plant in Covington was forced to shut down by the state when local officials detected elevated ethylene oxide emissions in the air-as high as 5,600 pounds a year. According to a court ruling in the case between BD Bard and the Georgia Environmental Protection Division (GEPD), BD Bard is mandated To mitigate the impact of these issues, BD Bard shall provide a grant of $65,000 to the city of Covington, Ga., and a grant of ...
Ethylene oxide is a colorless gas at room temperature and a colorless liquid below 51�F (10.7�C). It is shipped as a liquefied, compressed gas. Both the gas and liquid are potential fire and explosion hazards. Ethylene oxide has a sweet, ether-like odor at air concentrations above 500 ppm. Ethylene oxide is soluble in water and organic solvents. Synonyms include dimethylene oxide, 1,2-epoxyethane, EtO, EO, ethene oxide, and oxirane.
United States Patent 3,450,658 GELATINIZABLE AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF POLY(ETHYLENE OXIDE) RESIN AS SIZING FOR TEXTILE FIBERS Charles R. W. Morison, Ossining, N.Y., assignor to Union Carbide Corporation, a corporation of New York No Drawing. Filed Jan. 11, 1066, Ser. No. 519,947 Int. Cl. C08g 51/24, 43/00; D06m 15/44 US. Cl. 260---29.2 11 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A gelatinizable aqueous solution consisting essentially of water from 0.5 to 20 percent by weight of a poly (ethylene oxide) resin having a molecular weight of at least about 50,000 and at least one salt having an ion selected from the group consisting of ammonium ions, and multivalent anions containing only non-metallic elements. This invention relates to novel poly(ethylene oxide) compositions and to their use as sizing agents. More particularly this invention is concerned with gelatinizable aqueous solutions of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) compounds and to their use in the sizing of fibers such as glass fibers. ...
Disclosed are hot melt adhesives comprising tackifier and a high Mw, narrow MWD, narrow CD ethylene/alpha-olefin copolymer(s) and a low Mw, narrow MWD, narrow MWD ethylene/alpha-olefin copolymer prepared with either supported or unsupported cyclopentadienyl derivatives of Group IV and catalysts for applications in hot melt adhesives, particularly in automotive product assembly, packaging and food packaging. These ethylene copolymers have an Mw ranging from 20,000 to 100,000, an MWD of less than 6 and 3 to 17 mole percent comonomer, and composition distribution breadth index above 70 percent. These ethylene copolymer blends have an Mw ranging from 20,000 to 100,000 and an MWD of less than 6. In addition, the copolymer blends have comonomer mole percent ranging from 3 to 17.
Acetone ethylene ketal, Wholesale Various High Quality Acetone ethylene ketal Products from Global Sodium Tripolyphosphate Suppliers and Acetone ethylene ketal Factory,Importer,Exporter at Okchem.com.
As food crop, wheat is of prime importance for human society. Nevertheless, our understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms controlling wheat productivity conditions has been, so far, hampered by the lack of sufficient genomic resources. The present work describes the isolation and characterization of TdERF1, an ERF gene from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum). The structural features of TdERF1 supported the hypothesis that it is a novel member of the ERF family in durum wheat and, considering its close similarity to TaERF1 of Triticum aestivum, it probably plays a similar role in mediating responses to environmental stresses. TdERF1 displayed an expression pattern that discriminated between two durum wheat genotypes contrasted with regard to salt-stress tolerance. The high number of cis-regulatory elements related to stress responses present in the TdERF1 promoter and the ability of TdERF1 to regulate the transcription of ethylene and drought-responsive promoters clearly ...
The process of the present invention may be used to prepare homopolymers of ethylene and copolymers of ethylene and higher alpha olefins having densities in the range of, for example, about 0.900-0.970 g/cm3 and especially 0.910-0.965 g/cm3; the polymers of higher density e.g. about 0.960 and above being homopolymers. Such polymers may have a melt index, as measured by the method of ASTM D-1238, condition E, in the range of for example, 0.1-200 dg/min, typically from about 0.1 to 150 dg/min., and especially in the range of about 0.1 to 120 dg/min. The polymers may be manufactured with narrow or broad molecular weight distribution. For example, the polymers may have a stress exponent, a measure of the molecular weight distribution, in the range of about 1.1-2.5 and especially in the range of about 1.3-2.0. Stress exponent is determined by measuring the throughput of a melt indexer at two stresses (2160 g and 6480 g loading) using the procedures of the ASTM melt index test method, and the ...
