Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Ethylene Glycol: A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.Poloxamer: A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Poloxalene: A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. It is a non-ionic polyol surface-active agent used medically as a fecal softener and in cattle for prevention of bloat.Ethylene Chlorohydrin: Used as a solvent, in the manufacture of insecticides, and for treating sweet potatoes before planting. May cause nausea, vomiting, pains in head and chest, stupefaction. Irritates mucous membranes and causes kidney and liver degeneration.Ethylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Central Supply, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for receiving, storing, and distributing medical and surgical supplies and equipment.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Ethylene Dichlorides: Toxic, chlorinated, saturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. The latter is considerably more toxic. It has a sweet taste, ethereal odor and has been used as a fumigant and intoxicant among sniffers. Has many household and industrial uses.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Ethylene Dibromide: An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration: An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Propiolactone: Disinfectant used in vapor form to sterilize vaccines, grafts, etc. The vapor is very irritating and the liquid form is carcinogenic.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Chlorohydrins: Any of the compounds derived from a group of glycols or polyhydroxy alcohols by chlorine substitution for part of the hydroxyl groups. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Biofouling: Process by which unwanted microbial, plant or animal materials or organisms accumulate on man-made surfaces.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Polyethylenes: Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Acrylonitrile: A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Philately: Study of stamps or postal markings. It usually refers to the design and commemorative aspects of the stamp.Dictionaries, MedicalUnited States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Nisin: A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Sterilization, Tubal: Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Animal Shells: The hard rigid covering of animals including MOLLUSCS; TURTLES; INSECTS; and crustaceans.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.

Is breast cancer cluster influenced by environmental and occupational factors among hospital nurses in Hungary? (1/202)

An unusual cluster of 8 breast cancer and 8 other malignant tumor cases (ovarian, uterus, lung, colon and brain tumors and malignant melanoma) developed in a period of 12 years among 98 nurses exposed to ethylene oxide (EtOx) for 5 15 years in a unit using gas sterilizer in a hospital of the archiepiscopal city of Eger, Hungary. EtOx concentration in air samples of the working area varied from 5 to 150 mg/m3. The question was, if there was any causal relationship between the elevated incidence of breast cancer and the EtOx exposure, the other possibility was, that this cluster appeared accidentally. EtOx is a human carcinogen, however, no increased breast cancer incidence in EtOx-exposed subjects was reported in the literature. We followed up for two consecutive years the 27 non cancer patients, EtOx-exposed nurses and 11 unexposed hospital controls with the aid of a multiple genotoxicology monitor including chromosomal aberration, sister-chromatide exchange, HPRT point mutation and DNA repair studies. The results were compared with data from 30 local historical controls, 48 historical controls from Budapest, 14 hospital controls and 9 EtOx exposed nurses from Budapest. Significantly high chromosome aberration yields (especially chromosome type exchanges) were alike detected in EtOx-exposed and the two other control groups in Eger. These results could not be interpreted as a consequence of EtOx exposure only, since in the EtOx-exposed group from Budapest, beside an increased total aberration frequency, the obtained exchange type aberration yields were as low as the historical controls. A plausible explanation can be the natural low dose radioactivity (222Rn) of the local tap-water due to a specific geological situation in Eger. The spontaneous breast cancer incidence in Hungary doubled in the last 10 years compared with the previous 20 years (1960 1980), especially in Eger. The appearance of the high breast cancer incidence in the hospital of Eger indicates the combined effect of EtOx and a more common local etiologic factor, such as the naturally radioactive tap-water. However, since the reported studies did not involve the investigation either of the genetic predisposition, or the effects of other possible environmental, occupational, and/or life style confounding factors, further studies (partly in progress) are necessary to clarify the importance of these factors.  (+info)

Molecular dosimetry of endogenous and ethylene oxide-induced N7-(2-hydroxyethyl) guanine formation in tissues of rodents. (2/202)

