Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Acetaldehyde: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Cyanamide: A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1: An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Reflex, Righting: The instinctive tendency (or ability) to assume a normal position of the body in space when it has been displaced.Fatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Alcohol Deterrents: Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.Hydroxytryptophol: 5-Hydroxy-indole-3-ethanol.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).XyloseCellulosomes: Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Hobbies: Leisure activities engaged in for pleasure.Distillation: A chemical process for separating the components of a liquid mixture by boiling and collecting condensed vapors.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)WisconsinPyran Copolymer: Copolymer of divinyl ether and maleic anhydride that acts as an immunostimulant with antineoplastic and anti-infective properties. It is used in combination with other antineoplastic agents.Lentinan: Polysaccharide isolated from the edible mushroom LENTINULA EDODES. The exact composition is unknown.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.

Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures. (1/9751)

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.  (+info)

Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (2/9751)

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

Toxicological findings in a fatal ingestion of methamphetamine. (3/9751)

This paper presents the case history of a fatality caused by the complications brought about by the presence of methamphetamine and ethanol. Drug concentrations are reported from samples obtained approximately 15 min after the subject was last observed to be chewing what was then believed to be gum, 3 h after the initial toxic symptoms were displayed, 6, 11, and 22 h later. The subjects conditions deteriorated over the course of this time, and he was declared dead 33 h after the initial display of toxic symptoms. The toxicological findings and concentration levels of the reported biological specimens concurred with the expected findings in a case of methamphetamine toxicity.  (+info)

Ciprofloxacin decreases the rate of ethanol elimination in humans. (4/9751)

BACKGROUND: Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism is postulated to take place via microbial oxidation in the colon, mediated by aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. AIMS: To evaluate the role of microbial ethanol oxidation in the total elimination rate of ethanol in humans by reducing gut flora with ciprofloxacin. METHODS: Ethanol was administered intravenously at the beginning and end of a one week period to eight male volunteers. Between ethanol doses volunteers received 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily. RESULTS: A highly significant (p=0.001) reduction in the ethanol elimination rate (EER) was detected after ciprofloxacin medication. Mean (SEM) EER was 107.0 (5.3) and 96.9 (4.8) mg/kg/h before and after ciprofloxacin, respectively. Faecal Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus sp. were totally absent after medication, and faecal acetaldehyde production capacity was significantly (p<0.05) decreased from 0.91 (0.15) to 0.39 (0.08) nmol/min/mg protein. Mean faecal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was significantly (p<0. 05) decreased after medication, but ciprofloxacin did not inhibit human hepatic ADH activity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin treatment decreased the ethanol elimination rate by 9.4%, with a concomitant decrease in intestinal aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, faecal ADH activity, and acetaldehyde production. As ciprofloxacin has no effect on liver blood flow, hepatic ADH activity, or cytochrome CYP2E1 activity, these effects are probably caused by the reduction in intestinal flora.  (+info)

Acute effects of ethanol on kainate receptors with different subunit compositions. (5/9751)

Previous studies showed that recombinant homomeric GluR6 receptors are acutely inhibited by ethanol. This study examined the acute actions of ethanol on recombinant homomeric and heteromeric kainate (KA) receptors with different subunit configurations. Application of 25 to 100 mM ethanol produced inhibition of a similar magnitude of both GluR5-Q and GluR6-R KA receptor-dependent currents in Xenopus oocytes. Ethanol decreased the KA Emax without affecting the EC50 and its effect was independent of the membrane holding potential for both of these receptors subtypes. Ethanol also inhibited homomeric and heteromeric receptors transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. In these cells, the expression of heteromeric GluR6-R subunit-containing receptors was confirmed by testing their sensitivity to 1 mM alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid. Ethanol inhibited to a similar extent KA-gated currents mediated by receptors composed of either GluR6 or GluR6 + KA1 subunits, and to a slightly lesser extent receptors composed of GluR6 + KA2 subunits. Acute ethanol's effects were tested on GluR5 KA receptors that are expressed as homomers (GluR5-Q) or heteromers (GluR5-R + KA1 and GluR5-R + KA2). Homomeric and heteromeric GluR5 KA receptors were all inhibited to a similar extent by ethanol; however, there was slightly more inhibition of GluR5-R + KA2 receptors. Thus, recombinant KA receptors with different subunit compositions are all acutely inhibited to a similar extent by ethanol. In light of recent reports that KA receptors regulate neurotransmitter release and mediate synaptic currents, we postulate that these receptors may play a role in acute ethanol intoxication.  (+info)

Ethanol exposure differentially alters central monoamine neurotransmission in alcohol-preferring versus -nonpreferring rats. (6/9751)

Individual differences in ethanol preference may be linked to differences in the functional activity of forebrain monoamine systems or their sensitivity to modification by ethanol. To test this hypothesis, basal extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens as well as the effects of repeated ethanol pretreatment on the basal release of these transmitters were examined in alcohol-preferring (P), alcohol-nonpreferring (NP), and genetically heterogeneous Wistar rats. All animals received i.p. injections of ethanol (1.0 g/kg) or saline for 5 consecutive days. Fifteen hours after the final pretreatment, basal extracellular concentrations and "in vivo extraction fraction" values for DA and 5-HT were determined by no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis. In ethanol-naive rats, significant line differences were observed with high basal 5-HT release in P rats, low 5-HT release in NP rats, and intermediate 5-HT levels in Wistar rats. No differences among groups were noted in basal DA release. Ethanol pretreatment decreased basal extracellular 5-HT levels in P rats whereas increasing 5-HT efflux was seen in the Wistar and NP lines. In addition, ethanol pretreatment increased extracellular DA concentrations in Wistar and P rats, but not in NP rats. The results confirm a relationship between the functional status of forebrain DA and 5-HT systems and ethanol preference or aversion. Moreover, the data suggest that ethanol exposure can alter basal DA and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens and that vulnerability to ethanol-induced changes in monoamine neurotransmission may be a factor in genetically determined ethanol preference.  (+info)

Isocitrate lyase of Ashbya gossypii--transcriptional regulation and peroxisomal localization. (7/9751)

The isocitrate lyase-encoding gene AgICL1 from the filamentous hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii was isolated by heterologous complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae icl1d mutant. The open reading frame of 1680 bp encoded a protein of 560 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 62584. Disruption of the AgICL1 gene led to complete loss of AgIcl1p activity and inability to grow on oleic acid as sole carbon source. Compartmentation of AgIcl1p in peroxisomes was demonstrated both by Percoll density gradient centrifugation and by immunogold labeling of ultrathin sections using specific antibodies. This fitted with the peroxisomal targeting signal AKL predicted from the C-terminal DNA sequence. Northern blot analysis with mycelium grown on different carbon sources as well as AgICL1 promoter replacement with the constitutive AgTEF promoter revealed a regulation at the transcriptional level. AgICL1 was subject to glucose repression, derepressed by glycerol, partially induced by the C2 compounds ethanol and acetate, and fully induced by soybean oil.  (+info)

Antisense RNA strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. (8/9751)

We examined the effectiveness of antisense RNA (as RNA) strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) was developed to produce a 102-nucleotide asRNA with 87% complementarity to the butyrate kinase (BK) gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) exhibited 85 to 90% lower BK and acetate kinase specific activities than the control strain. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) also exhibited 45 to 50% lower phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and phosphotransacetylase specific activities than the control strain. This strain exhibited earlier induction of solventogenesis, which resulted in 50 and 35% higher final concentrations of acetone and butanol, respectively, than the concentrations in the control. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) was developed to putatively produce a 698-nucleotide asRNA with 96% complementarity to the PTB gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) exhibited 70 and 80% lower PTB and BK activities, respectively, than the control exhibited. It also exhibited 300% higher levels of a lactate dehydrogenase activity than the control exhibited. The growth yields of ATCC 824(pRD1) were 28% less than the growth yields of the control. While the levels of acids were not affected in ATCC 824(pRD1) fermentations, the acetone and butanol concentrations were 96 and 75% lower, respectively, than the concentrations in the control fermentations. The lower level of solvent production by ATCC 824(pRD1) was compensated for by approximately 100-fold higher levels of lactate production. The lack of any significant impact on butyrate formation fluxes by the lower PTB and BK levels suggests that butyrate formation fluxes are not controlled by the levels of the butyrate formation enzymes.  (+info)

  • One of the benefits of cellulosic ethanol is it reduces greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 85% over reformulated gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • These issues, along with many other difficult production challenges, led George Washington University policy researchers to state that "in the short term, [cellulosic] ethanol cannot meet the energy security and environmental goals of a gasoline alternative. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Fuel cells operate very efficiently compared with internal combustion engines, reducing the price gap between utilization of ethanol and cheap imported gasoline. (tripod.com)
  • Myth No. 3: Ethanol crops and production emit more greenhouse gases than gasoline. (wired.com)
  • And blending ethanol with gasoline dramatically reduces carbon monoxide tailpipe emissions and tailpipe emissions of volatile organic compounds that form ozone. (wired.com)
  • Finally, a life cycle analysis of ethanol found 'at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20 percent, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. (wired.com)
  • Blending cellulosic ethanol with gasoline to make E85 brings the reduction to 63 percent. (wired.com)
  • It is my belief that blenders will continue to blend ethanol at the same volume because it simply makes their gasoline cheaper and they need an additive. (cnbc.com)
  • The tax credits help determine what the price of ethanol can be relative to gasoline, but the Renewable Fuel Standard "means ethanol will either be or will not be demanded," says Elizabeth Collins, a Morningstar analyst. (cnbc.com)
  • Aside from political considerations, the ethanol industry's fortunes swing on the basis of corn and gasoline prices. (cnbc.com)
  • It's these factors, according to the USDA, that can determine how much ethanol is exported and how much is blended into gasoline above the amount mandated by the Renewable Fuel Standard. (cnbc.com)
  • At a campaign rally in Iowa, President Trump indicated that he intends to support requiring a blend of 15% ethanol in the U.S. gasoline supply. (forbes.com)
  • Investors expect the Environmental Protection Agency to back down from a proposal to reduce the amount of ethanol blended into gasoline this year-but reducing ethanol content may be the only way to save the ethanol industry, an energy economist said in Chicago last week. (forbes.com)
  • In November the EPA proposed scaling back the amount of corn ethanol required in gasoline this year from 14.4 to 13 billion gallons, citing decreased demand for motor fuel and a constraint on the percentage of ethanol that can be blended into gasoline without voiding vehicle warranties-10 percent. (forbes.com)
  • But Carter believes this short-term victory for the ethanol industry could send gasoline prices soaring by 50 cents per gallon, enough to discredit and ultimately dismantle the government's ethanol policy. (forbes.com)
  • The ethanol scheme added about 15 cents to the price of each gallon of gasoline in 2013, he said, or about $20 billion total. (forbes.com)
  • That price goes up dramatically if the percentage of ethanol in gasoline passes 'the blend wall' -10 percent, he said. (forbes.com)
  • In 2007, the Bush Administration implemented the ethanol scheme-a series of annually mandated ethanol volumes- based on the assumption that the demand for gasoline would continue to increase, Carter said, but demand has dropped by about 6 percent. (forbes.com)
  • So much higher, Carter said, that gasoline prices could spike, drawing negative attention to ethanol. (forbes.com)
  • If the EPA goes ahead with their proposal it could actually save the ethanol scheme because it's not going to draw the attention to the scheme that you would see if gasoline prices went up 50 cents a gallon,' Carter said. (forbes.com)
  • Second, an expensive infrastructure would need to be built if people started using mostly ethanol in their vehicles, since ethanol is water soluble and the existing pipelines and filling station equipment for gasoline are not completely water tight. (cnn.com)
  • John Ashworth, a biomass expert at the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, said corn could only supply about 12 to 18 billion gallons of ethanol a year, or about 10 percent of the nation's 140 billion gallon-a-year gasoline habit. (cnn.com)
  • While it's not feasible to actually go out and collect every ounce of that one billion tons, he said it's not unreasonable to expect ethanol to replace 40 billion gallons of gasoline in the near future. (cnn.com)
  • Don't expect livestock producers to emerge victorious in their high-pressure campaign to persuade Washington to waive the federal mandate that requires gasoline refineries to blend corn-based ethanol into their fuels each year. (kiplinger.com)
  • This year, the mandate calls for blending 13.2 million gallons of corn ethanol with gasoline. (kiplinger.com)
  • Waiving the mandate for blending ethanol in gasoline wouldn't hurt ethanol producers -- or help the livestock industry -- mainly because the ethanol industry will meet its mandate this year even as it closes down plants. (kiplinger.com)
  • One possible compromise: The EPA could permit more motorists to choose what proportion of ethanol they want in their gasoline by punching a button on the pump, as they do to select regular or premium. (kiplinger.com)
  • While ethanol has been touted as a clean energy source - when it burns, it produces fewer emissions than gasoline - when considering production of the fuel as a whole, it is a far murkier picture. (durangoherald.com)
  • Record corn prices and sluggish gasoline demand are squeezing profits for U.S. ethanol companies, prompting some producers to idle plants or slow production. (wsj.com)
  • Hundreds of measuring devices that are supposed to ensure that gasoline sold in California contains enough smog-reducing ethanol haven't been certified by the state, raising questions about their ability to do the job, Los Angeles County inspectors say. (latimes.com)
  • They say they haven't determined whether the uncertified meters are causing harm by inaccurately measuring the amount of ethanol added to gasoline. (latimes.com)
  • Oil companies are phasing in ethanol to comply with a state requirement that gasoline be blended with that additive instead of methyl tertiary butyl ether, or MTBE, which has been blamed for contaminating groundwater. (latimes.com)
  • Inspectors found flaws in three of the terminal's 12 devices for blending gasoline and ethanol, and shut those three systems down pending repairs and further testing. (latimes.com)
  • There are about 60 major fuel terminals in the state, operated by companies including ChevronTexaco Corp., BP's Arco division and Shell Oil Co. About 47 of the terminals are already blending ethanol with gasoline. (latimes.com)
  • In early 2011, the Environmental Protection Agency approved the corn ethanol industry's petition to increase the amount of ethanol that can be blended with gasoline. (ewg.org)
  • Since ethanol is more corrosive and burns hotter than gasoline, it may cause higher rates of engine stalling, misfiring and overheating. (ewg.org)
  • Enter Stage Right) -- The rocketing costs of gasoline and the price of corn being paid worldwide are the result of U.S. government mandates requiring the inclusion of ethanol in the gasoline all Americans must use. (wnd.com)
  • The study found that the corn-importing countries of Central America and North Africa are at the highest risk from ethanol expansion-the requirement to include ethanol with gasoline. (wnd.com)
  • Last Friday's biannual report from the Agriculture Department has re-ignited debate on the wisdom of using ethanol in gasoline to reduce emissions. (thenewamerican.com)
  • Another fact missing from the revived controversy about ethanol use in gasoline to reduce emissions is that, according to two studies , done at Princeton University back in 2008, ethanol usage actually increases emissions once all direct and indirect costs in producing it are considered. (thenewamerican.com)
  • The president's victory lap in Iowa, the nation's largest ethanol producer, comes after the Environmental Protection Agency finalized a rule in May allowing for year-round access to E15 , the shorthand for gasoline blended with 15% ethanol. (usatoday.com)
  • Most gasoline sold in the U.S. contains 10% ethanol. (usatoday.com)
  • Ethanol, an alcohol distilled from corn and mixed with gasoline to form gasohol, enjoys a huge tax break without which it could never compete at the pump. (nytimes.com)
  • Shortly thereafter the Environmental Protection Agency ruled that one-tenth of all gasoline must contain ethanol, a bad deal for consumers that a court struck down. (nytimes.com)
  • CHICAGO (Reuters) - Gasoline futures soared to a record premium over ethanol on Monday as gas prices topped $4 per gallon in some states while stocks of the biofuel were likely to continue swelling, analysts and traders said. (reuters.com)
  • The drop in demand for gas has helped push up ethanol stocks to a record high last week of 22.7 million barrels as the U.S. government mandates that each gallon of gasoline in the country can contain only 10 percent ethanol. (reuters.com)
  • Many ethanol plants ramped up production at the end of 2011, ahead of the expiration of the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit, or VEETC, a tax incentive that provided 45 cents per gallon to blenders who mixed ethanol with gasoline. (reuters.com)
  • A long-standing promise to boost the ethanol content in gasoline sold at Ontario pumps may never come to pass, Premier Dalton McGuinty said today, just a few months after he reassured farmers he'd stick to the plan. (thestar.com)
  • McGuinty said he was rethinking his commitment to increase the ethanol content in gasoline to 10 per cent by 2010, given the dubious environmental benefits of the biofuel and the impact it's having on food prices. (thestar.com)
  • In April, McGuinty said he was convinced his government's decision to increase the ethanol content in gasoline wasn't having a significant impact on food costs "because of a whole bunch of circumstances" that were driving up prices. (thestar.com)
  • Currently, gasoline sold in Ontario must contain an average of five per cent ethanol, which is derived from corn, wheat and straw. (thestar.com)
  • If the province turns its back on its promise to increase the ethanol content in gasoline, it could also threaten the development of new technologies that could yield "huge" environmental benefits, Speer suggested. (thestar.com)
  • NEW YORK (MarketWatch) -- Hawkeye Holdings has filed to raise up to $350 million in an initial public offering as ethanol emerges as a summer trend in the IPO market in the face of lofty gasoline prices. (marketwatch.com)
  • The DOE saw "no significant difference" in impact on the fuel systems between E0-gasoline without ethanol-and E15. (popularmechanics.com)
  • At the moment, the Obama administration is previewing next year's rules for the amount of ethanol that has to be mixed with gasoline -- a regulation that has fueled the ethanol industry and earned untold millions for corn growers. (politico.com)
  • It sent a letter to Jeff Broin, the head of Poet, the largest ethanol producer in the country, saying that "Ford endorses efforts to increase base level blends [of gasoline] up to E15 and collaborate with key stakeholders to overcome challenges with introducing these higher levels of ethanol. (kiplinger.com)
  • EPA currently limits ethanol blending to 10%, except for E85, a fuel blend that is 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline and can only be used in the 6 million or so cars and trucks built specifically to run on it. (kiplinger.com)
  • This year, an estimated 4.3 billion bushels of corn will go to ethanol production under a federal mandate to blend 36 billion gallons of biofuel into gasoline by 2022, of which 15 billion gallons would come from corn. (ibtimes.com)
  • LOS ANGELES, May 6 (UPI) -- A prominent national consumer group has called on the oil industry to be more open to ethanol as a means of letting some of the steam out of sky-high gasoline prices. (upi.com)
  • In a report, "Over a Barrel: Why Aren't Oil Companies Using Ethanol to Lower Gasoline Prices? (upi.com)
  • Oil companies in many parts of the country easily can blend ethanol -- a high-octane, domestically produced renewable fuel -- into gasoline, but have chosen not to. (upi.com)
  • Oil-industry executives take issue with this seemingly simple solution to tight gasoline supplies, but the entry of the CFA potentially could make ethanol more palatable to politicians outside the farm states, as the Senate once again considers energy policy legislation and its provisions to increase ethanol consumption. (upi.com)
  • The CFA report concluded that by bumping up the amount of ethanol used in a gallon of gasoline to 10 percent, the average price of regular could be cut by some 8 cents. (upi.com)
  • Cooper said retail gasoline-price reductions certainly would differ from region to region, but the overall impact of boosting ethanol consumption would be lower gasoline prices and a tangible step toward the elusive goal of using less oil. (upi.com)
  • By way of a very rough comparison, the price of June ethanol futures on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange was around $1.20 per gallon Thursday compared to nearly $1.48 per gallon for June gasoline on the New York Mercantile Exchange. (upi.com)
  • Oil industry officials might take exception to the notion that ethanol is a cheap and easy ingredient to add to gasoline. (upi.com)
  • As a coincidence, the Minnesota Legislature passed a bill Thursday that would double the amount of ethanol added to gasoline from 10 percent to 20 percent within eight years. (upi.com)
  • Supporters of the legislation touted it primarily as a boon to corn growers in the Land of 10,000 Lakes, but ethanol's backers are increasingly anxious to drive home their contention that consumers would benefit as well, due to the assumption that ethanol costs less than finished gasoline. (upi.com)
  • The bill includes a national "renewable fuels standard," which would mandate the use of 5 billion gallons of ethanol in the U.S. gasoline supply by 2012. (upi.com)
  • Recently ADM has pushed national politicians for further breaks, including laws that favor ethanol-based products in the nation's gasoline supply. (motherjones.com)
  • During the 1992 presidential election, when George Bush was trailing Clinton, Bush proposed gasoline volatility standards that favored ethanol products as the additives to make the "reformulated gasolines" called for in the 1990 Clean Air Act. (motherjones.com)
  • Instead, just days after receiving the $100,000 check, the Clinton administration simply ordered that 30 percent of the gasoline sold in America's nine most polluted cities contain ethanol-based additives by 1996. (motherjones.com)
  • Scientists and economists looked at life-cycle emissions of growing, harvesting, producing and burning different fuels, and concluded that ethanol made from switchgrass and other plant materials is far better than either corn ethanol or gasoline. (businessinsider.com)
  • The study concluded that the total environmental and health costs of making a gallon of gasoline was about 71 cents, compared with a range of 72 cents to $1.45 for corn-based ethanol, and 19 to 32 cents for cellulosic ethanol, depending upon the technology and type of plants used. (businessinsider.com)
  • Most ethanol currently produced in the U.S. is made from corn kernels in a process that consumes significant amounts of fossil fuels, in everything from fertilizers to gasoline for farm equipment. (popsci.com)
  • What we found, adjusting six studies of ethanol input demands so they could be compared is that ethanol from corn (maize) as we make it today is a big petroleum saver, and offers modest gains in global warming, compared to gasoline. (prospect.org)
  • The ethanol is then put into a blend with 15% gasoline to create E85, a flex-fuel that requires minimal retrofitting for cars or gas stations. (prospect.org)
  • AS THE price of gasoline hovers near $3 a gallon, alternative fuels like ethanol are getting inquisitive attention from motorists trying to save a few bucks on a fill-up. (toledoblade.com)
  • All gasoline-powered cars and trucks now sold in the United States run just fine on a fuel mixture that contains up to 10 percent ethanol, which is routinely sold without any fanfare by most filling stations. (toledoblade.com)
  • A few vehicles, but still just a fraction, will work properly on an 85 percent ethanol-15 percent gasoline blend known as E85. (toledoblade.com)
  • In 1978 a Clean Air Act waiver allowed the use of 10 volume percent ethanol in gasoline, known as gasohol or E10. (epa.gov)
  • In June 2011, EPA approved blends of 15 volume percent ethanol in gasoline for use in model year 2001 and newer passenger cars, light-trucks and medium-duty vehicles. (epa.gov)
  • Brazil will reduce the ethanol content in gasoline in another effort to contain inflation since sugar (and ethanol) prices because of a poor crop have been soaring, according to the Sao Paulo press. (mercopress.com)
  • Our ethanol lowers life cycle greenhouse gas emissions up to 28%, compared to non-blended gasoline. (valero.com)
  • Learn about the fuels we produce: gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, ethanol and renewable diesel. (valero.com)
  • Ethanol fuel has a "gasoline gallon equivalency" (GGE) value of 1.5, i.e. to replace the energy of 1 volume of gasoline, 1.5 times the volume of ethanol is needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most cars on the road today in the U.S. can run on blends of up to 10% ethanol, and ethanol represented 10% of the U.S. gasoline fuel supply derived from domestic sources in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1976 the Brazilian government has made it mandatory to blend ethanol with gasoline, and since 2007 the legal blend is around 25% ethanol and 75% gasoline (E25). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethanol strengthened against gasoline on speculation that plant shutdowns will help drain a glut of the biofuel and lift prices. (bloomberg.com)
  • The contract covers reformulated gasoline, which is made to be blended with ethanol. (bloomberg.com)
  • Ethanol-blended gasoline made up 87 percent of the total U.S. gasoline pool in the week ended Jan. 25, down from 90 percent a year earlier. (bloomberg.com)
  • Estimated average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cellulosic ethanol derived from switchgrass were 94% lower than estimated GHG from gasoline. (pnas.org)
  • Ethanol is the most common biofuel in the U.S. and is projected to increase in the short term because of the voluntary elimination of methyl tertiary butyl ether in conventional gasoline and in the long term because of U.S. government mandates ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • If the fuel is to supplant a sizable fraction of the 140 billion gallons of gasoline consumed each year in the United States, ethanol producers will need to turn to biomass such as wood chips and switchgrass. (technologyreview.com)
  • Indeed, ethanol from such sources could replace "a very large fraction" of the gasoline currently used for vehicles, says Gregory Stephanopoulos, professor of chemical engineering at MIT. (technologyreview.com)
  • Even disregarding the mandate, US refiners need billions of gallons of ethanol to meet environmental specifications for their gasoline. (cnn.com)
  • This paper estimates household preferences for ethanol as a gasoline substitute. (nber.org)
  • The demand for ethanol as a gasoline substitute, " Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 151-168. (nber.org)
  • Not all refiners can blend ethanol with gasoline to meet the standard. (mysanantonio.com)
  • The agency has proposed refinements of the 2007 U.S. Renewable Fuels Standard which mandated the blending into gasoline of 36 billion gallons per year of fuels like ethanol from corn, biodiesel and second-generation biofuels like cellulosic ethanol by 2022. (ibtimes.com)
  • Ethanol is also better for our environment than gasoline refined from oil. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Research published in Yale University's Journal of Industrial Ecology shows that ethanol can reduce greenhouse-gas emissions by as much as 59 percent relative to gasoline. (washingtontimes.com)
  • And ethanol delivers better value for the U.S. consumer on a dollar-for-dollar basis compared to gasoline. (washingtontimes.com)
  • But new research says that the global effects of losing agricultural land for corn ethanol production will result in twice the carbon emissions of gasoline. (npr.org)
  • What's more, burning more and more corn ethanol in gasoline releases more benzene, a known carcinogen, and other toxic air pollutants that are linked to asthma, bronchitis, and other respiratory ailments. (commondreams.org)
  • A recent shortage of the corn-derived gasoline additive, combined with record-high oil prices, has had refiners snapping up every gallon of ethanol they can get their hands on. (latimes.com)
  • In effect, the government was promoting ethanol as a substitute for gasoline, encouraging refiners to blend ethanol with their gas to reduce the nation's dependence on foreign oil. (latimes.com)
  • Ethanol provides about 3.5 percent of the nation's gasoline needs. (latimes.com)
  • As skyrocketing oil prices have sent gasoline prices dramatically higher, the price of ethanol has naturally followed. (latimes.com)
  • Since October 2010, an E5 blend of 95% gasoline and 5% cellulosic ethanol blend has been available at 100 filling stations across Denmark. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ethanol production mandate could be in conflict with efforts to reduce the Gulf Coast dead zone. (treehugger.com)
  • In dueling TV ads, foes of the federal ethanol mandate claim that it "doubles greenhouse gas emissions," while the ethanol lobby says that "the oil industry is lying" and the mandate will lead to lower emissions. (factcheck.org)
  • A congressional mandate to turn corn into ethanol in order to reduce emissions requires converting nearly 40 percent of that harvest into 13.2 billion gallons of ethanol. (thenewamerican.com)
  • We ask you to adjust the corn grain-ethanol mandate of the RFS to reflect this natural disaster and these new market conditions. (thenewamerican.com)
  • Those benefitting from the ethanol mandate, in the biofuels industry, are pushing back, holding that the drought isn't likely to have any continuing impact on corn prices at the consumer level and that ethanol producers have plenty of supplies already stockpiled to meet the requirements of the RFS. (thenewamerican.com)
  • In April, a federal appeals court blocked the implementation of the ethanol mandate, saying the Clinton administration lacked the statutory authority to discriminate between ethanol and methanol. (motherjones.com)
  • The US is poised to divert around 40 per cent of its corn into ethanol because of the Congress-enacted mandate despite "huge damage" to the crop because of the worst drought in at least half a century, José Graziano da Silva, director-general of the UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation, warned. (cnn.com)
  • An immediate, temporary suspension of that [ethanol] mandate would give some respite to the market and allow more of the crop to be channelled towards food and feed uses," he wrote in an opinion piece in the Financial Times. (cnn.com)
  • Moreover, ethanol is now a huge component of global energy supplies and the suspension of the mandate could push up oil prices. (cnn.com)
  • Tom Vilsack, US agriculture secretary, raised doubts about the impact of waiving the ethanol mandate, arguing that the US biofuel industry had reduced petrol prices and created jobs. (cnn.com)
  • A coalition of beef, pork, chicken and dairy producers petitioned the US Environmental Protection Agency last month to waive the ethanol mandate in response to rising corn prices. (cnn.com)
  • In response, the federal government has exempted small refineries from the ethanol mandate, a move the Renewable Fuel Association has said will cost the industry $5 billion. (mysanantonio.com)
  • The only thing going for the ethanol mandate is politics. (mysanantonio.com)
  • Rather than increase the ethanol mandate, Congress should shuck it. (mysanantonio.com)
  • By dramatically increasing the price of corn, the corn ethanol mandate has, in just the last four years, contributed to the conversion of 23 million acres of wetland and grassland - an area the size of Indiana - to cropland. (commondreams.org)
  • By encouraging farmers to plow up wetlands and grasslands, the corn ethanol mandate is causing more carbon to be released into the atmosphere, causing more fertilizers and pesticides to wash off farm fields and destroying more habitat that supports wildlife - and millions of jobs. (commondreams.org)
  • A measure that would remove roughly $6 billion in annual ethanol subsidies just passed the U.S. Senate, signaling, among other things, a shift in public attitude towards the once-heralded alternative fuel. (treehugger.com)
  • Before the drought, the industry had hoped to win subsidies for expanding ethanol pipelines, service station pumps and other infrastructure, along with research and development of nongrain alcohol. (kiplinger.com)
  • No matter what the outcome, it's clear that the ethanol industry's giant subsidies won't come back soon. (kiplinger.com)
  • Are ethanol subsidies really that bad? (washingtonmonthly.com)
  • Now, in an effort to make food less expensive, experts are calling for limits on ethanol production, subsidies for corn, and more incentives for biofuels made from nonfood sources. (go.com)
  • One thing that could help is reducing or eliminating subsidies that give corn ethanol an economic advantage over ethanol from other sources, such as sugar cane, Runge says. (go.com)
  • Ethanol, long oversold as a source of cheap, clean energy, has been the beneficiary of generous subsidies provided by politicians whose favor has been bought at bargain prices by Archer Daniels Midland, ethanol's leading American manufacturer. (nytimes.com)
  • Sen. John McCain famously wrote off Iowa in 2000, citing his objection to ethanol subsidies, and this cycle, candidates from Sen. Bernie Sanders to (before he dropped out) Gov. Scott Walker have walked back early expressions of skepticism. (politico.com)
  • The model is so effective that a lobbyist recently proposed that Palmetto State primary voters make Boeing subsidies "South Carolina's version of ethanol. (politico.com)
  • The federal government provides an array of subsidies to increase the consumption of biofuels such as corn ethanol. (cato.org)
  • Here in the United States, the federal government is offering large subsidies to encourage corn-based ethanol. (npr.org)
  • Absence of production of cellulosic ethanol in the quantities required by the regulation was the basis of a United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia decision announced January 25, 2013, voiding a requirement imposed on car and truck fuel producers in the United States by the Environmental Protection Agency requiring addition of cellulosic biofuels to their products. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biggest ethanol producers in the market are Archer Daniels Midland and, more recently, oil refiners, including Valero and Sunoco. (cnbc.com)
  • While high levels of production from producers both big and small are contributing to lower prices for ethanol compared with other countries, Morningstar's Collins remains concerned with overcapacity in the industry, particularly when there are few barriers to entry for new competitors. (cnbc.com)
  • Given that the new sanctions on Iranian oil exports could reduce global oil supply by 2 million barrels a day, and Venezuelan production has been declining by 50 thousand barrels a day per month, the inability of ethanol producers to offset this is glaringly obvious. (forbes.com)
  • About 25% of the nation's corn crop goes to produce ethanol each year (counting the grain returned by biofuels producers for use as livestock feed). (kiplinger.com)
  • But politically, ethanol producers face an uncertain future. (kiplinger.com)
  • Although U.S. ethanol producers didn't put up a fight -- partly because the industry was on a good financial footing then -- the action was regarded as a political setback. (kiplinger.com)
  • ethanol producers have already cut production by 14% this year. (kiplinger.com)
  • Given the intersection of the various conflicting interests in the ethanol debate - the producers and consumers of corn, the ethanol producers, the EPA, the political interests of legislators, and the weather - it is highly unlikely that anything will be done. (thenewamerican.com)
  • and a professor of economics at Iowa State University, projects that allowing the blender credit and tariff to expire would have neither the dramatic, adverse effect U.S. ethanol producers claim nor create the export bonanza foreign producers hope for. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Both automakers and ethanol producers worry the new policy will complicate fueling decisions for consumers. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Ethanol producers fear the partial approval will discourage consumers from embracing ethanol blends. (popularmechanics.com)
  • With all the critics out there, ethanol producers have banded together to fight the backlash from food company CEOs, meat and dairy producers, food security advocates and the petroleum lobby. (ibtimes.com)
  • Alternative fuel producers have their congressional backers, like Sen. Charles Grassley (R-Iowa), who says ethanol opponents are exaggerating when they say more corn is used in ethanol production than to feed livestock, because they don't factor in dried distillers' grains, the corn that is re-introduced into the livestock-feed market after the distillation process. (ibtimes.com)
  • Though environmentalists point out that it takes as much energy to produce a gallon of ethanol as can be had by burning it, producers such as Archer Daniels Midland have long benefited from a 54-cent-per-gallon tax break. (motherjones.com)
  • Last year, Brazil imposed a 20% tax on ethanol imported from the U.S. that exceeds a 600 million liter annual quota to protect local producers as imports spiked. (mercopress.com)
  • The number of plants in Monday's report included units that had been idled or temporarily shut down during 2012 as ethanol producers reacted to market forces pushing costs higher, it added. (marketwatch.com)
  • Ethanol producers faced unusual weakness in the second quarter, which has tipped off a volatile week for Pacific Ethanol stock. (yahoo.com)
  • In recent weeks, however, investors have been taking a harder look at the rush to capitalize on ethanol's promise, and ethanol producers' shares have come under pressure. (latimes.com)
  • Ethanol producers 'are likely seeing the peak of their margins now,' Bear Stearns analyst Ann Duignan told investors in a recent report. (latimes.com)
  • But while producers' high profit margins--selling ethanol for more than twice what it costs to make it--'are not sustainable and will likely decline,' she said, 'we still forecast strong gross margins in the [coming] six to 12 months. (latimes.com)
  • It is the beneficial confluence of two commodity prices that has sent ethanol producers' profits so high. (latimes.com)
  • By 2000, this powerplant--capable of operating on both ethanol and ethanol blends--will be ready for integration into a prototype light-duty vehicle or hybrid bus. (tripod.com)
  • And ethanol promoters try to obscure the fact that ethanol blends can damage small engines. (forbes.com)
  • At some Midwestern service stations, motorists may choose 10%, 15% or 85% ethanol in vehicles built to burn those blends. (kiplinger.com)
  • State officials estimate that there could be as many as 12 ethanol meters at every site that blends the additive with the gas during loading. (latimes.com)
  • Over two trillion kilometres have been traveled using fuel ethanol blends. (sentex.net)
  • Ethanol blends are sold at the same price as conventional fuels. (sentex.net)
  • This company renovated a distillery in Minnedosa, Manitoba and began retailing wheat-based ethanol blends across Western Canada. (sentex.net)
  • In 1992, UCO Petroleum (now UPI Inc.) first launched ethanol blends in Ontario. (sentex.net)
  • Retailers from this province, where the bulk of production is based on corn, are now the national leaders in selling ethanol blends. (sentex.net)
  • The Province of Quebec began retailing ethanol blends in 1995, and now has the second largest retailing base in the country. (sentex.net)
  • Mohawk Oil is presently selling ethanol blends at over 290 stations in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, the Yukon and Northern Ontario. (sentex.net)
  • Across southern Ontario, UPI Inc. retails ethanol blends at over 60 UPI Inc., FS and Co-op gasbars and cardlocks. (sentex.net)
  • In eastern Ontario and western Quebec, MacEwen Petroleum Inc. is retailing ethanol blends at over 60 locations. (sentex.net)
  • and John Shimkus, R-Ill., introduced the Renewable Fuels Marketing Act of 2010 on July 20, saying it would open up a greater potential market for ethanol or biodiesel blends. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • But the ethanol industry believes that testing will ultimately show that blends of 15% and even 20% won't cause engine damage. (kiplinger.com)
  • Former NATO commander and presidential candidate Gen. Wesley Clarke, now representing Growth Energy, argued at a news conference that lifting the 10% cap on ethanol blends could result in the creation of more than 130,000 new American jobs and "inject $24 billion into the American economy annually. (kiplinger.com)
  • Debates about ethanol tend to vanish into the gap between detractors talking about yesterday's blends and supporters boosting tomorrow's technologies. (prospect.org)
  • This is why commercially practical cellulosic ethanol is widely viewed as a next level of development for the biofuel industry that could reduce demand for oil and gas drilling in ways that grain -based ethanol fuel alone cannot. (wikipedia.org)
  • Why Are Germans Boycotting E10, the Ethanol Fuel? (treehugger.com)
  • The ideal fuel for a fuel cell is ethanol. (tripod.com)
  • Over the past several years, Arthur D. Little, with support from the Illinois Corn Marketing Board and other organizations, has developed a fuel processor that allows fuel cell powerplants to operate on ethanol. (tripod.com)
  • 2. Hydrated ethanol (alcohol which still has some water content, not 200 proof) can be used in a fuel cell system with no loss in efficiency compared with 100 % high-grade ethanol, opening the way for the use of ethanol that can be used at a lower cost. (tripod.com)
  • In a program conducted in 1996 for the ICMB, Arthur D. Little conducted a series of tests to demonstrate the use of hydrated ethanol in an advanced fuel processor. (tripod.com)
  • This research is also the subject of a paper entitled, "Evaluation of Hydrated Ethanol in an Advanced Fuel Processor," which has already been accepted for publication and will be presented at The Society of Automotive Engineers Annual Conference in March, 1997. (tripod.com)
  • This technical work and publication effort has kept ethanol positioned as a desirable fuel cell vehicle fuel. (tripod.com)
  • The proposed program for 1997-2000 will continue to promote the use of ethanol in advanced fuel cell powerplants. (tripod.com)
  • This program thus positions ethanol as a premier fuel for transportation powerplants of the 21st century. (tripod.com)
  • This program will demonstrate that ethanol--even low-cost hydrated ethanol--can be used in advanced fuel cell vehicles. (tripod.com)
  • By 2008, a fleet of 3,000 fuel cell buses and 5,000 fuel cell cars could consume about 18 million gallons of ethanol yearly. (tripod.com)
  • Breakthrough research sponsored by the Illinois Corn Marketing Board and the State of Illinois has opened the way for efficient, zero-pollution fuel cell cars and buses powered by ethanol. (tripod.com)
  • Renewable ethanol made from corn can power these fuel cell vehicles using an ethanol fuel processor developed by Arthur D. Little, Inc., of Cambridge, MA. (tripod.com)
  • Ethanol is the ideal fuel for advanced fuel cell vehicles since it reduces oil imports and has fewer negative consequences for the environment than any other practical fuel alternative. (tripod.com)
  • Ethanol is an alcohol-based fuel made by fermenting and distilling starch crops such as corn. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Additionally, the food-versus-fuel debate has spurred significant research and development of second-generation biofuels like cellulosic ethanol that do not use food crops. (wired.com)
  • If we converted Australia's entire sugar cane crop into ethanol, using conventional techniques, we still wouldn't have anywhere enough fuel to drive our cars. (abc.net.au)
  • Some oil experts predict we'll hit the bottom of the barrel within 30 years.Ethanol, a form of alcohol, could be the answer a cleaner, greener fuel made from sugar and starch rich plants. (abc.net.au)
  • But current ethanol production makes up less than one per cent of our fuel needs. (abc.net.au)
  • The problem is, even if we converted the whole of the Australian sugar cane crop into ethanol, using conventional techniques, we still don't have anywhere near enough fuel to drive our cars. (abc.net.au)
  • Ethanol is not a new fuel source. (abc.net.au)
  • However, the duel fuel system was phased out when oil prices plummeted, making ethanol uncompetitive. (abc.net.au)
  • Under the legislation , which was introduced by Rep. Bob Goodlatte, R-Va., and Jim Costa, D-Calif., in the U.S. House of Representatives, a stocks-to-use ratio of below 10 percent would allow the U.S. Department of Agriculture to lower the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) for ethanol in the following year on a sliding scale by as much as 50 percent. (cnbc.com)
  • Promoters of ethanol as a fuel try to insist that it serious benefits, but the arguments don't pass the laugh test. (forbes.com)
  • According to Carter, there's nothing fictitious about the economics of ethanol: 'We have flex fuel vehicles that will burn E85 but nobody buys E85 because it's so expensive, so it's just very difficult to increase past that 10 percent. (forbes.com)
  • Ethanol can be considered as the primary renewable liquid fuel. (springer.com)
  • 2011) Ethanol-the primary renewable liquid fuel. (springer.com)
  • What is the value of ethanol as a dependable fuel source? (buzzle.com)
  • Ethanol can be made from sugar more efficiently than it can from corn, so diversion of sugar to fuel production wouldn't have as much of an effect on food markets. (go.com)
  • The automakers want to increase the number of ethanol pumps and streamline the delivery process from where the fuel is manufactured. (wired.com)
  • In Colorado, five ethanol plants are staying afloat thanks in part to the facilities' close proximity to the corn supply needed to generate the fuel as well as buyers for the grains left over after production. (durangoherald.com)
  • Those concerns, along with criticism that using corn to produce fuel drives up the cost of one of the most important - and widely used - food sources on the planet, make corn-based ethanol less than ideal as an alternative to oil dependence. (durangoherald.com)
  • The economic factors that have slowed the ethanol rush can provide the opportunity to more thoroughly examine the best way to produce the clean fuel at the least cost - economic, environmental and otherwise. (durangoherald.com)
  • Valero Energy Corp., Abengoa Bioenergy US Holding Inc. and Nedak Ethanol LLC have idled plants since mid-June, citing poor market conditions for the corn-based fuel additive. (wsj.com)
  • It is difficult to ascertain current levels of fuel ethanol use in Canada. (sentex.net)
  • Fuel ethanol retailing has expanded into Quebec with over 100 Sonic stations and other independent retail outlets. (sentex.net)
  • For years there's been buzz -- both positive and negative -- about generating ethanol fuel from corn. (kqed.org)
  • The time has long since passed to eliminate ethanol from this primary fuel. (wnd.com)
  • A group of automotive researchers from the U.S. DOE, Argonne National Laboratory and industry have shown that a fuel-injected racing car engine fueled by E-85, an ethanol-based fuel, outperforms the same engine with a carburetor and leaded racing fuel. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • The province also has a policy to purchase vehicles that can accept 85 per cent ethanol fuel in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (thestar.com)
  • However, research has shown that the environmental benefit of grain-based ethanol fuel is modest at best, said Dale Marshall, a climate change analyst with the David Suzuki Foundation in Ottawa. (thestar.com)
  • All three deals have ties to big names on Wall Street as institutions line up to fuel the growth of ethanol with an eye on future profits. (marketwatch.com)
  • Peter Brabeck-Letmathe, chairman of Switzerland's giant Nestlé S.A. (ETR: NESR) food company, has taken his stance on ethanol: making the fuel from corn makes food items more expensive and making it from corn or sugarcane uses a lot of water. (ibtimes.com)
  • the CFA chastised the oil industry for supposedly stonewalling the idea of using ethanol to stretch out the supply of fuel. (upi.com)
  • This year, U.S. automakers will churn out a million flexible-fuel vehicles, and the number of ethanol-stocking gas stations will increase by a third, to about 1,000. (popsci.com)
  • In my view our most important finding is that the "net energy" measure, which looks only at the fossil fuel energy consumed to make a unit of energy in the form of ethanol, asks the wrong question. (prospect.org)
  • The specific technology used to make it matters a lot, but what matters more is the crop you start with: ethanol from grass or wood will be a very attractive fuel on energy, global warming, and petroleum displacement grounds. (prospect.org)
  • In addition, environmentalists point out that ethanol made from corn isn't as "green" a fuel as it could be. (toledoblade.com)
  • A recent study, released on 11 October, Bio-fuel Markets and Technologies released by Pike Research states that the global bio-fuel market will double within the next decade to 183.3 billion dollars from its current level of 82.7 billion, with ethanol production accounting for 78 billion of future worldwide bio-fuel production, while predicting that bio-diesel production will reach 25.5 billion. (mercopress.com)
  • Ethanol is a fuel made from the fermentation and distillation of sugars and starches. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Ethanol-blended fuel is widely used in Brazil, the United States, and Europe (see also Ethanol fuel by country). (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, many cars today's are flexible-fuel vehicles able to use 100% ethanol fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • By December 2011 Brazil had a fleet of 14.8 million flex-fuel automobiles and light trucks and 1.5 million flex-fuel motorcycles that regularly use neat ethanol fuel (known as E100). (wikipedia.org)
  • The racing fuel is made up of 15 percent American-made, corn-based ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the start of the 2011 season, the American Ethanol logo is visible on the fuel ports of all racing vehicles in the Sprint Cup Series, XFINITY Series and Camping World Truck Series. (wikipedia.org)
  • Running during the TNT Summer Series, the American Ethanol E15 Campaign and Sweepstakes promoted E15 as a nationwide fuel alternative and allowed fans to enter to win one of three Chevrolet Silverados. (wikipedia.org)
  • U.S. scientists say a byproduct of corn ethanol fuel production might become useful as a way of controlling weeds in potted ornamental plants. (redorbit.com)
  • Researchers said the potential herbicide -- dried distillers grains with solubles, or DDGS -- is a byproduct of converting corn to fuel ethanol. (redorbit.com)
  • Slider said an influx of Brazilian supply into states in the Southeastern U.S., such as Florida , has exacerbated the glut of the fuel and displaced product from the ethanol-dense Midwest. (bloomberg.com)
  • As a first step towards the development of a direct injected dual fuel engine using diesel fuel and renewable alcohols such as methanol or ethanol, we have studied ethanol (E100) sprays generated with a standard high pressure diesel fuel injection system in a high pressure/temperature spray chamber with optical access. (sae.org)
  • The UN has called for an immediate suspension of government-mandated US ethanol production, adding to pressure on Barack Obama to address the food-versus-fuel debate in the run-up to presidential elections. (cnn.com)
  • Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists are figuring out how to turn wheat straw into ethanol gold, and learning more about the bacteria that can infect ethanol plants and interfere with fuel production. (usda.gov)
  • The only reason the ethanol industry needs government support today is because we are denied access to the fuel market, which is controlled by the oil industry. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Growth Energy's Fueling Freedom Plan would redirect tax credits to build out an ethanol infrastructure, including "blender pumps" and a U.S. fleet of "flex-fuel" vehicles and to allow access to a fair and open market. (washingtontimes.com)
  • If we truly want to meet our nation's energy independence, we must invest in the expanded use of clean, renewable fuels - like ethanol - in our fuel system. (washingtontimes.com)
  • I mean, sure, today ethanol production or renewable fuel technology itself is not perfect. (npr.org)
  • The RFS requires refiners to blend 15 billion gallons of conventional biofuels (i.e. corn ethanol) into the U.S. fuel supply by 2015. (commondreams.org)
  • It's petrol from poop: Marlborough, MA-based Qteros today unveiled a joint development agreement with Israeli commodities recycler Applied CleanTech under which the two companies are using Qteros' modified microorganisms to turn Applied CleanTech's "Recyllose" feedstock, which is made from the solid matter in municipal wastewater, into ethanol for vehicle fuel and other uses. (xconomy.com)
  • The law gives consumers incentives for buying ethanol by lowering the state tax on each gallon of ethanol-blended fuel by 7 cents (from 19 to 12 cents a gallon). (autoblog.com)
  • Sweden has latched on to ethanol as a fuel source more strongly than just about any other country except Brazil. (autoblog.com)
  • Ethanol promoters try to portray themselves as opposing the oil industry's attempts to limit consumer choice. (forbes.com)
  • The CFA chalked up the industry's reluctance to jump on the ethanol bandwagon as a sign of lack of competition and a desire to maintain what has been, of late, a very profitable status quo. (upi.com)
  • If that happens, the ethanol industry's brief fling with vast profit margins will be over. (latimes.com)
  • DuPont exec defends cellulosic ethanol plant in Nevada DuPont's William Feehery said the plant will pay off as companies such as Procter & Gamble Co. add to demand for renewable chemicals and fuels. (desmoinesregister.com)
  • DuPont's cellulosic ethanol plant in Iowa has been in the news this week, first with its announcement that Procter & Gamble Co. would use the biofuel to make Tide Cold Water detergent , and then yesterday as a DuPont executive defended its $500 million investment in the plant. (desmoinesregister.com)
  • Five traditional ethanol plants are underway in the state, and a demonstration cellulosic ethanol plant is being built near Rochester. (emagazine.com)
  • In March 2009, KL Energy Corporation of South Dakota and Prairie Green Renewable Energy of Alberta announced their intention to develop a cellulosic ethanol plant near Hudson Bay, Saskatchewan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Believed to be the world's largest cellulosic ethanol plant as of early 2011, the facility runs on about 30,000 metric tons (33,000 tons) of straw per year and the plant employs about 30 people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corn growers, ethanol refiners and farm-belt politicians have pressured the EPA to abandon this plan, The Renewable Fuels Association threatened to sue, and market signals suggest the pressure is working. (forbes.com)
  • Since 1978, the industry had enjoyed a mounting tax subsidy (for refiners that used ethanol) and trade protection against foreign competitors. (kiplinger.com)
  • Bob Slaughter, president of the National Petrochemical and Refiners Association said the added logistics costs play a large role in a refiner's decisions whether to use ethanol. (upi.com)
  • Under a 2007 energy law, U.S. refiners are to use 13.8 billion gallons of renewable fuels, such as ethanol this year and 15 billion by 2015. (bloomberg.com)
  • Even if corn prices soar further, corn-based ethanol is still likely to remain the cheapest renewable to use in blended fuels. (kiplinger.com)
  • Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger sits next to an ethanol-powered vehicle after signing an order establishing the world's first low-carbon standard for transportation fuels in California in January. (latimes.com)
  • By using a wider lens to view the potential for ethanol, its growth as an alternative to fossil fuels, clean energy developers can more easily overcome the obstacles that have stymied corn-based ethanol's projected rapid growth. (durangoherald.com)
  • Across Canada, there are 929 retailers of ethanol-blended fuels (November, 1998), excluding those who are not listed with the Canadian Renewable Fuels Association. (sentex.net)
  • On January 1, 1998, Sunoco Inc. launched ethanol-enhanced fuels at all of its 275 retail outlets in Ontario. (sentex.net)
  • Other companies that have joined in the retailing of ethanol-blended fuels include Mr. Gas, Pioneer Petroleum, Frances Fuels, Stinson Petroleum and Sunys. (sentex.net)
  • We have seen some plants slow down in our direct area," said Chuck Woodside, chief executive officer at KAAPA Ethanol in Nebraska and chairman of the Renewable Fuels Association. (reuters.com)
  • Although testing will continue into 2011, the Renewable Fuels Association , an ethanol advocacy group, would like the EPA to approve E15 for vehicles made since 1994-about 87 percent of the U.S. fleet-as soon as possible. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Heartland Grain Fuels has two ethanol plants in South Dakota. (ehow.com)
  • Valero Renewable Fuels in Aurora produces 120 million gallons of ethanol every year, a contribution of 12 percent of the total production in South Dakota. (ehow.com)
  • As families face record prices at the pump, it's time to reduce our dependence on expensive petroleum imports and ratchet up our use of lower-cost, domestically produced ethanol," Robert Dineen, president of the Renewable Fuels Association, said in a news release shortly after the House passed its version of the energy bill. (upi.com)
  • Pacific Ethanol (Nasdaq: PEIX) markets and produces low carbon, renewable fuels in the West. (bizjournals.com)
  • According to the International Energy Agency, cellulosic ethanol could allow ethanol fuels to play a much bigger role in the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nineteen ethanol plants have been idled since June as the drought wilted the corn crop, according to the Renewable Fuels Association , a Washington-based trade group. (bloomberg.com)
  • I develop a theoretical model linking the shape of the ethanol demand curve to the distribution of price ratios at which individual households switch fuels. (nber.org)
  • The White House has finished a review of a rule that aims to cut emissions from alternative motor fuels like ethanol, federal environmental regulators said on Thursday. (ibtimes.com)
  • That rule gave biofuels like first-generation ethanol low marks for indirect land use, but it gave some time for the industry to shift to greater production of next-generation fuels, which were expected to be cleaner over their life-cycle. (ibtimes.com)
  • Biofuels like corn ethanol have been hailed as climate-friendly fuels. (npr.org)
  • Sustainable biofuels such as corn ethanol are climate solutions ready for use today, as the Climate Ethanol Alliance showed at COP 23 in Bonn. (euractiv.com)
  • At first blush, biofuels such as corn ethanol and soybean diesel seem like they would be great from the standpoint of global warming. (npr.org)
  • With the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit, set to expire at the end of the year, Growth Energy is calling for a change in the way ethanol tax incentives are used and an eventual phase out of governmental support of ethanol. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • But there are several smaller companies across the country, including Pacific Ethanol in Sacramento and BioFuel Energy in Denver. (cnbc.com)
  • Pacific Ethanol however, is under threat of having its stock delisted from the Nasdaq because it's trading under $1 a share. (cnbc.com)
  • Sacramento-based Pacific Ethanol reported record sales for the third quarter, in part due to marketing efforts and rising sales prices per gallon. (bizjournals.com)
  • Pacific Ethanol Inc. (Nasdaq: PEIX) reported net sales of $271.6 million, compared to $46 million in the same period in 2010. (bizjournals.com)
  • it was idle in the third quarter in 2010, according to Pacific Ethanol. (bizjournals.com)
  • In the first nine months of the year, Pacific Ethanol reported $659.4 million in sales, compared to $194.1 million in the same period in 2010. (bizjournals.com)
  • Pacific Ethanol shares closed trading at 34 cents Wednesday, up 2 cents from Tuesday. (bizjournals.com)
  • Pacific Ethanol Inc. said it's struck an agreement with lenders that brings the Sacramento-based company into full compliance with the terms of its debt on an ethanol refinery in Pekin, Illinois. (yahoo.com)
  • PEIX : Summary for Pacific Ethanol, Inc. (yahoo.com)
  • Categories: ETFs Yahoo FinanceClick here to see latest analysis ETFs with exposure to Pacific Ethanol, Inc. Here are 5 ETFs with the largest exposure to PEIX-US. (yahoo.com)
  • Comparing the performance and risk of Pacific Ethanol, Inc. with the ETFs that have exposure to it gives us some ETF choices that could give us similar returns with lower volatility. (yahoo.com)
  • Pacific Ethanol Inc. , a Fresno, Calif., company that is constructing ethanol plants but has yet to produce a drop of product, saw its stock price quadruple over the course of five months this year. (latimes.com)
  • And Archer Daniels Midland Co., the biggest U.S. ethanol producer by capacity, said that its ethanol margins had eroded to a loss of well over 20 cents a gallon. (wsj.com)
  • Hawkeye, which ranks as the third largest ethanol producer in the U.S. based on production capacity, said first-quarter net income rose to $6.8 million on revenue of $27.7 million, from net income of $1.4 million and revenue of $18 million in the year-ago period. (marketwatch.com)
  • POET Biorefining is South Dakota's largest ethanol producer. (ehow.com)
  • The ethanol producer posted revenue of $405.2 million in the period, missing Street forecasts. (yahoo.com)
  • the leading West Coast-based marketer and producer of ethanol , announced today its intention to temporarily suspend operations at its 40 million gallon per year ethanol facility located in Madera, CA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • First out of the gate with an IPO was VeraSun Energy Corp., a Brookings, S.D., producer that is a distant second to ADM in ethanol market share. (latimes.com)
  • By contrast, starch ethanol (e.g., from corn), which most frequently uses natural gas to provide energy for the process, may not reduce GHG emissions at all depending on how the starch-based feedstock is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethanol used in transportation applications reduces oil dependence and results in lower emissions. (tripod.com)
  • However, another study showed ethanol reduces tailpipe carbon monoxide as much as 30 percent and tailpipe particulate matter emissions by 50 percent (.pdf). (wired.com)
  • Ethanol: Higher Emissions or Lower? (factcheck.org)
  • The report by economist Douglas Ault at the University of Guelph concluded there was no conclusive scientific evidence that ethanol reduces emissions and has largely failed as a tool to spur rural development. (thestar.com)
  • America's ethanol industry creates a steady grain market for our nation's farmers and plays a critical role in revitalizing America's rural areas by stimulating economic growth. (washingtontimes.com)
  • In 2009, ethanol production contributed $53.3 billion to the nation's gross domestic product and generated $8.4 billion in federal tax revenues, resulting in a surplus of $3.4 billion for the federal treasury. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Of course the same problem would emerge with ethanol made with sugarcane or soy or any other food crop. (cnn.com)
  • The drought's damage to the U.S. corn crop puts the ethanol industry on the spot. (kiplinger.com)
  • US economic experts are warning that diverting so much corn crop to ethanol production is driving up food prices, just when people can't afford it. (buzzle.com)
  • Based on the estimate of 56 pounds of corn per bushel, 15 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol in 2022 would require almost six billion bushels of corn, or more than half of this year's estimated national corn crop. (ibtimes.com)
  • Ethanol, which can be made from farm-grown corn or even certain crop waste, is among the category of internal-combustion propellants known as biofuels. (toledoblade.com)
  • At the ARS National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR) in Peoria, Ill., ARS chemist Badal Saha conducted a 5-year study that examined whether wheat straw a crop residue left over after the grain has been harvested could have commercial potential for cellulosic ethanol production. (usda.gov)
  • Instead of taking the grain from wheat and grinding that down to get starch and gluten, then taking the starch, cellulosic ethanol production involves the use of the whole crop. (wikipedia.org)
  • Technology to commercially produce cellulosic ethanol is rapidly advancing due in large part to the availability of substancial federal research and development funding. (repec.org)
  • This largess to both parties helped the ethanol industry in its infancy and staved off the opposition even of Ronald Reagan, who sought the elimination of ethanol tax breaks early in his Presidency. (nytimes.com)
  • The ethanol industry has had a profitable year despite the jump in corn prices, but the industry faces a slew of headwinds, including overcapacity and political pressure to cut generous incentives. (cnbc.com)
  • This will make ethanol stand on its own, something I believe the industry is prepared to do," he says. (cnbc.com)
  • Exports have provided a bright spot for the industry since last year as U.S. corn-based ethanol has become far less costly than Brazilian ethanol , which is mostly made from sugarcane. (cnbc.com)
  • The EPA has a method to save the ethanol scheme, but now they're being scared off by the very industry that would go down with it,' Colin Carter, director of the Gianinni Foundation of Agricultural Economics at UC Davis, told about 65 people at the University of Chicago on Thursday. (forbes.com)
  • Yes, the drought has put the ethanol industry -- and Washington -- in a box. (kiplinger.com)
  • The ethanol industry says small refinery exemptions have destroyed demand for 2.6 billion gallons of ethanol, and 1 billion bushels of corn, since the president took office. (usatoday.com)
  • The higher ethanol blend had been banned in the summer, a rule the ethanol industry said was outdated. (usatoday.com)
  • Now the industry is trying to resist House Republicans who want to cut the budget by cutting the subsidy for ethanol. (nytimes.com)
  • Help on the Way for Ethanol Industry? (kiplinger.com)
  • The ailing ethanol industry is pushing for a stimulus package all its own -- and for a change it wouldn't cost the taxpayer a dime. (kiplinger.com)
  • Lifting that cap is crucial for the struggling ethanol industry. (kiplinger.com)
  • And also listed ethanol upstream raw materials equipments and down stream client survey analysis and Safety light curtainmarketing channels industry development trend and proposals. (slideshare.net)
  • In the end, this report introduced ethanol new project SWOT analysis Investment feasibility analysis investment return analysis and also give related research conclusions and development trend analysis of Global and China Polyethylene wax industry. (slideshare.net)
  • In a word, it was a depth research report on Global and China ethanol Industry. (slideshare.net)
  • And thanks to the support and assistance from ethanol Industry chain related technical experts and marketing engineers during Research Team survey and interviews. (slideshare.net)
  • 3. 11.3 New Project Investment Proposals 11.4 Competitive Environment Strategy Proposals chapter Twelve Ethanol New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis 12.1 Ethanol Project Swot Analysis 12.2 Ethanol New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis chapter Thirteen Global And China Ethanol Industry Research Conclusions ResearchMoz(http://www.researchmoz.us/) is the one stop online destination to find and buy market research reports & Industry Analysis. (slideshare.net)
  • We think there is a competitive market in ethanol that, unlike the oil industry, has become more competitive. (upi.com)
  • Cooper, who said the CFA was not affiliated with the ethanol industry, urged Big Oil not to wait for Senate's vote on energy legislation expected later this month and instead should drop its cautious approach and warmly embrace ethanol -- if for no other reason than to give the little guy a needed break at the pump. (upi.com)
  • The transition from pilot scale to full commercialization of cellulosic ethanol will be difficult, due in large part financial constraints being imposed both internally and externally on the biofuels industry. (repec.org)
  • Brazil's government unveiled new financing and other incentives for sugar cane ethanol production, vowing to work closely with the private sector to boost production in an industry that has struggled recently despite its immense promise. (mercopress.com)
  • Growth Energy, an ethanol industry group, and the National Corn Growers Association formed the American Ethanol partnership. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kate McMahon and Ryan Alexander's Dec. 22 opinion column "Corn pork in the tax bill" (Commentary) is breathless in its unfair dismissal of what America's ethanol industry has done and what it can do for our economy, environment and national security, given the chance to compete against oil in a fair and open market. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The ethanol industry supports more than 400,000 jobs that cannot be exported or outsourced. (washingtontimes.com)
  • WASHINGTON -- The Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) thanked President Bush for his participation in a panel discussion on advances in industrial biotechnology that can help dramatically increase ethanol production, held today during a visit to Novozymes North America of Franklinton, N. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The shares of industry leader Archer Daniels Midland Co. have doubled over the past 12 months, for example, as investors cheer the surging profit in the company's ethanol segment. (latimes.com)
  • The industry remains a potentially lucrative energy-sector play, and it's highly unlikely the ethanol business will return to the relatively sleepy status of a few years ago. (latimes.com)
  • The ethanol industry has moved swiftly to capitalize on its good fortune. (latimes.com)
  • That system helps to offset the challenges that have forced ethanol plants across the country - almost two dozen - to close: rising corn costs - though those have now stabilized - dropping oil prices, and tightening credit markets. (durangoherald.com)
  • Cellulosic ethanol is made from the 'woody' structural material in plants that is unusable by humans. (wired.com)
  • The claim is made that higher ethanol production reduces oil imports and thus makes the nation better able to resist political pressure from oil exporters, but U.S. imports of petroleum have not constituted a major foreign policy constraint except in the minds of pundits. (forbes.com)
  • NEW YORK (CNNMoney.com) -- Cellulosic ethanol, the biofuel that differs from corn-based ethanol in that it can be made from pretty much any organic matter, has made an impression among people who matter. (cnn.com)
  • Most ethanol currently produced in the U.S. is made from corn kernels. (cnn.com)
  • The EPA recently approved a higher blend of ethanol for cars, but only those made since 2007. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Ethanol is commonly made from biomass such as corn or sugarcane. (wikipedia.org)
  • American Ethanol is a collaborative-effort marketing campaign intended to increase awareness of the reliability, performance capabilities and affordability of American-made E15 ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nameplate capacity refers to the volume of 'made-unfit-for-human-consumption' ethanol that can be produced over the course of a year under normal operational conditions. (marketwatch.com)
  • Most US ethanol is made from corn. (cnn.com)
  • The facility has been designed and engineered to process 40 tons of wheat straw per day into ethanol using enzymes made in an adjacent enzyme manufacturing facility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately for the farmers, the Environmental Protection Agency has proposed reducing the ethanol requirement below the level mandated by law. (politico.com)
  • Kluyveromyces lactis or Kluyveromyces lipolytica ) will oxidize pyruvate completely to carbon dioxide and water in a process called cellular respiration , hence these species of yeast will produce ethanol only in an anaerobic environment (not cellular respiration). (wikipedia.org)
  • These big tanks are called fermenters, so when we've got the cane juice from across the road we use a yeast culture, called inoculation, what the yeast effectively does it takes the total sugars in the cane juice and converts into ethanol and carbon dioxide. (abc.net.au)
  • Scaling up technology for making ethanol from nonfood sources, such as grass and wood chips, could also help. (go.com)
  • Everybody's heard about making ethanol from corn . (howstuffworks.com)
  • The research of Lee Lynd, professor of engineering at Dartmouth College and a cofounder of Mascoma Corporation, is helping cut the cost of making ethanol from cellulosic sources such as cornstalks and wood chips. (technologyreview.com)
  • It requires more costly equipment and more processing steps than does making ethanol from corn grain. (technologyreview.com)