Ethylene OxideOVERVIEWEthylene oxide (ETH-ih-leen OK-side) is a flammable, colorless gas with the odor of ether. The gas is a cyclic compound, consisting of a ring of two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. Each carbon atom also has two hydrogen atoms attached to it. Ethylene oxide was first prepared in 1859 by French chemist Charles Adolphe Wurtz (1817-1884). Source for information on Ethylene Oxide: Chemical Compounds dictionary.
1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) enzymes catalyze the conversion of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) into 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), a direct precursor of ethylene.
This is the ICIS pricing methodology for ethylene oxide. ICIS quotes ethylene oxide prices in Europe and the US.. ICIS continuously develops, reviews and revises its methodologies in consultation with industry participants. Previous versions of this methodology can be found under Archived Documents.. To find out more, please see Ethylene Oxide Methodology - 22 April 2014. ...
This invention relates to ethylene oxide catalyst for the vapor phase production of ethylene oxide from ethylene and oxygen prepared by impregnating a porous, refractory support having a surface area
Background Co-infection of HIV with HBV is common in West Africa but small information is on the consequences of HBV on short-term therapy for HIV individuals. be the necessity to think about the confounder ramifications of sex, pre-ART Compact disc4+, and pre-ART HIV-1 viral fill within the discourse on HIV and HBV co-infection. genes of HIV-1 strains that have been challenging to amplify using the in-house assay [25]. Phylogenetic interactions were determined utilizing a incomplete area including 867 nucleotides along with a RT area covering with 691 nucleotides and strategies as described previously [26]. This was done to ensure that subtyping of the RT sequences was truly representative of the region. Sequences used for phylogeny and in the FASTA format were submitted to the Stanford University database (http://www.HIVdb.stanford.edu) for interpretation of resistance and assignment of subtype. Mutation scores were used to derive genotypic sensitivity scores (GSS) based on specific ...
Readily available Ru catalyst can be used for production of methanol and ethylene glycol from ethylene carbonate, formed from carbon dioxide and ethylene oxide .
The chain polyene-group containing norbornene compound of the invention is represented by the formula [I]: ##STR1## wherein n is an integer of 1 to 5, R1 is an alkyl group of 1 to 5 carbon atoms, and R2 and R3 are each independently a hydrogen atom or an alkyl group of 1 to 5 carbon atoms. The unsaturated ethylene copolymer of the invention is a random copolymer of 30 to 92% by mol of (i) ethylene units, 6 to 70% by mol of (ii) specific α-olefin units and 0.1 to 30% by mol of (iii) units derived from the norbornene compound [I], where the molar ratio of (i)/(ii) is in the range of 40/60 to 92/8 and the unit (iii) is represented by the specific formula, and has an intrinsic viscosity [η] of 0.05 to 10 dl/g. The novel unsaturated ethylene copolymer is excellent in weathering resistance, heat resistance and ozone resistance and has a high vulcanizing rate.
Process for the manufacture of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) starting from a stream of ethane which is subjected to a catalytic oxydehydrogenation (ODH) producing a gas mixture containing ethylene then dried and subjected to an absorption to be separated into a fraction enriched with the compounds that are lighter than ethylene containing some of the ethylene conveyed to a chlorination reactor R1 in which most of the ethylene is converted into DCE, and into a fraction F1 which is subjected to a desorption D1 to be separated into an ethylene fraction depleted of the compounds that are lighter than ethylene conveyed to a chlorination reactor R2, the stream of products derived from this reactor being added to the dry gas mixture, and into a fraction F2. Fraction F2 is then subjected to a desorption D2 to be separated into a fraction enriched with ethylene conveyed to an oxychlorination reactor in which most of the ethylene is converted into DCE, and into a fraction F3 which is recycled to the absorption.
The agreement covers BPs 15 per cent interest in Ethylene Malaysia (EMSB) and 60 per cent interest in Polyethylene Malaysia (PEMSB) − both of which are operated by Petronas.. BPs other businesses in Malaysia are unaffected by the sale.. EMSBs olefins cracker has production capacity of approximately 440,000 tonnes per annum (tpa) of ethylene, a basic petrochemical feedstock.. PEMSBs polyethylene plant has a production capacity of 318,000tpa of polyethylene, used primarily for packaging and film manufacture. Ethylene feedstock for the plant is supplied by EMSB.. Sue Rataj, president of BPs Global Petrochemicals Business, said: BP will continue to focus on the development and expansion of our olefins and derivatives business in China, and other large rapidly growing markets, and pursue opportunities in China and India to extend our world-leading positions in aromatics and acetyls.. BP and Petronas expect the deal to be complete by the end of the year.. ...