The formation of N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (7-HEG) in DNA was investigated previously in target and non-target tissues of F-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice exposed to >/=ISOdia>/=10 p.p.m. concentrations of ethylene oxide (EO) using fluorescence-linked high-performance liquid chromatography [V.E. Walker et al. (1992) Cancer Res., 52, 4238-4334]. In order to study the dose-responses for 7-HEG at lower exposures, a highly sensitive and specific gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) assay was developed. DNA was extracted from liver, brain, lung and spleen of B6C3F1 mice and F-344 rats exposed to 0, 3, 10, 33 or 100 p.p.m. EO for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). Analysis of DNA from control rodents showed that endogenous 7-HEG varied from 0.2 +/- 0.1 to 0.3 +/- 0.2 pmol/micromol guanine in tissues of rats and mice. 7-HEG exhibited tissue- and species-specific dose-response relationships in EO-exposed animals. Linear dose-response relationships were evident in mouse liver, brain and spleen at exposures between 3 and 100 p.p.m. Mouse lung exhibited a slightly sublinear response between 33 and 100 p.p.m. EO. The relationships were linear in liver and spleen of rats between 3 and 100 p.p.m. EO, but were slightly sublinear in brain and lung between 33 and 100 p.p.m. EO. The number of 7-HEG adducts present in rats exposed to 3 p.p.m. EO was 5.3-12.5 times higher than endogenous 7-HEG in unexposed controls. In contrast, mice exposed to 3 p.p.m. EO only had 1.3- to 2.5-fold greater numbers of 7-HEG adducts. The factors driving the exposure-response relationships are also likely to affect carcinogenic and mutagenic responses of rodents to EO. Likewise, a better understanding of the relationships between 7-HEG derived from low exposures to EO and endogenously formed 7-HEG may be important for the accurate extrapolation of risk to humans.  (+info)

Dose-rate effects of ethylene oxide exposure on developmental toxicity. (3/202)

In risk assessment, evaluating a health effect at a duration of exposure that is untested involves assuming that equivalent multiples of concentration (C) and duration (T) of exposure have the same effect. The limitations of this approach (attributed to F. Haber, Zur Geschichte des Gaskrieges [On the history of gas warfare], in Funf Vortrage aus den Jahren 1920-1923 [Five lectures from the years 1920-1923], 1924, Springer, Berlin, pp. 76-92), have been noted in several studies. The study presented in this paper was designed to specifically look at dose-rate (C x T) effects, and it forms an ideal case study to implement statistical models and to examine the statistical issues in risk assessment. Pregnant female C57BL/6J mice were exposed, on gestational day 7, to ethylene oxide (EtO) via inhalation for 1.5, 3, or 6 h at exposures that result in C x T multiples of 2100 or 2700 ppm-h. EtO was selected because of its short half-life, documented developmental toxicity, and relevance to exposures that occur in occupational settings. Concurrent experiments were run with animals exposed to air for similar periods. Statistical analysis using models developed to assess dose-rate effects revealed significant effects with respect to fetal death and resorptions, malformations, crown-to-rump length, and fetal weight. Animals exposed to short, high exposures of EtO on day 7 of gestation were found to have more adverse effects than animals exposed to the same C x T multiple but at longer, lower exposures. The implication for risk assessment is that applying Haber's Law could potentially lead to an underestimation of risk at a shorter duration of exposure and an overestimation of risk at a longer duration of exposure. Further research, toxicological and statistical, are required to understand the mechanism of the dose-rate effects, and how to incorporate the mechanistic information into the risk assessment decision process.  (+info)

Cellular internalization of PCL(20)-b-PEO(44) block copolymer micelles. (4/202)

The cellular internalization of polycaprolactone-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PCL(20)-b-PEO(44)) copolymer micelles were investigated in PC12 cells cultures. The micelles were found to be internalized into PC12 cells when followed over the 4-h incubation period. Also, the internalization process was found to fulfill the basic criteria for endocytotic uptake in that it was time, temperature, pH and energy dependent. In addition, the use of other pharmacological manipulations (hypertonic treatment, Brefeldin A) provide further evidence that the mode of cellular internalization is in fact endocytotic.  (+info)

