Ethics Committees, Research
Ethics Committees, Clinical
Conflict of Interest
Dissent and Disputes
Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation
Therapeutic Human Experimentation
Beginning of Human Life
Double Effect Principle
Clinical Trials Data Monitoring Committees
Life Support Care
Guidelines as Topic
Education, Medical, Undergraduate
Tissue and Organ Procurement
Attitude of Health Personnel
History of Medicine
Clinical Trials as Topic
Health Care Rationing
Peer Review, Research
Right to Die
Decision Making, Organizational
Duty to Warn
Refusal to Treat
Medicine in Literature
Attitude to Death
Do case studies mislead about the nature of reality? (1/257)This paper attempts a partial, critical look at the construction and use of case studies in ethics education. It argues that the authors and users of case studies are often insufficiently aware of the literary nature of these artefacts: this may lead to some confusion between fiction and reality. Issues of the nature of the genre, the fictional, story-constructing aspect of case studies, the nature of authorship, and the purposes and uses of case studies as "texts" are outlined and discussed. The paper concludes with some critical questions that can be applied to the construction and use of case studies in the light of the foregoing analysis. (+info)
Indigenous peoples and the morality of the Human Genome Diversity Project. (2/257)In addition to the aim of mapping and sequencing one human's genome, the Human Genome Project also intends to characterise the genetic diversity of the world's peoples. The Human Genome Diversity Project raises political, economic and ethical issues. These intersect clearly when the genomes under study are those of indigenous peoples who are already subject to serious economic, legal and/or social disadvantage and discrimination. The fact that some individuals associated with the project have made dismissive comments about indigenous peoples has confused rather than illuminated the deeper issues involved, as well as causing much antagonism among indigenous peoples. There are more serious ethical issues raised by the project for all geneticists, including those who are sympathetic to the problems of indigenous peoples. With particular attention to the history and attitudes of Australian indigenous peoples, we argue that the Human Genome Diversity Project can only proceed if those who further its objectives simultaneously: respect the cultural beliefs of indigenous peoples; publicly support the efforts of indigenous peoples to achieve respect and equality; express respect by a rigorous understanding of the meaning of equitable negotiation of consent, and ensure that both immediate and long term economic benefits from the research flow back to the groups taking part. (+info)
Role conflict and confidentiality in multidisciplinary athlete support programmes. (3/257)As medical and scientific staff have increasingly been called upon to provide multidisciplinary support to elite performers the potential for ethical, professional, and legal conflicts has also increased. Although this has been recognised, little guidance has been provided to help resolve such conflicts. This paper identifies key issues in the provision of effective support and specifically addresses the roles of medical and scientific staff and their relations to coaches and performers. An athlete charter is presented that has successfully been used to resolve ethical conflicts and clarify the lines of communication, confidentiality, and responsibility within a national governing body. (+info)
Ethical requirements for occupational health research--compliance arrangements for a single company in relation to a recent major nuclear industry study. (4/257)The media coverage given to occupational health studies in the field of ionizing radiation has, on occasion, been the cause of very real distress to radiation workers and their families. In response to this situation the Chief Medical Officers of the major UK nuclear companies developed an ethical policy for future involvement in research, based on the duty of care which researchers owe to a key customer of such studies: the worker. The policy consists of four principal elements: medical confidentiality; worker information; worker consent and the guarantee of the availability to the workers of pre-publication knowledge of the results. The policy issued in 1991/92 has achieved growing acceptance among researchers and medical journals, though the medical officers involved have been aware of some scepticism, particularly in relation to the practicalities of the dissemination of pre-publication information. The Record Linkage Study published in November 1997 marked a major piece of research work involving data from 120,000 radiation workers that had been carried out since the development of the policy. This paper reports on the successful compliance arrangements to meet the ethical requirements of that study within a single UK nuclear company, and is published to demonstrate that with commitment from researchers, the journal and occupational health staff such ethical requirements, and particularly the need for pre-publication information can be met in full. (+info)
Withholding/withdrawing treatment from neonates: legislation and official guidelines across Europe. (5/257)Representatives from eight European countries compared the legal, ethical and professional settings within which decision making for neonates takes place. When it comes to limiting treatment there is general agreement across all countries that overly aggressive treatment is to be discouraged. Nevertheless, strong emphasis has been placed on the need for compassionate care even where cure is not possible. Where a child will die irrespective of medical intervention, there is widespread acceptance of the practice of limiting aggressive treatment or alleviating suffering even if death may be hastened as a result. Where the infant could be saved but the future outlook is bleak there is more debate, but only two countries have tested the courts with such cases. When it comes to the active intentional ending of life, the legal position is standard across Europe; it is prohibited. However, recognising those intractable situations where death may be lingering and unpleasant, Dutch paediatricians have reported that they do sometimes assist babies to die with parental consent. Two cases have been tried through the courts and recent official recommendations have set out standards by which such actions may be assessed. (+info)
Power and the teaching of medical ethics. (6/257)This paper argues that ethics education needs to become more reflective about its social and political ethic as it participates in the construction and transmission of medical ethics. It argues for a critical approach to medical ethics and explores the political context in medical schools and some of the peculiar problems in medical ethics education. (+info)
Ethical considerations in international HIV vaccine trials: summary of a consultative process conducted by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). (7/257)Research that is initiated, designed or funded by sponsor agencies based in countries with relatively high social and economic development, and conducted in countries that are relatively less developed, gives rise to many important ethical challenges. Although clinical trials of HIV vaccines began ten years ago in the US and Europe, an increasing number of trials are now being conducted or planned in other countries, including several that are considered "developing" countries. Safeguarding the rights and welfare of individuals participating as research subjects in developing countries is a priority. In September, 1997, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) embarked on a process of international consultation; its purpose was further to define the important ethical issues and to formulate guidance that might facilitate the ethical design and conduct of HIV vaccine trials in international contexts. This paper summarises the major outcomes of the UNAIDS consultative process. (+info)
Death--whose decision? Euthanasia and the terminally ill. (8/257)In Australia and Oregon, USA, legislation to permit statutory sanctioned physician-assisted dying was enacted. However, opponents, many of whom held strong religious views, were successful with repeal in Australia. Similar opposition in Oregon was formidable, but ultimately lost in a 60-40% vote reaffirming physician-assisted dying. This paper examines the human dilemma which arises when technological advances in end-of-life medicine conflict with traditional and religious sanctity-of-life values. Society places high value on personal autonomy, particularly in the United States. We compare the potential for inherent contradictions and arbitrary decisions where patient autonomy is either permitted or forbidden. The broader implications for human experience resulting from new legislation in both Australia and Oregon are discussed. We conclude that allowing autonomy for the terminally ill, within circumscribed options, results in fewer ethical contradictions and greater preservation of dignity. (+info)
Bioethical issues are moral and ethical questions that arise in the field of medicine and healthcare. These issues involve the use of medical technology, the allocation of healthcare resources, the rights and autonomy of patients, and the responsibilities of healthcare providers. Bioethical issues can also involve questions about the ethical implications of medical research, the use of genetic testing and genetic engineering, and the end-of-life care of patients. Bioethicists are professionals who study and analyze these issues, and they work to develop ethical guidelines and principles to guide medical practice and research.
Bioethics is a branch of philosophy that deals with ethical issues related to biology and medicine. In the medical field, bioethics is concerned with the ethical principles and values that guide medical practice, research, and policy-making. Bioethicists consider a wide range of ethical issues in medicine, including end-of-life care, organ transplantation, genetic testing and engineering, research ethics, informed consent, and the allocation of healthcare resources. They also examine the social, cultural, and legal contexts in which medical decisions are made, and the impact of these decisions on individuals, communities, and society as a whole. Bioethics is an interdisciplinary field that draws on philosophy, law, medicine, sociology, anthropology, and other disciplines to address complex ethical questions in medicine. It is an important area of study for healthcare professionals, policymakers, and the general public, as it helps to ensure that medical practices and policies are ethical, just, and respectful of human dignity.
In the medical field, beneficence refers to the ethical principle that healthcare providers have a duty to act in the best interests of their patients. This includes not only providing appropriate medical care, but also considering the patient's overall well-being and making decisions that promote their health and happiness. Beneficence requires healthcare providers to act with compassion, empathy, and respect for their patients' autonomy and dignity. It also requires them to consider the potential risks and benefits of any medical intervention, and to weigh these against the patient's values and preferences. In practice, beneficence may involve making difficult decisions about end-of-life care, managing chronic conditions, or addressing social determinants of health that impact a patient's health outcomes. Ultimately, the goal of beneficence is to promote the health and well-being of patients, and to ensure that their medical care is guided by their best interests.
In the medical field, Committee Membership refers to the role of an individual who is appointed to serve on a committee or board that is responsible for making decisions or providing guidance on a particular issue or topic related to medicine or healthcare. Committees in the medical field can be formed for a variety of purposes, such as developing clinical guidelines, reviewing research proposals, overseeing quality improvement initiatives, or addressing ethical concerns. Committee members are typically selected based on their expertise, experience, and knowledge in the relevant area, and they are expected to contribute their insights and perspectives to help inform the committee's decisions. Committee membership can be a valuable opportunity for healthcare professionals to engage in professional development, build their networks, and make a positive impact on the field of medicine. However, it also requires a significant time commitment and a willingness to collaborate with others to achieve common goals.
In the medical field, confidentiality refers to the principle that healthcare providers must keep their patients' personal and medical information private and secure. This means that healthcare providers are legally and ethically bound to protect their patients' privacy and to not disclose their personal or medical information to anyone without their explicit consent, except in certain circumstances where disclosure is required by law or is necessary to protect the patient or others. Confidentiality is an essential aspect of the doctor-patient relationship, as it allows patients to feel comfortable discussing their health concerns and seeking medical treatment without fear of their information being shared with others. It also helps to maintain trust between patients and healthcare providers, which is crucial for effective healthcare. To ensure confidentiality, healthcare providers must take appropriate measures to safeguard their patients' personal and medical information, such as using secure electronic health records, limiting access to patient information to authorized personnel only, and obtaining informed consent from patients before sharing their information with others.
In the medical field, a conflict of interest occurs when a healthcare provider or researcher has an interest or relationship that could influence their professional judgment or decision-making, potentially leading to suboptimal patient care or biased research results. Examples of conflicts of interest in the medical field include: 1. Financial conflicts of interest: When a healthcare provider or researcher receives financial compensation or benefits from a pharmaceutical company or other entity that may benefit from their research or treatment recommendations. 2. Personal relationships: When a healthcare provider has a personal relationship with a patient or their family that could influence their professional judgment or decision-making. 3. Intellectual conflicts of interest: When a healthcare provider or researcher has a personal or professional interest in a particular treatment or research outcome that could influence their judgment or decision-making. 4. Organizational conflicts of interest: When a healthcare provider or researcher is affiliated with an organization that has a financial or other interest in a particular treatment or research outcome. It is important for healthcare providers and researchers to disclose any potential conflicts of interest to their patients or research participants, and to take steps to manage or eliminate those conflicts to ensure that their professional judgment and decision-making are not influenced by personal or financial interests.
Biomedical research is a field of study that involves the use of scientific methods to investigate the biological and medical aspects of health and disease. It encompasses a wide range of research areas, including genetics, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, immunology, neuroscience, and many others. The goal of biomedical research is to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of health and disease, and to develop new treatments, therapies, and diagnostic tools. This research is typically conducted in academic and research institutions, as well as in pharmaceutical and biotech companies. Biomedical research can be basic or applied. Basic research aims to increase our understanding of the fundamental processes that govern health and disease, while applied research focuses on developing practical applications of this knowledge, such as new drugs, medical devices, or diagnostic tests. Overall, biomedical research plays a critical role in advancing medical knowledge and improving patient outcomes.
In the medical field, a curriculum refers to a comprehensive plan or program of study that outlines the knowledge, skills, and experiences that medical students are expected to acquire during their education. The curriculum typically includes a combination of classroom instruction, laboratory work, clinical rotations, and other learning activities designed to prepare students for their future careers as healthcare professionals. The curriculum for medical students typically covers a wide range of topics, including anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, pathology, microbiology, medical ethics, and clinical skills. Medical schools may also offer electives or specialized tracks that allow students to focus on specific areas of interest, such as pediatrics, surgery, or public health. The curriculum is typically developed and maintained by a team of educators, administrators, and healthcare professionals, and is subject to ongoing review and revision to ensure that it remains current and relevant to the evolving needs of the medical field.
Animal experimentation in the medical field refers to the use of animals, such as mice, rats, rabbits, and primates, to conduct scientific research and develop new medical treatments and therapies. These experiments are typically conducted in laboratories and involve subjecting animals to various procedures, such as surgery, drug administration, and behavioral testing, in order to study the effects of these procedures on the animals' health and physiology. Animal experimentation is widely used in the medical field because it allows researchers to study complex biological processes and diseases in a controlled environment. For example, animal models can be used to study the effects of drugs on the human body, to test new surgical techniques, and to investigate the underlying causes of diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's. However, animal experimentation is also a controversial issue, with many people arguing that it is unethical to use animals for scientific research and that alternative methods, such as computer simulations and in vitro testing, should be used instead. Despite these concerns, animal experimentation remains an important tool in medical research and continues to be widely used in the development of new treatments and therapies.
Confucianism is a philosophical and ethical system that originated in ancient China and has had a significant influence on Chinese culture and society. In the medical field, Confucianism has been used as a framework for understanding the relationship between the individual and the community, and for promoting ethical behavior among healthcare professionals. Confucianism emphasizes the importance of personal responsibility, respect for authority, and the cultivation of moral character. In the medical field, these values are reflected in the emphasis on patient-centered care, the importance of maintaining professional boundaries, and the need for healthcare professionals to act with integrity and compassion. Confucianism also places a strong emphasis on the importance of education and self-improvement. In the medical field, this means that healthcare professionals are encouraged to continually learn and develop their skills, and to strive for excellence in their work. Overall, Confucianism provides a valuable framework for promoting ethical behavior and high standards of care in the medical field, and its principles continue to be relevant and influential today.
Decision making in the medical field refers to the process of making choices and determining the best course of action for a patient's health and well-being. This process involves considering various factors such as the patient's medical history, current condition, personal preferences, and available treatment options. Medical decision making can be complex and involve multiple stakeholders, including healthcare providers, patients, and their families. It often requires a thorough understanding of medical knowledge, as well as the ability to communicate effectively with patients and their families. In the medical field, decision making can involve a range of decisions, from routine clinical decisions such as selecting the appropriate medication or treatment plan, to more complex decisions such as determining the best course of action for a patient with a life-threatening illness or injury. Ultimately, the goal of medical decision making is to provide the best possible care for the patient, while also respecting their autonomy and ensuring that their values and preferences are taken into account.
In the medical field, civil rights refer to the legal and ethical principles that protect individuals from discrimination and ensure equal access to healthcare services. Civil rights in healthcare include the right to receive medical treatment without discrimination based on factors such as race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religion, or socioeconomic status. Some examples of civil rights in healthcare include: 1. The right to non-discrimination: Individuals have the right to receive medical treatment without discrimination based on their race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religion, or socioeconomic status. 2. The right to informed consent: Individuals have the right to be fully informed about their medical condition, treatment options, and potential risks and benefits before making decisions about their care. 3. The right to privacy: Individuals have the right to privacy in their medical records and during medical procedures. 4. The right to access healthcare services: Individuals have the right to access healthcare services regardless of their ability to pay. 5. The right to healthcare services in their preferred language: Individuals have the right to receive healthcare services in their preferred language. 6. The right to healthcare services in their preferred gender identity: Individuals have the right to receive healthcare services in their preferred gender identity. 7. The right to healthcare services in their preferred religious beliefs: Individuals have the right to receive healthcare services that align with their preferred religious beliefs. These civil rights are protected by various laws and regulations, including the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Affordable Care Act (ACA), and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).
In the medical field, the beginning of human life is typically defined as the point at which a human embryo or fetus is considered to be a separate, viable organism. This point is often marked by the development of a heartbeat, which typically occurs around six weeks after fertilization. Prior to this point, the developing organism is referred to as a blastocyst or an embryo.
In the medical field, conscience refers to an individual's sense of right and wrong, which guides their moral and ethical decision-making. It is a personal belief system that is shaped by cultural, religious, and social influences, and it can influence a healthcare provider's decisions about issues such as end-of-life care, abortion, and the use of medical treatments. In the context of medical practice, conscience can also refer to a healthcare provider's ethical obligations to their patients. For example, a healthcare provider may have a duty to provide care that is consistent with their patient's values and beliefs, even if it goes against their own personal conscience. However, healthcare providers may also have a duty to act in accordance with their own conscience if doing so does not harm their patient or violate their ethical obligations. Overall, conscience plays an important role in the medical field by guiding healthcare providers in their decision-making and helping them to provide care that is consistent with their patients' values and beliefs.
In the medical field, behavior control refers to the use of various techniques and strategies to modify and manage an individual's behavior. This can include both positive reinforcement and punishment methods, as well as cognitive-behavioral therapy and other forms of psychotherapy. Behavior control is often used in the treatment of various mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, and substance abuse. It can also be used to address behavioral issues in children and adults with developmental disabilities, as well as in individuals with neurological disorders or brain injuries. The goal of behavior control is to help individuals learn new, healthier behaviors and to replace negative or harmful behaviors with positive ones. This can involve teaching new skills, providing feedback and reinforcement for desired behaviors, and addressing underlying psychological or emotional issues that may be contributing to problematic behavior.
Clinical Trials Data Monitoring Committees (DMCs) are independent groups of experts who oversee the safety and efficacy of clinical trials. They are typically composed of statisticians, clinicians, and other experts in the field, and are responsible for reviewing the data from a trial on an ongoing basis to ensure that the trial is being conducted in an ethical and scientifically sound manner. The primary role of a DMC is to monitor the data from a clinical trial and to make recommendations to the sponsor and the trial's investigators about whether the trial should continue as planned, be modified, or be stopped early. This is important because clinical trials are designed to test the safety and efficacy of new treatments, and it is important to ensure that the trial is not putting participants at unnecessary risk. DMCs typically meet at regular intervals throughout the course of a trial, and they may also conduct ad-hoc reviews if there are concerns about the safety or efficacy of the treatment being tested. They may also provide guidance to the sponsor and investigators on the interpretation of the data and on the design and conduct of future trials. Overall, the role of a DMC is to ensure that clinical trials are conducted in an ethical and scientifically sound manner, and that the data from the trial is accurately and transparently reported. This helps to ensure that the results of the trial are reliable and can be used to inform the development of new treatments.
In the medical field, the term "democracy" typically refers to the principle of patient autonomy and self-determination. This means that patients have the right to make decisions about their own healthcare, including what treatments they receive and how they are managed. The concept of patient autonomy is based on the belief that patients are capable of making informed decisions about their own health and well-being, and that healthcare providers should respect and support this autonomy. This principle is often enshrined in medical ethics codes and is a fundamental aspect of modern healthcare. In practice, this means that healthcare providers should involve patients in decision-making processes, provide them with clear and accurate information about their condition and treatment options, and respect their preferences and values. It also means that healthcare providers should be transparent about their own biases and conflicts of interest, and that patients should have access to a range of treatment options and be able to choose the one that is right for them. Overall, the concept of democracy in the medical field is about empowering patients to take control of their own healthcare and ensuring that their decisions are respected and supported by healthcare providers.
