Contraceptives, Oral, Combined
Ethinyl Estradiol-Norgestrel Combination
Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic
Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Scavenger receptor BI mediates the selective uptake of oxidized cholesterol esters by rat liver. (1/590)High density lipoprotein (HDL) can protect low density lipoprotein (LDL) against oxidation. Oxidized cholesterol esters from LDL can be transferred to HDL and efficiently and selectively removed from the blood circulation by the liver and adrenal in vivo. In the present study, we investigated whether scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is responsible for this process. At 30 min after injection, the selective uptake of oxidized cholesterol esters from HDL for liver and adrenal was 2.3- and 2.6-fold higher, respectively, than for native cholesterol esters, whereas other tissues showed no significant difference. The selective uptake of oxidized cholesterol esters from HDL by isolated liver parenchymal cells could be blocked for 75% by oxidized LDL and for 50% by phosphatidylserine liposomes, both of which are known substrates of SR-BI. In vivo uptake of oxidized cholesterol esters from HDL by parenchymal cells decreased by 64 and 81% when rats were treated with estradiol and a high cholesterol diet, respectively, whereas Kupffer cells showed 660 and 475% increases, respectively. These contrasting changes in oxidized cholesterol ester uptake were accompanied by similar contrasting changes in SR-BI expression of parenchymal and Kupffer cells. The rates of SR-BI-mediated selective uptake of oxidized and native cholesterol esters were analyzed in SR-BI-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. SR-BI-mediated selective uptake was 3.4-fold higher for oxidized than for native cholesterol esters (30 min of incubation). It is concluded that in addition to the selective uptake of native cholesterol esters, SR-BI is responsible for the highly efficient selective uptake of oxidized cholesterol esters from HDL and thus forms an essential mediator in the HDL-associated protection system for atherogenic oxidized cholesterol esters. (+info)
Stable incorporation of a lipophilic daunorubicin prodrug into apolipoprotein E-exposing liposomes induces uptake of prodrug via low-density lipoprotein receptor in vivo. (2/590)Many tumors express elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors. Therefore, native LDL and synthetic LDL-like particles have been proposed as carriers for antineoplastic drugs. We demonstrated earlier that small apolipoprotein E (apoE)-exposing liposomes were specifically recognized by the LDL receptor. In this study, we incorporated a lipophilic derivative of daunorubicin (LAD) into the apoE liposomes. Up to 11 molecules of LAD could be incorporated per particle without significantly changing the size, lipid composition, and ability to bind apoE of the liposomes. The biological fate of the prodrug was largely determined by its carrier (70% of the initially incorporated LAD was still associated to the liposomes after 4 h of circulation in mice). Compared with free daunorubicin, the circulation half-life of the liposome-associated prodrug was substantially prolonged and undesired tissue disposition was reduced. The role of the LDL receptor in the metabolism of LAD-loaded apoE liposomes was demonstrated in rats with up-regulated hepatic LDL receptors. In these rats, the liver uptake of the prodrug and carrier was increased 5-fold. The addition of apoE was essential for LDL receptor-mediated uptake of the drug-carrier complex. In LDL receptor-deficient mice, the circulation time of both the prodrug and the carrier increased approximately 2-fold compared with wild-type mice. We conclude that LAD-loaded apoE liposomes constitute a stable drug-carrier complex that is well suited for LDL receptor-mediated selective drug delivery to tumors. (+info)
Levonorgestrel versus the "Yuzpe" regimen.(3/590)New choices in emergency contraception. (+info)
Effect of neonatal exposure to estrogenic compounds on development of the excurrent ducts of the rat testis through puberty to adulthood. (4/590)Neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) can alter the structure of the testicular excurrent ducts in rats. We characterized these changes according to dose and time posttreatment and established whether potent estrogens (ethinyl estradiol), environmental estrogens (genistein, octylphenol, bisphenol A, parabens), and tamoxifen induce such changes. Rats were administered these compounds neonatally and assessed at several time points during (day 10, or day 18 for some treatments) and after (days 18, 25, 35, and 75) the treatment period to detect any changes in testis weight, distension of the rete testis and efferent ducts, epithelial cell height in the efferent ducts, and immunoexpression of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP-1). Treatment with DES (10, 1, or 0.1 microg/injection; equivalent to 0.37, 0.037, or 0.0037 mg/kg/day, respectively) induced dose-dependent changes in testis weight and all parameters. These effects were most pronounced at days 18 and 25 and appeared to lessen with time, although some persisted into adulthood. Neonatal treatment with ethinyl estradiol (10 microg/injection; equivalent to 0.37 mg/kg/day) caused changes broadly similar to those induced by 10 mg DES. Administration of tamoxifen (2 mg/kg/day) caused changes at 18 days that were similar to those induced by 1 microg DES. Treatment with genistein (4 mg/kg/day), octylphenol (2 mg/injection; equivalent to 150 mg/kg/day), or bisphenol A (0.5 mg/injection; equivalent to 37 mg/kg/day) caused minor but significant (p<0.05) decreases in epithelial cell height of the efferent ducts at days 18 and/or 25. In animals that were followed through to 35 days and/or adulthood, these changes were no longer obvious; other parameters were either unaffected or were affected only marginally and transiently. Administration of parabens (2 mg/kg/day) had no detectable effect on any parameter at day 18. To establish whether these effects of estrogens were direct or indirect (i.e., resulting from reduced follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone secretion), the above end points were assessed in animals in which gonadotropin secretion was suppressed neonatally by administration of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist. This treatment permanently reduced testis weight, but did not affect any of the other end points, apart from a minor transient reduction in efferent duct epithelial cell height at 18 days. This study suggests that structural and functional (expression of AQP-1) development of the excurrent ducts is susceptible to impairment by neonatal estrogen exposure, probably as a consequence of direct effects. The magnitude and duration of adverse changes induced by treatment with a range of estrogenic compounds was broadly comparable to their estrogenic potencies reported from in vitro assays. (+info)
Final height in girls with Turner's syndrome treated with once or twice daily growth hormone injections. Dutch Advisory Group on Growth Hormone. (5/590)OBJECTIVES: To study final height in girls with Turner's syndrome treated with once or twice daily injections of growth hormone (GH) in combination with low dose ethinyl oestradiol. DESIGN: Until final height was reached, the effect of fractionated subcutaneous injections given twice daily was compared with once daily injections of a total GH dose of 6 IU/m2/day. Twice daily injections were given as one third in the morning and two thirds at bedtime. All girls concurrently received low dose oestradiol (0.05 microgram ethinyl oestradiol/kg/day, increased to 0.10 microgram/kg/day after 2.25 years). PATIENTS: Nineteen girls with Turner's syndrome aged > or = 11 years (mean (SD) 13.6 (1.7) years). MEASUREMENTS: To determine final height gain, we assessed the difference between the attained final height and the final height predictions at the start of treatment. These final height predictions were calculated using the Bayley-Pinneau (BP) prediction method, the modified projected adult height (mPAH), the modified index of potential height (mIPHRUS), and the Turner's specific prediction method (PTSRUS). RESULTS: The gain in final height (mean (SD)) was not significantly different between the once daily and the twice daily regimens (7.6 (2.3) v 5.1 (3.2) cm). All girls exceeded their adult height prediction (range, 1.6-12.3 cm). Thirteen of the 19 girls had a final height gain > 5.0 cm. Mean (SD) attained final height was 155.5 (5.4) cm. A "younger bone age" at baseline and a higher increase in height standard deviation score for chronological age (Dutch-Swedish-Danish references) in the first year of GH treatment predicted a higher final height gain after GH treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Division of the total daily GH dose (6 IU/m2/day) into two thirds in the evening and one third in the morning is not advantageous over the once daily GH regimen with respect to final height gain. Treatment with a GH dose of 6 IU/m2/day in combination with low dose oestrogens can result in a significant increase in adult height in girls with Turner's syndrome, even if they start GH treatment at a relatively late age. (+info)
Venous thromboembolic disease and combined oral contraceptives: A re-analysis of the MediPlus database. (6/590)In October 1995 the Committee on Safety of Medicines advised UK doctors and pharmacists that oral contraceptives containing desogestrel and gestodene were associated with double the risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) compared to pills containing other progestogens. In 1997 data was analysed from the MediPlus database of UK general practitioner records, which reported odds ratios for desogestrel and gestodene lower than that for levonorgestrel. Here the results of a more stringent nested case control analysis on the MediPlus database are reported. The study was larger and cases were verified. A crude incidence of idiopathic VTE was found amongst users of combined oral contraceptives of 4.6 per 10 000 exposed women years. Using levonorgestrel 150 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg as reference, non-significant odds ratios of 1.1 (0.5-2.6) for desogestrel 150 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg and 1.1 (0.5-2.4) for gestodene 75 microg + ethinyloestradiol 30 microg were found. The results of this study show no significant difference in risk between different formulations of combined oral contraceptive. (+info)