Characterization of DNA condensates induced by poly(ethylene oxide) and polylysine. (5/202)

High-molecular-weight DNA is known to collapse into very compact particles in a salt solution containing polymers like poly(ethylene oxide) [(EO)n] or polyacrylate. The biological relevance of this phenomenon is suggested by our recent finding that high concentrations of the highly acidic internal peptides found in the mature T4 bacteriophage head, as well as poly(glutamic acid) and poly(aspartic acid), can collapse DNA in a similar manner. The structure of DNAs collapsed by various methods has been studied with electron microscope. We find (EO)n collapses T4 or T7 bacteriophage DNA into compact particles only slightly larger than the size of the T4 and T7 head, respectively. In contrast, polylysine collapses DNA into different types of structures. Double-stranded DNA collapsed with (EO)n is cut by the single-strand specific Neurospora crassa endonuclease (EC into small fragments. Extensive digestion only occurs above the critical concentration of polymer required for DNA collapse, demonstrating the (EO)n-collapsed DNA contains enzyme-vulnerable regions (probably at each fold), which are preferentially attacked. The size of the DNA fragments produced by limit-digestion with the nuclease ranges between 200 and 400 base pairs when DNA is collapsed by (EO)n. Only fragments of DNA which are larger than 600 base pairs are cut by the endonuclease in (EO)n-containing solution.  (+info)

Combined effects of gamma-radiation and ethylene oxide in human diploid fibroblasts. (6/202)

Human diploid VH-10 fibroblasts were pre-exposed to gamma-rays and then treated with ethylene oxide (EtO). In the reverse experiment, the cells were pretreated with EtO and then exposed to gamma-rays. Two different dose rates of gamma-rays were used: a low dose rate (LDR, 0.66 Gy/min) and a high dose rate (HDR, 10 Gy/min). Cell killing, mutagenicity and DNA double-strand breakage were studied in both types of experiment. The induction of mutations in the HPRT locus was studied by selection in medium containing 6-thioguanine. DNA double-strand breakage, measured as fraction of activity released (FAR), was investigated using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Concerning mutagenesis, it was found that pre-exposure of the cells to gamma-radiation (1 Gy) followed by treatment with EtO (2.5 mMh) led to an additive co-interaction, irrespective of dose rate. On the other hand, the reverse experimental procedure (pretreatment with EtO followed by gamma-ray exposure) resulted in an antagonistic effect, which was most pronounced when the HDR was applied. In the latter case, the resultant mutant frequency was two times lower than the sum of the mutant frequencies after the individual treatments. However, the effect of the combined treatment on FAR was different: FAR increased with both combinations of agents used compared with the separate and hypothetically expected effects. Moreover, the HDR exposure led to an additional increase in FAR compared with the LDR one.  (+info)

Hemoglobin adducts from acrylonitrile and ethylene oxide in cigarette smokers: effects of glutathione S-transferase T1-null and M1-null genotypes. (7/202)