D2647 - 10 Standard Specification for Crosslinkable Ethylene Plastics , crosslinkable, crosslinked, ethylene plastics, insoluble fraction, volume resistivity, Crosslinking, Ethylene plastics--specifications,
The FDA organized regulators from public health agencies, medical device manufacturers and expert physicians gathering Wednesday November 6th and Thursday November 7th at a two-day meeting to discuss how to address challenges with ethylene oxide. The FDA is looking to determine if there is a viable alternative for large scale medical device sterilization. There are many determinants, but one is if there is an elimination of ethylene oxide, what the FDA can do to prevent device shortages if reduced sterilization capabilities come to pass. New concerns present many challenges to an industry, but offer many opportunities for advancement in the possible use of even greater technology as well ...
From the research results are as follows: bananas are ripened with carbide fastest (less than three days) maturation, but also the fastest pembusukannya. Then, according to experts from the Post Harvest Unbraw: Banana and a kind, mature processes proceed naturally chemically. Carbohydrates in the womb flesh turned into glucose, which makes the sweetness and softened.…
(2016) De Gernier et al. Frontiers in Plant Science. An original approach to develop sustainable agriculture with less nitrogen fertilizer inputs is to tackle the cross-talk between nitrogen nutrition and plant growth regulators. In particular the gaseous hormone, ethylene, is a prime target for ...
The current outcry from communities that have been exposed to the carcinogen ethylene oxide has federal regulators and device makers seriously rethinking a question thats been hanging over the sterilization industry for decades: Can ethylene oxide be replaced?
This manual is intended to provide general information to persons who may handle or store ethylene oxide. It includes information on the properties, health effects, environmental effects and hazards of Ethylene Oxide.
Ethylene is a flammable gas that is in natural gas, coal gas, crude oil, and is admitted by over ripe fruit. This is a photo of fermenting fruit that is admitting ethylene.
An organic farmer acquaintance is having a problem with some of his tomato starts. The leaves on the growing tip are curling up on the margins. There is no associated yellowing or wilting, and aphids arent overly abundant, but he is concerned about the long-term plant health. The afflicted plants are 4-6 weeks old and are not of only one cultivar. The local county extension agent mentioned ethylene poisoning due to incomplete combustion of propane or kerosene from the greenhouse heaters. As this is the first year for the leaf curling and not the first for the heaters, I dont buy that. Would you please send me the symptoms of ethylene poisoning and any hypotheses you might have? Thanks for your time and service ...
ISBN 978-0-321-80322-1. Roberts, Irving; Kimball, George E. (1937). "The Halogenation of Ethylenes". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 59 (5): ...
Morrison & Boyd ISBN 0-205-05838-8 Roberts, Irving; Kimball, George E. (1937). "The Halogenation of Ethylenes". Journal of the ...
Each of these cases is illustrated below: The term "captodative ethylenes" has been used in the context of cycloaddition ... for captodative ethylenes. Effects have also been reported in cases like Diels-Alder and Friedel-Crafts reactions in cases ... "Understanding the Reactivity of Captodative Ethylenes in Polar Cycloaddition Reactions. A Theoretical Study". Journal of ...
An interpretation of the cis effect exhibited by 1,2-disubstituted ethylenes and related phenomena". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 98 (2): ... and oxygen-substituted ethylenes. In these cases, the cis isomer is more stable than the trans isomer. This phenomenon is ...
Early examples of metallacyclopentanes come from studies of the Ni-catalyzed linear- and cyclo-dimerization of ethylenes. ...
Her work was fresh and innovative, using industrial materials like polyurethanes and ethylenes sculpted into organic forms. Her ...
An interpretation of the cis effect exhibited by 1,2-disubstituted ethylenes and related phenomena Richard C. Bingham J. Am. ...
The contaminants, chlorinated ethylenes (PCE and TCE), were removed, leaving, for the most part, fully dechlorinated ...
... ethylenes and stilbazoles in water Mahesh Pattabiraman, Arunkumar Natarajan, Raja Kaliappan, Joel T. Mague and V. Ramamurthy ...
Anaerobic bioremediation can be employed to treat a broad range of oxidized contaminants including chlorinated ethylenes (PCE, ...
The "n=7" defines the number of two-carbon ethylenes, and so the chain length, of the attached PEG chain, and the "monomethoxy ...
Ethylenes explanation free. What is Ethylenes? Meaning of Ethylenes medical term. What does Ethylenes mean? ... Looking for online definition of Ethylenes in the Medical Dictionary? ... Ethylenes , definition of Ethylenes by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Ethylenes ... redirected from Ethylenes). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. ethylene. [eth´ĭ-lēn] a colorless, highly ...
Synthesis of New Vitamin B12 Model Complexes for Mechanistic Studies of the Reductive Dechlorination of Chlorinated Ethylenes. ... Synthesis of New Vitamin B12 Model Complexes for Mechanistic Studies of the Reductive Dechlorination of Chlorinated Ethylenes. ...
FLUORINATED ETHYLENES AND CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS INDUCED BY EPINEPHRINE. Raymond M. Burgison, W. Edward OMalley, Claire K. Heisse ... FLUORINATED ETHYLENES AND CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS INDUCED BY EPINEPHRINE. Raymond M. Burgison, W. Edward OMalley, Claire K. Heisse ... FLUORINATED ETHYLENES AND CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS INDUCED BY EPINEPHRINE. Raymond M. Burgison, W. Edward OMalley, Claire K. Heisse ... FLUORINATED ETHYLENES AND CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS INDUCED BY EPINEPHRINE Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
... ethylenes whereas tetrasubstituted (E)-ethylenes were obtained when ethyl isocyanoacetate was employed in this transformation. ... Stereoselective synthesis of fully substituted ethylenes via an Ag-catalyzed 1,6-nucleophilic addition/annulation cascade† ... Stereoselective synthesis of fully substituted ethylenes via an Ag-catalyzed 1,6-nucleophilic addition/annulation cascade B. ...
Kinetic and modeling investigations of the anaerobic reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethylenes using single and binary ...
Find out information about Ethylenes. or , H2C=CH2, a gaseous unsaturated hydrocarbon. It is the simplest alkene alkene , any ... of a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons whose molecules contain one or... Explanation of Ethylenes ... Ethylenes , Article about Ethylenes by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Ethylenes ... redirected from Ethylenes). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. ethylene. (ĕth`əlēn) or ethene. (ĕth`ēn), H2C=CH2, ...
NIOSH-Author; Equipment-design; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits; Ethylenes; Occupational-exposure; Hospital-equipment; Time- ...
Ethylenes; Oxides; Air-sampling; Health-care-personnel; Carcinogens; Author Keywords: general medical and surgical; ethylene ...
N2 - Chlorinated ethylenes, (CE), specifically perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), are widespread groundwater ... AB - Chlorinated ethylenes, (CE), specifically perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), are widespread groundwater ... Chlorinated ethylenes, (CE), specifically perchloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), are widespread groundwater ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Aqueous reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethylenes with tetrakis-(4- ...
... poly ethylenes; fluoropolymers; polyolefin; as well as other medical polymers known in the art. Cuff 250 can also be made of ...
Tominaga et al., "Polarized Ethylenes. IV. Synthesis of Polarized Ethylenes Using Thioamides and Methyl Dithiocarboxylates and ...
Ethylenes / metabolism* * Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / physiology * Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / ...
Ethylenes * Indoleacetic Acids * Abscisic Acid Grant support * GM07757/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States ...
... chlorinated ethylenes including monochloroethylene, dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene; chlorinated ...
Ethylenes / analysis*. Genetic Variation. Humans. Oxygenases / genetics. Proteome / genetics*. Vinyl Chloride / analysis*, ... 0/Carcinogens; 0/Ethylenes; 0/Proteome; 0/Water Pollutants, Chemical; 74-85-1/ethylene; 75-01-4/Vinyl Chloride; EC 1.13.-/ ...
ISBN 978-0-321-80322-1. Roberts, Irving; Kimball, George E. (1937). "The Halogenation of Ethylenes". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 59 (5): ...
Morrison & Boyd ISBN 0-205-05838-8 Roberts, Irving; Kimball, George E. (1937). "The Halogenation of Ethylenes". Journal of the ...
Vapor pressures of cis and trans substituted ethylenes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 72:33-34. ...
Chemical-reactions; Ethylenes; Humans; Carcinogenesis; Carcinogenicity; Carcinogens; Gene-mutation; Genetic-factors. Contact. ...
1H- und C-NMR-Spektren von Methoxy-substituierten Äthylenen / 1H and 13C NMR Spectra of Methoxy-substituted Ethylenes. ...