Reflex control of cutaneous vasoconstrictor system is reset by exogenous female reproductive hormones. (7/590)To determine whether cardiovascular influences of exogenous female steroid hormones include effects on reflex thermoregulatory control of the adrenergic cutaneous vasoconstrictor system, we conducted ramp decreases in skin temperature (T(sk)) in eight women in both high- and low (placebo)-progesterone/estrogen phases of oral contraceptive use. With the use of water-perfused suits, T(sk) was held at 36 degrees C for 10 min (to minimize initial vasoconstrictor activity) and was then decreased in a ramp, approximately 0.2 degrees C/min for 12-15 min. Subjects rested supine for 30-40 min before each experiment, and the protocol was terminated before the onset of shivering. Skin blood flow was monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry and arterial pressure by finger photoplethysmography. In all experiments, cutaneous vasoconstriction began immediately with the onset of cooling, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) decreased progressively with decreasing T(sk). Regression analysis of the relationship of CVC to T(sk) showed no difference in slope between phases (low-hormone phase: 17.67 +/- 5.57; high-hormone phase: 17.40 +/- 8.00 %baseline/ degrees C; P > 0.05). Additional studies involving local blockade confirmed this response as being solely due to the adrenergic vasoconstrictor system. Waking oral temperature (T(or)) was significantly higher on high-hormone vs. low-hormone days (36.60 +/- 0.11 vs. 36.37 +/- 0.09 degrees C, respectively; P < 0.02). Integrative analysis of CVC in terms of simultaneous values for T(sk) and T(or) showed that the cutaneous vasoconstrictor response was shifted in the high-hormone phase such that a higher T(or) was maintained throughout cooling (P < 0.05). Thus reflex thermoregulatory control of the cutaneous vasoconstrictor system is shifted to higher internal temperatures by exogenous female reproductive hormones. (+info)
Synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol induces pattern of uterine gene expression similar to endogenous estrogen 17beta-estradiol. (8/590)17alpha-Ethinyl estradiol is one of most widely prescribed estrogens. We compared the effects of this synthetic estrogen to those of the endogenous ovarian hormone 17beta-estradiol on the expression of four estrogen-inducible genes in the rat uterus. The genes examined include c-fos, c-jun, vascular endothelial growth factor, and creatine kinase B, which are all known to be primary responses to estrogen administration. Both estrogens induced the four target genes with similar time courses and produced the same pattern of cell-specific expression of c-fos and vascular endothelial growth factor in the uterine epithelium and stroma, respectively. Dose-response studies established that the potency and efficacy of both estrogens in the uterus were the same for all four hormone-regulated genes. These studies suggest that 17alpha-ethinyl and 17beta-estradiol produce similar if not identical patterns of gene expression in the uterus. (+info)
Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic estrogen hormone that is used in combination with progestin in birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings. It is also used in hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms and in the treatment of endometriosis and uterine fibroids. Ethinyl estradiol works by preventing ovulation and thickening the cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg. It can also cause changes in the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.
Estradiol congeners are a group of hormones that are structurally similar to estradiol, a naturally occurring estrogen hormone in the human body. Estradiol congeners are synthetic versions of estradiol that have been modified to have different properties, such as increased potency, longer duration of action, or reduced side effects. Estradiol congeners are used in various medical treatments, including hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms, breast cancer treatment, and the prevention of osteoporosis. They are also used in research to study the effects of estrogen on the body and to develop new treatments for estrogen-related conditions. Some examples of estradiol congeners include estradiol valerate, estradiol cypionate, and estradiol benzoate. These hormones are typically administered through injection or transdermal patches, and their use is closely monitored by healthcare providers to ensure safe and effective treatment.
"Contraceptives, Oral, Combined" refers to a type of birth control pill that contains a combination of hormones, typically estrogen and progestin, to prevent pregnancy. These pills are taken orally, usually once a day, and work by thickening cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg, as well as by inhibiting ovulation. Combined oral contraceptives are highly effective at preventing pregnancy when taken correctly and consistently, and can also provide additional benefits such as regulating menstrual cycles and reducing the risk of certain conditions such as ovarian and endometrial cancer. However, they may have side effects such as nausea, headaches, and changes in bleeding patterns.