Acrylonitrile (ACN) is used to manufacture plastics and fibers. It is carcinogenic in rats and is found in cigarette smoke. Ethylene oxide (EO) is a metabolite of ethylene, also found in cigarette smoke, and is carcinogenic in rodents. Both ACN and EO undergo conjugation with glutathione. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between cigarette smoking and hemoglobin adducts derived from ACN and EO and to investigate whether null genotypes for glutathione transferase (GSTM1 and GSTT1) alter the internal dose of these agents. The hemoglobin adducts N-(2-cyanoethyl)valine (CEVal), which is formed from ACN, and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine (HEVal), which is formed from EO, and GST genotypes were determined in blood samples obtained from 16 nonsmokers and 32 smokers (one to two packs/day). Smoking information was obtained by questionnaire, and plasma cotinine levels were determined by immunoassay. Glutathione transferase null genotypes (GSTM1 and GSTT1) were determined by PCR. Both CEVal and HEVal levels increased with increased cigarette smoking dose (both self-reported and cotinine-based). CEVal and HEVal levels were also correlated. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes had little effect on CEVal concentrations. GSTM1 null genotypes had no significant impact on HEVal. However, HEVal levels were significantly elevated in GSTT1-null individuals when normalized to smoking status or cotinine levels. The ratio of HEVal:CEVal was also elevated in GSTT1-null smokers (1.50 +/- 0.57 versus 0.88 +/- 0.24; P = 0.0002). The lack of a functional GSTT1 is estimated to increase the internal dose of EO derived from cigarette smoke by 50-70%.  (+info)

Biomarkers of exposure and effect as indicators of potential carcinogenic risk arising from in vivo metabolism of ethylene to ethylene oxide. (8/202)

The purposes of the present study were: (i) to investigate the potential use of several biomarkers as quantitative indicators of the in vivo conversion of ethylene (ET) to ethylene oxide (EO); (ii) to produce molecular dosimetry data that might improve assessment of human risk from exogenous ET exposures. Groups (n = 7/group) of male F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed by inhalation to 0 and 3000 p. p.m. ET for 1, 2 or 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week) or to 0, 40, 1000 and 3000 p.p.m. ET for 4 weeks. N:-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine (HEV), N:7-(2-hydroxyethyl) guanine (N7-HEG) and HPRT: mutant frequencies were assessed as potential biomarkers for determining the molecular dose of EO resulting from exogenous ET exposures of rats and mice, compared with background biomarker values. N7-HEG was quantified by gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS), HEV was determined by Edman degradation and GC-HRMS and HPRT: mutant frequencies were measured by the T cell cloning assay. N7-HEG accumulated in DNA with repeated exposure of rodents to 3000 p.p.m. ET, reaching steady-state concentrations around 1 week of exposure in most tissues evaluated (brain, liver, lung and spleen). The dose-response curves for N7-HEG and HEV were supralinear in exposed rats and mice, indicating that metabolic activation of ET was saturated at exposures >/=1000 p.p.m. ET. Exposures of mice and rats to 200 p.p.m. EO for 4 weeks (as positive treatment controls) led to significant increases in HPRT: mutant frequencies over background in splenic T cells from exposed rats and mice, however, no significant mutagenic response was observed in the HPRT: gene of ET-exposed animals. Comparisons between the biomarker data for both unexposed and ET-exposed animals, the dose-response curves for the same biomarkers in EO-exposed rats and mice and the results of the rodent carcinogenicity studies of ET and EO suggest that too little EO arises from exogenous ET exposure to produce a significant mutagenic response or a carcinogenic response under standard bioassay conditions.  (+info)

