Betaine: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Lipotropic Agents: Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.Sarcosine: An amino acid intermediate in the metabolism of choline.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Betaine-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: A ZINC metalloenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from BETAINE to HOMOCYSTEINE to produce dimethylglycine and METHIONINE, respectively. This enzyme is a member of a family of ZINC-dependent METHYLTRANSFERASES that use THIOLS or selenols as methyl acceptors.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Homocystinuria: Autosomal recessive inborn error of methionine metabolism usually caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and associated with elevations of homocysteine in plasma and urine. Clinical features include a tall slender habitus, SCOLIOSIS, arachnodactyly, MUSCLE WEAKNESS, genu varus, thin blond hair, malar flush, lens dislocations, an increased incidence of MENTAL RETARDATION, and a tendency to develop fibrosis of arteries, frequently complicated by CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS and MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p979)Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Amino Acids, DiaminoHepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Poultry Products: Food products manufactured from poultry.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Animal Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES, as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease in animals.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Saudi ArabiaMilk Thistle: The plant Silybum marianum in the family ASTERACEAE containing the bioflavonoid complex SILYMARIN. For centuries this has been used traditionally to treat liver disease. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. = Carduus marianus L.Waste Water: Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Silymarin: A mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of the MILK THISTLE, Silybum marianum. It consists primarily of silybin and its isomers, silicristin and silidianin. Silymarin displays antioxidant and membrane stabilizing activity. It protects various tissues and organs against chemical injury, and shows potential as an antihepatoxic agent.TexasLiver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.S-Adenosylmethionine: Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)Methionine Adenosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP. EC 2.5.1.6.Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine to yield 5'-deoxy-(5'-),3-aminopropyl-(1), methylsulfonium salt. It is one of the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of spermidine from putrescine. EC 4.1.1.50.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.S-Adenosylhomocysteine: 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.Regional Medical Programs: Coordination of activities and programs among health care institutions within defined geographic areas for the purpose of improving delivery and quality of medical care to the patients. These programs are mandated under U.S. Public Law 89-239.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
... (Betaine 30) is an organic dye belonging to the class of azomerocyanine betaines. This dye is notable for its ... This is reacted in presence of sodium acetate in ethanol with 2,4,6-Triphenylpyryliumhydrogensulfate to the hydrogensulfat of ... Osterby, Bruce R.; McKelvey, Ronald D. (1996). "Convergent Synthesis of Betaine-30, a Solvatochromic Dye: An Advanced ... the dye and the betaine is formed by adding sodium hydroxide. ...
"Dietary Betaine Promotes Generation of Hepatic S-Adenosylmethionine and Protects the Liver from Ethanol-Induced Fatty ... betaine), which participates in the S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) synthesis pathways. Choline is a precursor to trimethylamine, ... or from methyl groups derived from betaine (which gets its methyl groups from choline). Changes in one of these pathways is ... "Repeatability and measurement error in the assessment of choline and betaine dietary intake: the Atherosclerosis Risk in ...
In the next step the carboxylic acid group is esterified with ethanol and the urea group replaced with a benzoyl group. The ... with platinum in acetic acid and alkylation with iodomethane gives the quaternary ammonium salt 12 and subsequently the betaine ... In the third step the ketone group is reduced with aluminum powder and sodium ethoxide in ethanol and quinine can be identified ... a ring opening with the alkyl nitrite ethyl nitrite with sodium ethoxide in ethanol to 10 with a newly formed carboxylic ester ...
Betaine Betaine can be isolated from the byproducts of sugar beet processing. Production is chiefly through chromatographic ... The feedstock-to-yield ratio for sugarbeet is 56:9. Therefore, it takes 6.22 kg of sugar beet to produce 1 kg of ethanol ( ...
It contains betaine and the trisaccharide raffinose. These are a result of concentration from the original plant material or ... It is sometimes used in baking or for producing ethanol, as an ingredient in cattle feed, and as fertilizer. The term "black- ... for in situ remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons Blended with magnesium chloride and used for de-icing A stock for ethanol ...
The bacteria can grow in a number of artificial nutrient environments, especially betaine- and arginine-containing ones. In ... ethanol, 2% glutaraldehyde, and to a lesser extent, phenolic preparations. B. pseudomallei is effectively killed by the ...
A solution of chloral hydrate in ethanol called "knockout drops" was used to prepare a Mickey Finn. More reputable uses of ... an anthelminthic drug Carbocloral Chloral betaine, a sedative drug Cloracetadol, a prodrug of paracetamol Chloralodol, a ... It was discovered through the chlorination (halogenation) of ethanol in 1832 by Justus von Liebig in Gießen. Its sedative ... Chloral hydrate is produced from chlorine and ethanol in acidic solution. In basic conditions the haloform reaction takes place ...
Everman BW, Koblin DD (March 1992). "Aging, chronic administration of ethanol, and acute exposure to nitrous oxide: effects on ... Betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000116984 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ...
... the amine becomes quaternized to give betaine, a natural product: H. 3N+. CH. 2COO−. + 3 CH3I → (CH. 3). 3N+. CH. 2COO−. + 3 HI ... Positive modulators: Alcohols (e.g., brometone, chlorobutanol (chloretone), ethanol (alcohol), tert-butanol (2M2P), ...
... the amine becomes quaternized to give betaine, a natural product: H. 3N+. CH. 2COO−. + 3 CH3I → (CH. 3). 3N+. CH. 2COO−. + 3 HI ... sparingly soluble in ethanol insoluble in ether Acidity (pKa) 2.34 (carboxyl), 9.6 (amino)[4]. ...
Ethanol is the oldest recreational drug still used by humans. Ethanol can cause alcohol intoxication when consumed. Alcoholic ... Ethanol Level at eMedicine *^ World Health Organization (August 31, 2009). Clinical Guidelines for Withdrawal Management and ... An alcoholic beverage is a drink that contains alcohol (also known formally as ethanol), an anesthetic that has been used as a ...
Also known as TFE or trifluoroethyl alcohol, this colourless, water-miscible liquid has a smell reminiscent of ethanol. Due to ... Positive modulators: Alcohols (e.g., brometone, chlorobutanol (chloretone), ethanol (alcohol), tert-butanol (2M2P), ... the electronegativity of the trifluoromethyl group, this alcohol exhibits a stronger acidic character compared to ethanol. Thus ...
It is very slightly soluble in ethanol, while practically insoluble in water. It is used as a food additive for flavor and ...
... has an oral LD50 of 200 mg/kg in mice,[4] suggesting that it is significantly more toxic than ethanol. On passing ...
Together with ethanol, n-butanol, and methanol, it belongs to the group of alcohol solvents, about 6.4 million tonnes of which ... It will dissolve ethyl cellulose, polyvinyl butyral, many oils, alkaloids, gums and natural resins.[8] Unlike ethanol or ... It also evaporates quickly, leaves nearly zero oil traces, compared to ethanol, and is relatively non-toxic, compared to ... Isopropyl alcohol is miscible in water, ethanol, ether, and chloroform. ...
... this step is performed by homocysteine methyltransferase or betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase.) ...
BKCa-specific: Ethanol (alcohol). *GAL-021. Activators. *BKCa-specific: Flufenamic acid ...
A colourless liquid, it is sparingly soluble in water and highly soluble in ethanol. Paraldehyde slowly oxidizes in air, ... "Ueber die Producte der Oxydation des Alkohols" (On the products of the oxidation of ethanol), Annalen der Chemie, 14 : 133-167 ...
Agonists: Alcohols (e.g., butanol, ethanol (alcohol), trichloroethanol). *m-CPBG. *Phenylbiguanide. *Piperazines (e.g., BZP, ...
Positive modulators: Alcohols (e.g., brometone, chlorobutanol (chloretone), ethanol (alcohol), tert-butanol (2M2P), ... 1-trichloroethane does act as a central nervous system depressant and can cause effects similar to those of ethanol ...
Zopiclone; Others: Alcohols (e.g., ethchlorvynol, amylene hydrate, ethanol). *Barbiturates (e.g., amobarbital, pentobarbital, ... GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators (e.g., barbiturates, benzodiazepines, carbamates, ethanol (alcohol) (alcoholic ...
... , also known as cyclobarbitol or cyclobarbitone, is a drug that is a barbiturate derivative.[1] It is primarily available in fixed-dose combination with diazepam under the brand name Reladorm (100 mg cyclobarbital + 10 mg diazepam) and is used to treat insomnia in Russia.[2] ...
Zopiclone; Others: Alcohols (e.g., ethchlorvynol, amylene hydrate, ethanol). *Barbiturates (e.g., amobarbital, pentobarbital, ...
... (also known as clonitrazolam) is a benzodiazepine that has had very little research done about its effects and metabolism, and has been sold online as a designer drug.[1][2][3][4][5] The synthesis of clonazolam was first reported in 1971 and the drug was described as the most active compound in the series tested.[6][7] Clonazolam is reported to be highly potent, and concerns have been raised that clonazolam and flubromazolam in particular may pose comparatively higher risks than other designer benzodiazepines, due to their ability to produce strong sedation and amnesia at oral doses of as little as 0.5 mg.[8] ...
... is a sedative and hypnotic drug used in scientific research. It has similar effects to sedative-hypnotic benzodiazepine drugs, but is structurally distinct and so is classed as a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic. U-90042 is a GABAA agonist acting primarily at the α1, α3 and α6 subtypes, with a Ki of 7.8nM at α1, 9.5nM at α3 and 11.0nM at α6. It produces sedation and ataxia and prolongs sleeping time in mice, rats and monkeys, but does not produce amnesia and blocks the amnestic effect of diazepam, reflecting its different subtype affinity compared to benzodiazepine drugs.[1] It was developed by a team at Novo Nordisk in the 1980s.[2] ...
The initial doses of premazepam given to human test subjects demonstrated similar psychological test results to those produced by diazepam. It was also demonstrated that initial dosing with premazepam produces similar sedative effects as compared with diazepam, although psychomotor impairments are greater with premazepam than with diazepam after initial dosing. However, with repeated dosing for more than one day premazepam causes less sedation and less psychomotor impairment than diazepam. Premazepam possesses sedative and anxiolytic properties. Premazepam produces more slow wave and less fast wave EEG changes than diazepam. Tests have shown that 7.5 mg of premazepam is approximately equivalent to 5 mg of diazepam.[2] ...
Effects of betaine on ethanol-stimulated secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 in rat primary hepatocytes: Involvement of p42/44 MAPK ... Betaine treatment blocked the ethanol-induced inhibition of IGF-I secretion and p42/44 MAPK activity, and the ethanol-induced ... Effects of betaine on ethanol-stimulated secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 in rat primary hepatocytes: Involvement of p42/44 MAPK ... Effects of betaine on ethanol-stimulated secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 in rat primary hepatocytes: Involvement of p42/44 MAPK ...
Effects of betaine on ethanol-stimulated secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 in rat primary hepatocytes: Involvement of p42/44 MAPK ... Effects of betaine on ethanol-stimulated secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 in rat primary hepatocytes: Involvement of p42/44 MAPK ... Effects of betaine on ethanol-stimulated secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 in rat primary hepatocytes: Involvement of p42/44 MAPK ... Effects of betaine on ethanol-stimulated secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 in rat primary hepatocytes: Involvement of p42/44 MAPK ...
Feed enzymes and betaine could help poultry producers adapt to the forthcoming EU ban on antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs), ... USGC assesses ethanol market in UAE On 23 Feb. In Raw materials ... Feed enzymes and betaine could help poultry producers adapt to ...
Find patient medical information for BETAINE ANHYDROUS on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, ... Betaine. Monograph. Altern Med Rev 2003;8:193-6. View abstract.. Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. Betaine, ethanol, and the ... Betaine lowers elevated s-adenosylhomocysteine levels in hepatocytes from ethanol-fed rats. J Nutr. 2003;133(9):2845-2848. ... BETAINE ANHYDROUS Side Effects & Safety. Betaine anhydrous is LIKELY SAFE for most children and adults when taken by mouth ...
To further investigate how betaine modifies the effects of ethanol on the liver, rats were given an acute ethanol bolus with or ... Experimental groups were compared by Venn diagrams showing that both ethanol and betaine caused a change in the expression of a ... This hypothesis-driven analysis showed that the effects of betaine on the effects of ethanol were partly transient. ... pathways were affected and mainly down regulated at 3 h post bolus when ethanol plus betaine were compared with ethanol-fed ...
Betaine, ethanol, and the liver, a review. Alcohol 1996;13:395-8. View abstract. ... by GSH reductase in the PC12 cell line after acute ethanol exposure. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2006;44(4):574-578. View abstract. ...
Betaine, ethanol, and the liver, a review. Alcohol 1996;13:395-8. View abstract. ... by GSH reductase in the PC12 cell line after acute ethanol exposure. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2006;44:574-578. View abstract. ...
BetaineBetaine. CAS Number:. 107-43-7. Molecular formula:. C5H11NO2. IUPAC Name:. ( ... EthanolEthanol. CAS Number:. 64-17-5. Molecular formula:. C2H6O. IUPAC Name:. ethanol. ... ethanol water extract from husk of Chenopodium quinoa, Chenopodiaceae IUPAC Name:. ethanol water extract from husk of ...
... ethanol at room temperature. The extracts were lyophilized and resuspended in 200 μl of 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.25) that ... Choline-glycine betaine pathway confers a high level of osmotic tolerance in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 165:849-855. ... BetB is betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. BetI is the transcriptional repressor of the betABI locus. GbcA and GbcB are the ... Betaine-homocysteine transmethylase in Pseudomonas denitrificans, a vitamin B12 overproducer. J. Bacteriol. 113:218-223. ...
Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ (1996) Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol 13:395-398PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Kharbanda KK, Todero SL, Ward BW, Cannella JJ 3rd, Tuma DJ (2009) Betaine administration corrects ethanol-induced defective ... Choline and betaine are important sources of one-carbon units, in particular, during folate deficiency. Choline or betaine ... Choline is oxidized to betaine that serves as an osmoregulator and is a substrate in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase ...
Debris was removed by centrifugation, and the ethanol extract was transferred to a clean tube. The ethanol was subsequently ... This glycine betaine is then imported into cells by the ProU and ProP transporters (13). Efflux of glycine betaine has also ... Because glycine betaine is one of the most widespread compatible solutes, a high-affinity transporter of glycine betaine is ... pAJH2 and glycine betaine transporter mutant MO10ΔopuD lacZ::pAJH2 were used to show the effect of betaine on vpsL ...
0% and 30.6%, respectively, compared with the ethanol group. Silencing betaine homocysteine methyltransferase, cystathionine β ... betaine homocysteine methyltransferase. Summary. Gene Symbol: betaine homocysteine methyltransferase. Description: betaine-- ... High homocysteine induces betaine depletion. Biosci Rep. 2015;35: pubmed publisher ..In kidney, betaine concentrations were not ... Concurrently, dietary betaine supplementation to F0 dams increased hepatic expression of betaine homocysteine methyltransferase ...
7. Kanbak G, Inal M, Baycu C. Ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and protective effect of betaine. Cell Biochem Funct. 2001;19:281- ... Dietary betaine promotes generation of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and protects the liver from ethanol-induced fatty ... Betaine, ethanol and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13:395-398. ... Orally administered betaine has an acute and dose-dependent effect on serum betaine and plasma homocysteine concentrations in ...
Dietary betaine promotes generation of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and protects the liver from ethanol-induced fatty ... Kanbak G, Inal M, Baycu C. Ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and protective effect of betaine. Cell Biochem Funct. 2001;19:281-285 ... Betaine, ethanol and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13:395-398. ... Very preliminary evidence suggests that the supplement betaine (trimethylglycine, or TMG-not to be confused with betaine ...
Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13:395-398. ... Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13:395-398. ... The effect of betaine in reversing alcoholic steatosis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997;21:1100-1102. ... The effect of betaine in reversing alcoholic steatosis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997;21:1100-1102. ...
Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13(4):395-398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Ji C, Shinohara M, Kuhlenkamp J, et al Mechanisms of protection by the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase/betaine system in ... The effect of ethanol and its metabolites upon methionine synthase activity in vitro. Alcohol. 1998;15(4):305-309PubMedCrossRef ... Ji C, Mehrian-Shai R, Chan C, et al Role of CHOP in hepatic apoptosis in the murine model of intragastric ethanol feeding. ...
Ethanol and ethanol metabolic products play a significant role in the manifestation of its toxicity. Ethanol metabolizes to ... to provide protection to hepatocytes from ethanol toxicity. Under ethanol exposure, due to increased gut permeability, there is ... Ethanol metabolism mediated by cytochrome-P450 2E1 causes oxidative stress due to increased production of reactive oxygen ... SREBP-1 is activated in the livers of chronic ethanol abusers. An increase in ROS activates nuclear factor erythroid-2-related ...
Betaine and reduction of non-ethanol fatty liver deposits. By Pax in forum Supplements ...
Dietary betaine promotes generation of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and protects the liver from ethanol-induced fatty ... Kanbak G, Inal M, Baycu C. Ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity and protective effect of betaine. Cell Biochem Funct. 2001;19:281-285 ... Betaine, ethanol and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13:395-398. ... Reduction of voluntary ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring AA-rats by kava extract. Presented at: International Congress and ...
Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13:395-398. ... Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13:395-398. ... The effect of betaine in reversing alcoholic steatosis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997;21:1100-1102. ... The effect of betaine in reversing alcoholic steatosis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997;21:1100-1102. ...
Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13:395-398. ... Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996;13:395-398. ... The effect of betaine in reversing alcoholic steatosis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997;21:1100-1102. ... The effect of betaine in reversing alcoholic steatosis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997;21:1100-1102. ...
... in betaine supplemented ethanol-fed rats.. Kharbanda KK, Vigneswara V, McVicker BL, Newlaczyl AU, Bailey K, Tuma D, Ray DE, ...
130200) (1) 1.0 Ethanol (96%) (Art. No. 100971) (1) 20.0 Menthol (Art. No. 105995) (1) 0.2Tego-Betaine BL 215 (2) 5.0 Glycerol ... Tego Betaine BL 215 Cocamidopropyl BetaineTego Betaine F 50 Cocamidopropyl Betaine Tego Betaine ZF Cocamidopropyl Betaine ... Olaflur(1) 1.50 Bromochlorophene (1) 0.10 Aroma 35049 (2) 1.00 C Polyethylene glycol 400 (1) 3.00 Tego Betaine ZF (3) 5.00 ... In mouthwashes, the vehicle essentially consists of water, ethanol, essential oils, emulsifiers and solubilisers for the ...
... catechin and betaine against oxidative stress induced by ethanol in vitro," Experimental and Molecular Pathology, vol. 90, no. ... Figure 4: Betaine induced cell cycle arrest in G2 phase. Cell cycle study of A549 cells treated with betaine and/or C-PC. (a) ... 4.1.2. Effect of C-PC and Betaine on the Inflammatory NF-κB Pathway. To study the effect of betaine and C-PC and their ... Betaine appears to be safe at a daily intake of 9-15 g [12]. Subacute and subchronic rat studies determined that betaine is ...
  • Feed enzymes and betaine could help poultry producers adapt to the forthcoming EU ban on antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs), meet increasing consumer demands for safe, affordable food and exploit the growing demand for 'natural' and 'organic' poultry products in markets outside the EU, according to Danisco Animal Nutrition. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Proteomic studies have revealed that betaine supplements given to ethanol-fed rats up regulated methionine metabolic pathway enzymes and down regulated carbonic anhydrase III [ 5 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In addition to the genes encoding a presumed regulatory protein ( betI ), the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase ( betB ), and the choline dehydrogenase ( betA ) enzymes also found in Escherichia coli , a new gene ( betC ) was identified as encoding a choline sulfatase catalyzing the conversion of choline- O -sulfate and, at a lower rate, phosphorylcholine, into choline. (pnas.org)
  • Pretreatment with betaine daily for a period of 30 days to isoprenaline-induced rats prevented the changes in the activities of these lysosomal enzymes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • One study found that higher betaine intake protects against lung cancer by minimizing the adverse effects of smoking. (adam.com)
  • Using multivariable logistic regression analyses, we report a significant association between higher betaine intake and lower lung cancer risk that varied by smoking status. (jove.com)
  • However, higher betaine intake was significantly associated with reduced lung cancer risk among smokers, and the protective effect was more evident among current than former smokers: for former and current smokers, the ORs (95% CI) of lung cancer for individuals with highest as compared to lowest quartiles of intake were 0.70(0.55-0.88) and 0.51(0.39-0.66) respectively. (jove.com)
  • Significant linear trend of higher betaine intake and lower lung cancer risk was observed among both former (p(trend)? (jove.com)
  • Two transport systems for betaines have been fully characterized: the Hut system, an ATP-binding cassette histidine transporter also involved in low-affinity glycine betaine transport ( 4 ), and the BetS system, a betaine choline carnitine transporter (BCCT) required for early osmotic adjustment ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Water (aqua), ethanol (corn derived), decyl glucoside (plant-derived surfactant), cocamidopropyl betaine (plant-derived), glutamic acid N, N-diacetic acid tetrasodium salt (naturally-derived biodegradable chelate), preservative, fragrance (contains natural oils), citric acid (food-grade). (evitamins.com)
  • Compared to the control group, tumour weights and volumes were significantly reduced in either betaine- or C-PC-treated groups and no additional decrease was obtained with the combined treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • Animal Nutrition Additives Betaine granular powder producer All of our products were certified by HALAL, KOSHER, FAMI-Qs, ISO, Eurofins. (ecplaza.net)
  • To evaluate the effects of betaine on the ethanol-induced secretion of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 using radioimmunoassay and Western blotting, respectively, in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. (wjgnet.com)
  • Hepatocytes isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats were incubated with various concentrations of ethanol and PD98059 procedures. (wjgnet.com)
  • The ethanol-induced inhibition of IGF-I secretion was attenuated by betaine in a concentration-dependent manner in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. (wjgnet.com)
  • Furthermore, the changes in IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 secretion resulting from the increased betaine-induced p42/44 MAPK activity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes was blocked by treatment with the MAPK inhibitor PD98059. (wjgnet.com)
  • Figure 2 Betaine stimulates IGF-I secretion and decreases IGFBP-1 secretion in primary rat hepatocytes (mean ± SD). (wjgnet.com)
  • An increase in ROS activates nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) to provide protection to hepatocytes from ethanol toxicity. (mdpi.com)
  • Betaine is involved in the synthesis of methionine, which serves as a major supplier of cellular cysteine via a transsulfuration pathway for the synthesis of reduced glutathione that protects the cell from reactive oxygen species [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 4. The acid conditioning composition of claim 2 wherein the organic solvent is methanol, ethanol, industrial methylated spirits or mixtures thereof. (google.ca)
  • This is reacted in presence of sodium acetate in ethanol with 2,4,6-Triphenylpyryliumhydrogensulfate to the hydrogensulfat of the dye and the betaine is formed by adding sodium hydroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Osmolytes identified until now are either ions (potassium) or small organic molecules such as amino acids (glutamate, proline), sugars (trehalose, glucosylglycerol), ectoine, dipeptides, and quartenary amines (stachydrine, glycine betaine) ( 1 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • He also proposed the utility of measuring an increase in blood ethanol levels following the administration of a glucose load as a diagnostic test for gut fermentation syndrome. (townsendletter.com)
  • It was originally discovered in beets, which is where the name betaine is derived from. (enzymedica.com)
  • Betaine hydrochloride is a compound that consists of betaine and hydrochloride and is naturally found in beets. (enzymedica.com)
  • Betaine (BET) is a zwitterionic quaternary ammonium compound and it was first discovered in the juice of sugar beets ( Beta vulgaris ) by the German chemist Scheibler, in the 19th century. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glycine betaine is a potent osmoprotectant accumulated by Sinorhizobium meliloti to cope with osmotic stress. (pnas.org)
  • The potential importance of this molecule for stress resistance among agronomically important organisms has led to investigations of betaine biosynthesis and transport in Sinorhizobium meliloti . (pnas.org)