A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.
A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.
A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican descent.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.
Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.
A republic in the north of South America, bordered on the west by GUYANA (British Guiana) and on the east by FRENCH GUIANA. Its capital is Paramaribo. It was formerly called Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana or Surinam. Suriname was first settled by the English in 1651 but was ceded to the Dutch by treaty in 1667. It became an autonomous territory under the Dutch crown in 1954 and gained independence in 1975. The country was named for the Surinam River but the meaning of that name is uncertain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1167 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p526)
Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.
An ethnic group with historical ties to the land of ISRAEL and the religion of JUDAISM.
Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute. (UMLS, 2003)
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
The comparative and theoretical study of culture, often synonymous with cultural anthropology.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Ethnic group originating in India and entering Europe in the 14th or 15th century.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)
People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
The geographic area of the southwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Deliberate and planned acts of unlawful behavior engaged in by aggrieved segments of the population in seeking social change.
An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of members of minority groups.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Differential treatment or unequal access to opportunities, based on group membership such as origin or ethnicity.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.
A group of islands in the southwest central Pacific, divided into AMERICAN SAMOA and the INDEPENDENT STATE OF SAMOA (Western Samoa). First European contact was made in 1722 by Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman. In 1768 they were named Navigators Islands by Louis de Bougainville. The present name may derive from that of a local chieftain or from a local word meaning place of the moa, a now-extinct island bird. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1061 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p481)
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
An independent sultanate on the northeast coast of Borneo. Its chief products are oil and natural gas. Its name is Hindi, coming from the Sanskrit bhumi, land or region. It gave its name Brunei to Borneo. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p183 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p82)
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders comprising at least four recognized types, all having in common varying degrees of hypopigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes. The two most common are the tyrosinase-positive and tyrosinase-negative types.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt, Tunisia, and Algeria, having southern border with Chad, Niger, and Sudan. Its capital is Tripoli.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
In evolutionary theory, overlapping geographic distribution of diverging species. In sympatric GENETIC SPECIATION, genetic diversion occurs without geographic separation.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
Inuktitut-speakers generally associated with the northern polar region.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.
People who frequently change their place of residence.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.
Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.
A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Suva. It was discovered by Abel Tasman in 1643 and was visited by Captain Cook in 1774. It was used by escaped convicts from Australia as early as 1804. It was annexed by Great Britain in 1874 but achieved independence in 1970. The name Fiji is of uncertain origin. In its present form it may represent that of Viti, the main island in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p396 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p186)
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.

Vitamin D status in different subgroups of British Asians. (1/6687)

To assess the effect of religious dietary practices and social customs on the vitamin D status of Asian immigrants, we kept records of the dietary intake and time spent out of doors of 81 Ugandan Asian men, women, and girls (9-19 years old). Sera were analysed for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3), and 28% of the subjects were found to have levels below the lower limit of normal. The (vegetarian) Hindus had the lowest dietary intakes, least time out of doors, and lowest serum 25-OHD3. The Goan (Roman Catholic) Asians, despite more pigmentation, had 25-OHD3 levels similar to those found among indigenous British people and had the most satisfactory vitamin D intakes. Among Asians, whose exposure to sunlight may be limited, dietary vitamin D becomes the major determinant of serum 25-OHD3.  (+info)

Reliability of information on physical activity and other chronic disease risk factors among US women aged 40 years or older. (2/6687)

Data on chronic disease risk behaviors and related variables, including barriers to and attitudes toward physical activity, are lacking for women of some racial/ethnic groups. A test-retest study was conducted from July 1996 through June 1997 among US women (n = 199) aged 40 years or more who were white, black, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Hispanic. The sample was selected and interviews were conducted using a modified version of the methods of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. For behavioral risk factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and low fruit and vegetable consumption, group prevalences were generally similar between interviews 1 and 2. However, kappa values for selected physical activity variables ranged from 0.26 to 0.51 and tended to be lower for black women. Discordance was low for variables on cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (kappa = 0.64-0.92). Discordance was high (kappa = 0.33) for low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Additional variables for barriers to and access to exercise ranged widely across racial/ethnic groups and in terms of measures of agreement. These methods illustrate an efficient way to sample and assess the reliability of data collected from women of racial/ethnic minority groups.  (+info)

Associations of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I autoantibodies with HLA class II alleles in three ethnic groups. (3/6687)

OBJECTIVE: To determine any HLA associations with anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) antibodies in a large, retrospectively studied, multiethnic group of 262 patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or another connective tissue disease. METHODS: Anti-beta2GPI antibodies were detected in sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HLA class II alleles (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) were determined by DNA oligotyping. RESULTS: The HLA-DQB1*0302 (DQ8) allele, typically carried on HLA-DR4 haplotypes, was associated with anti-beta2GPI when compared with both anti-beta2GPI-negative SLE patients and ethnically matched normal controls, especially in Mexican Americans and, to a lesser extent, in whites. Similarly, when ethnic groups were combined, HLA-DQB1*0302, as well as HLA-DQB1*03 alleles overall (DQB1*0301, *0302, and *0303), were strongly correlated with anti-beta2GPI antibodies. The HLA-DR6 (DR13) haplotype DRB1*1302; DQB1*0604/5 was also significantly increased, primarily in blacks. HLA-DR7 was not significantly increased in any of these 3 ethnic groups, and HLA-DR53 (DRB4*0101) was increased in Mexican Americans only. CONCLUSION: Certain HLA class II haplotypes genetically influence the expression of antibodies to beta2GPI, an important autoimmune response in the APS, but there are variations in HLA associations among different ethnic groups.  (+info)

Cancer incidence in the south Asian population of England (1990-92). (4/6687)

Cancer incidence among English south Asians (residents in England with ethnic origins in India, Pakistan or Bangladesh) is described and compared with non-south Asian and Indian subcontinent rates. The setting for the study was areas covered by Thames, Trent, West Midlands and Yorkshire cancer registries. The study identified 356 555 cases of incident cancer (ICD9:140-208) registered between 1990 and 1992, including 3845 classified as English south Asian. The main outcome measures were age specific and directly standardized incidence rates for all cancer sites (ICD9:140-208). English south Asian incidence rates for all sites combined were significantly lower than non-south Asian rates but higher than Indian subcontinent rates. English south Asian rates were substantially higher than Indian subcontinent rates for a number of common sites including lung cancer in males, breast cancer in females and lymphoma in both sexes. English south Asian rates for childhood and early adult cancer (0-29 years) were similar or higher than non-south Asian rates. English south Asian rates were significantly higher than non-south Asian rates for Hodgkin's disease in males, cancer of the tongue, mouth, oesophagus, thyroid gland and myeloid leukaemia in females, and cancer of the hypopharynx, liver and gall bladder in both sexes. The results are consistent with a transition from the lower cancer risk of the country of ethnic origin to that of the country of residence. They suggest that detrimental changes in lifestyle and other exposures have occurred in the migrant south Asian population.  (+info)

Biochemical indices of osteomalacia in pregnant Asian immigrants in Britain. (5/6687)

Serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase, and urinary calcium excretion were examined during the second trimester of uncomplicated normal pregnancy in Asian immigrants to Britain and in local Caucasians. The mean serum calcium was significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians, and the mean serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly higher in Asians. The geometric mean of the urinary calcium excretion was highly significantly lower in Asians than in Caucasians. The variances of the serum calcium, serum alkaline phosphatase, and urine calcium excretion did not differ significantly in the two populations. This indicates that there is a shift in values of immigrant Asians as a group compared with Caucasians. A comparison with figures obtained on normal nonpregnant persons of both suggests that the shift is not an inherent feature of the Asian population.  (+info)

Incidence and duration of hospitalizations among persons with AIDS: an event history approach. (6/6687)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze hospitalization patterns of persons with AIDS (PWAs) in a multi-state/multi-episode continuous time duration framework. DATA SOURCES: PWAs on Medicaid identified through a match between the state's AIDS Registry and Medicaid eligibility files; hospital admission and discharge dates identified through Medicaid claims. STUDY DESIGN: Using a Weibull event history framework, we model the hazard of transition between hospitalized and community spells, incorporating the competing risk of death in each of these states. Simulations are used to translate these parameters into readily interpretable estimates of length of stay, the probability that a hospitalization will end in death, and the probability that a nonhospitalized person will be hospitalized within 90 days. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In multivariate analyses, participation in a Medicaid waiver program offering case management and home care was associated with hospital stays 1.3 days shorter than for nonparticipants. African American race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with hospital stays 1.2 days and 1.0 day longer than for non-Hispanic whites; African Americans also experienced more frequent hospital admissions. Residents of the high-HIV-prevalence area of the state had more frequent admissions and stays two days longer than those residing elsewhere in the state. Older PWAs experienced less frequent hospital admissions but longer stays, with hospitalizations of 55-year-olds lasting 8.25 days longer than those of 25-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: Much socioeconomic and geographic variability exists both in the incidence and in the duration of hospitalization among persons with AIDS in New Jersey. Event history analysis provides a useful statistical framework for analysis of these variations, deals appropriately with data in which duration of observation varies from individual to individual, and permits the competing risk of death to be incorporated into the model. Transition models of this type have broad applicability in modeling the risk and duration of hospitalization in chronic illnesses.  (+info)