  • Interactions between poly(ethylene oxide) and phenol-formaldehyde resin play important roles in the mechanism by which the two polymers improve fibre retention in the papermaking process. (
  • The adsorption of poly(ethylene oxide) on the surfaces studied does not cause - in contradiction to dispersions with smaller particles - an unlimited growth in the stability of suspensions. (
  • The work presented here investigates the synthesis of poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene oxide) diisocyanate chain-linked copolymer, and its application in the nano-encapsulation of bioactive compounds. (
  • Reference : Concomitant adsorption of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) copolymer. (
  • en] Upon addition of silica to aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) copolymers (PEO-b-PCL) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), adsorption of the solutes occurs at the silica-water interface. (
  • Sept. 25, 2019 -- In 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency considered banning ethylene oxide in new sterilizing facilities because of the cancer risk it posed to residents who lived around the plants. (
  • The entire controversy first came to light in July of 2019 when an investigative report released by Georgia Health News and WebMD questioned the use of ethylene oxide and if it was tied to elevated cancer rates in the Covington and Smyrna areas. (
  • The largest single use of ethylene oxide is in the manufacture of ethylene glycol (CH 2 OHCH 2 OH), which itself is used as an antifreeze and raw material for the production of plastics. (
  • Gov. J.B. Pritzker and state lawmakers promote their newly adopted restrictions on cancer-causing ethylene oxide as the "toughest in the nation. (
  • Tammy Duckworth and Dick Durbin -- urged the agency to find alternatives to ethylene oxide, or EtO, after a public outcry over the cancer-causing gas erupted in Willowbrook, IL, the site of a Sterigenics medical sterilization facility. (
  • WASHINGTON, DC - Today, Congressman Bill Foster (D-IL) and Congressman Sean Casten (D-IL) led a letter to the Acting Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) inquiring about the actions the FDA has taken, or plans to take, to examine and evaluate alternatives to ethylene oxide (EtO) sterilization methods in the United States. (
  • A number of health hazards are associated with exposure to ethylene oxide. (
  • As the result of a safety and health inspection conducted in August 2007, OSHA issued the company citations for three repeat violations, with proposed penalties of $62,500, for failing to provide adequate protection, training, monitoring, and emergency plans regarding employee exposure to ethylene oxide (EtO), a dangerous, colorless gas used in the sterilization process. (
  • Because the amount of resin interacting with the polyethylene oxide appears to be related to the molecular weight, and hence chain length, of the two polymers, cooperative binding of the polymers seems to be involved. (
  • In 2018, the EPA published a report that flagged 109 census tracts across the U.S. as having higher cancer risks, mostly due to ethylene oxide. (
  • Medical devices made from certain polymers (plastic or resin), metals, or glass, or that have multiple layers of packaging or hard-to-reach places (for example, catheters) are likely to be sterilized with ethylene oxide. (
  • An analytical site-site potential function with 19 sites per ethylene oxide molecule was fitted to the interaction energies and fine tuned to agree with data for the second acoustic virial coefficient from accurate speed of sound measurements. (
  • Ethylene oxide sign warns of chemical hazards, offers reminder to wear PPE, and helps prevent unathorized personnel from accessing a restricted area. (
  • It wasn't until media outlets such as The Intercept , Georgia Health News , and Web MD reported on the ethylene oxide hazards that communities became informed . (
  • A six-dimensional potential energy hypersurface (PES) for two interacting rigid ethylene oxide (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O) molecules was determined from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. (
  • If you live anywhere near a medical device sterilization plant, you likely know by now about ethylene oxide, the chemical gas commonly used to sterilize pre-packaged medical supplies. (
  • Researchers found most of the risks were driven by just one chemical: ethylene oxide. (
  • Medical devices are sterilized in a variety of ways including using moist heat (steam), dry heat, radiation, ethylene oxide gas, vaporized hydrogen peroxide, and other sterilization methods (for example, chlorine dioxide gas, vaporized peracetic acid, and nitrogen dioxide). (
  • This makes vaporized hydrogen peroxide gas plasma the best alternative to ethylene oxide for instruments not suitable for steam autoclaves. (
  • Shell Catalysts & Technologies has been reinventing ethylene oxide catalyst possibilities for more than 80 years, constantly and consistently improving their performance. (
  • The most important measure of ethylene oxide catalyst performance is selectivity defined as the molar yield of ethylene oxide produced per molar quantity of ethylene reacted. (
  • Shell Catalysts & Technologies' scientists have focused on improving not only the initial selectivity performance of our ethylene oxide catalysts but also the average catalyst selectivity throughout life. (
  • First demonstrated on a small scale in 2005, Shell Catalysts & Technologies' HP catalyst family is now poised once again to recalibrate what defines a world-class Ethylene Oxide catalyst. (
  • Please note that "India Ethylene Oxide (EO) Market Outlook 2017″ is a half ready publication and contents are subject to changes and additions. (
  • Orris first encountered ethylene oxide when he was a regional medical officer for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (