Antioxidant; also a post-harvest dip to prevent scald on apples and pears.
Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
Macrolide antibiotic obtained from cultures of Streptomyces fradiae. The drug is effective against many microorganisms in animals but not in humans.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Quinolines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds consisting of a two-nitrogened benzene ring fused to a pyridine ring, which have been synthesized and used as building blocks for various medicinal drugs, particularly antibiotics and antimalarials.
Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.
A solventless sample preparation method, invented in 1989, that uses a fused silica fiber which is coated with a stationary phase. It is used for sample cleanup before using other analytical methods.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
To entrust to the care or management of another, to transfer or to assign tasks within an organizational or administrative unit or structure
Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.
The removal of a consumer product from the market place. The reason for the removal can be due a variety of causes, including the discovery of a manufacturing defect, a safety issue with the product's use, or marketing decisions.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES, as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease in animals.

Effects of dietary oltipraz and ethoxyquin on aflatoxin B1 biotransformation in non-human primates. (1/33)

Following aflatoxin B1 (AFB) exposure, rats readily develop liver tumors. However, treatment of rats with a variety of compounds, including the synthetic dithiolthione oltipraz and the antioxidant ethoxyquin, protects these rodents from AFB-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Several epidemiological studies strongly suggest that AFB is also a causative agent of liver cancer in humans. However, relatively little is known about the efficacy of cancer chemoprevention in human and non-human primates. To this end, we examined the effects of chemopreventive agents on AFB metabolism in non-human primates. Hepatic aflatoxin B1 metabolism profiles of macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkeys were determined and compared to humans. Quantitatively, the oxidative metabolism of this mycotoxin was similar in the three primate species. In contrast to macaques, both humans and marmosets lacked AFB-glutathione conjugating activity. It was concluded that marmosets resembled human AFB metabolism more closely than the macaques, and therefore, marmoset monkeys were chosen for this study. Eleven adult male marmosets were randomly assigned to three groups. Animals received the synthetic dithiolthione oltipraz, the antioxidant ethoxyquin, or vehicle only. In addition, two single doses of AFB were also administered orally before and after animals were treated with aforementioned compounds. Both oltipraz and ethoxyquin induced aflatoxin B1-glutathione conjugating activity in the livers of some but not all marmosets. In addition, 10 microM oltipraz inhibited cytochrome P450-mediated activation of AFB to the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite, aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide, in vitro, up to 51%. Furthermore, animals treated in vivo with oltipraz, but not ethoxyquin, exhibited a significant reduction (53% average) in AFB-DNA adduct formation relative to the control animals (p < 0.05). Together, our data suggest that chemoprevention is also effective in primates; however, most likely to a lesser degree than in rodents.  (+info)

Regulation of rat glutamate-cysteine ligase (gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase) subunits by chemopreventive agents and in aflatoxin B(1)-induced preneoplasia. (2/33)

Certain dietary constituents can protect against chemically induced carcinogenesis in rodents. A principal mechanism by which these chemopreventive compounds exert their protective effects is likely to be via induction of carcinogen detoxification. This can be mediated by conjugation with glutathione, which is synthesized by the sequential actions of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GLCL) and glutathione synthetase. We have demonstrated that dietary administration of the naturally occurring chemopreventive agents, ellagic acid, coumarin or alpha-angelicalactone caused an increase in GLCL activity of between approximately 3- and 5-fold in rat liver. Treatment with the synthetic antioxidant ethoxyquin or the classic inducer phenobarbital caused < 2-fold induction of GLCL activity in rat liver, which was not found to be significant. The increases in GLCL activity were accompanied by increases (between 2- and 4-fold) in levels of both the catalytic heavy subunit (GLCLC) and regulatory light subunit (GLCLR). No substantial induction of GLCL was observed in rat kidney. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) subunits A1, A3, A4, A5, P1 and M1 were all found to be inducible in rat liver by most of the agents. The greatest levels of induction were observed for GST P1, following treatment with coumarin (20-fold), alpha-angelicalactone (10-fold) or ellagic acid (6-fold), and GST A5, following treatment with coumarin (7-fold), alpha-angelicalactone (6-fold) and ethoxyquin (6-fold). Glutathione synthetase was induced approximately 1.5-fold by coumarin, alpha-angelicalactone, ellagic acid and ethoxyquin. The expression of glutathione-related enzymes was also examined in preneoplastic lesions induced in rat liver by aflatoxin B(1). The majority of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT)-positive preneoplastic foci contained increased levels of GLCLC relative to the surrounding tissue. This was usually found to be accompanied by an increase in GLCLR. Cells in the inner cortex of rat kidney were found to contain the highest levels of both GLCLC and GLCLR. The same cells showed the strongest staining for GGT activity.  (+info)

Comparative xenobiotic metabolism between Tg.AC and p53+/- genetically altered mice and their respective wild types. (3/33)

The use of transgenic animals, such as v-Ha-ras activated (TG:AC) and p53+/- mice, offers great promise for a rapid and more sensitive assay for chemical carcinogenicity. Some carcinogens are metabolically activated; therefore, it is critical that the altered genome of either of these model systems does not compromise their capability and capacity for metabolism of xenobiotics. The present work tests the generally held assumption that xenobiotic metabolism in the TG:AC and p53+/- mouse is not inherently different from that of the respective wild type, the FVB/N and C57BL/6 mouse, by comparing each genotype's ability to metabolize benzene, ethoxyquin, or methacrylonitrile. Use of these representative substrates offers the opportunity to examine arene oxide formation, aromatic ring opening, hydroxylation, epoxidation, O-deethylation, and a number of conjugation reactions. Mice were treated by gavage with (14)C-labeled parent compound, excreta were collected, and elimination routes and rates, as well as (14)C-derived metabolite profiles in urine, were compared between relevant treatment groups. Results of this study indicated that metabolism of the 3 parent compounds was not appreciably altered between either FVB/N and TG:AC mice or C57BL/6 and p53+/- mice. Further, expression of CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP3A, and GST-alpha in liver of naive genetically altered mice was similar to that of corresponding wild-type mice. Thus, these results suggest that the inherent ability of TG:AC and p53+/- mice to metabolize xenobiotics is not compromised by their altered genomes and would not be a factor in data interpretation of toxicity studies using either transgenic mouse line.  (+info)

High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with chemiluminescence nitrogen detection for the study of ethoxyquin antioxidant and related organic bases. (4/33)

The Chemiluminescent Nitrogen Detector (CLND) for use with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) allows for the low-level detection of nitrogen-containing compounds with simple quantitation. The nitrogen selective detector's equimolar response (i.e., equal response for nitrogen independent of its chemical environment) allows for any nitrogen-containing compound to be quantitated as long as the number of nitrogens are known. The HPLC-CLND provides a new detection method for analytes that are not available in large quantities or have unknown chemical or physical characteristics such as oxidation products, metabolites, or impurities. Ethoxyquin is a primary antioxidant that is used to preserve many food products and animal feeds. HPLC-CLND is used in the study of the oxidation products of ethoxyquin because limited quantities of these compounds are available and subsequent calibration curves are difficult to maintain. HPLC-CLND as a new method of detection has been evaluated for its equimolarity of response, linear range, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation.  (+info)

Induction of glutathione S-transferase activity and protein expression in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) liver by ethoxyquin. (5/33)

The inducibility of hepatic cytosolic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) was examined in brown bullheads, a freshwater fish that is highly susceptible to hepatic neoplasia following exposure to carcinogen-contaminated sediments. Juvenile bullheads were fed a semi-purified antioxidant-free diet supplemented with ethoxyquin (0.5% w/w dissolved in 3% corn oil), a prototypical rodent GST-inducing agent, twice daily for 14 days. Control bullheads received the antioxidant-free diet supplemented with corn oil (3% w/w). A significant increase (1.6-fold, p < or = 0.01) in hepatic cytosolic GST activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) was observed in the ethoxyquin-treated bullheads relative to control fish. A trend toward increased GST-NBC activity was observed in the ethoxyquin-treated fish (1.2-fold, p = 0.06), whereas no treatment-related effects were observed on GST activities toward ethacrynic acid (ECA). In contrast, GST activity toward (+/-)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) was repressed in affinity-purified cytosolic fractions prepared from ethoxyquin-treated bullheads relative to control bullheads. Silver staining and densitometric analysis of isoelectric-focused, affinity-purified GST proteins revealed increased expression of two basic GST-like isoforms in ethoxyquin-treated fish. In summary, exposure to ethoxyquin increases brown bullhead GST-CDNB catalytic activity and hepatic cationic GST protein expression. However, the increase in overall GST-CDNB activity by ethoxyquin is associated with repression of GST-BPDE activity, suggesting differential effects on hepatic bullhead GST isoforms by ethoxyquin. The potential repression of bullhead GST isoforms that conjugate the carcinogenic metabolites of PAH metabolism under conditions of environmental chemical exposure could be a contributing factor in the sensitivity of bullheads to pollutant-associated neoplasia.  (+info)