Desogestrel is a progestin, a synthetic hormone that is used in combination with estrogen in birth control pills to prevent pregnancy. It works by thickening the cervical mucus, which makes it difficult for sperm to reach the egg, and by inhibiting ovulation. Desogestrel is also used in emergency contraception, or "morning-after" pills, to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex. It is also used in some hormonal contraceptive implants and vaginal rings.
Estradiol is a naturally occurring hormone that is produced by the ovaries in females and by the testes in males. It is a type of estrogen, which is a group of hormones that play a key role in the development and regulation of the female reproductive system, as well as in the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in both males and females. Estradiol is a potent estrogen and is one of the most biologically active forms of estrogen in the body. It is involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including the regulation of the menstrual cycle, the development of female sexual characteristics, and the maintenance of bone density. Estradiol also plays a role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, the brain, and the immune system. Estradiol is used in medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including menopause, osteoporosis, and certain types of breast cancer. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, patches, and gels, and is typically administered by mouth or applied to the skin. It is important to note that estradiol can have side effects, and its use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider.
Cyproterone acetate is a synthetic progestin medication that is used in combination with an estrogen in hormonal contraceptives to prevent pregnancy. It is also used to treat acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and endometriosis (a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus). In addition, it may be used to treat prostate cancer in men and to treat symptoms of menopause in women. Cyproterone acetate works by blocking the production of testosterone, which can help to reduce symptoms of hirsutism and acne, and by decreasing the thickness of the uterine lining, which can help to prevent pregnancy. It is usually taken by mouth in the form of tablets.
Levonorgestrel is a synthetic progestin hormone that is commonly used in the medical field as a contraceptive and for emergency contraception. It is also used to treat certain types of abnormal bleeding, such as uterine bleeding, and to prevent the growth of certain types of tumors in the uterus and ovaries. In addition, levonorgestrel is sometimes used to treat acne and to reduce the risk of preterm labor in pregnant women. It is available in a variety of forms, including oral tablets, vaginal rings, and injectable contraceptives.
Ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination is a type of hormonal contraceptive pill that contains a synthetic estrogen called ethinyl estradiol and a synthetic progestin called norgestrel. The combination of these hormones works to prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation, thickening the cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg. Ethinyl estradiol-norgestrel combination pills are typically taken orally once a day, and are usually taken at the same time each day to ensure consistent levels of hormones in the body. They are highly effective at preventing pregnancy when taken correctly, but like all forms of hormonal contraception, they may have side effects such as nausea, headaches, breast tenderness, and changes in menstrual bleeding patterns.
Norgestrel is a synthetic progestin hormone that is used in a variety of medical applications. It is a derivative of the natural hormone progesterone and is used in combination with estrogen in birth control pills to prevent pregnancy. Norgestrel is also used in emergency contraception, to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex, and in the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. In addition, norgestrel is used in the treatment of endometriosis, a condition in which tissue that normally lines the inside of the uterus grows outside of it, and in the prevention of miscarriage.
Androstenes are a group of hormones that are produced by the testes in males. They include testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and androstenedione. These hormones play a crucial role in the development of male sexual characteristics, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and the development of muscle mass. They also play a role in regulating sperm production and sexual desire. In the medical field, androstenes are often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to low testosterone levels, such as hypogonadism, and to treat conditions related to high levels of androgens, such as acne and hirsutism.
"Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic" refers to a class of medications that are used to prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg, or altering the lining of the uterus to make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant. These medications are taken orally in the form of tablets or pills and are typically prescribed by a healthcare provider. They are also known as oral contraceptives or birth control pills. Examples of synthetic oral contraceptives include combination pills containing estrogen and progestin, and progestin-only pills.
Norpregnenes are a group of hormones that are derived from the progestogen hormone progesterone. They include the hormones allopregnanolone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and androstenedione. These hormones play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including the regulation of the menstrual cycle, the maintenance of pregnancy, and the regulation of mood and stress responses. They are also involved in the development and function of the brain and nervous system.
"Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal" refers to a type of birth control that is taken by mouth in the form of pills, patches, or rings. These contraceptives contain synthetic hormones, such as estrogen and progestin, which work to prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg, and changing the lining of the uterus to make it less hospitable to a fertilized egg. Oral hormonal contraceptives are highly effective at preventing pregnancy when used correctly and consistently. They are also reversible and can be stopped at any time to allow for pregnancy. However, they may have side effects such as nausea, headaches, breast tenderness, and changes in menstrual bleeding patterns. Some women may also be at an increased risk of blood clots or other health complications when using hormonal contraceptives, so it is important to discuss the risks and benefits with a healthcare provider before starting any form of birth control.
Transsexualism, also known as gender dysphoria, is a medical condition in which a person experiences a strong and persistent discomfort or distress with their assigned gender at birth. This discomfort is often accompanied by a desire to live and be recognized as a member of the opposite sex. In the medical field, transsexualism is typically diagnosed through a combination of clinical interviews, psychological evaluations, and medical assessments. The diagnosis requires that the individual's gender identity is not a result of cultural, social, or psychological factors, but rather a deeply felt sense of being a member of the opposite sex. Treatment for transsexualism typically involves hormone therapy and gender-affirming surgeries, such as breast augmentation or genital reconstruction. Psychological counseling and support groups may also be recommended to help individuals cope with the challenges of transitioning and to address any mental health concerns that may arise.
Hirsutism is a medical condition characterized by excessive hair growth in women, typically on the face, chest, back, and abdomen. It is caused by an imbalance of hormones, particularly androgens, which are male sex hormones that are also present in women in small amounts. Hirsutism can be a symptom of a variety of underlying medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, and Cushing's syndrome, or it can be caused by certain medications or hormonal treatments. Treatment options for hirsutism may include medications to regulate hormone levels, laser hair removal, and electrolysis.
Contraceptive devices, female refer to contraceptive methods that are used by women to prevent pregnancy. These devices are typically inserted into the vagina or uterus and work by preventing sperm from fertilizing an egg. Examples of female contraceptive devices include intrauterine devices (IUDs), contraceptive implants, contraceptive sponges, and contraceptive rings. These devices are highly effective at preventing pregnancy when used correctly and consistently. It is important to note that contraceptive devices are not 100% effective and there is always a small risk of pregnancy, even when using these methods.
In the medical field, "Contraceptives, Oral" refers to a type of birth control that is taken by mouth in the form of pills, tablets, or capsules. These contraceptives contain hormones, such as estrogen and progestin, which work to prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant. Oral contraceptives are one of the most commonly used forms of birth control worldwide, and they are available in a variety of formulations, including monophasic, biphasic, and triphasic pills. They are generally effective when taken correctly and consistently, but they may have side effects such as nausea, headaches, breast tenderness, and changes in menstrual bleeding patterns. Some women may also experience more serious side effects, such as blood clots or stroke, although these risks are relatively low.
Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition that affects most teenagers and young adults, but can also occur in adults and children. It is characterized by the development of pimples, blackheads, and whiteheads on the face, neck, chest, back, and shoulders. These pimples are caused by the clogging of hair follicles with oil and dead skin cells, which can lead to the formation of bacteria and inflammation. Acne vulgaris can range from mild to severe and can have a significant impact on a person's self-esteem and quality of life. Treatment options for acne vulgaris include topical creams, oral medications, and in severe cases, isotretinoin.
Benzhydryl compounds are a class of organic compounds that contain a benzyl group attached to a carbon atom. The benzyl group consists of a benzene ring with a methyl group attached to one of its carbon atoms. In the medical field, benzhydryl compounds are commonly used as anticholinergic agents, which means they block the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that plays a role in muscle movement, digestion, and other bodily functions. Some examples of benzhydryl compounds used in medicine include atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscine, which are used to treat conditions such as motion sickness, irritable bowel syndrome, and Parkinson's disease. Benzhydryl compounds can also be used as antioxidants, as they can neutralize free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, some benzhydryl compounds have been shown to have antiviral and antibacterial properties, making them potential candidates for the development of new drugs to treat infections.
Norethindrone is a synthetic progestin medication that is used in a variety of medical applications. It is a derivative of the natural hormone progesterone and is used in combination with estrogen in birth control pills to prevent pregnancy. Norethindrone is also used to treat menstrual disorders, such as heavy bleeding and painful periods, and to treat endometriosis, a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus. In addition, norethindrone is used to treat certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and endometrial cancer, and to treat prostate cancer in men. It is usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules.
Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen that was widely used in the past to prevent miscarriages and to promote the growth of the uterus in pregnant women. It was also given to women who had had miscarriages or premature births to help prevent future miscarriages. However, it was later discovered that DES had harmful effects on the reproductive system of both males and females who were exposed to it in the womb. DES can cause a range of health problems, including vaginal cancer, breast cancer, and reproductive problems such as infertility and miscarriages. In addition to its use in pregnant women, DES was also given to postmenopausal women to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. However, this use of DES has been largely discontinued due to its harmful effects. Today, DES is no longer used in medical practice, and its use is strictly regulated and monitored to prevent its misuse and potential harm to individuals.