Low-weight neonatal survival paradox in the Czech Republic. (7/6687)

Analysis of vital statistics for the Czech Republic between 1986 and 1993, including 3,254 infant deaths from 350,978 first births to married and single women who conceived at ages 18-29 years, revealed a neonatal survival advantage for low-weight infants born to disadvantaged (single, less educated) women, particularly for deaths from congenital anomalies. This advantage largely disappeared after the neonatal period. The same patterns have been observed for low-weight infants born to black women in the United States. Since the Czech Republic had an ethnically homogenous population, virtually universal prenatal care, and uniform institutional conditions for delivery, Czech results must be attributed to social rather than to biologic or medical circumstances. This strengthens the contention that in the United States, the black neonatal survival paradox may be due as much to race-related social stigmatization and consequent disadvantage as to any hypothesized hereditary influences on birth-weight-specific survival.  (+info)

HLA and HIV-1: heterozygote advantage and B*35-Cw*04 disadvantage. (8/6687)

A selective advantage against infectious disease associated with increased heterozygosity at the human major histocompatibility complex [human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II] is believed to play a major role in maintaining the extraordinary allelic diversity of these genes. Maximum HLA heterozygosity of class I loci (A, B, and C) delayed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) onset among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1), whereas individuals who were homozygous for one or more loci progressed rapidly to AIDS and death. The HLA class I alleles B*35 and Cw*04 were consistently associated with rapid development of AIDS-defining conditions in Caucasians. The extended survival of 28 to 40 percent of HIV-1-infected Caucasian patients who avoided AIDS for ten or more years can be attributed to their being fully heterozygous at HLA class I loci, to their lacking the AIDS-associated alleles B*35 and Cw*04, or to both.  (+info)

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

There are several types of diabetes mellitus, including:

1. Type 1 DM: This is an autoimmune condition in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, resulting in a complete deficiency of insulin production. It typically develops in childhood or adolescence, and patients with this condition require lifelong insulin therapy.
2. Type 2 DM: This is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for around 90% of all cases. It is caused by a combination of insulin resistance (where the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin) and impaired insulin secretion. It is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a diet high in sugar and unhealthy fats.
3. Gestational DM: This type of diabetes develops during pregnancy, usually in the second or third trimester. Hormonal changes and insulin resistance can cause blood sugar levels to rise, putting both the mother and baby at risk.
4. LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults): This is a form of type 1 DM that develops in adults, typically after the age of 30. It shares features with both type 1 and type 2 DM.
5. MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young): This is a rare form of diabetes caused by genetic mutations that affect insulin production. It typically develops in young adulthood and can be managed with lifestyle changes and/or medication.

The symptoms of diabetes mellitus can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Increased thirst and urination
2. Fatigue
3. Blurred vision
4. Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
5. Tingling or numbness in hands and feet
6. Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
7. Flu-like symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and stomach pain
8. Dark, velvety skin patches (acanthosis nigricans)
9. Yellowish color of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
10. Delayed healing of cuts and wounds

If left untreated, diabetes mellitus can lead to a range of complications, including:

1. Heart disease and stroke
2. Kidney damage and failure
3. Nerve damage (neuropathy)
4. Eye damage (retinopathy)
5. Foot damage (neuropathic ulcers)
6. Cognitive impairment and dementia
7. Increased risk of infections and other diseases, such as pneumonia, gum disease, and urinary tract infections.

It is important to note that not all individuals with diabetes will experience these complications, and that proper management of the condition can greatly reduce the risk of developing these complications.

The condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern, meaning that the gene for G6PD deficiency is located on the X chromosome and affects males more frequently than females. Females may also be affected but typically have milder symptoms or may be carriers of the condition without experiencing any symptoms themselves.

G6PD deficiency can be caused by mutations in the G6PD gene, which can lead to a reduction in the amount of functional enzyme produced. The severity of the condition depends on the specific nature of the mutation and the degree to which it reduces the activity of the enzyme.

Symptoms of G6PD deficiency may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, the condition can lead to hemolytic anemia, which is characterized by the premature destruction of red blood cells. This can be triggered by certain drugs, infections, or foods that contain high levels of oxalic acid or other oxidizing agents.

Diagnosis of G6PD deficiency typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Treatment is focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications through dietary modifications, medications, and avoidance of triggers such as certain drugs or infections.

Overall, G6PD deficiency is a relatively common genetic disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. Understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for this condition is important for ensuring appropriate care and management for individuals affected by it.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

* Increased thirst and urination
* Fatigue
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:

* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

The symptoms of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) can vary in severity depending on the type of mutation and the extent of melanin reduction. Common symptoms include:

* Pale skin, hair, and eyes that are highly sensitive to the sun
* Vision problems such as nystagmus (involuntary eye movements), photophobia (sensitivity to light), and poor depth perception
* Increased risk of developing skin cancer due to lack of melanin
* Poor response to immunizations and increased risk of infections
* Delayed development of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking
* Delayed speech and language development
* Learning disabilities and intellectual disability in some cases

There is no cure for oculocutaneous albinism, but treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include:

* Protective clothing and sunscreen to protect the skin from the sun's harmful rays
* Eyewear to correct vision problems
* Medication to reduce sensitivity to light and glare
* Regular check-ups with an ophthalmologist and dermatologist to monitor for signs of skin cancer and other complications
* Speech and language therapy to help with communication skills
* Physical therapy to improve motor skills and coordination
* Special education to address learning disabilities and intellectual disability

It is important for individuals with oculocutaneous albinism to receive early and accurate diagnosis, as well as ongoing medical care and support. With proper management, many individuals with this condition can lead fulfilling lives.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

There are several types of disease susceptibility, including:

1. Genetic predisposition: This refers to the inherent tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease due to their genetic makeup. For example, some families may have a higher risk of developing certain diseases such as cancer or heart disease due to inherited genetic mutations.
2. Environmental susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to exposure to environmental factors such as pollutants, toxins, or infectious agents. For example, someone who lives in an area with high levels of air pollution may be more susceptible to developing respiratory problems.
3. Lifestyle susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to unhealthy lifestyle choices such as smoking, lack of exercise, or poor diet. For example, someone who smokes and is overweight may be more susceptible to developing heart disease or lung cancer.
4. Immune system susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to an impaired immune system. For example, people with autoimmune disorders such as HIV/AIDS or rheumatoid arthritis may be more susceptible to opportunistic infections.

Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals who are at risk of developing certain diseases and provide preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression. Additionally, genetic testing can help identify individuals with a high risk of developing certain diseases, allowing for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

In summary, disease susceptibility refers to the predisposition of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to various factors such as genetics, environment, lifestyle choices, and immune system function. Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals at risk and provide appropriate preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression.

The most common types of hemoglobinopathies include:

1. Sickle cell disease: This is caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene that codes for the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin. It results in the production of sickle-shaped red blood cells, which can cause anemia, infections, and other complications.
2. Thalassemia: This is a group of genetic disorders that affect the production of hemoglobin and can result in anemia, fatigue, and other complications.
3. Hemophilia A: This is caused by a defect in the F8 gene that codes for coagulation factor VIII, which is essential for blood clotting. It can cause bleeding episodes, especially in males.
4. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency: This is caused by a point mutation in the G6PD gene that codes for an enzyme involved in red blood cell production. It can cause hemolytic anemia, especially in individuals who consume certain foods or medications.
5. Hereditary spherocytosis: This is caused by point mutations in the ANK1 or SPTA1 genes that code for proteins involved in red blood cell membrane structure. It can cause hemolytic anemia and other complications.

Hemoglobinopathies can be diagnosed through genetic testing, such as DNA sequencing or molecular genetic analysis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disorder but may include blood transfusions, medications, and in some cases, bone marrow transplantation.

The disease begins with endothelial dysfunction, which allows lipid accumulation in the artery wall. Macrophages take up oxidized lipids and become foam cells, which die and release their contents, including inflammatory cytokines, leading to further inflammation and recruitment of more immune cells.

The atherosclerotic plaque can rupture or ulcerate, leading to the formation of a thrombus that can occlude the blood vessel, causing ischemia or infarction of downstream tissues. This can lead to various cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, and peripheral artery disease.

Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by genetic and environmental factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, and obesity. It is diagnosed by imaging techniques such as angiography, ultrasound, or computed tomography (CT) scans.

Treatment options for atherosclerosis include lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, dietary changes, and exercise, as well as medications such as statins, beta blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. In severe cases, surgical interventions such as bypass surgery or angioplasty may be necessary.

In conclusion, atherosclerosis is a complex and multifactorial disease that affects the arteries and can lead to various cardiovascular diseases. Early detection and treatment can help prevent or slow down its progression, reducing the risk of complications and improving patient outcomes.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Some common types of mental disorders include:

1. Anxiety disorders: These conditions cause excessive worry, fear, or anxiety that interferes with daily life. Examples include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
2. Mood disorders: These conditions affect a person's mood, causing feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or anger that persist for weeks or months. Examples include depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.
3. Personality disorders: These conditions involve patterns of thought and behavior that deviate from the norm of the average person. Examples include borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.
4. Psychotic disorders: These conditions cause a person to lose touch with reality, resulting in delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized thinking. Examples include schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and brief psychotic disorder.
5. Trauma and stressor-related disorders: These conditions develop after a person experiences a traumatic event, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
6. Dissociative disorders: These conditions involve a disconnection or separation from one's body, thoughts, or emotions. Examples include dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) and depersonalization disorder.
7. Neurodevelopmental disorders: These conditions affect the development of the brain and nervous system, leading to symptoms such as difficulty with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Examples include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Rett syndrome.

Mental disorders can be diagnosed by a mental health professional using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which provides criteria for each condition. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy, depending on the specific disorder and individual needs.

Low birth weight is defined as less than 2500 grams (5 pounds 8 ounces) and is associated with a higher risk of health problems, including respiratory distress, infection, and developmental delays. Premature birth is also a risk factor for low birth weight, as premature infants may not have had enough time to grow to a healthy weight before delivery.

On the other hand, high birth weight is associated with an increased risk of macrosomia, a condition in which the baby is significantly larger than average and may require a cesarean section (C-section) or assisted delivery. Macrosomia can also increase the risk of injury to the mother during delivery.

Birth weight can be influenced by various factors during pregnancy, including maternal nutrition, prenatal care, and fetal growth patterns. However, it is important to note that birth weight alone is not a definitive indicator of a baby's health or future development. Other factors, such as the baby's overall physical condition, Apgar score (a measure of the baby's well-being at birth), and postnatal care, are also important indicators of long-term health outcomes.

The term "systemic" refers to the fact that the disease affects multiple organ systems, including the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, and nervous system. LES is a complex condition, and its symptoms can vary widely depending on which organs are affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, rashes, and swelling in the extremities.

There are several subtypes of LES, including:

1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): This is the most common form of the disease, and it can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender.
2. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE): This subtype typically affects the skin, causing a red, scaly rash that does not go away.
3. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus: This form of the disease is caused by certain medications, and it usually resolves once the medication is stopped.
4. Neonatal lupus erythematosus: This rare condition affects newborn babies of mothers with SLE, and it can cause liver and heart problems.

There is no cure for LES, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and prevent flares. Treatment may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and antimalarial drugs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the disease.

It is important for people with LES to work closely with their healthcare providers to manage their condition and prevent complications. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with LES can lead active and fulfilling lives.

There are several factors that can contribute to the development of insulin resistance, including:

1. Genetics: Insulin resistance can be inherited, and some people may be more prone to developing the condition based on their genetic makeup.
2. Obesity: Excess body fat, particularly around the abdominal area, can contribute to insulin resistance.
3. Physical inactivity: A sedentary lifestyle can lead to insulin resistance.
4. Poor diet: Consuming a diet high in refined carbohydrates and sugar can contribute to insulin resistance.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Cushing's syndrome, can increase the risk of developing insulin resistance.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and some antipsychotic drugs, can increase insulin resistance.
7. Hormonal imbalances: Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause can lead to insulin resistance.
8. Sleep apnea: Sleep apnea can contribute to insulin resistance.
9. Chronic stress: Chronic stress can lead to insulin resistance.
10. Aging: Insulin resistance tends to increase with age, particularly after the age of 45.

There are several ways to diagnose insulin resistance, including:

1. Fasting blood sugar test: This test measures the level of glucose in the blood after an overnight fast.
2. Glucose tolerance test: This test measures the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels after consuming a sugary drink.
3. Insulin sensitivity test: This test measures the body's ability to respond to insulin.
4. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA): This is a mathematical formula that uses the results of a fasting glucose and insulin test to estimate insulin resistance.
5. Adiponectin test: This test measures the level of adiponectin, a protein produced by fat cells that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Low levels of adiponectin are associated with insulin resistance.

There is no cure for insulin resistance, but it can be managed through lifestyle changes and medication. Lifestyle changes include:

1. Diet: A healthy diet that is low in processed carbohydrates and added sugars can help improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Exercise: Regular physical activity, such as aerobic exercise and strength training, can improve insulin sensitivity.
3. Weight loss: Losing weight, particularly around the abdominal area, can improve insulin sensitivity.
4. Stress management: Strategies to manage stress, such as meditation or yoga, can help improve insulin sensitivity.
5. Sleep: Getting adequate sleep is important for maintaining healthy insulin levels.

Medications that may be used to treat insulin resistance include:

1. Metformin: This is a commonly used medication to treat type 2 diabetes and improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs): These medications, such as pioglitazone, improve insulin sensitivity by increasing the body's ability to use insulin.
3. Sulfonylureas: These medications stimulate the release of insulin from the pancreas, which can help improve insulin sensitivity.
4. DPP-4 inhibitors: These medications, such as sitagliptin, work by reducing the breakdown of the hormone incretin, which helps to increase insulin secretion and improve insulin sensitivity.
5. GLP-1 receptor agonists: These medications, such as exenatide, mimic the action of the hormone GLP-1 and help to improve insulin sensitivity.

It is important to note that these medications may have side effects, so it is important to discuss the potential benefits and risks with your healthcare provider before starting treatment. Additionally, lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise can also be effective in improving insulin sensitivity and managing blood sugar levels.

1. Erectile dysfunction (ED): The inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance.
2. Premature ejaculation (PE): Ejaculation that occurs within one minute of vaginal penetration, with minimal sexual stimulation and before the person wishes it.
3. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): A noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause urinary frequency, hesitancy, and retention.
4. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland, which can cause painful urination, pelvic pain, and fever.
5. Testicular torsion: A condition in which the spermatic cord becomes twisted, cutting off blood flow to the testicle.
6. Varicocele: A swelling of the veins in the scrotum that can affect fertility.
7. Hypogonadism: A condition in which the body does not produce enough testosterone, leading to symptoms such as low libido, erectile dysfunction, and osteoporosis.
8. Peyronie's disease: A condition that causes scar tissue to form inside the penis, leading to curvature and pain during erection.
9. Priapism: A persistent and painful erection that can cause damage to the penis if left untreated.

These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, such as age, genetics, infection, injury, and lifestyle choices. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as ultrasound or biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and can include medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be prevented or treated with timely medical care. Therefore, it is crucial to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms or discomfort in your testicles or penis. Early detection and treatment can help to alleviate symptoms, improve quality of life, and prevent long-term complications.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

The symptoms of aniridia can vary depending on the severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

* Partial or complete absence of the iris
* Poor vision, including nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism
* Sensitivity to light
* Eye pain or discomfort
* Increased risk of glaucoma and other eye conditions
* Delayed development of the visual system in children

Aniridia can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, including a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Genetic testing may also be used to confirm the diagnosis and identify the underlying genetic mutation responsible for the condition.

There is currently no cure for aniridia, but there are various treatments available to manage the associated symptoms and prevent complications. These may include:

* Glasses or contact lenses to correct vision problems
* Eye drops or oral medications to reduce inflammation and pain
* Surgery to remove cataracts or other eye conditions
* Laser therapy to improve vision and reduce the risk of glaucoma

It is essential for individuals with aniridia to receive regular eye exams to monitor their condition and prevent complications. In some cases, children with aniridia may also require additional testing and monitoring to ensure proper development of the visual system.

In summary, aniridia is a rare genetic disorder that affects the development of the iris, leading to vision loss and other complications. While there is no cure for the condition, various treatments are available to manage the associated symptoms and prevent complications. Regular eye exams are essential for individuals with aniridia to monitor their condition and prevent complications.

The main symptoms of FMF include:

1. Recurrent fever, usually during childhood and adolescence, which can range from 38°C to 40°C (100°F to 104°F).
2. Serositis, which can involve the heart (endocarditis), lungs (pleuritis), and/or peritoneum (peritonitis).
3. Painful joints, particularly in the hands, knees, and ankles.
4. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting.
5. Rash, which may be present during fever episodes.
6. Enlarged spleen and liver.
7. Elevated levels of inflammatory markers in the blood, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP).
8. Skin rashes or lesions, which may be present during fever episodes.
9. Kidney problems, such as kidney stones or chronic kidney disease.
10. Eye problems, such as uveitis or retinal vasculitis.

There is no cure for FMF, but the symptoms can be managed with medications and other therapies. Treatment typically involves colchicine, a drug that reduces inflammation and prevents flares. Other medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids, may also be used to manage symptoms. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected organ or to repair damaged tissue.

It is important for individuals with FMF to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a treatment plan that is tailored to their specific needs and symptoms. With proper management, many people with FMF are able to lead active and fulfilling lives. However, it is important to note that FMF can be a chronic condition, and ongoing management is typically necessary to control symptoms and prevent complications.

Falciparum malaria can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, the disease can lead to anemia, organ failure, and death.

Diagnosis of falciparum malaria typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to detect the presence of parasites in the blood or other bodily fluids. Treatment usually involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) or quinine, which can effectively cure the disease if administered promptly.

Prevention of falciparum malaria is critical to reducing the risk of infection, and this includes the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying (IRS), and preventive medications for travelers to high-risk areas. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities can also help reduce the number of mosquitoes and the spread of the disease.

In summary, falciparum malaria is a severe and life-threatening form of malaria caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite, which is responsible for the majority of malaria-related deaths worldwide. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and death from this disease. Prevention measures include the use of bed nets, indoor spraying, and preventive medications, as well as reducing standing water around homes and communities.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

The causes of colorectal neoplasms are not fully understood, but factors such as age, genetics, diet, and lifestyle have been implicated. Symptoms of colorectal cancer can include changes in bowel habits, blood in the stool, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Screening for colorectal cancer is recommended for adults over the age of 50, as it can help detect early-stage tumors and improve survival rates.

There are several subtypes of colorectal neoplasms, including adenomas (which are precancerous polyps), carcinomas (which are malignant tumors), and lymphomas (which are cancers of the immune system). Treatment options for colorectal cancer depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.

Research into the causes and treatment of colorectal neoplasms is ongoing, and there has been significant progress in recent years. Advances in screening and treatment have improved survival rates for patients with colorectal cancer, and there is hope that continued research will lead to even more effective treatments in the future.

... individuals or groups may over time shift from one ethnic group to another. Ethnic groups may be subdivided into subgroups or ... The ethnic groups have adapted to mountains, deserts, grasslands, and forests. On the coasts of Asia, the ethnic groups have ... Ethnic groups may share a narrow or broad spectrum of genetic ancestry, depending on group identification, with many groups ... Ethnic groups differ from other social groups, such as subcultures, interest groups or social classes, because they emerge and ...
Ethnic groups in Kosovo, Ethnic groups in Montenegro, Ethnic groups in North Macedonia, Ethnic groups in Serbia, Ethnic groups ... Ethnoreligious groups, Slavic ethnic groups, Muslims by ethnicity, Ethnic groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ethnic groups in ... "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Articles containing ... Prior to 1993, a vast majority of present-day Bosniaks self-identified as ethnic Muslims, along with some smaller groups of ...
Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Articles containing Arabic-language text, All articles with ... Although they were all referred to as the Bani Hula, they were not a uniform group. In fact, they were each other's fiercest ... They were a disparate group of small tribes of sailors, traders, fishermen, pearl divers, and cultivators. ... Groups of Sunni Arabs that migrated from Oman and the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula to the Iranian side the Gulf, ...
"Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Articles containing ... Ethnic groups in Nepal, Culture of Sikkim, Dalit communities). ... and performing dance in a group which is also called "Khayali ... Sarki is categorized under "Hill Dalit" among the 9 broad social groups, along with Damai, Badi, Kami and Gaine by the ...
Various ethnic groups with origins in other parts of India have unique customs and use languages at home other than Kannada, ... As per the 2011 census[update], speakers of Telugu formed the third largest ethnic group in Karnataka (5.84% of the total ... Other ethnic groups settled in Karnataka include Gujaratis (0.19%), Bengalis (0.14%), Odias (0.10%), Tibetans (0.06%), Punjabis ... People speaking Urdu as their mother tongue form the second largest ethnic group in Karnataka (10.83% of the total population ...
"Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, African-American society, African-Native American relations). ...
Those interest groups established by ethnic identity groups are referred as to ethnic interest groups. According to Thomas ... Advocacy group Indigenism Diaspora politics Ethnic interest groups in the United States List of ethnic interest groups in ... An ethnic interest group or ethnic lobby, according to Thomas Ambrosio, is an advocacy group (often a foreign policy interest ... "Ethnic Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy." Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-25412-5 Ambrosio, Thomas. 2002. "Ethnic identity groups and ...
Ethnic groups in Brunei, Ethnic groups in Indonesia, Ethnic groups in Sumatra, Ethnic groups in Sarawak, Ethnic groups in Sabah ... "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Wikipedia articles ... Ethnic groups in Singapore, Maritime Southeast Asia, Muslim ethnoreligious groups, Austronesian peoples). ... Ethnic groups in Southeast Asia, Ethnoreligious groups in Asia, Malaya, Malay Peninsula, ...
S. Achremczyk: Historia Warmii i Mazur, Olsztyn 1997 v t e v t e (Ethnic groups in Poland, Prussia, All stub articles, Polish ... Warmians are a Polish ethnic group from Warmia. Most of them are Roman Catholic and speak in Warmian subdialect of Polish ...
Ethnic groups in Iran, Nomadic groups in Iran, Turkoman tribes, Ethnic groups in the Middle East, All stub articles, Asian ... The Baharlu (Azerbaijani: Baharlı; Persian: بهارلو), also spelled Bahārlou, Baharloo, Baharlooe, are a Turkic ethnic group ...
Meo (pronounced as may-o or mev), also called Mewati, is an ethnic group from the Mewat Muslim Rajput community of north- ... "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, All articles with incomplete citations, Articles with incomplete citations from ... Meo profess the beliefs of Islam but the roots of their ethnic structure are in Hindu caste society. Meos claim high-caste ... Meos profess the beliefs of Islam but the roots of their ethnic structure are in Hindu caste society. The neighbouring Hindu ...
Ethnic groups in Albania, Ethnic groups in Greece, Ethnic groups in Macedonia (region), Ethnic groups in Serbia, Ethnic groups ... "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Instances of Lang-mk ... "Ethnic groups worldwide: a ready reference handbook", p. 54 Macedonians are a Slavic people closely related to the neighboring ... This is confirmed from a Sultan's Firman from 1680 which describes the ethnic groups in the Balkan territories of the Empire as ...
Ndola is a tribe or an ethnic group of people found in Taraba State, Nigeria with an estimated population of about one hundred ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, AC with 0 elements, Ethnic groups in Nigeria, Taraba State ... Other tribes in this group which have similar phonology are: Mambila, Suga, Kwanja, Vute, Kamkam, Twendi and Wawa. Most of ...
v t e (Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Ethnic groups in Poland, All stub articles, Poland stubs). ... The Cracowians are divided into two geographic sub-groups, the Eastern Cracowians who inhabit the areas north and east of ... Cracovians (Polish: Krakowiacy) are an ethnographic sub-group of the Polish nation, who resides in the historic region of ...
... , Ethnic groups in Serbia). ... Slovaks are the third largest ethnic group in Vojvodina. They ... Recent demographic trends among largest ethnic groups in Vojvodina: Ethnic map of Vojvodina according to the 2002 census based ... Hungarians - There are 251,136 Hungarians in Vojvodina or 13% of the population and they are the second largest ethnic group in ... Bunjevci are small ethnic group whose members mostly live in northern Vojvodina. There are 16,469 Bunjevci in Vojvodina. The ...
... "ethnic attack" by forming their own ethnic identity. In reaction to being labeled the superior ethnic group by the Belgians and ... The largest ethnic groups in Rwanda are the Hutus, which make up about 85% of Rwanda's population; the Tutsis, which are 14%; ... Ethnic groups in Burundi "Rwanda: A Brief History of the Country". United Nations. Retrieved 4 April 2018. Luis, J. R.; et al ... The modern conception of Tutsi and Hutu as distinct ethnic groups in no way reflects the pre-colonial relationship between them ...
Berbers are an indigenous ethnic group of Algeria. Berber linguistic groups include speakers of Central Atlas Tamazight, ... Ethnic groups in Algeria include Arabs, who represent 99% of the population, though according to The World Factbook "only a ...
The population of Kerala, India is a heterogenous group that comprises many ethnic groups that originated in other parts of ... various ethnic groups may speak other languages as well. The racial and ethnic history of Kerala is highly controversial and ... are polygenetic and belong to different ethnic groups and religions. The Census of India does not recognise racial or ethnic ... According to the 2001 census the breakdown of ethnic groups by religion is: In 1968, the Communist government under E. M. S. ...
See also: History of Jews in Moscow Jews were the largest non-Slavic ethnic group in Moscow before the collapse of the Soviet ... According to the 2010 Russian census, the top 20 ethnic groups were: The term Caucasus refers to a geographical area in the ... 21, 2014, Haaretz (Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Webarchive template wayback links, Ethnic groups in Moscow, ... Moscow is the most populous city entirely within Europe, which hosts a minor population of ethnic minorities. The last census ...
Thailand is a country of some 70 ethnic groups, including at least 24 groups of ethnolinguistically Tai peoples, mainly the ... 3 groups of Austronesian peoples, i.e., the Malay, the majority ethnic group in the southernmost three provinces, together with ... แผนแม่บท การพัฒนากลุ่มชาติพันธุ์ในประเทศไทย(พ.ศ.2558-2560) [Master Plan for the Development of Ethnic Groups in Thailand 2015- ... Ethnic Groups of Thailand: Non
There are various ethnic groups in Senegal, The Wolof according to CIA statistics are the majority ethnic group in Senegal. ... 47-60 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ethnic groups of Senegal. (in French) The ethnic groups of Senegal Atlas du ... The predominant ethnic groups in Senegal share a common cultural background so that, apart from their languages that also have ... Several small ethnic groups in Senegal are related to the Mandinka, together constituting 4% of the population of the country. ...
In the "Space Age" era, many members of that ethnic group moved to Glenbrook Valley. La Voce, an ethnic newspaper published by ... descendants of ethnic Whites who had founded Houston numerically outnumbered other ethnic groups who had later settled in ... The Parsi in 2000 made up one of the two chief ethnic groups practicing the Zoroastrian religion. As of that year the total ... In 2010 Strait and Gong stated that of all ethnic groups in Houston, African Americans were the most segregated from non- ...
"Ethnic Group by measures". NOMIS. Retrieved 2 September 2014. "Ethnic Groups in London". Census Update. Office for National ... ethnic group heading Distribution of ethnic groups in Greater London according to the 2011 census. White Asian Black White- ... "Ethnic group, England and Wales: Census 2021". ONS. 29 November 2022. "1991 census - theme tables". NOMIS. Retrieved 20 January ... British Indians have long been one of London's largest ethnic minority groups and in 2007 over 500,000 Indians were residing in ...
Arabs represent the major ethnicity in Syria, in addition to the presence of several, much smaller ethnic groups. Ethnicity and ... Articles with French-language sources (fr), Ethnic groups in Syria, Religion in Syria). ... groups. Sunni Arab Syrians could be anywhere between 70% and 79% as non-Arabic-speaking groups (mostly Kurds) are usually ... Armenians Other groups Druze Romani people of various creeds Jews Yazidis are an ethno-religious group and Yezidism (Sharfadin ...
... include the three main indigenous groups of Hutu, Tutsi and Twa that have largely been emphasized in ... The Twa group was often seen as an artisanal group or hunters that is what made them distinct from the other groups, or Twa. ... ethnic divides are still visible on a societal, everyday level. Intermarriage between ethnic groups is uncommon and even in ... that united the Burundian ethnic groups in a common call for independence from Belgium. Especially appalled by the ethnic ...
... , Ethnic groups in the United States by city, History of Baltimore). ... Ethnic communities, University of Maryland Ethnic Studies Project, 1979. Lawson, Jim C. The Baltimore Ethnic Food Store Guide, ... The largest Asian ethnic groups are Koreans and Indians. Smaller numbers of Filipinos, Chinese, Japanese, and Vietnamese also ... This made them the third largest European ethnic group in the Baltimore area after the Germans and the Irish. In the same year ...
The ethnic groups in Karachi includes all the ethnic groups in Pakistan. Karachi's inhabitants, locally known as Karachiwala, ... Ethnic groups in Pakistan Ethnic groups in Sindh Demographic history of Karachi Demographics of Karachi Religion in Karachi ... One under-privileged sub-ethnic group is the Siddis (Africans - Sheedi) who are now naturalised Sindhi speakers. They are ... are now the city's second largest ethnic group after Muhajirs, these Pashtuns are settled in Karachi from decades. With as high ...
Among the several native ethnic groups of Japan, the predominant group are the Yamato Japanese, who trace their origins back to ... one ethnic group and one dynasty". Pioneering remarks about ethnic rights was first made by Prime Minister Fukuda Yasuo on 20 ... some of whom were dispersed or absorbed by other groups. Ethnic groups that inhabited the Japanese islands during prehistory ... The Yamato people are the dominant native ethnic group of Japan and because of their numbers, the term Yamato is often used ...
The mix of ethnic groups in Chicago has varied over the history of the city, resulting in a diverse community in the twenty- ... Iranian ethnic groups represented include Persians, Kurds, Turks, Azeris, and Lurs. Many Iranians live in Uptown. Reza's, which ... Other European ethnic groups in Chicago are Slovaks, Macedonians, Estonians, Latvians, Slovenes, Dutch, Spaniards and ... But diverse ethnicities and sectarian groups of Pakistani origin often organize themselves along sectarian or ethnic lines. Of ...
1989 ethnic map of Russia showing the largest ethnic group of each region or Republic; with brown as Russians, green as Turkic ... and is home to over 190 ethnic groups nationwide. However, demographically; ethnic Russians dominate the country's population. ... peoples Ethnic map of Russia, 2010 Largest ethnic group apart from Russians: yellow - Ukrainians, lawn green - Tatars, green - ... In the 2010 Census, roughly 81% of the population were ethnic Russians, and the remaining 19% of the population were ethnic ...
... crimes against humanity against the predominantly Muslim Uyghurs and other members of ethnic and religious minority groups in ... Head coach: David Quinn Group play Source: IIHF Rules for classification: Preliminary round tiebreakers (H) Host Quarterfinals ... Group play Source: IIHF Rules for classification: Tiebreakers Notes: Finland 3 Pts, +4 GD; ROC 3 Pts, −2 GD; Switzerland 3 Pts ...
"Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Articles containing ...
The organization was dissolved in 1936, being substituted by different ethnic youth organizations; the Youth League (Czech), ... Slovak and German youth groups. The membership fluctuated between 8,000 and 13,000, later reaching a peak of about 24,000 ...
Population: 16,512 (2010 Census); 15,052 (2002 Census); 13,872 (1989 Census). In 2002, the main ethnic groups were: Karachays: ...
The group was characterised by a fascination with pre-Columbian art and customs, social critique and the portrayal of a group ... Their works can be classified as Neo-Pop, realistic, abstract, landscape, ethnic and graphic, capturing multiple, loosely ... This group is also known as the "Centenary Generation" or "Centenary Group" because some of its members unveiled their ... "Sign Group". This name was given by the art critic and theorist Nelly Richard to a diverse group of artists from various ...
Asian ethnic group stubs). ... Ghale is an indigenous group of Nepal. The Ghale speak Ghale ...
Leonard's Church Interior Heston Type 1 Phoenix II G-AESV at Elstree Aerodrome Moto Heston East services Heston's ethnic groups ... "Heston Action Group". Facebook.com. Retrieved 3 July 2022. Bird, Peter (5 December 1992). "Obituary: Don Allum". The ... There are three active community groups in Heston: Heston Residents Association, formed in 1918, Heston West Big Local, formed ... in 2015 and Heston Action Group, formed in 2018. Hounslow West tube station is just within the area's southern boundary and is ...
... may refer to: Yumu people, an ethnic group of Australia Yumu language (Australia) Yumu language (Nigeria) Yumu Kudo, ...
The German parliament, for example, has felt pressure to, and has diluted (if not eradicated), citizenship based on ethnic ... Migration of individuals or groups between countries contributes to the formation of postnational identities and beliefs, even ... and the collective claims making of migrants and ethnic minorities in Britain and Germany"; American Journal of Sociology 105: ...
Gupta explained the ethnic and linguistic fault lines that lay behind the massacre, which were so deep that the perpetrators ... Indigenous Assamese groups, who had held resentments toward the immigrant Bengalis, took advantage of the resulting isolation ... The Khoirabari massacre was an ethnic massacre of an estimated 100 to 500 immigrant Bengalis in the Khoirabari area of Assam, ... Following the massacre, K. S. Sudarshan and other leaders of Hindu nationalist group Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) ...
Joshua Project, Ethnic People Group: Koho, 2020. Ngọc Lý Hiển. 2010. Nghề dệt vải của người Cơ-Ho Chil. Hà Nội: Nhà xuất bản ... The K'Ho, Cơ Ho, or Koho are an ethnic group living in the Lâm Đồng province of Vietnam's Central Highlands. They speak K'Ho ... v t e (Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Articles with BNF identifiers, Articles with J9U identifiers ... Ethnic groups in Vietnam, All stub articles, Vietnam stubs). ... The Lạch people, a subgroup of K'Ho, is the indigenous group of ...
"Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Articles containing ... Marathi Buddhists (Marāṭhī Baud'dha) are Buddhists of Marathi ethnic and linguistic identity. The religious community resides ...
The title comes from Sarah Baartman, a 19th-century South African woman of the Khoikhoi ethnic group.: 10-11 Alexander is an ...
The entire population of the district and the town consists of the Hazara ethnic group. In December 2008, Ms. Azra Jafari was ...
The two largest ethnic groups reported in Sherkole were the Berta (92.4%), and the Gumuz (2.4%); all other ethnic groups made ...
A number of women and girls from all ethnic groups and foreigners have been victims of sex trafficking in Vietnam. They are ... Among the first organised crime group to emerge in Vietnam were the Bình Xuyên, which during the 1920s acted mainly as river ... but Năm Cam would later come to form a dominant criminal group in Saigon during the 90s, where he was known for running ... Khánh Trắng started to transform the union into a something like an organized crime group that extorted from the merchants in ...
In many cases, Assyrian family groups, or "clans", formed large population groups within the empire referred to as tribes. Such ... Modern ideas such as a person's ethnic background, or the Roman idea of legal citizenship, do not appear to have been reflected ... In the Middle Assyrian Empire, there were several groups among the lower classes, the highest of which were the free men (a'ılū ... Old Assyrian society was divided into two main groups: slaves (subrum) and free citizens, referred to as awīlum ("men") or DUMU ...
... the two groups may be identified as "Group A" and "Group B". The last evening before a new group of people is to leave the " ... Some Moravian Hutterites converted to Catholicism and retained a separate ethnic identity as the Habans (German: Habaner) until ... Since 1992, the Schmiedeleut, until that point the largest of the three "leut," have been divided into "Group One" and "Group ... creating two separate groups of families. The two groups are made as equal as possible in size, taking into account the ...
Previously, the city was exclusively white (categorised as a simplified ethnic group within Northern Ireland) at 98% white in ... Belfast has become in recent decades an ethnically diverse city, although this ethnic diversity is not to the same scale as ... In 2021 the largest identity group was 'Irish only' with 35% of the population. After this was; British only 27%, Northern ...
The group was made up of Konjo and Amba fighters and was led by Isaya Mukirania. It disbanded in 1982 following successful ... Rothchild, Donald S. (1997). Managing ethnic conflict in Africa: pressures and incentives for cooperation. Brookings ... ISBN 978-0-19-970583-2. (CS1 errors: missing periodical, Rebel groups in Uganda, Kingdom of Rwenzururu). ...
However, properly targeted research on young males, particularly those from disadvantaged ethnic groups, which considers both ... While blue-collar crime has no official legal classification, it holds to a general net group of crimes. These crimes are ... comparison with other groups, etc. Hence, there is likely to be a causal relationship between relative deprivation and crime, ... particularly where unemployment is perceived as unjust and hopeless by comparison with the lot of other groups. Thornberry and ...
Ethnic groups in the village include: Macedonians 242 Romani 7 Serbs 79 Macedonian Census (2002), Book 5 - Total population ... according to the Ethnic Affiliation, Mother Tongue and Religion, The State Statistical Office, Skopje, 2002, p. 212. v t e ( ...
... and Ladino ethnic groups, peddle handicrafts. Some sell textiles such a po't (blouses) and su't. The presence of street vendors ... and peddlers as a single group of itinerant salesman, and claims that he is unable to say what distinction was drawn between a ... with privileged groups often referring to them in pejorative terms. Literary references and images of hawkers and peddlers ...
A further 20,000 persons in Haskovo Province did not declare their ethnic group at the 2011 census. Religious adherence in the ... 246,238 Ethnic groups (2011 census): Identified themselves: 227,382 persons: Bulgarians: 180,541 (79.40%) Turks: 28,444 (12.50 ... settlement and ethnic identification, by 01.02.2011; Bulgarian National Statistical Institute (in Bulgarian) (in Bulgarian) ...
... a racial group. Based on the "in part" definition, the Civil Rights Congress (CRC), a group composed of African Americans with ... He argued that this lynching ignited a series of them, all with the goal of "ethnic cleansing" and that Abraham Lincoln, who ... In 1968, a group of black radical feminists in Mt. Vernon, New York issued "The Sisters Reply"; a rebuttal which said that ... However, most minority groups stood in favor of the decriminalization of abortion; The New York Times reported in 1970 that ...
In 1787, a group of prominent ministers in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, proposed the foundation of a new college named in ... Philip, Gleason (2000). "Trouble in the Colonial Melting Pot". Journal of American Ethnic History. 20 (1): 3-17. Frasca, Ralph ... The Paxton Boys, a group of settlers convinced that the Pennsylvania government was not doing enough to protect them from ... Gleason, Philip (2000). "Trouble in the Colonial Melting Pot". Journal of American Ethnic History. 20 (1): 3-17. Houston, Alan ...
These two hands symbolize the main two ethnic groups of the nation: the Afar and the Issa. The spear is topped by a red star. ...
In 2019, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that the racial and ethnic makeup of the city was 31.8% non-Hispanic white, 17.2% ... Of the Hispanic or Latin American population, the largest group was Mexican Americans. At the 2010 U.S. census, the racial and ... the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns ... ethnic makeup of the city was 62.9% White, 15.5% African American, 0.6% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 14.42% from other races, ...
Gang warfare and ethnic clashes between Cambodian and African-American youth ceased. In 1997, Sargeant Jerry Williams was ... American News Service, Berkshire Publishing Group. Retrieved Oct. 20, 2007. Casey, C., and Howard, M.: Addicts and Inmates: ... In a post-intervention focus group, "many women reported using new strategies to calm down, quiet their minds and make ...
... 's largest ethnic group is composed of Irish-Americans, followed by Italian-Americans, Polish-Americans ...
Advisory Boards and Groups. Read about the boards and groups that advise and provide guidance to the Institute. ... Over 40 research groups conduct basic neuroscience research and clinical investigations of mental illnesses, brain function, ...
Vaccine equity and addressing vaccine disparities among racial and ethnic minority groups ... COVID-19 Vaccine Equity for Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups. COVID-19 Vaccine Equity for Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups ... Other racial and ethnic minority groups, including American Indian or Alaska Native people, have also been more severely ... CDC Is Committed to Vaccine Equity for Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups. CDC is paving the way in vaccine equity efforts with ...
Media in category "Ethnic groups in Greece". The following 3 files are in this category, out of 3 total. ... Category:Ethnic groups in Greece. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Ethnic_groups_in_Greece&oldid=520118034" ...
These Employee Resource Groups help to promote the heritage of each ethnicity of their members by sharing their culture and ... This group works to ensure that Cornings ethnic minorities achieve their full potential as valued employees. ... Ethnically Diverse Group of Employees (EDGE). EDGE is open to all Corning employees. Many of the members have ancestry that ... Manufacturing Technology & Engineering Asian and Latin Group (MTE ALG). MTE ALG represents employees of Asian and Latin ...
Ethnic Religions people groups with maps, sortable statistics and downloadable data. ... Ethnic Religions 4 ● 20.00 % 3.00 % 0 Unspecified -1 - Luwo. South Sudan. 231,000 Luwo Ethnic Religions 4 ● 35.00 % 10.00 % 4 ... Ethnic Religions 4 ● 18.00 % 3.00 % 5 Complete Bible -1 - Kabiye. Ghana. 52,000 Kabiye Ethnic Religions 4 ● 17.00 % 4.00 % 5 ... Ethnic Religions 5 ● 40.00 % 16.14 % 5 Complete Bible -1 - Kadai. Indonesia. 700 Kadai Ethnic Religions 2 ● 8.00 % 2.00 % 0 ...
The San Francisco Bay View National Black Newspaper was founded in 1976 to serve thought-provoking stories and commentary on the full range of Black trials and triumphs ...
JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it ...
The ethnic group projections are produced for London borough and provide detailed projection by 17 ethnic groups of Londons ... The 2016-based projections remain the most recent set of GLA ethnic group projections. ...
Minority Rights Group. , Publications. , The Constitution of Iraq: Religious and Ethnic Relations. ... Download: The Constitution of Iraq: Religious and Ethnic Relations. * Download: The Constitution of Iraq: Religious and Ethnic ... Armed group destroys medical centre for Roma in Southern Baghdad. *The Deportation of Iraqi Citizens from the US: a Legal and ... Sign up to Minority rights Group Internationals newsletter to stay up to date with the latest news and publications. ...
Study highlights the need for public health messaging strategies that address biases against all population groups that have ... People from racial, ethnic, and other groups report frequent COVID-19-related discrimination. Study highlights the need for ... The survey also asked whether participants felt that others acted afraid of them because they belonged to a racial/ethnic group ... When compared to white adults, people from all racial and ethnic minority groups were more likely to have experienced COVID-19- ...
Ambry Genetics Data Suggests RNA-seq Can Boost Variant Interpretation in Understudied Ethnic Groups Mar 24, 2022 , staff ... particularly for ethnic groups that are underrepresented in genetic databases. ... The participants had self-reported ethnicity from African American, Asian, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white groups, though non- ... which ultimately reduces the clinical utility of genetic testing in racial and ethnic minorities." ...
People in an ethnic group often share certain versions of their genes, which have been passed down from common ancestors. If ... Examples of genetic conditions that are more common in particular ethnic groups are sickle cell disease, which is more common ... It is important to note, however, that these disorders can occur in any ethnic group. ... For more information about genetic disorders that are more common in certain groups:. ...
Leaders of groups of runners of color said they see the Newton incident as part of a broader, all too familiar pattern. ... "A lot of folks in our group are people who identify as Black and Brown, who have [had] really challenging experiences with ... "It was a really upsetting and disturbing scene to watch a group that was so clearly not harming anyone - just celebrating and ...
Home Research Topics Race & Ethnicity Racial & Ethnic Groups Hispanics/Latinos Hispanic/Latino Demographics ... Asian Americans are the fastest-growing racial or ethnic group in the U.S. electorate. short read , Nov 20, 2019 ... Whats the only other state where non-Hispanic whites are not the largest racial or ethnic group? Hawaii. The Rainbow state is ... In 2014, Latinos will surpass whites as largest racial/ethnic group in California. By Mark Hugo Lopez ...
Benefits of a higher education level may not improve cardiovascular health for non-white racial and ethnic groups. ... However, the benefits of more education may not benefit those in non-white racial and ethnic groups, according to a Journal of ... Higher Education Level Does Not Translate to Better Cardiovascular Health in Racial and Ethnic Groups. ...
The Biology of Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer in Various Racial and Ethnic Groups (U01) RFA-CA-09-026. NCI ... ethnic groups?); and. *Determining whether the signaling pathways in ER-negative breast tumors differ among racial and ethnic ... Compare the biology of ER-negative tumors in racial and ethnic groups to determine whether there are differences at the ... Title: The Biology of Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer in Various Racial and Ethnic Groups (U01) ...
... by ethnic group, including death counts, age-standardised mortality rates, and hazard rate ratios by age, sex and ethnic group. ... were of people from a White ethnic group, 6.2 % from an Asian ethnic group, 4.0% from a Black ethnic group and 0.5 % from an ... Table 1: Ethnic breakdowns used in this article. Ethnic groups used. Detailed composition of groups. ... Table 3: Weighted populations at 2 March 2020 used in this article, by ethnic group. Ethnic group. Percentage ...
Multi-ethnic group of friends taking a selfie together while having fun outdoors. - buy this Royalty Free Stock Photo on people ... Multi-ethnic group of friends taking a selfie together while having fun outdoors. - a Royalty Free Stock Photo from Photocase. ... Buy this Royalty Free Stock Photo on Multi-ethnic group of friends taking a selfie together while having fun outdoors. people ... smartphone multiracial multi-ethnic caucasian photographing students diversity women smile diverse smiling laughing portrait ...
Racial and ethnic disparities in severe maternal morbidity-life-threatening maternal complications associated with childbirth- ... Media Advisory: Rate of life-threatening childbirth complications increasing sharply across U.S. racial, ethnic groups NIH- ... Media Advisory: Rate of life-threatening childbirth complications increasing sharply across U.S. racial, ethnic groups ... Advisory Groups * Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC) * National Advisory Child Health and Human Development (NACHHD) Council ...
You need to be signed in to access email alerts. If you have an account log in with your user name and password. If you dont have an account you can just enter your email address in the email box below ...
... initiated on selected growth and nutritional characteristics of children living in inner-city areas and children from ethnic ... Data for this representative sample were collected in 1982 and for the ethnic groups in inner city areas in 1983. The analysis ... Very large differences in height were detected between ethnic groups. The Afro-Caribbean children were the tallest, on average ... Adjustment for a large set of biological and social variables did not eliminate differences in height between ethnic groups. ...
... by racial/ethnic group and age: Results from OAB-POLL - Abstract ... Further, racial/ethnic group is a robust predictor of OAB in ... The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and overactive bladder (OAB) by racial/ethnic group and age: Results from ... Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the impact of racial/ethnic group on OAB. ... Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate group differences. ... Left Group * Health Policy *. Health Policy. Ruchika Talwar, MD ...
Gorgeous Multi-Ethnic Girls With Nude Makeup Against Beige Background. Stock Photo and explore similar images at Adobe Stock. ... Diverse Group Of Ethnic Women Portrait. Happy Different Ethnicity Models Standing Together With Closed Eyes And Smiling. ... Diverse Group Of Ethnic Women Portrait. Happy Different Ethnicity Models Standing Together With Closed Eyes And Smiling. ...
... is the worlds largest ethnic broadcaster that operates 100+ television channels from around the globe, serving the ... multicultural population in Canada, USA, MENA and Australia, across 20+ language groups. ... Ethnic Channels Group (ECG), is the worlds largest ethnic broadcaster that operates 100+ television channels from around the ... globe, serving the multicultural population in Canada, USA, MENA and Australia, across 20+ language groups. ...
... The 2021 Census topic covering ethnic group, national identity, ... BCP , About the council , Statistics, data and census , Census , Ethnic group, national identity, language and religion ...
Ethnic and Religious Groups in Romania Educational (Co)Incidences ...
  • I ethnic disparities in NTM-PI risk, and particularly n the United States, studies have indicated that the role of BMI and other potential confounding fac- risk for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary tors among Asian/Pacific Islander populations, we disease (NTM-PD) differs by geographic location conducted a retrospective cohort study among Kai- and ethnic group ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In previous studies , UH Cancer Center researchers have identified striking ethnic and racial disparities in their predisposition to accumulate intra-abdominal fat and in the strength of the association between obesity and cancer risk. (hawaii.edu)
  • 3 In addition, there are racial and ethnic disparities in vaccination coverage for pregnant people. (cdc.gov)
  • Very large differences in height were detected between ethnic groups. (nih.gov)
  • Adjustment for a large set of biological and social variables did not eliminate differences in height between ethnic groups. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple regression analyses by ethnic group revealed differences in the pattern of associations between height and social and biological factors among groups. (nih.gov)
  • Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate group differences. (urotoday.com)
  • In this post Tra Pham ( UCL Research Department of Primary Care and Population Health ) discusses her recent work with colleagues from the department, Division of Psychiatry and King's College London on new diagnoses of dementia and the differences among ethnic groups. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We know little about the differences in the likelihood of receiving a dementia diagnosis among different ethnic groups. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • However, to our knowledge, there are no detailed studies investigating the status of these virulence genes in relation to the geographic/ethnic differences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ethnic differences in reactions to drugs and xenobiotics : proceedings of a meeting held in Titisee, Black Forest, Federal Republic of Germany, October 3-6, 1985, supported by the Boehringer Ingelheim Fonds / editors, Werner Kalow, H. Werner Goedde and Dharam P. Agarwal. (who.int)
  • The present study examines potential differences in the prevalence of IADL difficulty and association with cognition across diverse groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • Minority ethnic groups measured for the purposes of this indicator include any ethnic group where there are over 30 pupils from that group in any particular cohort. (data.gov.uk)
  • Our findings also highlight the importance of raising awareness of the benefits of getting a timely diagnosis of dementia, particularly in people from minority ethnic groups who may be more at risk of dementia. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • This group works to ensure that Corning's ethnic minorities achieve their full potential as valued employees. (corning.com)
  • When there's a lack of representation in clinical testing cohorts, published literature, and population reference databases, that limits the evidence base that's available to leverage towards variant classification," Horton explained, adding that this "limits the ability to accurately interpret variants, decreases yield, and increases ambiguity through VUS rate, which ultimately reduces the clinical utility of genetic testing in racial and ethnic minorities. (genomeweb.com)
  • A new surveillance system was initiated on selected growth and nutritional characteristics of children living in inner-city areas and children from ethnic minorities. (nih.gov)
  • This applied to both different racial groups and to different ethnic groups within the black group. (bvsalud.org)
  • HIV prevalence between different ethnic groups within South Africa exhibits considerable variation. (bvsalud.org)
  • investigated if differential concurrency rates could explain differential HIV spread within ethnic groups in South Africa . (bvsalud.org)
  • Results showed that HIV prevalence rates varied considerably between South Africa 's ethnic groups . (bvsalud.org)
  • Provisional analysis for the period 2 March to 15 May 2020 shows, that after taking into account size and age structure of the population, the mortality rate for deaths involving COVID-19 was highest among males of Black ethnic background at 255.7 deaths per 100,000 population and lowest among males of White ethnic background at 87.0 deaths per 100,000. (ons.gov.uk)
  • Some evidence has indicated that people from Black and Minor Ethnic (BME) groups present at services (i.e. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Generalizations from findings in one ethnic group to another in England are not appropriate. (nih.gov)
  • Prevalence of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Difficulties and Associated Cognitive Predictors Across Racial/Ethnic Groups: Findings From the KHANDLE Study. (bvsalud.org)
  • This article presents provisional analyses of deaths involving the coronavirus (COVID-19) by ethnic group for England and Wales. (ons.gov.uk)
  • Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the impact of racial/ethnic group on OAB. (urotoday.com)
  • Meta-analyses will be performed by calculating the minority ethnic group to majority ethnic group odds ratios or risk ratios for each study and presenting an overall pooled odds ratio for the two outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • That, in turn, points to the need for continued efforts to increase genetic test access, Horton said, particularly for ethnic groups that are underrepresented in genetic databases. (genomeweb.com)
  • Why are some genetic conditions more common in particular ethnic groups? (medlineplus.gov)
  • If one of these shared genes contains a disease-causing variant (also known as a mutation), a particular genetic disorder may be more frequently seen in the group. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It has long been established that the concept of ethnicity in relation to disease burden is not one of biological difference as there is more genetic diversity within ethnic groups than between them, rather it is more relevant as a social construct [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are few studies analyzed concurrently the prevalence and genotypes of Helicobacter pylori infection with the ancestor origins from different ethnics, especially with including minority groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Caution and careful check-up are required especially on Hmong ethnic associated with high prevalence of virulence genotypes of H. pylori . (biomedcentral.com)
  • explores how much of the variation in HIV prevalence by ethnic group is explained by differential concurrency rates. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2005) the HIV prevalence in each of eight major ethnic groups was calculated. (bvsalud.org)
  • Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between an ethnic group 's HIV prevalence and the point- prevalence of concurrency. (bvsalud.org)
  • There are many social, geographic, political, economic, and environmental factors that create challenges to vaccination access and acceptance, and that often affect racial and ethnic minority groups. (cdc.gov)
  • Deaths related to the coronavirus (COVID-19) by ethnic group, including death counts, age-standardised mortality rates, and hazard rate ratios by age, sex and ethnic group. (ons.gov.uk)
  • It will be interesting to analyze other virulence factors as geographical diversity marker such as duodenal ulcer promoting gene ( dupA ), blood group antigen-binding adhesin ( babA ), induced by contact with epithelium (iceA ) and jhp0562 and β- galT - (jhp0563) which were also reported to have association with severe clinical outcomes [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our study emphasises the need for service improvement targeting BME groups who might be facing barriers to accessing health care services and getting a dementia diagnosis. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • This is the first study we are aware of that examined the association between specific cognitive domains and IADL performance across multiple racial/ ethnic groups . (bvsalud.org)
  • Because of these and other challenges, some Black or African American people and Hispanic or Latino people are less likely to be vaccinated against COVID-19 than people in other racial and ethnic minority groups and non-Hispanic White people. (cdc.gov)
  • Other racial and ethnic minority groups, including American Indian or Alaska Native people, have also been more severely affected by COVID-19 than non-Hispanic White people, due to the challenges listed above. (cdc.gov)
  • Each point represents a people group in a country. (joshuaproject.net)
  • Click any point for a popup with further people group details. (joshuaproject.net)
  • Click the image in the popup window for a people group profile. (joshuaproject.net)
  • Estimates are calculated only for unreached people groups and are based on ratio of 1 worker-unit (single person or married couple) per 50,000 living in an unreached people group by country, or for example one team of four worker-units per 200,000 people. (joshuaproject.net)
  • The Progress Scale is derived from people group values for percent Evangelical and percent Christian Adherent . (joshuaproject.net)
  • This is done to avoid confusion regarding the current reality of a people group, to fix grammar and spelling and to avoid potentially offensive wording. (joshuaproject.net)
  • A lot of folks in our group are people who identify as Black and Brown, who have [had] really challenging experiences with police officers before," said Aliese Lash, a Pioneers captain. (baystatebanner.com)
  • It was a really upsetting and disturbing scene to watch a group that was so clearly not harming anyone - just celebrating and cheering for people - and feeling like some part of our existence was not welcome there. (baystatebanner.com)
  • People in an ethnic group often share certain versions of their genes, which have been passed down from common ancestors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After adjusting for region, population density, socio-demographic and household characteristics, the raised risk of death involving COVID-19 for people of Black ethnic background of all ages together was 2.0 times greater for males and 1.4 times greater for females compared with those of White ethnic background. (ons.gov.uk)
  • When looking at total number of deaths involving COVID-19 88.6% were of people from a White ethnic group, 6.2 % from an Asian ethnic group, 4.0% from a Black ethnic group and 0.5 % from an Other ethnic group. (ons.gov.uk)
  • ONS analysis continues to show that people from a Black ethnic background are at a greater risk of death involving COVID-19 than all other ethnic groups. (ons.gov.uk)
  • Our hypothesis was that there would be a smaller proportion of Black people with dementia who were diagnosed compared with people from the White ethnic group. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Group B people preferred brushing only in the morning (24.5%), while 16.5% of group A respondents preferred brushing twice a day. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Ethnic groups. (who.int)
  • These relationships did not significantly differ across racial/ ethnic groups . (bvsalud.org)
  • The ethnic group projections are produced for London borough and provide detailed projection by 17 ethnic groups of London's future population. (london.gov.uk)
  • According to California Governor Jerry Brown's new state budget , Latinos are projected to become the largest single racial/ethnic group in the state by March of this year, making up 39% of the state's population. (pewresearch.org)
  • But only in California and New Mexico will Hispanics be the largest racial or ethnic population (in New Mexico, Hispanics make up 47% of the state's population). (pewresearch.org)
  • Ethnic Channels Group (ECG), is the world's largest ethnic broadcaster that operates 100+ television channels from around the globe, serving the multicultural population in Canada, USA, MENA and Australia, across 20+ language groups. (ethnicchannels.com)
  • That will make California only the second state, behind New Mexico, where whites are not the majority and Latinos are the plurality, meaning they are not more than half but they comprise the largest percentage of any group. (pewresearch.org)
  • What's the only other state where non-Hispanic whites are not the largest racial or ethnic group? (pewresearch.org)
  • whilst for females in Bangladeshi or Pakistani, Indian, Chinese and Mixed ethnic groups the risk of death involving COVID-19 was equivalent to White females. (ons.gov.uk)
  • It is therefore important to understand firstly whether the risk of AMR infections is disproportionately higher in minority or majority ethnic groups in settings where excess rather than access to antibiotics is more likely to be a problem. (biomedcentral.com)
  • UH researchers hope to better understand how IER combined with a healthy diet may be able to lower cancer-related risk and inform future dissemination research to reduce cancer risk in various high-risk ethnic groups in Hawaiʻi and elsewhere. (hawaii.edu)
  • Therefore, compared with the White British ethnic group, BME dementia patients may have less access to timely diagnosis. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The participants had self-reported ethnicity from African American, Asian, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white groups, though non-Hispanic white ethnicity was reported most often, making up almost 27,800 of the cases. (genomeweb.com)
  • These Employee Resource Groups help to promote the heritage of each ethnicity of their members by sharing their culture and through their offerings of educational opportunities, networking, cultural events, and social gatherings. (corning.com)
  • The Rainbow state is the only state in which Asian Americans or Pacific Islanders are the largest racial/ethnic group. (pewresearch.org)
  • Data for this representative sample were collected in 1982 and for the ethnic groups in inner city areas in 1983. (nih.gov)
  • When this milestone occurs, it will mark the first time since California became a state in 1850 that Latinos are the Golden State's single largest racial or ethnic group. (pewresearch.org)
  • The subjects were divided in to A group (e"30 years), B group (d"31 years - e"45 years) and C group (d"46 years). (bvsalud.org)
  • In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we will aim to collate the available evidence of whether there is a difference in rates of AMR and/or antibiotic prescribing in minority vs. majority ethnic groups in high-income countries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We recruited a total of 289 patients in MaeSot, Thailand (154 Thai, 14 Thai-Chinese, 29 Karen and 92 Hmong ethnics). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Good performance is typified by higher percentages of pupils attaining 5 A*-C, including English and mathematics, accompanied by a narrowing of the attainment gap between minority ethnic pupils and all pupils. (data.gov.uk)