A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)
A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The instinctive tendency (or ability) to assume a normal position of the body in space when it has been displaced.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.
5-Hydroxy-indole-3-ethanol.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
Leisure activities engaged in for pleasure.
A chemical process for separating the components of a liquid mixture by boiling and collecting condensed vapors.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.

Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures. (1/9751)

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.  (+info)

Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (2/9751)

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

Toxicological findings in a fatal ingestion of methamphetamine. (3/9751)

This paper presents the case history of a fatality caused by the complications brought about by the presence of methamphetamine and ethanol. Drug concentrations are reported from samples obtained approximately 15 min after the subject was last observed to be chewing what was then believed to be gum, 3 h after the initial toxic symptoms were displayed, 6, 11, and 22 h later. The subjects conditions deteriorated over the course of this time, and he was declared dead 33 h after the initial display of toxic symptoms. The toxicological findings and concentration levels of the reported biological specimens concurred with the expected findings in a case of methamphetamine toxicity.  (+info)

Ciprofloxacin decreases the rate of ethanol elimination in humans. (4/9751)

BACKGROUND: Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism is postulated to take place via microbial oxidation in the colon, mediated by aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. AIMS: To evaluate the role of microbial ethanol oxidation in the total elimination rate of ethanol in humans by reducing gut flora with ciprofloxacin. METHODS: Ethanol was administered intravenously at the beginning and end of a one week period to eight male volunteers. Between ethanol doses volunteers received 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily. RESULTS: A highly significant (p=0.001) reduction in the ethanol elimination rate (EER) was detected after ciprofloxacin medication. Mean (SEM) EER was 107.0 (5.3) and 96.9 (4.8) mg/kg/h before and after ciprofloxacin, respectively. Faecal Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus sp. were totally absent after medication, and faecal acetaldehyde production capacity was significantly (p<0.05) decreased from 0.91 (0.15) to 0.39 (0.08) nmol/min/mg protein. Mean faecal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was significantly (p<0. 05) decreased after medication, but ciprofloxacin did not inhibit human hepatic ADH activity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin treatment decreased the ethanol elimination rate by 9.4%, with a concomitant decrease in intestinal aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, faecal ADH activity, and acetaldehyde production. As ciprofloxacin has no effect on liver blood flow, hepatic ADH activity, or cytochrome CYP2E1 activity, these effects are probably caused by the reduction in intestinal flora.  (+info)

Acute effects of ethanol on kainate receptors with different subunit compositions. (5/9751)

Previous studies showed that recombinant homomeric GluR6 receptors are acutely inhibited by ethanol. This study examined the acute actions of ethanol on recombinant homomeric and heteromeric kainate (KA) receptors with different subunit configurations. Application of 25 to 100 mM ethanol produced inhibition of a similar magnitude of both GluR5-Q and GluR6-R KA receptor-dependent currents in Xenopus oocytes. Ethanol decreased the KA Emax without affecting the EC50 and its effect was independent of the membrane holding potential for both of these receptors subtypes. Ethanol also inhibited homomeric and heteromeric receptors transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. In these cells, the expression of heteromeric GluR6-R subunit-containing receptors was confirmed by testing their sensitivity to 1 mM alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid. Ethanol inhibited to a similar extent KA-gated currents mediated by receptors composed of either GluR6 or GluR6 + KA1 subunits, and to a slightly lesser extent receptors composed of GluR6 + KA2 subunits. Acute ethanol's effects were tested on GluR5 KA receptors that are expressed as homomers (GluR5-Q) or heteromers (GluR5-R + KA1 and GluR5-R + KA2). Homomeric and heteromeric GluR5 KA receptors were all inhibited to a similar extent by ethanol; however, there was slightly more inhibition of GluR5-R + KA2 receptors. Thus, recombinant KA receptors with different subunit compositions are all acutely inhibited to a similar extent by ethanol. In light of recent reports that KA receptors regulate neurotransmitter release and mediate synaptic currents, we postulate that these receptors may play a role in acute ethanol intoxication.  (+info)

Ethanol exposure differentially alters central monoamine neurotransmission in alcohol-preferring versus -nonpreferring rats. (6/9751)

Individual differences in ethanol preference may be linked to differences in the functional activity of forebrain monoamine systems or their sensitivity to modification by ethanol. To test this hypothesis, basal extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens as well as the effects of repeated ethanol pretreatment on the basal release of these transmitters were examined in alcohol-preferring (P), alcohol-nonpreferring (NP), and genetically heterogeneous Wistar rats. All animals received i.p. injections of ethanol (1.0 g/kg) or saline for 5 consecutive days. Fifteen hours after the final pretreatment, basal extracellular concentrations and "in vivo extraction fraction" values for DA and 5-HT were determined by no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis. In ethanol-naive rats, significant line differences were observed with high basal 5-HT release in P rats, low 5-HT release in NP rats, and intermediate 5-HT levels in Wistar rats. No differences among groups were noted in basal DA release. Ethanol pretreatment decreased basal extracellular 5-HT levels in P rats whereas increasing 5-HT efflux was seen in the Wistar and NP lines. In addition, ethanol pretreatment increased extracellular DA concentrations in Wistar and P rats, but not in NP rats. The results confirm a relationship between the functional status of forebrain DA and 5-HT systems and ethanol preference or aversion. Moreover, the data suggest that ethanol exposure can alter basal DA and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens and that vulnerability to ethanol-induced changes in monoamine neurotransmission may be a factor in genetically determined ethanol preference.  (+info)

Isocitrate lyase of Ashbya gossypii--transcriptional regulation and peroxisomal localization. (7/9751)

The isocitrate lyase-encoding gene AgICL1 from the filamentous hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii was isolated by heterologous complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae icl1d mutant. The open reading frame of 1680 bp encoded a protein of 560 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 62584. Disruption of the AgICL1 gene led to complete loss of AgIcl1p activity and inability to grow on oleic acid as sole carbon source. Compartmentation of AgIcl1p in peroxisomes was demonstrated both by Percoll density gradient centrifugation and by immunogold labeling of ultrathin sections using specific antibodies. This fitted with the peroxisomal targeting signal AKL predicted from the C-terminal DNA sequence. Northern blot analysis with mycelium grown on different carbon sources as well as AgICL1 promoter replacement with the constitutive AgTEF promoter revealed a regulation at the transcriptional level. AgICL1 was subject to glucose repression, derepressed by glycerol, partially induced by the C2 compounds ethanol and acetate, and fully induced by soybean oil.  (+info)

Antisense RNA strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. (8/9751)

We examined the effectiveness of antisense RNA (as RNA) strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) was developed to produce a 102-nucleotide asRNA with 87% complementarity to the butyrate kinase (BK) gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) exhibited 85 to 90% lower BK and acetate kinase specific activities than the control strain. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) also exhibited 45 to 50% lower phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and phosphotransacetylase specific activities than the control strain. This strain exhibited earlier induction of solventogenesis, which resulted in 50 and 35% higher final concentrations of acetone and butanol, respectively, than the concentrations in the control. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) was developed to putatively produce a 698-nucleotide asRNA with 96% complementarity to the PTB gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) exhibited 70 and 80% lower PTB and BK activities, respectively, than the control exhibited. It also exhibited 300% higher levels of a lactate dehydrogenase activity than the control exhibited. The growth yields of ATCC 824(pRD1) were 28% less than the growth yields of the control. While the levels of acids were not affected in ATCC 824(pRD1) fermentations, the acetone and butanol concentrations were 96 and 75% lower, respectively, than the concentrations in the control fermentations. The lower level of solvent production by ATCC 824(pRD1) was compensated for by approximately 100-fold higher levels of lactate production. The lack of any significant impact on butyrate formation fluxes by the lower PTB and BK levels suggests that butyrate formation fluxes are not controlled by the levels of the butyrate formation enzymes.  (+info)

Author(s): Echevarria, David J.; Hammack, Catherine M.; Jouandot, David J.; Toms, Christina N. | Abstract: Previous research reports that acute alcohol exposure disrupts shoaling behavior in the zebrafish. The purpose of these studies is to better understand how acute alcohol exposure (0%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1.0%) alters zebrafish behavior. The effects of alcohol on aggressive behaviors in humans have been widely researched. Previous research from this lab has shown a bimodal effect of alcohol on shoaling behavior in zebrafish, with 0.5% and 2.0% (v/v) disrupting shoaling while 1.0% and 1.5% showing no direct effect. Because shoaling is a social behavior and is altered during acute alcohol exposure, aggressive behavior between fish should be addressed. In this series of experiments we explored alcohols effects on aggressive behaviors. In order to address a possible role for alcohol induced aggression as it relates to shoaling we chose to examine the effects of acute alcohol exposure on zebrafish
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention of alterations in intestinal permeability is involved in zinc inhibition of acute ethanol-induced liver damage in mice. AU - Lambert, Jason C.. AU - Zhou, Zhanxiang. AU - Wang, Lipeng. AU - Song, Zhenyuan. AU - McClain, Craig J.. AU - Kang, Yujian. PY - 2003/6/1. Y1 - 2003/6/1. N2 - Acute ethanol exposure causes liver injury in experimental animals, and accumulating evidence suggests that a major responsible factor for the pathogenesis is endotoxemia, which results from bacterial endotoxin leakage from the small intestine due to increased intestinal permeability under alcohol challenge. The purpose of this study was to examine whether zinc pretreatment would inhibit acute ethanol-induced liver injury through prevention of intestinal permeability changes. Male 129 SvPCJ mice were treated with three intragastric doses of ZnSO4 at 5 mg of zinc ion per kg each dosing prior to acute ethanol challenge with a single oral dose of 6 g/kg ethanol. The zinc treatment did not ...
1 World Production and Consumption 2 Fuel Ethanol Prices 3 International Trade 4 Blending Mandates WORLD Fuel Ethanol Production WORLD Feedstock Use for Fuel Ethanol Production WORLD Fuel Ethanol Consumption WORLD Fuel Ethanol Trade WORLD Ethanol Production WORLD Ethanol Exports WORLD Ethanol Imports ARGENTINA Fuel Ethanol Balance ARGENTINA Fuel Ethanol Reference Prices AUSTRALIA Ethanol Balance BRAZIL Ethanol Balance BRAZIL Fuel Ethanol Balance BRAZIL Fuel Ethanol Consumption by Type and Region BRAZIL Ethanol Production BRAZIL Total Ethanol Production by State BRAZIL Hydrous Ethanol Production by State BRAZIL Anhydrous Ethanol Production by State BRAZIL Hydrous and Anhydrous Ethanol Production BRAZIL São Paulo State Ex-Mill Ethanol Prices (BRL/litre) BRAZIL São Paulo State Ex-Mill Ethanol Prices (USD/litre) BRAZIL Ex-Mill Sugar As Against Hydrous Ethanol Price BRAZIL Hydrous Ethanol Retail Pump Prices BRAZIL Gasohol (Gasolina C) Retail Pump Prices BRAZIL Hydrous Ethanol/Gasohol Retail Pump ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of acute ethanol administration on hepatic protein and glycoprotein secretion in vivo. AU - Volentine, G. D.. AU - Tuma, D. J.. AU - Sorrell, M. F.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020355393&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020355393&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0020355393. VL - 2. SP - No. 89. JO - Hepatology. JF - Hepatology. SN - 0270-9139. IS - 5. ER - ...
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor dysfunction has been strongly suggested to link with the abnormalities seen in fetal alcohol syndrome. Thus, the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on the total expression of NR1 splice variants and the cell surface expression of both NR1 and NR2 subunits in brain were investigated in rats. Western blot studies of membrane homogenates from cerebral cortices at postnatal days 1 through 21 indicate that prenatal ethanol treatment does not alter total NR1 expression or differential expression of NR1 splice variants during development. However, immunoprecipitation studies using PSD95 suggest that both C2-terminal variants and NR2A subunits at the cortical postsynaptic membrane of postnatal day 21 were significantly reduced after prenatal ethanol treatment. Moreover, C1-terminal variants were decreased in both pair-fed and ethanol-treated groups, while no significant differences in the levels of total NR1 subunits, NR1 splice variants containing the N- or C2-terminal
Chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure (CIE) in rodents produces reliable and high blood ethanol concentration and behavioral symptoms associated with moderate to severe alcohol use disorder (AUD)—for example, escalation of operant ethanol self-administration, a feature suggestive of transition from recreational to addictive use, is a widely replicated behavior in rats that experience CIE. Herein, we present evidence from a subset of rats that do not demonstrate escalation of ethanol self-administration following seven weeks of CIE. These low responders (LR) maintain low ethanol self-administration during CIE, demonstrate lower relapse to drinking during abstinence and reduced reinstatement of ethanol seeking triggered by ethanol cues when compared with high responders (HR). We examined the blood ethanol levels in LR and HR rats during CIE and show higher levels in LR compared with HR. We also examined peak corticosterone levels during CIE and show that LR rats have higher levels compared
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Emerging evidence suggested mitophagy activation mitigates ethanol-induced liver injury. However, the effect of ethanol on mitophagy is inconsistent. Importantly, the understanding of mitophagy status after chronic ethanol consumption is limited. This study evaluated the effect of quercetin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid, on chronic ethanol-induced mitochondrial damage focused on mitophagy. An ethanol regime to mice for 15 weeks (accounting for 30% of total calories) led to significant mitochondrial damage as evidenced by changes of the mitochondrial ultrastructure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and remodeling of membrane lipid composition, which was greatly attenuated by quercetin (100 mg/kg.bw). Moreover, quercetin blocked chronic ethanol-induced mitophagy suppression as denoted by mitophagosomes-lysosome fusion and mitophagy-related regulator elements, including LC3II, Parkin, p62 and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), paralleling with increased FoxO3a nuclear translocation. AMP
The Ethanol Effect is the newest hour-long special from the team behind Detroit Public Televisions Alfred I. DuPont/Columbia University Award-winning series Beyond the Light Switch.. From Iowas farm fields to Washingtons corridors of power, and from the algae-choked surface of the Great Lakes to the poisoned depths of the Gulf of Mexico, The Ethanol Effect investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for ethanol in America. Our guide through the tangled web of ethanols influence is David Biello. Follow Biello as he untangles the web of ethanols unexpected influence on our daily in The Ethanol Effect ...
The Ethanol Effect is the newest hour-long special from the team behind Detroit Public Televisions Alfred I. DuPont/Columbia University Award-winning series Beyond the Light Switch.. From Iowas farm fields to Washingtons corridors of power, and from the algae-choked surface of the Great Lakes to the poisoned depths of the Gulf of Mexico, The Ethanol Effect investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for ethanol in America. Our guide through the tangled web of ethanols influence is David Biello. Follow Biello as he untangles the web of ethanols unexpected influence on our daily in The Ethanol Effect ...
Title: CYP2E1: Biochemistry, Toxicology, Regulation and Function in Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 6. Author(s):Irina Kessova and Arthur I. Cederbaum. Affiliation:Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Box 1603, Mount Sinai Schoolof Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029.. Keywords:cyp2e1, ethanol-induced liver injury, chronic alcohol treatment., cyp2e1-dependent oxidative stress. Abstract: Ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to play a major role in mechanisms by which ethanol causes liver injury. Many pathways have been suggested to contribute to the ability of ethanol to induce a state of oxidative stress. One central pathway appears to be the induction of the CYP2E1 form of cytochrome P450 enzymes by ethanol. CYP2E1 is of interest because of its ability to metabolize and activate many toxicological substrates, including ethanol, to more reactive, toxic products. Levels of CYP2E1 are elevated under a variety of physiological and ...
Acute alcohol use is associated with impaired immune responses and decreased proinflammatory cytokine production. Our earlier studies have shown that acute alcohol intake inhibits NF-kappaB DNA binding in an IkappaBalpha-independent manner. We report using human peripheral blood monocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with CD14 cells that acute alcohol treatment in vitro exerts NF-kappaB inhibition by disrupting phosphorylation of p65. Immunoprecipitation of p65 and IkappaBalpha revealed that acute alcohol exposure for 1 h decreased NF-kappaB-IkappaBalpha complexes in the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation of p65 at Ser(536) is mediated by IkappaB kinase (IKK)beta and is required for NF-kappaB-dependent cellular responses. We show that acute alcohol treatment decreased LPS-induced IKKalpha and IKKbeta activity resulting in decreased phosphorylation of p65 at Ser(536). Furthermore, nuclear expression of IKKalpha increased after alcohol treatment, which may contribute to inhibition of NF-kappaB.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Body temperature differentially affects ethanol sensitivity in both inbred strains and selected lines of mice. AU - Finn, Deborah (Deb). AU - Bejanian, M.. AU - Jones, B. L.. AU - McGivern, R. F.. AU - Syapin, P. J.. AU - Crabbe, John Jr. AU - Alkana, R. L.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Offsetting ethanol-induced hypothermia in five inbred strains of mice changed ethanol sensitivity within strains and markedly reduced differences between strains in brain sensitivity to hypnotic ethanol doses. The present study extended this work to mice selectivity bred for sensitivity and resistance to ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) and hypothermia. In all experiments LORR duration and ethanol concentrations at return of righting reflex were measured after i.p. hypnotic ethanol doses and exposure to 22 or 34°C. In experiment 1, C57BL/6J, A/HeJ, 129/J, LS/Ibg and SS/Ibg mice were given 4.2 g/kg ethanol. In experiment 2, the same mouse genotypes were tested with different ethanol ...
Evidence that brain edema and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels have roles in experimental binge ethanol-induced neurodegeneration has stimulated interest in swelling/edema-linked neuroinflammatory pathways leading to oxidative stress. We report here that neurotoxic binge ethanol exposure produces comparable significant effects in vivo and in vitro on adult rat brain levels of AQP4 as well as neuroinflammation-linked enzymes: key phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family members and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In adult male rats, repetitive ethanol intoxication (3 gavages/d for 4 d, ∼9 g/kg/d, achieving blood ethanol levels ∼375 mg/dl;
Dive into the research topics of Glutathione depletion and recovery after acute ethanol administration in the aging mouse. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
4-Methyl pyrazole (4-MP, a specific inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase) reduced ethanol elimination by 30-50% and completely removed the ethanol-induced inhibition of galactose elimination in 2 control subjects. Ethanol elimination was accelerated in 2 alcoholics with adequate nutrition, but the effect of 4-MP was comparable to that in controls. In 2 other alcoholic subjects, who reported poor nutritional intake, intermediate rates of ethanol elimination were observed and 4-MP had almost no effect on ethanol or galactose elimination. These results suggest that alcohol abuse may result in an increased contribution to ethanol elimination by pathways other than that involving alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and that the decreased contribution from ADH, possibly potentiated by inadequate nutrition, may diminish the ethanol-induced shift in the NAD-coupled redox state. Since liver damage produced by alcohol abuse is believed to be related to changes from the normal redox state caused by ethanol, these ...
Rates of exchange catalysed by alcohol dehydrogenase were determined in vivo in order to find rate-limiting steps in ethanol metabolism. Mixtures of [1,1-2H2]- and [2,2,2-2H3]ethanol were injected in rats with bile fistulas. The concentrations in bile of ethanols having different numbers of 2H atoms were determined by g.l.c.-m.s. after the addition of [2H6]ethanol as internal standard and formation of the 3,5-dinitrobenzoates. Extensive formation of [2H4]ethanol indicated that acetaldehyde formed from [2,2,2-2H3]ethanol was reduced to ethanol and that NADH used in this reduction was partly derived from oxidation of [1,1-2H2]ethanol. The rate of acetaldehyde reduction, the degree of labelling of bound NADH and the isotope effect on ethanol oxidation were calculated by fitting models to the found concentrations of ethanols labelled with 1-42H atoms. Control experiments with only [2,2,2-2H3]ethanol showed that there was no loss of the C-2 hydrogens by exchange. The isotope effect on ethanol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subcellular location of secretory proteins retained in the liver during the ethanol-induced inhibition of hepatic protein secretion in the rat. AU - Volentine, Gary D. AU - Tuma, Dean J. AU - Sorrell, Michael Floyd. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - Ethanol administration inhibits the secretion of proteins by the liver, resulting in their hepatocellular retention. Experiments were designed in this study to determine the subcellular location of the retained secretory proteins. Ethanol was administered acutely to nonfasted rats by gastric intubation, whereas control animals received an isocaloric dose of glucose. Two hours after intubation, when maximum blood ethanol levels (45 mM) were observed, [3H]leucine and [14C]fucose were injected simultaneously into the dorsal vein of the penis. The labeling of secretory proteins was determined in the liver and plasma at various time periods after label injection. Ethanol treatment decreased the secretion of both leucine- and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of diet on ethanol withdrawal symptomatology. AU - Baker, T. B.. AU - Cannon, D. S.. AU - Berman, Robert F. AU - Atkinson, C. A.. PY - 1977. Y1 - 1977. N2 - In Experiment 1 rats were gavaged with ethanol and nutrients at 6 hr intervals for 72 hr. Ethanol dosages were assigned by behavioral criteria of inebriation. Nourished animals were able to tolerate higher ethanol dosages than nutrient-deprived rats (9.62 vs 7.60 g/kg/day). Nourished rats were less likely to have withdrawal seizures than were nutrient-deprived rats given an equivalent amount of ethanol, but nourished rats given 25-30% more ethanol than the nutrient-deprived rats did have withdrawal seizures. Nutrient-deprived rats had BECs (Blood Ethanol Contents) higher than those of nourished rats receiving equivalent amounts of ethanol but comparable to the BECs of nourished rats receiving 25-30% more ethanol. All these results were replicated in Experiment 2 in which ethanol dependent rats above starting body ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stable histone methylation changes at proteoglycan network genes following ethanol exposure. AU - Gavin, David P.. AU - Hashimoto, Joel G.. AU - Lazar, Nathan H.. AU - Carbone, Lucia. AU - Crabbe, John Jr. AU - Guizzetti, Marina. PY - 2018/8/30. Y1 - 2018/8/30. N2 - Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic mental illness in which patients often achieve protracted periods of abstinence prior to relapse. Epigenetic mechanisms may provide an explanation for the persisting gene expression changes that can be observed even after long periods of abstinence and may contribute to relapse. In this study, we examined two histone modifications, histone 3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) and histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylation (H3K27me3), in the prefrontal cortex of Withdrawal Seizure Resistant (WSR) mice 21 days after 72 h of ethanol vapor exposure. These histone modifications were selected because they are associated with active promoters (H3K4me3) and repressed gene expression in a ...
Increasing evidence suggests that ethanol-induced changes in cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction play a critical role in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol. Here we have investigated the effects of ethanol on cAMP signal transduction in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Acute exposure to ethanol had a biphasic effect on glucagon-receptor-dependent cAMP production in intact cells: 25-50 mM-ethanol decreased cAMP, whereas treatment with 100-200 mM-ethanol increased cAMP. After chronic exposure to 50-200 mM-ethanol for 48 h in culture, glucagon-receptor-dependent cAMP levels were increased, but no change in glucagon receptor number was observed. These effects of ethanol were independent of ethanol oxidation. Chronic ethanol treatment also increased adenosine-receptor- and forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. Increased cAMP production was also observed upon stimulation of adenylate cyclase with glucagon, forskolin and F- in membranes isolated from cells cultured with 100 mM-ethanol for ...
We previously reported that ethanol elicits an increased protein oxidation in the liver of rats receiving chronic ethanol by continuous intragastric infusion (Tsukamoto-French method). This accumulation of oxidized proteins could result from a decrease in the cytosolic proteolysis, related specifica …
title Gasoline Example; data Gas; input Fuel :$8. CpRatio EqRatio NOx @@; label Fuel = Fuel CpRatio = Compression Ratio (CR) EqRatio = Equivalence Ratio (PHI) NOx = Nitrogen Oxide (NOx); datalines; Ethanol 12.0 0.907 3.741 Ethanol 12.0 0.761 2.295 Ethanol 12.0 1.108 1.498 Ethanol 12.0 1.016 2.881 Ethanol 12.0 1.189 0.760 Ethanol 9.0 1.001 3.120 Ethanol 9.0 1.231 0.638 Ethanol 9.0 1.123 1.170 Ethanol 12.0 1.042 2.358 Ethanol 12.0 1.215 0.606 Ethanol 12.0 0.930 3.669 Ethanol 12.0 1.152 1.000 Ethanol 15.0 1.138 0.981 Ethanol 18.0 0.601 1.192 Ethanol 7.5 0.696 0.926 Ethanol 12.0 0.686 1.590 Ethanol 12.0 1.072 1.806 Ethanol 15.0 1.074 1.962 Ethanol 15.0 0.934 4.028 Ethanol 9.0 0.808 3.148 Ethanol 9.0 1.071 1.836 Ethanol 7.5 1.009 2.845 Ethanol 7.5 1.142 1.013 Ethanol 18.0 1.229 0.414 Ethanol 18.0 1.175 0.812 Ethanol 15.0 0.568 0.374 Ethanol 15.0 0.977 3.623 Ethanol 7.5 0.767 1.869 Ethanol 7.5 1.006 2.836 Ethanol 9.0 0.893 3.567 Ethanol 15.0 1.152 0.866 Ethanol 15.0 0.693 1.369 Ethanol 15.0 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Responses of cerebral arterioles during chronic ethanol exposure. AU - Mayhan, William. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ethanol exposure on responses of cerebral arterioles in vivo. Rats were fed liquid diets with or without ethanol for 2-3 mo. Using intravital microscopy, we measured diameter of cerebral arterioles in non-ethanol- and ethanol-fed rats in response to acetylcholine, histamine, ADP, the thromboxane analogue (U- 46619), and nitroglycerin. In non-ethanol-fed rats, acetylcholine, histamine, and ADP produced dose-related dilatation of cerebral arterioles. In ethanol- fed rats, however, acetylcholine produced vasoconstriction, and vasodilatation in response to histamine and ADP was impaired. Dilatation of cerebral arterioles in response to nitroglycerin and vasoconstriction in response to the thromboxane analogue (U-46619) were similar in non-ethanol- fed and ethanol-fed rats. Thus these findings suggest that chronic ...
On July 31, 2013, INEOS Bio, a bioenergy company, announced that its Florida facility became the world pioneer in producing commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol. Ethanol, or ethyl alcohol, is a renewable fuel resulting from fermenting plant-based materials. INEOS Bio produces cellulosic ethanol using vegetative and yard waste. Despite the flurry that accompanied last Julys event, Brazil is still regarded as the country that implemented the most successful ethanol industry in the world -the sugarcane ethanol industry. In the United States, the ethanol industry touches on two critical areas. First, ethanol can be used as motor fuel, and it is no secret that the United States relies on motor fuel. Second, the nations reliance on motor fuel, especially gasoline, raises significant environmental concerns, notably, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, given the recent advancements in ethanol production, and the critical areas that ethanol touches on, an issue emerges as to whether Brazils ethanol ...
It is concluded that oxaloacetate, required for the incorporation of ethanol into citrate, arises mainly from the transamination of aspartate and the fixation of carbon dioxide. 1. The pathway of ethanol metabolism in cotyledons of 3-day-old pea seedlings has been examined by incubating tissue slices with [1-(14)C]ethanol and [2-(14)C]ethanol for periods up to 1hr. 2. Ethanol was rapidly incorporated into citrate and glutamate but relatively small amounts of (14)C were present in the evolved carbon dioxide even after 1hr. of ethanol metabolism. 3. Similar data were obtained from experiments in which [1,2-(14)C(2)]acetaldehyde and [(14)C]acetate were supplied. 4. The results are interpreted as indicating that ethanol is metabolized essentially via the reactions of the tricarboxylic acid cycle with a substantial drain of alpha-oxoglutarate to support the biosynthesis of glutamate. 5. It is concluded that oxaloacetate, required for the incorporation of ethanol into citrate, arises mainly from the
Author(s): Devineni, Anita | Advisor(s): Heberlein, Ulrike | Abstract: Ethanol is one of the most widely used and abused drugs in the world. Ethanol consumption produces short-term changes in behavior as well as long-term adaptations that can lead to addiction. The mechanisms underlying both acute and chronic responses to ethanol are still not fully understood. Human and rodent studies have suggested that acute ethanol sensitivity may be related to risk of alcohol abuse, and that the same genes often regulate both types of behavior. In this thesis I have used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model to study the genetic and neural mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behavior. In Chapter 2, I show that flies prefer to consume food containing ethanol and that this ethanol preference may represent a new model for studying addiction-related behavior. In Chapter 3, I examine the relationships between acute ethanol sensitivity, ethanol tolerance, and ethanol consumption preference by measuring these
The liver plays a key role in the metabolism of alcohol and is also sensitive to the deleterious effects of chronic alcohol consumption. In humans, chronic alcohol consumption leads to a characteristic set of changes to the metabolism of lipids in the liver that is referred to as an alcoholic fatty liver. In humans, AFL is characterized by an increase in liver weight, accumulation of triglyceride and changes in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. In severe cases, these metabolic changes result in the enlargement and fibrillization of the liver and are considered risk factors for cirrhosis and liver cancer.. Previous work suggests that there may be links between mutations in the circadian system and liver metabolism. The transcription of many genes in liver, including those involved in lipid metabolism, is regulated on the circadian time scale [8, 22]. Furthermore, mice with mutations in core elements of the circadian timing system also exhibit deficits in liver function. In ...
Background: Although the beneficial effects of mild to moderate ethanol consumption have been implied with respect to heart, alcohol abuse has proven to be a major cause of nonischemic cardiomyopathy in Western society. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms, which mediate the pathologic cardiac effects of ethanol, remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of chronic ethanol exposure on cardiac apoptosis and expression of some of the genes associated with cardiac remodeling in vivo. Methods: Alcohol-avoiding Alko Non Alcohol rats of both sexes were used. The ethanol-exposed rats (females, n= 6; males, n= 8) were given 12% (v/v) ethanol as the only available fluid from age of three to 24 months of age. The control rats (females, n= 7; males, n= 5) had only water available. At the end of the experiment, free walls of left ventricles of hearts were immediately frozen. Cytosolic DNA fragmentation, reflecting apoptosis, was measured using a commercial ...