Carbohydrate fermentation and nitrogen metabolism of a finishing beef diet by ruminal microbes in continuous cultures as affected by ethoxyquin and(or) supplementation of monensin and tylosin. (6/33)

Long-term feedlot studies have shown positive effects (i.e., improved ADG and reduced morbidity and mortality) of dietary supplementation with ethoxyquin (AGRADO). This may be due to improving the antioxidant capacity at the ruminal, postruminal, or postabsorption levels. This study was designed to investigate the role of ethoxyquin at the rumen level. A finishing diet (12.5% CP; DM basis) was formulated to contain (on a DM basis) 77.5% flaked corn, 10% corn cobs, 10% protein/vitamin/mineral supplement, and 2.5% tallow. In a randomized complete block design experiment, the treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. The main factors were two ethoxyquin treatments (without or with 150 ppm) and two monensin/tylosin treatments (without or with monensin and tylosin at 0.0028 and 0.0014% of dietary DM, respectively). Eight dual-flow, continuous culture fermenters were used in two experimental periods (blocks; 8 d each with 5 d for adjustment and 3 d for sample collection) to allow for four replications for each treatment. No interactions (P > 0.05) were detected for any of the measurements evaluated. Therefore, results of the main factors were summarized. Ethoxyquin supplementation improved (P < 0.05) true digestibility of OM (from 38.8 to 45.0%) but it did not alter (P > 0.05) concentrations of total VFA (averaging 131 mM) or acetate (averaging 58.8 mM). Ethoxyquin decreased (P < 0.05) propionate concentration from 51.1 to 42.4 mM and increased (P < 0.05) butyrate concentration from 18.4 to 22.9 mM. Digestion of total nonstructural carbohydrates was not altered (P > 0.05) by the treatments and averaged 86%. With the exception of increased (P < 0.05) concentration of propionate (from 42.0 to 51.5 mM) and decreased (P < 0.05) concentration of butyrate (from 25.9 to 16.3 mM), no effects (P > 0.05) were detected for monensin/tylosin. Ruminal N metabolism, including efficiency of bacterial protein synthesis (averaging 21.2 g N/kg OM truly digested), was not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments. Results suggest positive effects of ethoxyquin on ruminal digestion of OM and unique changes in VFA production.  (+info)

Characterisation of a novel mouse liver aldo-keto reductase AKR7A5. (7/33)

We have characterised a novel aldo-keto reductase (AKR7A5) from mouse liver that is 78% identical to rat aflatoxin dialdehyde reductase AKR7A1 and 89% identical to human succinic semialdehyde (SSA) reductase AKR7A2. AKR7A5 can reduce 2-carboxybenzaldehyde (2-CBA) and SSA as well as a range of aldehyde and diketone substrates. Western blots show that it is expressed in liver, kidney, testis and brain, and at lower levels in skeletal muscle, spleen heart and lung. The protein is not inducible in the liver by dietary ethoxyquin. Immunodepletion of AKR7A5 from liver extracts shows that it is one of the major liver 2-CBA reductases but that it is not the main SSA reductase in this tissue.  (+info)

Proteomic analysis of oxidative stress-resistant cells: a specific role for aldose reductase overexpression in cytoprotection. (8/33)

We are using a proteomic approach that combines two-dimensional electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry to detect and identify proteins that are differentially expressed in a cell line that is resistant to oxidative stress. The resistant cell line (OC14 cells) was developed previously through chronic exposure of a parent cell line (HA1 cells) to increasing hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Biochemical analyses of this system by other investigators have identified elevated content and activity of several classical antioxidant proteins that have established roles in oxidative stress resistance, but do not provide a complete explanation of this resistance. The proteomics studies described here have identified the enzyme aldose reductase (AR) as 4-fold more abundant in the resistant OC14 cells than in the HA1 controls. Based on this observation, the role of AR in the resistant phenotype was investigated by using a combination of AR induction with ethoxyquin and AR inhibition with Alrestatin to test the cytotoxicity of two oxidation-derived aldehydes: acrolein and glycolaldehyde. The results show that AR induction in HA1 cells provides protection against both acrolein- and glycolaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, glutathione depletion sensitizes the cells to the acrolein-induced toxicity, but not the glycolaldehyde-induced toxicity, while AR inhibition sensitizes the cells to both acrolein- and glycolaldehyde-induced. These observations are consistent with a significant role for AR in the oxidative stress-resistant phenotype. These studies also illustrate the productive use of proteomic methods to investigate the molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress.  (+info)

Ethoxyquin is a synthetic antioxidant preservative, primarily used in the preservation of animal feed to prevent spoilage and maintain nutritional value. It functions by inhibiting the oxidation process that leads to rancidity in fats and oils. In addition to its use in animal feed, ethoxyquin has also been used as a preservative in some human foods, such as spices and certain fruits, to prevent spoilage and color change. However, due to health concerns, its use in human food is highly regulated and restricted to specific applications and concentrations.

Ethoxyquin is not commonly used in pharmaceutical or medical contexts, but it may be mentioned in the context of food safety, animal nutrition, or potential exposure through consumption of contaminated food products. It's essential to consult a reliable medical source for up-to-date and accurate information regarding specific substances and their potential health implications.

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is a synthetic antioxidant that is commonly used as a food additive to prevent or slow down the oxidation of fats, oils, and other lipids. This helps to maintain the quality, stability, and safety of food products by preventing rancidity and off-flavors. BHA is also used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds for similar purposes.

In medical terms, BHA is classified as a chemical preservative and antioxidant. It is a white or creamy white crystalline powder that is soluble in alcohol and ether but insoluble in water. BHA is often used in combination with other antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), to provide a synergistic effect and enhance the overall stability of food products.

While BHA is generally recognized as safe by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), some studies have suggested that high doses of BHA may have potential health risks, including possible carcinogenic effects. However, these findings are not conclusive, and further research is needed to fully understand the potential health impacts of BHA exposure.

Aflatoxin B1 is a toxic metabolite produced by certain strains of the fungus Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It is a potent carcinogen and is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Aflatoxin B1 contamination can occur in a variety of agricultural products, including grains, nuts, spices, and dried fruits, and is a particular concern in regions with hot and humid climates. Exposure to aflatoxin B1 can occur through the consumption of contaminated food and has been linked to various health effects, including liver cancer, immune suppression, and stunted growth in children.

Tylosin is defined as a macrolide antibiotic produced by the bacterium Streptomyces fradiae. It is primarily used in veterinary medicine to treat various bacterial infections in animals, such as respiratory and digestive tract infections caused by susceptible organisms.

Tylosin works by binding to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, inhibiting protein synthesis and thereby preventing bacterial growth. It has a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive bacteria, including some strains that are resistant to other antibiotics. However, tylosin is not commonly used in human medicine due to its potential for causing hearing damage and other side effects.

In addition to its use as an antibiotic, tylosin has also been used as a growth promoter in animal feed to improve feed efficiency and weight gain. However, this practice has been banned in some countries due to concerns about the development of antibiotic resistance and the potential risks to human health.

Aldehyde reductase is an enzyme that belongs to the family of alcohol dehydrogenases. Its primary function is to catalyze the reduction of a wide variety of aldehydes into their corresponding alcohols, using NADPH as a cofactor. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated from various metabolic processes, such as lipid peroxidation and alcohol metabolism. It is widely distributed in different tissues, including the liver, kidney, and brain. In addition to its detoxifying function, aldehyde reductase has been implicated in several physiological and pathophysiological processes, such as neuroprotection, cancer, and diabetes.

Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures. Antioxidants are able to neutralize free radicals by donating an electron to them, thus stabilizing them and preventing them from causing further damage to the cells.

Antioxidants can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium. Antioxidants are also available as dietary supplements.

In addition to their role in protecting cells from damage, antioxidants have been studied for their potential to prevent or treat a number of health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using antioxidant supplements.

Quinolines are a class of organic compounds that consist of a bicyclic structure made up of a benzene ring fused to a piperidine ring. They have a wide range of applications, but they are perhaps best known for their use in the synthesis of various medications, including antibiotics and antimalarial drugs.

Quinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, work by inhibiting the bacterial enzymes involved in DNA replication and repair. They are commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and skin infections.

Quinoline-based antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, work by inhibiting the parasite's ability to digest hemoglobin in the red blood cells. They are commonly used to prevent and treat malaria.

It is important to note that quinolines have been associated with serious side effects, including tendinitis and tendon rupture, nerve damage, and abnormal heart rhythms. As with any medication, it is important to use quinolines only under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and to follow their instructions carefully.

Preserved food, in a medical context, refers to food that has been treated or processed in order to inhibit spoilage and prolong its shelf life. This is typically achieved through methods such as canning, pickling, smoking, drying, or freezing. These processes work by reducing the moisture content, increasing acidity, or introducing chemicals that prevent the growth of bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms that can cause foodborne illness.

While preserved foods can be a valuable source of nutrition, especially in situations where fresh food is not available, it's important to note that some preservation methods can also introduce harmful substances, such as sodium nitrite in cured meats or acrylamide in fried or baked starchy foods. Therefore, preserved foods should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is an advanced technique used in analytical chemistry for the preparation and extraction of samples. It's not exclusively a medical term, but it does have applications in clinical and medical research. Here's a definition:

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a solvent-free sample preparation technique that integrates sampling, extraction, concentration, and cleanup into a single step. It involves the use of a fused-silica fiber, which is coated with a thin layer of a stationary phase, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or polyacrylate. This fiber is exposed to the sample matrix, allowing the analytes (compounds of interest) to be adsorbed or absorbed onto the coating. After the extraction step, the fiber is then inserted into a gas chromatograph or high-performance liquid chromatograph for analysis. SPME is widely used in various fields, including environmental monitoring, food analysis, and biomedical research, due to its simplicity, rapidity, and low cost. In the medical field, it can be applied for the analysis of drugs, metabolites, or other compounds in biological samples such as blood, urine, or tissue.

I must clarify that "Ethiopia" is not a medical term or condition. Ethiopia is a country located in the Horn of Africa, known for its rich history and cultural heritage. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with diverse ethnic groups, languages, and religious practices.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please feel free to ask! I'm here to help.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "personnel delegation" is not a medical term. It is a general management or organizational concept that refers to the assignment of authority and responsibility to make decisions or take actions to specific individuals or teams within an organization. This allows for more efficient use of resources, clearer accountability, and increased autonomy for those to whom responsibilities are delegated.

In a medical setting, you might find this concept applied in various ways, such as when hospital administrators delegate certain decision-making authorities related to patient care or resource allocation to specific clinical departments or individual healthcare providers. However, the term "personnel delegation" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Community health workers (CHWs) are individuals who are trained to work within and promote the health of their own communities. They serve as a bridge between healthcare professionals and the communities they serve, often working in underserved or hard-to-reach areas. CHWs may provide a range of services, including health education, outreach, advocacy, and case management.

CHWs come from diverse backgrounds and may have different levels of training and education. They are typically trusted members of their communities and share similar language, culture, and life experiences with the people they serve. This helps to build rapport and trust with community members, making it easier for CHWs to provide culturally sensitive care and support.

The role of CHWs can vary depending on the needs of the community and the healthcare system in which they work. In some settings, CHWs may focus on specific health issues, such as maternal and child health, infectious diseases, or chronic conditions like diabetes. In other cases, they may provide more general support to help individuals navigate the healthcare system and access needed services.

Overall, community health workers play an important role in promoting health equity and improving health outcomes for vulnerable populations. By working closely with communities and connecting them to appropriate care and resources, CHWs can help to reduce disparities and improve the overall health of their communities.

A product recall or withdrawal in the medical context refers to the removal or correction of a medical device, equipment, or medication from the market or from use due to the discovery of defects, safety issues, or violations of regulatory standards that could pose potential harm to patients or users. This action is typically initiated by manufacturers, distributors, or regulatory authorities such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to protect public health and ensure patient safety.

A recall usually involves a situation where a product poses a significant risk to consumers, requiring immediate action to retrieve and correct the issue. In contrast, a withdrawal typically occurs when a product has a minor defect or violation that does not pose an immediate threat to consumer safety but still needs to be addressed. Both recalls and withdrawals can encompass various actions, such as repairing, replacing, or refunding the affected products.

Animal nutrition sciences is a field of study that focuses on the nutritional requirements, metabolism, and digestive processes of non-human animals. It involves the application of basic scientific principles to the practice of feeding animals in order to optimize their health, growth, reproduction, and performance. This may include the study of various nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals, as well as how they are absorbed, utilized, and excreted by different animal species. The field also encompasses the development and evaluation of animal feeds and feeding strategies, taking into account factors such as animal age, sex, weight, production stage, and environmental conditions. Overall, the goal of animal nutrition sciences is to promote sustainable and efficient animal agriculture while ensuring the health and well-being of animals.

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Ethoxyquin - antioxidant, preservative Ethyl maltol - flavor enhancer Ethyl methyl cellulose - thickener, vegetable gum, ...
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The molecular formula C14H19NO may refer to: Alpha-Pyrrolidinobutiophenone Ethoxyquin, a food preservative Eticyclidone 2'-Oxo- ...
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Ethoxyquin (EQ), a quinolone-based antioxidant, has demonstrated neuroprotective properties against several neurotoxic drugs in ... Although, ethoxyquin is an antioxidant, and ROS have been shown to play a role in development of DPN, it is not clear that the ... Zhu, J. et al. Ethoxyquin prevents chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity via Hsp90 modulation. Ann. Neurol. 74(6), 893-904 (2013). ... Ethoxyquin is neuroprotective and partially prevents somatic and autonomic neuropathy in db/db mouse model of type 2 diabetes. ...
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PLANET E.: A TOXIC SUSPICION - ETHOXYQUIN AND ITS TRACES. Home/PLANET E.: A TOXIC SUSPICION - ETHOXYQUIN AND ITS TRACES ... Ethoxyquin is a feed - preservative, which gets into human organism by consumption of meat. The impacts of the substance are ... Another study proves Ethoxyquin will harm genetic material. And what is the answer of the authorities and producers of animal ... April 2016,Comments Off on PLANET E.: A TOXIC SUSPICION - ETHOXYQUIN AND ITS TRACES ...
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Do they sell hermit crab food with ethoxyquin? (see list on crabstreetjournal.org) * ...
When ethoxyquin binds to Hsp90, two other proteins -- ataxin-2 and Sf3b2 -- cant bind to Hsp90. When they cant bind, the cell ... Once they identified ethoxyquins effects, they gave intravenous Taxol to mice, and saw nerves in their paws degenerate in a ... Ethoxyquin was developed in the 1950s as an antioxidant, a compound to prevent pears and other foods from becoming discolored ... The hope, they say, is to build on the protective effect of ethoxyquins chemistry and develop a drug that could be given to ...
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Ethoxyquin (a Preservative). *. Preserved with Mixed Tocopherols (Form of Vitamin E). * Rosemary Extract ...
Preservatives like BHT, BHA, ethoxyquin, and sodium metabisulphite * Fat and oils with unknown sources, like vegetable oil or ...
Ethoxyquin as a preservative.. Guaranteed Analysis:. Crude Protein (min) - 46.0%. Crude Fat (min) - 13.0%. Crude Fiber (max) - ...
No Ethoxyquin. No Added Sugar. No Artificial Flavors, Colors or Dyes. *4lb ...
Effects of ethoxyquin on metabolism and composition of active marine microbial communities ...
is this food ethoxyquin free?. Answer by ...
In the old days, kibble was preserved with ethoxyquin, a preservative with a bad rap; today vitamins are used by an increasing ...
Dicalcium phosphate, dehydrated cheese, calcium carbonate, soy flour, artificial colors, ethoxyquin, magnesium silicate, ...
BHA, Ethoxyquin, BHT: these are chemical preservatives. * Low quality protein: corn, wheat, and soy are examples. * Fats: most ...
Many dog food brands that contain fish meat also contain ethoxyquin, a preservative chemical linked to cancer causation.. "They ...
If you see ethoxyquin, BHT, and/or BHA in the ingredient list, the food is not naturally preserved. ... Commonly used artificial preservatives in dry dog foods include ethoxyquin, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated ... some studies have linked the ingestion of large amounts of ethoxyquin to health problems. While there is certainly no smoking ...
Made without unsavory ingredients like wheat, BHT, ethoxyquin, added sugar, artificial flavors, colors or dyes. ...
Schwarzer: Today, the once abundantly used ethoxyquin is unthinkable, the pet food industry now increasingly turns to the same ... Antioxidants commonly used to stabilize animal fats and protein meals were mostly based on ethoxyquin. This antioxidant ...
The additive ethoxyquin has been implicated in immune-mediated disorders and organ failure. ...
Made without unsavory ingredients like wheat, BHT, ethoxyquin, added sugar, artificial flavors, colors or dyes. ...
Ethoxyquin - antioxidant, preservative Ethyl maltol - flavor enhancer Ethyl methyl cellulose - thickener, vegetable gum, ...
D3), Color Includes: Canthaxanthin, Red 3, Ethoxyquin as a preservative. Add to Wishlist ...
  • Ethoxyquin is a feed - preservative, which gets into human organism by consumption of meat. (ekotopfilm.sk)
  • Ethoxyquin is a synthetic chemical used as a preservative in dog food, and it is also used as a rubber stabilizer and insecticide. (handicappedpets.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration-approved preservative, an antioxidant called ethoxyquin, was shown in experiments to bind to certain cell proteins in a way that limits their exposure to the damaging effects of Taxol, the researchers say. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Ethoxyquin as a preservative. (radiofence.com)
  • Many dog food brands that contain fish meat also contain ethoxyquin, a preservative chemical linked to cancer causation. (naturalnews.com)
  • We have replaced ethoxyquin with an all natural preservative in our Roudybush Low-fat Maintenance, Roudybush Maintenance, Roudybush Breeder and Roudybush High-energy Breeder pellets. (birdsupplynh.com)
  • However, most pet foods that contain ethoxyquin have never exceeded this amount. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, many pet owners choose to avoid dog foods that contain ethoxyquin . (handicappedpets.com)
  • Does not contain ethoxyquin or artificial colorings. (masterfeeds.com)
  • Commonly used artificial preservatives in dry dog foods include ethoxyquin, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). (petmd.com)
  • Several brands are now preserved with Vitamins C and E instead of chemical preservatives (such as BHA, BHT, ethoxyquin and propyl gallate). (perfectdogtraining.com)
  • Ethoxyquin is just one of the many preservatives that may be dangerous to dogs. (mikakuwa.com)
  • Foods containing any kind of by-products, chemical preservatives such as BHA, BHT and ethoxyquin, or inferior ingredients such as wheat and corn gluten, which are cheap sources of protein, can harm your pet by not providing the healthy nutrition he/she needs. (petmac.org)
  • In 2013, researchers at the Department of General Genetics, Molecular Biology and Plant Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Łódź, Poland, summarized the health effects of animals and humans exposed to varying levels of ethoxyquin observed in scientific studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • People exposed to high levels of ethoxyquin have experienced blindness, infertility, and cancers such as leukemia. (mikakuwa.com)
  • However, AKR7A1 was inducible by the synthetic antioxidant ethoxyquin in liver, kidney, and small intestine, but not in the other tissues examined. (strath.ac.uk)
  • Synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), as well as ethoxyquin (E324), are beneficial since they stay active in the body longer than many naturally occurring antioxidants. (petage.com)
  • Ethoxyquin was developed by Monsanto in the 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethoxyquin was developed in the 1950s as an antioxidant, a compound to prevent pears and other foods from becoming discolored and spoiling. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Ethoxyquin is not permitted for use as food additive in Australia[citation needed] nor within the European Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2015 review by the European Food Safety Authority indicated that data to assess the safety of ethoxyquin as a feed additive for target animals, or its safety for consumers and the environment are lacking. (wikipedia.org)
  • The additive ethoxyquin has been implicated in immune-mediated disorders and organ failure. (thehealthyplanet.com)
  • Ethoxyquin is an animal feed to prevent lipid peroxidation or rancidity in fats. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • Antioxidants commonly used to stabilize animal fats and protein meals were mostly based on ethoxyquin. (perstorp.com)
  • Schwarzer: 'Today, the once abundantly used ethoxyquin is unthinkable, the pet food industry now increasingly turns to the same antioxidants used for consumers: plant extracts and other natural antioxidants. (perstorp.com)
  • Ethoxyquin and ascorbyl palmitate are added as antioxidants. (mascotasalfalfa.com)