Phenols are a class of organic compounds that contain a hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to an aromatic ring. In the medical field, phenols are commonly used as antiseptics and disinfectants due to their ability to kill bacteria, viruses, and fungi. They are also used as topical anesthetics and as ingredients in certain medications. Phenols can be found naturally in many plants and fruits, such as cloves, cinnamon, and citrus fruits. They are also used in the production of a variety of consumer products, including soaps, shampoos, and cleaning agents. However, some phenols can be toxic and can cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and other health issues if they are not used properly. Therefore, it is important to follow proper safety guidelines when handling and using phenols in the medical field.
Androgen antagonists are a class of drugs that block the effects of androgens, which are male sex hormones such as testosterone. These drugs are often used to treat conditions such as prostate cancer, acne, and hirsutism (excessive hair growth in women) by reducing the levels of androgens in the body. They work by binding to androgen receptors, preventing androgens from binding to these receptors and exerting their effects. Examples of androgen antagonists include flutamide, bicalutamide, and spironolactone.
Receptors, Estradiol are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to the hormone estradiol. Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone that plays a role in the development and regulation of the female reproductive system, as well as in other bodily functions such as bone health and mood. When estradiol binds to its receptors, it can trigger a variety of cellular responses, including changes in gene expression and cellular metabolism. These receptors are found in many different tissues throughout the body, including the brain, liver, breast, and uterus.
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- For this reason, combination oral contraceptives, including Enskyce™ (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets USP), should not be used by women who are over 35 years of age and smoke. (nih.gov)
- Enskyce™ (desogestrel and ethinyl estradiol tablets USP) provides an oral contraceptive regimen of 21 light orange round tablets each containing 0.15 mg desogestrel (13-ethyl-11-methylene-18,19-dinor-17 alpha-pregn-4-en-20-yn-17-ol) and 0.03 mg ethinyl estradiol (19-nor-17 alpha-pregna-1,3,5 (10)-trien-20-yne-3,17,diol). (nih.gov)
- This indicates that the kinetics of 3-keto-desogestrel are non-linear due to an increase in binding of 3-keto-desogestrel to sex hormone-binding globulin in the cycle, attributed to increased sex hormone-binding globulin levels which are induced by the daily administration of ethinyl estradiol. (nih.gov)
- An oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and a progestin with minimal androgenic activity, such as norgestimate, norethindrone, or desogestrel, should be selected. (medscape.com)
- This medication is a hormonal combined agent as it consists of two active ingredients: 30mcg of ethinylestradiol and 150mcg of desogestrel. (4rx.net)
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- Nortrel contains two hormones, norethindrone and ethinyl estradiol , which belong to a group of drugs called hormonal contraceptives. (rxwiki.com)
- Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an estrogen medication which is used widely in birth control pills in combination with progestins. (wikipedia.org)
- EE is an estrogen, or an agonist of the estrogen receptors, the biological target of estrogens like estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
- It is a synthetic derivative of estradiol, a natural estrogen, and differs from it in various ways. (wikipedia.org)
- 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) treatment of wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) during early life development disrupts expression of genes directly involved in the feedback cycle of estrogen. (lu.se)
- Ethinyl estradiol, the most commonly used estrogen in oral contraceptives today, increases the risks of thromboembolism and has other significant hepatic impacts, which induce important drug-drug interactions. (bvsalud.org)
- COCs among women in Isfahan using LD planning it is not necessary that the client or HD contraceptives (containing 0.15 mg makes the optimal choice of method but it levonorgestrel plus 0.03 mg ethinyl estra- is important that she continues to use the diol or 0.25 mg levonorgestrel plus 0.05 mg method properly [ 4 ]. (who.int)
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- Each white tablet contains 1 mg of ethynodiol diacetate and 35 mcg of ethinyl estradiol, and the inactive ingredients include calcium acetate, calcium phosphate, corn starch, hydrogenated castor oil, and povidone. (rxlist.com)
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- 2000. The effect of raloxifene on the uterine weight response in immature mice exposed to 17- estradiol, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2- bis ( p -chlorophenyl)ethane, and methoxychlor. (cdc.gov)