Das, "Rapid Estimation of Ethylenes with Mercuric Acetate," Anal. Chem., 26:1086-1087 (1954).. ... Das, Rapid Estimation of Ethylenes with Mercuric Acetate, Anal. Chem., 26:1086 1087 (1954).. ...
... and fluorinated ethylenes); glass; stainless steel; polyesters; PTFE-encapsulated silicone rubbers; polyimides, and hydrocarbon ...
Wittel, K.; Bock, H.; Manne, R., Photoelectron spectra of iodo ethylenes. A simple method to incorporate spin orbit coupling in ...
About this substance This section provides an overview of the calculated volume at which the substance is manufactured or imported to the European Economic Area (EU28 + Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). Additionally, if available, information on the use of the substance and how consumers and workers are likely to be exposed to it can also be displayed here.. The use information is displayed per substance life cycle stage (consumer use, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites or in manufacturing). The information is aggregated from the data coming from REACH substance registrations provided by industry.. For a detailed overview on identified uses and environmental releases, please consult the registered substance factsheet.. Use descriptors are adapted from ECHA guidance to improve readability and may not correspond textually to descriptor codes described in Chapter R.12: Use Descriptor system of ECHA Guidance on information ...
Ethylenes; Oxides; Air-sampling; Health-care-personnel; Carcinogens; Author Keywords: general medical and surgical; ethylene ...
Renal-toxicity; Ethylenes; Dry-cleaning-solvents; Carcinogens; Dry-cleaning-industry; Mortality-data; Cancer; Morbidity-rates; ...
Categories: Ethylenes Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 5 images ...
  • Trois stratégies basées sur des techniques de polymérisation radicalaire contrôlée ont été mises en œuvre.Dans la première, un copolymère poly(méthacrylate de poly(éthylène glycol)-stat-2-vinyl-4,4-diméthylazlactone) (poly(PEGMA-stat-VDM)) a été préparé par polymérisation radicalaire par transfert d'atome (ATRP) selon la technique « grafting from » à partir des MNP et utilisé pour la bioconjugaison de thymine peptide nucleic acid (PNA). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Pour cela, des PICMs composées d'un copolymère cationique de type poly(éthylène glycol)-bloc-poly(méthacrylate d'(alkylamino)éthyle) et d'un copolymère d'acide méthacrylique ont été préparées. (umontreal.ca)
  • Fritsch, JM & McNeill, K 2005, ' Aqueous reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethylenes with tetrakis-(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin cobalt ', ACS National Meeting Book of Abstracts , vol. 230. (elsevier.com)
  • What Are the Important Polymerization Reactions of Ethylene and Substituted Ethylenes? (ecampus.com)
  • An Ag 2 O-catalyzed reaction of yne-allenone esters with tosylmethyl isocyanide proceeded efficiently, and provided a simple and convergent protocol for the synthesis of fully substituted ( Z )-ethylenes whereas tetrasubstituted ( E )-ethylenes were obtained when ethyl isocyanoacetate was employed in this transformation. (rsc.org)
  • Oligothiophenes III: Synthesis of Tetra-thienyl-substituted Ethylenes Including an Abnormal McMurry Coupling Result. (uio.no)
  • Synthesis and partial characterization of complexes of some of the above polarized ethylenes and acetylenes with cobalt(II) chloride are reported. (caltech.edu)
  • Ecological impact assessment of a bioaugmentation site on remediation of chlorinated ethylenes by multi-omics analysis. (nih.gov)
  • R.sup.1 R.sup.2 ethylenes, in which R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 independently are selected from hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted C.sub.1 to C.sub.20 alkyl groups having from 1 to 40 carbon atoms, and c. alkyl vinyl ethers, wherein the alkyl group is linear or branched, substituted or unsubstituted, having from 1 to about 40 carbon atoms, and ii. (patentgenius.com)
  • L'analyse par microscopie électronique à transmission (TEM) a montré qu'après bioconjugaison les MNP possèdent une très bonne aptitude à la dispersion en milieu aqueux.La troisième stratégie met en œuvre la technique «grafting onto » de copolymères poly(oxyde d'éthylène)-bloc-poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone) (PEO-b-PVDM) pour la préparation de nanosupports magnétiques recyclables. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Applications of the selective mercuration of cis- and trans- ethylenes. (flatmountaingirls.com)
  • For instance, for 1,2-difluoroethylene, 1,2-difluorodiazene (FN=NF), and several other halogen- and oxygen-substituted ethylenes, the cis isomer is more stable than the trans isomer. (chemeurope.com)