  • To date, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has only found a verifiable connection between ethoxyquin and buildup of protoporphyrin IX in the liver, as well as elevations in liver-related enzymes in some animals, but no health consequences from these effects are known. (wikipedia.org)
  • TOP's outstanding mini pellets do not contain any fillers, like soy or corn, or BHA, BHT or ethoxyquin. (windycityparrot.com)
  • Ethoxyquin is allowed in the fishing industry in Norway and France as a feed stabilizer, so is commonly used in food pellets fed to farmed salmon. (wikipedia.org)
  • A previous study, Höke says, showed that ataxin-2 may cause degeneration in motor neurons in a rare form of ALS, commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease, suggesting that ethoxyquin or some version of it might also benefit people with this disorder. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Ethoxyquin is one of them, commonly found in dog food with a fish meal (22). (mikakuwa.com)
  • In 1997, the Center for Veterinary Medicine asked pet food manufacturers to voluntarily limit ethoxyquin levels to 75 ppm until further evidence is reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Do they sell hermit crab food with ethoxyquin? (google.com)
  • He says that while too much ethoxyquin is thought to be potentially harmful to dogs, the needed dose for humans would likely be 20-to-30-fold lower than what is found in dog food. (sciencedaily.com)
  • If you see ethoxyquin, BHT, and/or BHA in the ingredient list, the food is not naturally preserved. (petmd.com)
  • Another study proves Ethoxyquin will harm genetic material. (ekotopfilm.sk)
  • Some speculation exists that ethoxyquin in pet foods might be responsible for multiple health problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to checking the ingredient label, you can also ask your veterinarian or pet store employees for recommendations on ethoxyquin-free dog foods. (handicappedpets.com)
  • The agency found one of its metabolites, ethoxyquin quinone imine, to be possibly genotoxic, and p-phenetidine, an impurity that could be present from the manufacturing process, to be possibly mutagenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethoxyquin (91532) was found in one sample of paper, and possibly was present in others. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2017, reports from the Swiss Department for regional affairs laboratory, service of consummation and veterinary affairs showed that farmed salmon often exceeded the set limits for ethoxyquin contamination by several orders of magnitude and that health effects of the chemical on the human body were not studied in sufficient detail. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethoxyquin, Mercury, and PCBs: Is Feeding Fish Safe for Cats? (cathealth.com)
  • Ethoxyquin, mercury, and PCBs are some of the concerns with feeding fish-based diets to your cat. (cathealth.com)
  • Ethoxyquin is also used in some spices to prevent color loss due to oxidation of the natural carotenoid pigments. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, some studies have linked the ingestion of large amounts of ethoxyquin to health problems. (petmd.com)
  • Ethoxyquin (EQ), a quinolone-based antioxidant, has demonstrated neuroprotective properties against several neurotoxic drugs in a phenotypic screening and is shown to protect axons in animal models of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. (nature.com)
  • Höke's team is hoping to conduct safety studies with ethoxyquin in animals in advance of possible testing in people. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The report provides an in-depth analysis of the current trends, drivers, and dynamics of the global ethoxyquin market to elucidate the prevailing opportunities and potential investment pockets. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • In-depth analysis of the key segments demonstrates the use of ethoxyquin. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • The ethoxyquin market is segmented based on the product type, application, and geography. (alliedmarketresearch.com)
  • VASEP has forecast three scenarios for 2013's shrimp exports: revenue will reach US$2.4 billion if Vietnam resolves the early mortality syndrome (EMS) issue, the competition in buying raw materials, export market and the ethoxyquin barrier in Japan and Korea. (efeedlink.com)
  • Norway made this practice illegal when the EU suspended authorization in 2017 and in accordance with the suspension utilized a transition period which allowed the sale of feed containing ethoxyquin until December 31st 2019, after this date it was illegal to sell feed containing ethoxyquin. (wikipedia.org)
  • But when they gave ethoxyquin to the mice at the same time as the Taxol, it prevented two-thirds of the nerve degeneration, which Höke says would have a big impact on quality of life if the same effects were to occur in humans. (sciencedaily.com)