Cultural diversity in the medical field refers to the recognition and appreciation of the differences in culture, ethnicity, language, religion, and other social factors that may affect a patient's health and healthcare experiences. It recognizes that cultural beliefs, values, and practices can influence a patient's health behaviors, attitudes towards healthcare, and interactions with healthcare providers. Cultural diversity in healthcare is important because it helps healthcare providers to provide more effective and culturally competent care. It involves understanding and respecting the cultural beliefs and practices of patients, and adapting healthcare services to meet their unique needs and preferences. This can include providing interpreter services, using culturally appropriate language and communication styles, and involving patients and their families in decision-making about their care. Cultural diversity in healthcare also helps to reduce health disparities and improve health outcomes for patients from diverse backgrounds. By recognizing and addressing the impact of cultural factors on health, healthcare providers can help to ensure that all patients receive high-quality, culturally competent care that meets their individual needs and preferences.
Casuistry is the practice of using hypothetical or real-life cases to analyze and apply ethical principles to specific situations. In the medical field, casuistry is often used to help healthcare professionals make ethical decisions about patient care, such as when to disclose information to patients, when to withdraw life-sustaining treatment, or how to allocate scarce medical resources. Casuistry involves considering the relevant facts of a case, applying ethical principles to those facts, and weighing the potential consequences of different courses of action. It is often used in conjunction with other ethical decision-making frameworks, such as deontology (which focuses on following rules) and consequentialism (which focuses on maximizing good outcomes).
In the medical field, dehumanization refers to the treatment of individuals as objects or commodities rather than as human beings with dignity and worth. This can manifest in various ways, such as treating patients as mere symptoms or numbers, ignoring their personal experiences and preferences, or reducing them to their illness or disability. Dehumanization can also occur when medical professionals fail to establish a therapeutic relationship with their patients, or when they prioritize their own interests or convenience over the needs and well-being of their patients. Dehumanization can have serious negative consequences for patients, including decreased trust in medical professionals, increased anxiety and stress, and poorer health outcomes.
In the medical field, coercion refers to the use of pressure, threats, or other forms of influence to compel someone to undergo a medical treatment or procedure against their will. This can include situations where a patient is not fully informed about the risks and benefits of a treatment, or where they are unable to make an informed decision due to mental illness or other factors. Coercion can take many forms, including physical force, verbal pressure, or manipulation of a patient's environment or social support network. It is generally considered unethical and can have serious consequences for the patient's physical and mental health, as well as their autonomy and dignity. In some cases, coercion may be necessary to protect the patient's safety or the safety of others, such as in cases of emergency medical treatment or when a patient is unable to provide informed consent due to a mental health crisis. However, in these cases, it is important to balance the need for coercion with the patient's rights and autonomy, and to ensure that the patient is fully informed and able to make an informed decision whenever possible.
In the medical field, altruism refers to the selfless concern for the well-being of others, particularly in the context of healthcare. It involves putting the needs and interests of others before one's own, and taking actions that benefit others without expecting anything in return. Altruism is an important value in healthcare because it promotes the provision of high-quality care to all patients, regardless of their social status, race, or ability to pay. Healthcare providers who practice altruism are committed to improving the health and well-being of their patients, even if it means sacrificing their own time, energy, or resources. In addition to promoting high-quality care, altruism can also help to build trust and rapport between healthcare providers and their patients. When patients perceive that their healthcare providers are acting in their best interests, they are more likely to feel comfortable and confident in their care, which can lead to better health outcomes. Overall, altruism is an essential component of the healthcare profession, as it helps to ensure that patients receive the best possible care and that healthcare providers are motivated to act in the best interests of their patients.
Child advocacy in the medical field refers to the practice of promoting and protecting the best interests and well-being of children, particularly those who are vulnerable or at risk. This can involve advocating for children's rights, ensuring that their healthcare needs are met, and working to prevent or address any forms of abuse or neglect. Child advocates in the medical field may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, schools, and social service agencies. They may also work with families, caregivers, and other professionals to ensure that children receive the care and support they need to thrive. Some specific areas of child advocacy in the medical field may include: * Advocating for children's access to healthcare services, including preventive care, medical treatment, and mental health services. * Working to prevent child abuse and neglect, including advocating for policies and programs that protect children from harm. * Supporting children who have experienced trauma or other forms of adversity, including advocating for their rights to receive appropriate care and support. * Advocating for children's rights to education and other opportunities, including working to ensure that they have access to the resources and support they need to succeed. Overall, child advocacy in the medical field is an important and critical role that helps to ensure that children receive the care and support they need to thrive and reach their full potential.
Behavioral research in the medical field refers to the scientific study of human behavior and its relationship to health and illness. This type of research aims to understand how people make decisions about their health, how they interact with healthcare providers, and how their behaviors contribute to the development and progression of diseases. Behavioral research in medicine often involves the use of experimental and observational methods to study a wide range of topics, including smoking cessation, weight loss, medication adherence, and the use of complementary and alternative medicine. Researchers may use surveys, interviews, focus groups, and other data collection methods to gather information about people's behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs. The findings from behavioral research can be used to develop more effective interventions and treatments for a variety of health conditions, as well as to improve healthcare delivery and patient outcomes. By understanding the factors that influence people's behaviors, researchers can design interventions that are tailored to individual needs and preferences, and that are more likely to be effective in promoting healthy behaviors and preventing disease.
In the medical field, animal welfare refers to the provision of appropriate care and treatment to animals to ensure their physical and mental well-being. This includes ensuring that animals are provided with adequate nutrition, shelter, and medical care, as well as being treated with respect and compassion. Animal welfare is an important consideration in veterinary medicine, as veterinarians are responsible for the health and well-being of animals. In addition, animal welfare is also important in research, where animals are often used as test subjects. In these cases, it is important to ensure that animals are treated humanely and that their welfare is protected. Overall, animal welfare is a fundamental principle in the medical field, and it is important to ensure that animals are treated with the care and respect they deserve.
Advisory committees are groups of experts who provide guidance and recommendations to regulatory agencies, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), on various medical and scientific issues. These committees are typically composed of individuals with relevant expertise in the field, such as physicians, scientists, researchers, and patient advocates. Advisory committees play an important role in the regulatory process for medical products, including drugs, biologics, and medical devices. They provide input on a wide range of issues, such as the safety and efficacy of a product, the appropriate labeling and packaging, and the appropriate use of the product in clinical practice. Advisory committees may also provide input on broader policy issues related to medical products, such as the development of new regulations or the allocation of resources for research and development. Overall, advisory committees serve as a valuable resource for regulatory agencies and help ensure that medical products are safe, effective, and appropriate for use in patients.
The attitude of health personnel refers to the beliefs, values, and emotions that healthcare providers bring to their work with patients. It encompasses their approach to patient care, their level of empathy and compassion, their communication skills, and their overall demeanor towards patients and colleagues. A positive attitude of health personnel is essential for providing high-quality patient care. It can help to build trust and rapport with patients, improve communication and collaboration with colleagues, and enhance the overall patient experience. On the other hand, a negative attitude can have a detrimental effect on patient care, leading to misunderstandings, conflicts, and poor outcomes. Healthcare providers are trained to develop a positive attitude towards their work and their patients. This includes cultivating empathy, compassion, and respect for patients, as well as developing effective communication and interpersonal skills. Additionally, healthcare organizations may provide training and support to help staff maintain a positive attitude and cope with the challenges of working in the healthcare field.
Anonymous testing is a type of medical testing in which the identity of the person being tested is not revealed to the healthcare provider or laboratory conducting the test. This type of testing is often used in situations where the person being tested may be hesitant to reveal their identity due to stigma, fear of discrimination, or other reasons. In anonymous testing, the sample is typically collected and labeled with a unique identifier rather than the individual's name or other identifying information. The results of the test are then reported back to the individual without revealing their identity. Anonymous testing is commonly used in situations where the individual may be at risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or HIV, but may be hesitant to seek testing due to fear of stigma or discrimination. It can also be used in research studies where the identity of study participants is not necessary for the research, but anonymity is important to protect the privacy of the participants. It is important to note that anonymous testing may not be appropriate in all situations, and healthcare providers should carefully consider the potential risks and benefits before offering anonymous testing to a patient.
Clinical trials are a type of research study that involves human subjects and is designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of new medical treatments, devices, or procedures. These trials are typically conducted in a controlled environment, such as a hospital or research center, and involve the participation of volunteers who have agreed to undergo testing. Clinical trials are an important part of the medical research process, as they allow researchers to gather data and evidence to support the development of new treatments and therapies. They are also used to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of existing treatments and to identify potential side effects or risks associated with their use. There are several different types of clinical trials, including Phase I, Phase II, and Phase III trials. Each type of trial has a specific purpose and involves different levels of testing and evaluation. For example, Phase I trials are used to evaluate the safety and dosage of a new treatment, while Phase III trials are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment in a larger group of people. Overall, clinical trials play a critical role in advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. They provide valuable information about the safety and effectiveness of new treatments and help to ensure that patients have access to the best possible care.
In the medical field, commodification refers to the process of treating human health and medical services as commodities that can be bought and sold on the market. This can involve the commercialization of medical research, the sale of medical devices and drugs, and the use of health care as a means of generating profit for businesses and corporations. Commodification in the medical field can have negative consequences, such as the prioritization of profit over patient care, the creation of barriers to access for those who cannot afford medical services, and the exploitation of vulnerable populations. It can also lead to the neglect of public health initiatives and the underfunding of medical research and education. Overall, the commodification of medical services can undermine the principles of universal access to healthcare and the provision of high-quality, patient-centered care.
In the medical field, deception refers to the act of intentionally misleading or providing false information to a patient or healthcare provider. This can occur in various ways, such as hiding the true nature or severity of a medical condition, providing false reassurance, or manipulating test results. Deception in the medical field can have serious consequences, as it can lead to misdiagnosis, inappropriate treatment, and harm to the patient's health. It is generally considered unethical and can result in disciplinary action for healthcare providers who engage in such behavior. However, there may be situations where deception is considered acceptable or necessary, such as in cases where withholding information is necessary to protect the patient's autonomy or to prevent harm. In these cases, healthcare providers must carefully weigh the potential benefits and risks of deception and ensure that it is done in the best interests of the patient.
In the medical field, "complicity" generally refers to the act of actively participating in or contributing to a situation or behavior that is considered unethical or illegal. This can include actions such as covering up medical errors, participating in fraudulent billing practices, or failing to report suspected abuse or neglect of patients. Complicity can also refer to the failure to take appropriate action to prevent or address unethical or illegal behavior, even if the individual is not directly involved in the behavior itself. For example, a doctor who is aware of a colleague's inappropriate prescribing practices but fails to report them to the appropriate authorities could be considered complicit in the behavior. Overall, complicity in the medical field is considered a serious ethical and legal issue, as it can harm patients and undermine the integrity of the healthcare system as a whole.
In the medical field, culture refers to the collection of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) that grow on a specific culture medium. The culture medium provides the nutrients and conditions necessary for the microorganisms to thrive and multiply. The process of growing a culture involves taking a sample of a patient's body fluid, tissue, or other bodily substance and placing it on a culture medium. The culture medium is then incubated in a controlled environment to allow the microorganisms to grow and multiply. The resulting colonies of microorganisms can be identified and analyzed to determine the type and number of microorganisms present. Cultures are an important tool in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. They can help identify the specific microorganisms causing an infection, which can guide the selection of appropriate antibiotics or other treatments. Cultures can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and detect the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms.
In the medical field, "Decision Making, Organizational" refers to the process of making decisions at the organizational level, such as strategic planning, resource allocation, and policy development. This involves considering various factors, such as patient care, financial considerations, and regulatory requirements, and making informed choices that benefit the organization as a whole. Effective organizational decision making is critical for the success of healthcare organizations and the delivery of high-quality care to patients.
In the medical field, animal rights refer to the ethical principles that advocate for the protection and welfare of animals. This includes the belief that animals should not be subjected to unnecessary harm or suffering, and that they should be treated with respect and dignity. Animal rights in the medical field are often discussed in the context of animal experimentation, where animals are used for research purposes. Animal rights advocates argue that animals should not be used for experimentation unless it is absolutely necessary and that alternative methods, such as computer simulations or in vitro testing, should be used whenever possible. In addition to animal experimentation, animal rights in the medical field also encompass issues such as animal testing for cosmetics, animal use in veterinary medicine, and animal use in food production. Animal rights advocates argue that these practices can cause unnecessary harm and suffering to animals and that alternative methods should be used whenever possible. Overall, animal rights in the medical field are an important consideration for healthcare professionals and researchers who are committed to promoting the welfare and well-being of animals.
In the medical field, "Canada" typically refers to the country located in North America, bordered by the United States to the south and the Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Pacific Ocean to the north, east, and west, respectively. Canada is the second-largest country in the world by land area and has a diverse population of over 38 million people. In the context of healthcare, Canada has a publicly funded healthcare system known as Medicare, which provides universal coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services to all Canadian citizens and permanent residents. However, there are also private healthcare options available in Canada, and some Canadians may choose to seek medical treatment outside of the country. Canada is also home to a number of world-renowned medical research institutions and universities, including the University of Toronto, McGill University, and the University of British Columbia, which conduct cutting-edge research in fields such as genetics, immunology, and neuroscience.
In the medical field, a contract is a legally binding agreement between a healthcare provider and a patient or their representative. The contract outlines the terms and conditions of the healthcare services to be provided, including the scope of services, fees, and any other relevant details. There are several types of contracts that may be used in the medical field, including: 1. Managed care contracts: These contracts are between a healthcare provider and a managed care organization, such as an insurance company or a health plan. The contract outlines the services that will be covered by the plan and the reimbursement rates for those services. 2. Provider agreements: These contracts are between a healthcare provider and a third-party payer, such as an insurance company or a government agency. The contract outlines the terms and conditions for providing healthcare services to patients covered by the payer. 3. Clinical trial agreements: These contracts are between a healthcare provider and a pharmaceutical or biotech company conducting a clinical trial. The contract outlines the terms and conditions for participating in the trial, including the scope of services, compensation, and any other relevant details. 4. Medical director agreements: These contracts are between a healthcare provider and an organization that hires the provider as a medical director. The contract outlines the scope of services, compensation, and any other relevant details. It is important for healthcare providers to understand the terms and conditions of any contracts they enter into, as they can have a significant impact on the delivery of care and the financial viability of the practice.
In the medical field, "attitude to death" refers to an individual's beliefs, values, and emotions regarding the end of life and dying. It encompasses their perspective on the meaning and purpose of life, their fear or acceptance of death, their preferences for end-of-life care, and their overall approach to dealing with the dying process. An individual's attitude to death can be influenced by a variety of factors, including their cultural background, personal experiences, religious or spiritual beliefs, and their overall health and well-being. It is an important consideration for healthcare providers, as it can impact the care and support provided to patients and their families during the end-of-life process. In medical practice, healthcare providers often assess an individual's attitude to death as part of their overall assessment of their physical and psychological needs. This can help inform decisions about end-of-life care, including the use of pain management, palliative care, and other interventions to improve the quality of life for patients and their families.
Catholicism is a religious belief system that is not typically associated with the medical field. However, some Catholic healthcare organizations and institutions may have specific policies or guidelines related to medical ethics and practices that are influenced by Catholic teachings. In general, Catholic healthcare providers are expected to adhere to the principles of the Catholic Church, which include respect for human life, the dignity of the human person, and the principle of double effect. This means that healthcare providers are expected to provide care that is both effective and morally acceptable, even if it may not produce the desired outcome. For example, Catholic healthcare providers may be opposed to certain medical procedures, such as abortion or assisted suicide, based on their belief that these practices are morally wrong. However, they are still expected to provide care that is necessary to alleviate suffering and promote the health and well-being of their patients. Overall, while Catholicism may not have a direct impact on the medical field, it can influence the ethical and moral principles that guide healthcare providers and institutions.
In the medical field, "commerce" typically refers to the business or commercial aspects of healthcare, such as the sale and distribution of medical products and services, the management of healthcare facilities and organizations, and the financial aspects of healthcare delivery. For example, a medical device manufacturer may engage in commerce by producing and selling medical devices to healthcare providers, while a hospital may engage in commerce by managing its budget, billing patients for services, and negotiating contracts with insurance companies. Commerce in the medical field can also include the development and marketing of new medical technologies and treatments, as well as the regulation and oversight of healthcare industries and markets.
Biological specimen banks, also known as biobanks or biorepositories, are facilities that collect, store, and manage biological samples, such as blood, tissue, and DNA, for research and medical purposes. These banks are designed to ensure the long-term preservation of the samples and to provide researchers with access to them for future studies. Biological specimen banks play a critical role in advancing medical research and improving patient care. They allow researchers to study the underlying causes of diseases, develop new treatments, and identify biomarkers that can be used to diagnose and monitor diseases. They also provide a valuable resource for clinical trials, where researchers can use the stored samples to test new drugs and therapies. To ensure the quality and integrity of the samples, biological specimen banks typically follow strict protocols for collection, processing, storage, and distribution. They may also be subject to regulatory oversight to ensure that the samples are used ethically and that the privacy and confidentiality of the donors are protected.
Brain death is a medical condition in which the brain is no longer capable of performing any vital functions, including maintaining heartbeat and respiration. It is a state of irreversible coma, and it is considered to be equivalent to death in most legal and ethical contexts. The diagnosis of brain death is typically made by a team of medical professionals, including neurologists, neurosurgeons, and critical care physicians. The process involves a series of tests and evaluations, including a neurological examination, imaging studies, and tests of brain function. Once brain death has been diagnosed, the patient is considered legally and medically dead, and organ donation may be considered. However, it is important to note that brain death is not the same as clinical death, which refers to the absence of heartbeat and breathing.
Clinical protocols are standardized sets of procedures and guidelines that are used in the medical field to ensure that patients receive consistent, high-quality care. These protocols typically outline the steps that healthcare providers should take to diagnose and treat specific medical conditions, as well as the medications, dosages, and other interventions that should be used. Clinical protocols are designed to help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care and to ensure that patients receive the most effective treatments possible. They are often developed by medical experts and organizations, such as professional societies, government agencies, and academic institutions, and are regularly reviewed and updated to reflect the latest medical research and best practices. Clinical protocols can be used in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities. They are an important tool for ensuring that healthcare providers are providing consistent, evidence-based care to their patients, and can help to improve patient outcomes and reduce the risk of medical errors.
Astrology is not recognized as a valid or scientific field in the medical profession. Medical professionals rely on evidence-based practices and scientific research to diagnose and treat illnesses and conditions. Astrology is a belief system that involves the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial bodies and their supposed influence on human affairs and natural phenomena. While some people may use astrology as a tool for self-reflection or personal growth, it is not considered a reliable or valid source of medical advice or treatment.
Clinical governance is a system through which healthcare organizations ensure that they are providing safe, effective, and high-quality care to their patients. It involves a range of activities, including setting standards for clinical practice, monitoring and evaluating the quality of care, and ensuring that healthcare professionals are competent and up-to-date with the latest developments in their field. Clinical governance is designed to promote patient safety and improve the overall quality of care by identifying and addressing potential risks and problems before they occur. It involves a collaborative effort between healthcare professionals, patients, and other stakeholders to ensure that healthcare services are delivered in a way that is safe, effective, and responsive to the needs of patients. The key components of clinical governance include: 1. Clinical leadership: This involves setting clear standards for clinical practice and ensuring that healthcare professionals have the resources and support they need to deliver high-quality care. 2. Risk management: This involves identifying and assessing potential risks to patient safety and developing strategies to mitigate those risks. 3. Quality improvement: This involves monitoring and evaluating the quality of care and implementing changes to improve it. 4. Patient and public involvement: This involves engaging patients and the public in the development and implementation of clinical governance policies and procedures. Overall, clinical governance is an essential component of modern healthcare systems, helping to ensure that patients receive safe, effective, and high-quality care.
In the medical field, attitude refers to a person's disposition or inclination towards a particular situation, person, or issue. It encompasses a person's beliefs, values, and emotions towards a particular topic or issue, and can influence their behavior and decision-making. For example, a healthcare provider's attitude towards a particular patient or medical condition can impact their approach to treatment and care. A positive attitude can lead to more effective communication, better patient outcomes, and improved patient satisfaction. On the other hand, a negative attitude can lead to poor patient outcomes, decreased patient satisfaction, and even medical malpractice. In addition, attitude can also refer to a person's overall disposition towards their own health and well-being. A positive attitude towards health and wellness can lead to healthier behaviors and better health outcomes, while a negative attitude can lead to unhealthy behaviors and poor health outcomes. Overall, attitude plays a significant role in the medical field, and healthcare providers are encouraged to cultivate positive attitudes towards their patients, their work, and their own health and well-being.
Biomedical enhancement refers to the use of medical technologies, interventions, and treatments to improve or enhance human physical, cognitive, or emotional abilities beyond their natural state. This can include the use of drugs, gene therapy, stem cell therapy, prosthetics, and other medical devices to enhance human performance,，，。 Biomedical enhancement can be used for a variety of purposes, including improving athletic performance, treating medical conditions, and enhancing cognitive abilities. However, the use of biomedical enhancement is often controversial, as it raises ethical and moral questions about the limits of human enhancement and the potential consequences of altering human biology.
Animal Care Committees (ACCs) are groups of individuals who are responsible for overseeing the welfare of animals used in research, teaching, and testing in the medical field. These committees are typically made up of veterinarians, scientists, and other experts in animal care and welfare, as well as representatives from the institution where the animals are being used. The primary role of an ACC is to ensure that animals are treated humanely and that their use is justified by the potential benefits to human health or knowledge. ACCs review and approve protocols for the use of animals in research, teaching, and testing, and they monitor the care and treatment of animals throughout the course of the study. ACCs also have the authority to make recommendations for improvements in animal care and welfare, and they may investigate complaints or incidents related to animal use. They are required to follow guidelines and regulations set forth by federal and state agencies, as well as institutional policies and procedures. Overall, the goal of ACCs is to promote the highest standards of animal care and welfare while also advancing scientific knowledge and improving human health.
In the medical field, authorship refers to the credit given to individuals who have made significant contributions to the creation of a medical research article or publication. Authorship typically involves the following criteria: 1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the study, or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data. 2. Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content. 3. Final approval of the version to be published. 4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Authorship is important because it reflects the contributions of each individual involved in the research and helps to ensure that credit is given where credit is due. It also helps to establish the credibility of the research and the individuals involved in it.
Clinical medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases in humans. It involves the application of medical knowledge and skills to diagnose and manage illnesses and injuries in patients. Clinical medicine encompasses a wide range of specialties, including internal medicine, pediatrics, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, and many others. The primary goal of clinical medicine is to improve the health and well-being of patients by providing effective and compassionate care.
In the medical field, "Control Groups" refer to a group of individuals who are used as a baseline for comparison in a clinical trial or study. The control group typically receives a placebo or standard treatment, while the experimental group receives the new treatment being tested. The control group allows researchers to determine whether the new treatment is effective by comparing the outcomes of the experimental group to those of the control group. The control group is essential in determining the efficacy and safety of a new treatment, and it helps to ensure that any observed differences between the experimental and control groups are due to the new treatment and not to other factors.
In the medical field, data collection refers to the process of gathering and organizing information about patients, their health conditions, and their medical treatments. This information is typically collected through various methods, such as medical history interviews, physical exams, diagnostic tests, and medical records. The purpose of data collection in medicine is to provide a comprehensive understanding of a patient's health status and to inform medical decision-making. This information can be used to diagnose and treat medical conditions, monitor the effectiveness of treatments, and identify potential health risks. Data collection in medicine is typically carried out by healthcare professionals, such as doctors, nurses, and medical researchers. The data collected may include demographic information, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory test results, and imaging studies. This information is often stored in electronic health records (EHRs) for easy access and analysis. Overall, data collection is a critical component of medical practice, as it enables healthcare professionals to provide personalized and effective care to their patients.
Advance directives are legal documents that allow individuals to specify their preferences for medical treatment in the event that they become unable to communicate their wishes due to illness or injury. These directives typically include instructions for end-of-life care, such as whether or not to resuscitate, use life support, or provide artificial nutrition and hydration. There are two main types of advance directives: living wills and durable power of attorney for health care. A living will is a document that specifies the type of medical treatment an individual wants to receive or not receive if they become terminally ill or permanently unconscious. A durable power of attorney for health care, on the other hand, appoints a trusted individual to make medical decisions on behalf of the individual if they are unable to do so themselves. Advance directives are important because they ensure that an individual's wishes are respected and that their loved ones are not forced to make difficult medical decisions on their behalf. They can also help to reduce the stress and anxiety that can arise when a loved one is seriously ill or injured.
In the medical field, "Access to Information" refers to the ability of patients, healthcare providers, and other authorized individuals to obtain and understand the medical information they need to make informed decisions about their health and care. This includes information about a patient's medical history, current condition, treatment options, and potential risks and benefits of various medical interventions. Access to information is critical in the medical field because it enables patients to participate actively in their own care, make informed decisions about their treatment options, and monitor their health status. It also helps healthcare providers to provide more effective and personalized care by enabling them to access and analyze patient data more efficiently and accurately. Access to information can be facilitated through a variety of means, including electronic health records (EHRs), patient portals, and other digital tools. These tools can help to streamline the process of sharing medical information between healthcare providers and patients, and can also help to ensure that patients have access to the information they need to make informed decisions about their health and care.
In the medical field, Christianity is not typically defined as a medical condition or diagnosis. Rather, it is a religious belief system that is often considered when discussing issues related to end-of-life care, ethics, and personal beliefs. For example, some patients may have religious objections to certain medical treatments or procedures, and their beliefs may influence their decisions about their medical care. In these cases, healthcare providers may need to consider the patient's religious beliefs and work with them to find a treatment plan that is consistent with their values. Additionally, some healthcare providers may have personal beliefs that are influenced by their Christian faith, and these beliefs may influence their approach to patient care. For example, a Christian healthcare provider may view their work as a calling to serve others and may approach their work with a sense of compassion and empathy. Overall, while Christianity is not a medical condition, it can play a role in the medical field in terms of patient care and healthcare provider beliefs and values.
Biomedical technology refers to the application of engineering and scientific principles to the development, design, and manufacture of medical devices, equipment, and systems. It encompasses a wide range of technologies, including imaging technologies, diagnostic tools, prosthetics, and medical robotics, among others. The goal of biomedical technology is to improve patient care, enhance medical procedures, and increase the efficiency of healthcare delivery. Biomedical technology also plays a critical role in advancing medical research and development, enabling scientists and researchers to better understand the human body and develop new treatments and therapies. Overall, biomedical technology has revolutionized the medical field, providing healthcare professionals with powerful tools and technologies that have improved patient outcomes and saved countless lives.
Capacity building in the medical field refers to the process of strengthening the skills, knowledge, and resources of healthcare providers, institutions, and systems to improve their ability to deliver high-quality, safe, and effective healthcare services. This can include training and education programs, the development of policies and procedures, the provision of equipment and supplies, and the establishment of partnerships and collaborations with other organizations. Capacity building in the medical field is important because it helps to ensure that healthcare providers have the necessary skills and resources to provide the best possible care to their patients. It can also help to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare systems, reduce the risk of medical errors, and enhance the overall quality of care. Capacity building in the medical field can be applied at various levels, including individual healthcare providers, healthcare institutions, and healthcare systems. It can also be targeted at specific areas of healthcare, such as infectious diseases, maternal and child health, or non-communicable diseases.
In the medical field, "Abortion, Legal" refers to the practice of terminating a pregnancy by medical or surgical means, which is legally allowed in certain countries or jurisdictions. The legality of abortion varies widely around the world, with some countries allowing it under certain circumstances (such as to protect the life or health of the mother or in cases of rape or incest), while others prohibit it entirely. In countries where abortion is legal, it is typically performed by trained medical professionals in licensed facilities, and the procedure is carefully regulated to ensure the safety and well-being of the patient. The methods used to perform an abortion may include medication (such as mifepristone and misoprostol) or surgical procedures (such as dilation and curettage or vacuum aspiration). It is important to note that the decision to have an abortion is a deeply personal one, and should be made with careful consideration of the individual's circumstances, beliefs, and values. Medical professionals are trained to provide non-judgmental and compassionate care to patients seeking abortion, and to ensure that they have access to accurate information and support throughout the process.
Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a research approach that involves collaboration between researchers and community members to identify and address health-related issues in a community. The goal of CBPR is to empower community members to take an active role in the research process and to ensure that research findings are relevant and useful to the community. In the medical field, CBPR is often used to study health disparities and to develop interventions to improve health outcomes in underserved populations. CBPR involves a partnership between researchers and community members, including community leaders, health care providers, and other stakeholders. The research process is designed to be inclusive and participatory, with community members involved in all aspects of the research, from identifying research questions and developing study protocols to interpreting and disseminating research findings. CBPR is based on the principles of respect for community values and priorities, cultural sensitivity, and collaboration. It recognizes that communities have unique knowledge and perspectives that can inform research and that research findings should be used to address the specific needs and concerns of the community. By involving community members in the research process, CBPR aims to build trust and strengthen relationships between researchers and the communities they serve.
In the medical field, "Academies and Institutes" typically refer to organizations that are dedicated to advancing knowledge and research in specific areas of medicine. These organizations often have a focus on education, training, and professional development for healthcare professionals, as well as on conducting and disseminating research. Academies and Institutes may be affiliated with universities, hospitals, or other healthcare organizations, or they may be independent entities. They may also be focused on specific medical specialties or on broader areas of healthcare, such as public health or global health. Examples of medical academies and institutes include the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American College of Cardiology, the National Institute of Health, and the World Health Organization. These organizations play important roles in shaping medical practice and policy, as well as in advancing our understanding of health and disease.
In the medical field, death is defined as the permanent cessation of all vital functions, including breathing, heartbeat, and brain activity. This is typically determined by a medical professional, such as a doctor or nurse, who examines the individual and confirms that there is no chance of（）. There are different criteria for determining death, depending on the circumstances and the country or region in question. For example, in some countries, death is defined as the irreversible loss of brain function, while in others, it is defined as the irreversible loss of all brain activity, including the brainstem. It is important to note that the definition of death can be a complex and controversial issue, and there may be different opinions and beliefs about what constitutes death among individuals and cultures.
In the medical field, communication refers to the process of exchanging information between healthcare providers and patients, as well as among healthcare providers themselves. Effective communication is essential for providing high-quality healthcare and ensuring that patients receive the best possible care. Medical communication involves not only verbal communication but also nonverbal communication, such as body language and facial expressions. It also includes written communication, such as medical records and discharge summaries. Effective medical communication involves active listening, clear and concise speaking, and the ability to ask questions and provide feedback. It also involves the use of appropriate medical terminology and the ability to explain complex medical concepts in a way that is easily understood by patients. In addition to patient-provider communication, medical communication also includes communication among healthcare providers, such as between physicians, nurses, and other members of the healthcare team. Effective communication among healthcare providers is essential for ensuring that patients receive coordinated and consistent care.
In the medical field, "anecdotes" generally refer to personal stories or experiences shared by patients or healthcare providers that describe a particular treatment or health-related event. These anecdotes may be passed down through word of mouth or shared online, and they can provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of certain treatments or the impact of health conditions on individuals. However, it's important to note that anecdotes are not considered reliable sources of medical information. While they can be helpful in generating hypotheses or identifying potential areas for further research, they are not sufficient evidence to support or refute a particular treatment or health claim. Medical research relies on rigorous scientific methods and controlled studies to establish the safety and efficacy of treatments, and anecdotes should not be used to make medical decisions.
In the medical field, consultants are highly specialized medical professionals who provide expert advice and treatment to patients. They are typically board-certified in a specific medical specialty and have completed additional training and experience beyond the basic medical education required for physicians. Consultants may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, and research institutions. They may also work as independent contractors or as employees of a healthcare organization. Consultants are often called upon to provide second opinions or to diagnose and treat complex medical conditions that are beyond the scope of primary care physicians. They may also be involved in medical research, teaching, and training of other healthcare professionals. Overall, consultants play a critical role in the healthcare system by providing specialized expertise and improving patient outcomes.
Delivery of health care refers to the process of providing medical services and treatments to patients. It encompasses all aspects of patient care, from initial diagnosis and treatment planning to ongoing monitoring and follow-up. The delivery of health care can take place in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, physician offices, and long-term care facilities. It involves a team of healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other allied health professionals, who work together to provide comprehensive and coordinated care to patients. The goal of the delivery of health care is to improve patient outcomes, promote health and wellness, and enhance the overall quality of life for individuals and communities.
Computer security in the medical field refers to the measures taken to protect electronic health records (EHRs) and other sensitive medical information from unauthorized access, theft, or damage. It involves the use of various technologies, policies, and procedures to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of medical data. Some of the key components of computer security in the medical field include: 1. Access control: This involves limiting access to medical data to authorized personnel only, and ensuring that each user has the appropriate level of access to the information they need to perform their job. 2. Encryption: This involves converting sensitive medical data into a code that can only be deciphered by authorized users with the proper decryption key. 3. Firewalls: These are security systems that monitor and control incoming and outgoing network traffic, preventing unauthorized access to medical data. 4. Antivirus and anti-malware software: These tools help protect against viruses, malware, and other types of malicious software that can compromise the security of medical data. 5. Regular backups: This involves creating regular backups of medical data to ensure that it can be restored in the event of a data breach or other disaster. Overall, computer security in the medical field is critical to protecting the privacy and security of patient information, and to ensuring that medical professionals can access the information they need to provide high-quality care.
"Abortion, Eugenic" is not a commonly used term in the medical field. However, it could potentially refer to the use of abortion as a means of eugenics, which is the practice of selectively breeding individuals to improve the genetic qualities of a population. In the past, eugenics was used to justify the forced sterilization of individuals deemed "unfit" or "undesirable" by society, such as those with disabilities, mental illness, or criminal records. Some proponents of eugenics also advocated for the selective termination of pregnancies based on the genetic characteristics of the fetus, with the goal of improving the overall genetic quality of the population. However, the use of eugenics is widely considered unethical and has been largely abandoned in modern medicine. Abortion is a legal medical procedure that is typically performed to terminate a pregnancy for a variety of reasons, including the health of the mother or the fetus, or as a means of family planning. It is not used as a means of eugenics.
Clinical competence in the medical field refers to the ability of a healthcare professional to provide safe, effective, and ethical patient care. It encompasses a range of skills, knowledge, and attitudes that are necessary for the delivery of high-quality healthcare services. Clinical competence includes both technical skills, such as the ability to perform medical procedures and interpret diagnostic tests, as well as non-technical skills, such as communication, teamwork, and decision-making. It also involves an understanding of the latest medical research and best practices, as well as an ability to apply this knowledge to individual patients in a compassionate and ethical manner. Clinical competence is typically evaluated through a combination of formal assessments, such as board exams and performance evaluations, as well as informal assessments, such as patient feedback and peer review. Healthcare professionals are expected to continuously improve their clinical competence through ongoing education and training, as well as self-reflection and self-assessment.
In the medical field, consensus refers to a general agreement or widespread acceptance among healthcare professionals or experts regarding a particular diagnosis, treatment, or approach to a medical condition. Consensus can be reached through various means, such as clinical guidelines, expert panels, or consensus conferences. These processes involve gathering input and feedback from a diverse group of healthcare professionals and using a standardized methodology to reach a decision or recommendation. Consensus is often used to establish best practices or standard of care for a particular medical condition or treatment. It can also be used to address controversial or complex issues where there is no clear consensus among healthcare professionals. However, it's important to note that consensus does not necessarily mean that a particular approach or treatment is universally effective or appropriate for all patients. Healthcare professionals should always consider individual patient needs and circumstances when making treatment decisions.
Botswana is a landlocked country located in southern Africa. It is not directly related to the medical field, but it is home to several medical research institutions and organizations that focus on various health issues, including HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. The country has made significant progress in improving its healthcare system and reducing the prevalence of these diseases. Additionally, Botswana has a well-established public health infrastructure and is known for its commitment to providing universal healthcare coverage to all its citizens.
In the medical field, "attitude to health" refers to an individual's beliefs, values, and behaviors related to their health and well-being. It encompasses their perceptions of their own health status, their motivation to engage in healthy behaviors, their willingness to seek medical care, and their attitudes towards illness and disease. An individual's attitude to health can have a significant impact on their health outcomes. For example, a positive attitude towards health can motivate individuals to adopt healthy behaviors, such as regular exercise and a healthy diet, and to seek medical care when needed. On the other hand, a negative attitude towards health can lead to unhealthy behaviors and a reluctance to seek medical care, which can contribute to poor health outcomes. In medical practice, healthcare providers often assess an individual's attitude to health as part of their overall assessment of their health status. This can help healthcare providers to identify any barriers to healthy behaviors or medical care and to develop tailored interventions to support positive health behaviors and outcomes.
In the medical field, compensation and redress refer to the process of providing financial or other forms of compensation to individuals who have suffered harm or injury as a result of medical treatment or negligence. This can include compensation for physical injuries, emotional distress, lost wages, and other damages resulting from medical errors or malpractice. Compensation and redress can take many forms, including monetary payments, medical treatment, and other forms of assistance. In some cases, compensation and redress may be provided through legal action, such as a lawsuit or settlement, while in other cases it may be provided through alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, such as mediation or arbitration. The goal of compensation and redress is to provide fair and just compensation to individuals who have suffered harm as a result of medical treatment or negligence, and to help them to recover from their injuries and move forward with their lives. It is an important aspect of the medical field, as it helps to ensure that patients are treated with the highest standards of care and that medical professionals are held accountable for their actions.
Biotechnology is the application of biological processes, organisms, or systems to develop or improve products, processes, and systems for various purposes, including medical applications. In the medical field, biotechnology is used to develop new drugs, vaccines, diagnostic tools, and medical devices. Some examples of biotechnology applications in medicine include: 1. Genetic engineering: This involves manipulating genes to create new organisms or modify existing ones to produce useful products, such as insulin for diabetes treatment. 2. Gene therapy: This involves using genetic material to treat or prevent diseases by replacing or repairing faulty genes. 3. Proteomics: This involves studying the structure and function of proteins, which play a crucial role in many biological processes, including disease. 4. Biopharmaceuticals: These are drugs or other therapeutic agents that are produced using living cells or organisms, such as monoclonal antibodies. 5. Diagnostic tools: Biotechnology is used to develop diagnostic tools, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests, that can detect the presence of specific genes or proteins in biological samples. Overall, biotechnology has revolutionized the medical field by enabling the development of new and more effective treatments for a wide range of diseases and conditions.
Biological science disciplines in the medical field refer to the various branches of biology that are used to study living organisms and their interactions with the environment. These disciplines include: 1. Anatomy: The study of the structure and organization of living organisms, including their cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. 2. Physiology: The study of the functions of living organisms, including their metabolism, growth, and reproduction. 3. Biochemistry: The study of the chemical processes that occur within living organisms, including the structure and function of biomolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. 4. Microbiology: The study of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa, and their interactions with other organisms and the environment. 5. Immunology: The study of the immune system and how it defends the body against infection and disease. 6. Genetics: The study of the heredity of traits and the variation of organisms, including the structure and function of genes and chromosomes. 7. Evolutionary biology: The study of the processes that have led to the diversity of life on Earth, including natural selection and genetic drift. These disciplines are used in the medical field to understand the underlying mechanisms of disease and to develop new treatments and therapies. For example, knowledge of genetics can be used to develop personalized medicine, while knowledge of immunology can be used to develop vaccines and immunotherapies.
In the medical field, "congresses as topic" typically refers to conferences or meetings where healthcare professionals gather to share knowledge, research, and best practices in their respective fields. These congresses may be organized by professional associations, academic institutions, or other organizations, and may cover a wide range of topics related to medicine and healthcare, such as cardiology, oncology, pediatrics, and public health. Attendees at these congresses may include doctors, nurses, researchers, administrators, and other healthcare professionals, who attend to learn about new developments in their field, network with colleagues, and share their own research and experiences. Congresses as topic are an important part of the medical community, as they provide a platform for the exchange of ideas and the advancement of medical knowledge and practice.
In the medical field, cooperative behavior refers to the willingness and ability of healthcare providers, patients, and other stakeholders to work together towards a common goal of providing high-quality healthcare. This includes communication, collaboration, and teamwork among healthcare professionals, as well as patients' active participation in their own care. Cooperative behavior is essential in healthcare because it can lead to better outcomes, improved patient satisfaction, and reduced healthcare costs. For example, when healthcare providers work together to coordinate care, they can avoid duplication of services and ensure that patients receive the most appropriate treatment. When patients are actively involved in their care, they are more likely to adhere to treatment plans and have better health outcomes. In addition, cooperative behavior is important in promoting a culture of safety in healthcare. When healthcare providers work together to identify and address safety risks, they can prevent errors and adverse events, which can harm patients and lead to legal and financial consequences. Overall, cooperative behavior is a critical component of high-quality healthcare, and healthcare providers should strive to foster a culture of collaboration and teamwork in their practice.
A clinical clerkship is a period of time during medical school where students are placed in a clinical setting, such as a hospital or clinic, to gain hands-on experience working with patients under the supervision of licensed physicians. During a clinical clerkship, students are typically responsible for performing physical exams, taking medical histories, ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests, and developing treatment plans for patients. The goal of a clinical clerkship is to provide students with the opportunity to apply the knowledge and skills they have learned in the classroom to real-world patient care situations, and to help them develop the critical thinking and decision-making skills necessary to become competent and compassionate physicians.
In the medical field, "Abortion, Induced" refers to the intentional termination of a pregnancy by medical or surgical means. This can be done for various reasons, including the health of the mother, the risk of fetal abnormalities, or the desire of the woman to not continue with the pregnancy. There are different methods of induced abortion, including medication abortion (using drugs such as mifepristone and misoprostol), aspiration abortion (using a suction device to remove the fetus from the uterus), and dilation and curettage (using a surgical procedure to remove the fetus and the lining of the uterus). It is important to note that induced abortion is a legal and safe medical procedure when performed by trained healthcare providers in appropriate settings. However, access to safe and legal abortion can vary by country and region.
The American Medical Association (AMA) is a professional organization that represents physicians and medical students in the United States. It was founded in 1847 and is headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. The AMA is the largest and most influential medical association in the United States, with over 220,000 members. The AMA's mission is to promote the art and science of medicine and to improve public health. It does this through a variety of activities, including setting ethical standards for medical practice, advocating for policies that support healthcare reform, and providing educational resources for physicians and medical students. The AMA is also involved in setting medical standards and guidelines, including the development of the widely used Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) coding system, which is used to bill for medical procedures and services. The AMA also publishes the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), which is one of the most respected and widely read medical journals in the world. Overall, the AMA plays a critical role in shaping the medical profession in the United States and promoting the health and well-being of the American people.
PRSA Code of Ethics
Ethics and Compliance | ACT
Integrity and Ethics | McAfee
Research Ethics | Research + Innovation
Ethics - Wikipedia
Outside Activities |Ethics | CDC
Center for Ethics Education | Fordham
Ethics and Business Conduct Department
Integrity Ethics Module 9 Exercises
Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee
Reproductive Ethics Conference
Medical Ethics: MedlinePlus
What we do | UNICEF Ethics Office
Ethics and Morals - AVC
Ethics Education in Science and Engineering (EESE) nsf08530
Kinship Across Borders: Catholic Ethics and Migration
Journal of Business Ethics Archives - Research & Innovation
Rep. Charlie Rangel charged with ethics violations
Advancing Ethics in Mapmaking | ArcNews | Summer 2022
Noam Chomsky: Ecology, Ethics, Anarchism
Ethics, Risk and Compliance | novartis
GroupM on data ethics | WPP
Machiavelli's Ethics | Princeton University Press
Medical Ethics and Professionalism | ACP
Ethics | Page 78 | PR Watch
Nano Ethics Conference - Foresight Institute
AGA - Ethics Handbook
Alabama Ethics Act
Ethics Act Apply to Me? USA faculty and staff should be aware of the Alabama Ethics Act (the "Ethics Act ... History / Alabama Ethics Commission The Alabama Ethics Commission was created by the Alabama Legislature in 1973 by Act No. ... See the Alabama Ethics Commission web page (FAQ - "How are violations of the Ethics Act punished?") for further details. ...
IARC Ethics Committee1
- The IARC Ethics Committee (IEC) meets every two months to evaluate IARC project proposals and ensure that the ethics process is respected. (who.int)
- ACP's Center for Ethics and Professionalism is devoted to policy development, implementation and education on issues of medical ethics and professionalism, and is a resource for ACP members and the public. (acponline.org)
- The field of ethics studies principles of right and wrong. (medlineplus.gov)
- The ACP Ethics Manual is the core of College ethics policy, assisting physicians in applying ethical principles and reasoned arguments to emerging challenges in medicine and also in revisiting older issues and dilemmas that are still very pertinent. (acponline.org)
- In addition, new clauses referring to the principles of the Code of ethics and professional conduct and highlighting the Secretariat's expectations in terms of staff members' behaviour have been adopted as a standard component of all staff members' appointment letters. (who.int)
- Ethics are concerned with moral principles, values, and professional conducts that are in alignment with the best available standards. (who.int)
- The terms of reference for the Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee, including its functions and procedural rules. (bath.ac.uk)
- The purpose of the Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee (SocSci REC) is to receive, consider and provide an ethics opinion on proposals for ethical approval for research being undertaken by staff and students. (bath.ac.uk)
- The Committee will consider the research ethics implications of projects involving human participants that do not NHS REC approval and fall outside of the remit of the Data & Digital Science or the Biomedical Sciences Research Ethics Committees. (bath.ac.uk)
- This committee reports to the Academic Ethics and Integrity Committee. (bath.ac.uk)
- Minutes are submitted to Academic Ethics and Integrity Committee . (bath.ac.uk)
- WASHINGTON - A House investigative committee on Thursday charged New York Rep. Charles Rangel with multiple ethics violations, a blow to the former Ways and Means chairman and an election-year headache for Democrats. (nypost.com)
- The announcement by a four-member panel of the House ethics committee sends the case to a House trial, where a separate eight-member panel of Republicans and Democrats will decide whether the violations can be proved by clear and convincing evidence. (nypost.com)
- Rangel led the tax-writing Ways and Means panel until he stepped aside last March after the ethics committee criticized him in a separate case - finding that he should have known corporate money was paying for his trips to two Caribbean conferences. (nypost.com)
- The unit hosts the secretariat of WHO's Research Ethics Review Committee which ensures all research supported by WHO is conducted to the highest ethical standards. (who.int)
- More than obtaining approval by the ethics committee, this will allow the research question to be adequately answered. (bvsalud.org)
- Research Ethics Office houses four Human Research Ethics Boards and four Animal Care and Use Committees that review all human participant and animal research conducted by Faculty, students and staff of the University and various other external Institutions. (ualberta.ca)
- In response, most countries in the African Region report having formed functional ethics committees to help protect the public. (who.int)
- The unit produces resources for national and local ethics committees which suggest practical ways on how to resolve common ethical issues. (who.int)
- The unit hosts the secretariat of the biennial Global Summit of National Ethics/Bioethics Committees , a forum for national bioethics advisory bodies which discusses and develops consensus on ethical guidance. (who.int)
- Within this perspective, they believe that methodological quality is a separate, isolated concept, and that it should not be evaluated by research ethics committees. (bvsalud.org)
- This example explains why research ethics committees have been requiring a description of the sample size calculation in analytical studies. (bvsalud.org)
- For the same reason, the adequacy of data collection instruments (questionnaires and clinical records), the proposed research schedule, and staff training are also assessed by research ethics committees. (bvsalud.org)
- In addition to the ACP Ethics Manual, ACP develops and publishes ethics position papers on a broad range of health care ethics issues including clinical ethics, professionalism, the delivery of care, teaching, medical research and other topics. (acponline.org)
- The McAfee Ethics and Compliance Helpline is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week for employees, customers, distributors, resellers, and suppliers to ask questions, request guidance, or report a concern. (mcafee.com)
- If you have an ethics or compliance concern, you are encouraged to report your concern to McAfee as soon as possible. (mcafee.com)
- Advice to staff and clients by sharing ethics expertise and spotting trends-providing counsel on conflicts of interest and compliance-related issues as needed. (worldbank.org)
- The consultative nature of the process used to elaborate WHO's ethical framework (comprising principally a code of ethics and professional conduct, and policies on whistleblowing and protection against retaliation and on the prevention of sexual exploitation and abuse2) and subsequent presentations of and training in the elements of the framework provided by the Office of Compliance, Risk Management and Ethics have generated much interest and awareness among staff members. (who.int)
- During 2018, the Office of Compliance, Risk Management and Ethics has also been approached directly by more than 110 staff members for advice on ethical dilemmas concerning various issues. (who.int)
- Do I need research ethics approval? (ualberta.ca)
- Research ethics focuses on the participants or subjects of the research rather than on the individuals doing the research. (ualberta.ca)
- Fundamentally, research ethics review is geared toward protecting participants by minimizing the harms or risk to which they are exposed. (ualberta.ca)
- Through its funded research programs (including the Fordham HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute ), the Center provides opportunities for faculty and students to engage in empirical and theoretical study of ethical issues in health care, science, and public policy. (fordham.edu)
- With your support, our students can continue their role as change agents, and we can fund the essential research and events that make the Center for Ethics Education a home for intellectual and moral excellence. (fordham.edu)
- raising awareness of research integrity and ethics amongst staff and students across the University. (bath.ac.uk)
- The Ethics Education in Science and Engineering (EESE) program accepts proposals for research and educational projects to improve ethics education in all of the fields of science and engineering that NSF supports, especially in interdisciplinary or inter-institutional contexts. (nsf.gov)
- York ranked first in Canada and seventh in the world in business ethics research among leading academic institutions, according to a recently published study on business ethics research. (yorku.ca)
- What Is Ethics in Research and Why Is It Important? (medlineplus.gov)
- The ACP Ethics Case Studies draw on ethical challenges encountered by physicians in everyday practice, teaching and research. (acponline.org)
- adoption of the code of conduct for responsible research1 and a policy to handle research misconduct in 2017 extends the framework from corporate ethics to research ethics. (who.int)
- The unit conducts and coordinates training for Member States on public health ethics and research ethics. (who.int)
- This valuable resource facilitates research, advises WHO and strengthens capacity for work on ethics at a regional and national level. (who.int)
- Debates about the ethics of clinical research are not new (Chen et al. (cdc.gov)
- Attendance in all session is compulsory and each participants shall produce a paper of 5-10 pages in research ethics that is a part of the examination. (lu.se)
- The paper shall deal with one question in research ethics using the course literature and relevant examples from e.g. participant's field of research. (lu.se)
- Partricipants should make sure they have access to the book by Shamoo/Resnik by the start of the lectures in research ethics. (lu.se)
- This course could be substituted for a similar course in research ethics given elsewhere. (lu.se)
- The ICA's current president, Tim Trainor, will be presenting a session at this year's Esri UC that centers on ethics in cartography. (esri.com)
- The World Bank Group's Ethics and Business Conduct Department (EBC) in the Ethics and Internal Justice Services Vice Presidency Unit promotes the development and application of the highest ethical standards by staff members in the performance of their duties. (worldbank.org)
- We provide confidential advice and guidance to UNICEF employees on ethics matters, primarily related to conflicts of interests and workplace conduct and issues. (unicef.org)
- We conduct Ethics training across UNICEF, focused on the most common ethics issues employees face at work, customized to specific country and work contexts. (unicef.org)
- These reports include: 16 relating to human resources issues, 11 to personnel/health/safety, nine to breaches of WHO's Code of ethics and professional conduct, eight to conflicts of interest, six to breaches of Staff Rules and Staff Regulations, six to fraud/corruption and/or bribery, five to harassment, two to various other issues, and two enquiries for feedback. (who.int)
- Queries on the University's institutional ethics processes can be sent to Governance Office . (bath.ac.uk)
- Mark Schwartz (BA '87, MBA '91, JD '91, PhD '99), a professor of law, governance & ethics in York's School of Administrative Studies, recently received a Citation Classic Award from the Journal of Business Ethics. (yorku.ca)
- The ontology of ethics is about value-bearing things or properties, that is, the kind of things or stuff referred to by ethical propositions. (wikipedia.org)
- Non-descriptivists and non-cognitivists believe that ethics does not need a specific ontology since ethical propositions do not refer. (wikipedia.org)
- However, attempts to merge findings from the different philosophical sub-disciplines - in particular mereology, social ontology, ethics and the metaphysics of agency - are still largely absent. (lu.se)
- EBC manages an Ethics Helpline to address questions or report alleged misconduct of World Bank Group staff. (worldbank.org)
- The State Bar of Michigan is pleased to provide this service to our membership to assist Michigan lawyers in researching ethics inquiries free of charge. (michbar.org)
- Proposals must focus on improving ethics education for graduate students in those fields, although the proposed programs may benefit advanced undergraduates in addition to graduate students. (nsf.gov)
- It can refer to philosophical ethics or moral philosophy-a project that attempts to use reason to answer various kinds of ethical questions. (wikipedia.org)
- Meta-ethics is the branch of philosophical ethics that asks how we understand, know about, and what we mean when we talk about what is right and what is wrong. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] Meta-ethics has always accompanied philosophical ethics. (wikipedia.org)
- We view the Member Code of Ethics as a model for other professions, organizations, and professionals. (google.com)
- These values provide the foundation for the Member Code of Ethics and set the industry standard for the professional practice of public relations. (google.com)
- The latest edition of the American Psycholgoical Assocation's (APA) Decoding the Ethics Code: A Practical Guide for Psychologists (FIfth Edition) by Celia B. Fisher, Ph.D. , is now available in paperback and electronic formats. (fordham.edu)
- Several activities that aim to advance a code of ethics in cartography have already taken place or are planned for the near future. (esri.com)
- On September 01, 2020, we introduced a new Code of Ethics for Novartis. (novartis.com)
- To retain the CGFM certification, all CGFMs must adhere to the AGA's Code of Ethics. (agacgfm.org)
- (https://www.who.int/about/ethics/sexual-exploitation_abuse-prevention_response_policy.pdf, accessed 14 February 2019). (who.int)
- If you are requesting protection against retaliation (whistle-blower protection), or if you need confidential advice and guidance on ethics-related matters related to UNICEF, please contact the UNICEF Ethics Office. (unicef.org)
- Click here for past newsletters which contain information for researchers on emerging updates to policy and ethics application processes. (ualberta.ca)
- As a field of intellectual inquiry, moral philosophy is related to the fields of moral psychology, descriptive ethics, and value theory. (wikipedia.org)
- Ethics can also refer to a common human ability to think about ethical problems that is not particular to philosophy. (wikipedia.org)
- Erica Benner is fellow in ethics and history of philosophy at Yale University, and the author of Really Existing Nationalisms . (princeton.edu)
- Perspectives from Metaphysics, Ethics and Philosophy of Action. (lu.se)
- As bioethicist Larry Churchill has written: "Ethics, understood as the capacity to think critically about moral values and direct our actions in terms of such values, is a generic human capacity. (wikipedia.org)
- Machiavelli's Ethics challenges the most entrenched understandings of Machiavelli, arguing that he was a moral and political philosopher who consistently favored the rule of law over that of men, that he had a coherent theory of justice, and that he did not defend the "Machiavellian" maxim that the ends justify the means. (princeton.edu)
- Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime. (wikipedia.org)
- Over the long term, Esri seeks to foster additional discussion about what ethics in mapmaking looks like and encourage concomitant action from other prominent groups in the GIS community. (esri.com)
- The controversies and challenges of reproductive ethics arise from new technologies, political and ideological divisions, theology, and changing cultural norms. (utmb.edu)
- While we all face uncertainty dealing with COVID-19 , the SBM's Ethics department has published a guideline of Ethics During the COVID-19 Pandemic to help during this trying time. (michbar.org)
- The Ethics Office provides a wide range of services to better equip UNICEF employees - staff, consultants, volunteers and non-staff personnel - to uphold the highest ethical standards in their work of serving and protecting the world's children. (unicef.org)
- In order to amplify our reach, the Ethics Office has created and currently coordinates a global network of 470 Ethics and Culture Champions, who play a key role in supporting an ethical, inclusive and respectful workplace culture in each of their offices. (unicef.org)
- Critically consider benefits and problems associated with managing sustainability and marketing ethics. (lu.se)
- ACP ethics policy is approved by the Board of Regents and serves as the basis for the development of ACP ethics education and practice resources and legislative, regulatory and policy implementation activities. (acponline.org)
- These and other ethics education activities can be used as learning resources and completed for free CME and MOC credits as indicated or used as teaching tools. (acponline.org)
- But ethics and morals is an issue that extends beyond startups. (avc.com)
- Complaints can be submitted to the ACP Executive Vice President or ACP Ethics staff. (acponline.org)
Right and w1
- Ethics is the concept of right and wrong behaviour, and what it involves to be a good person. (lu.se)
- The goal of this conference is to explore the range of topics addressed in reproductive ethics. (utmb.edu)
- AGA's convenient and affordable webinars feature experts speaking on hot topics in auditing, ethics, governmental accounting, internal controls, performance and more, making earning CPE hours easy! (agacgfm.org)
- For more information on the Center for Ethics Education, email the program director at [email protected] . (fordham.edu)
- The Center for Ethics Education was established in 1999 to contribute to Fordham University's commitment to the dignity of the human person and the advancement of the common good. (fordham.edu)
- GroupM's Global General Counsel, Nicola McCormick, on why today's leaders should be focusing on data ethics in our digital society. (wpp.com)
- A settlement would have required Rangel to agree that he violated ethics rules. (nypost.com)
- Please also refer to the UNICEF Policy on Whistle-blower Protection Against Retaliation and the United Nations Secretary-General's bulletin, " United Nations system-wide application of ethics: separately administered organs and programmes " (ST/SGB/2007/11, dated 30 Nov 2007) and the related amendment (ST/SGB/2007/11/AMEND.1). (unicef.org)
- But we try really hard to live up to our ethics, values, and morals and I think we do a decent job. (avc.com)
- This course will introduce students to the field of sustainability and ethics in international markets. (lu.se)
- Ethics : the heart of health care / David Seedhouse. (who.int)