Detroit Public Television (DPTV) is debuting a new ethanol documentary this Sunday, October 9, 2016 at 9:00 pm ET called, The Ethanol Effect. The film, produced by DPTV, takes a look at the controversy surrounding the challenges of the best use for Americas corn production: food or biofuel. The worldwide premier of the documentary is on PBS World Channel. (Click here to view promo clips and for additional air times.). The Ethanol Effect delves into what Ethanol is, demonstrates the production process and investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for fuel in America. The documentary also dives into why the choices between food or biofuel are sparking controversy across the country. Interestingly, I met the production crew this past January in Altoona, Iowa during the Iowa Renewable Fuels Summit where they had access to various speakers including Iowa Governor Terry Branstad, USDA Ag Secretary Tom Vilsack, presidential hopefuls, and more biofuel ...
Your ethanol or alcohol or drinking alcohol as it is also called can provide great taste and strength only when you use the right yeast for fermentation, and infusing top quality ethanol yeast can increase ethanol yield as well as provide that perfect taste. Whether you engage in professional ethanol production or want to ferment a small batch of ethanol at home, using the best yeast can certainly improve the quality and quantity of your end product.. Alcohols and spirits such as whiskey, beer, wine, vodka, rum, etc need to pass through several brewing and even distilling processes before they end up in your glass. These processes start by firstly mixing the raw materials such as wheat, barley, corn, sugar, potatoes, grapes, apples, or any other ingredient based on the country where the drinks are produced and the end product that is required, along with water. This mixture is boiled, milled, and cooled so as to encourage the activation of enzymes that convert all possible starch in the raw ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of protein and dietary fiber levels on the activities of ehanol metabilizing enzymes of the brain in acute and chronic ethanol-treated rats. Male Sprague-Dwley rats were fed on diets containing two levels of protein(7%, 20%)) with two levels of fiber(5%, 105) for 5 weeks. Rats were orally administered 40% (v/v) ethanol(5g/body weight) 90 min before decapitation in the acute ethanol-treated groups and 25% (v/v) ethanol (5g/kg body weight) once a day for 5 weeks in the chronic ethnol-treated groups. Cytosilic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were higher than those of mitochondrial ADH. The ADH activities were increased by 20% protein and %% fiber levels in the diet in two fractions , but were decreased by chronic ethanol treatment. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities did not change by ethanol treatment but were increased by the 20% protein level. However, cytosilic ALDH activities were decreased by chronic ethanol ...
The present article provides an up-to-date review summarizing almost 18 years of research in genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats. The results of this work demonstrate that msP rats have natural preference for ethanol characterized by a spontaneous binge-type of drinking that leads to pharmacologically significant blood ethanol levels. This rat line is highly vulnerable to relapse and presentation of stimuli predictive of alcohol availability or foot-shock stress can reinstate extinguished drug-seeking up to 8 months from the last alcohol experience. The msP rat is highly sensitive to stress, shows an anxious phenotype and has depressive-like symptoms that recover following ethanol drinking. Interestingly, these animals have an up-regulated corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) receptor 1 system. Clinical studies have shown that alcoholic patients often drink ethanol in the attempt to self-medicate from negative affective states and to search for anxiety ...
Thus, cellulosic ethanol provides a unique opportunity in which ethanol is produced not from corn that otherwise is used as food, but from a range of waste biomass, which are normally wasted anyway.. In theory, cellulosic ethanol sounds great. In practice however, cellulosic ethanol has not entered large scale commercial production owing to the high cost of ethanol thus produced. It is hoped that the cellulosic ethanol companies will soon escape from the valley of death phase they are currently in and start producing ethanol from cellulose in a large scale. Ethanol from cellulose raises the interesting question of whether algae could be used as the biomass for ethanol production from cellulose? It appears that some species of algae do have the potential to be considered as a cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production. However, we have not seen many efforts taken in this area of research. In algae, the storage component is starch and the cell wall component is cellulose. Many strains of algae ...
Separately, chronic alcohol ingestion and HIV-1 infection are associated with severe skeletal muscle derangements, including atrophy and wasting, weakness, and fatigue. One prospective cohort study reported that 41% of HIV-infected patients met the criteria for alcoholism, however; few reports exist on the co-morbid effects of these two disease processes on skeletal muscle homeostasis. Thus, we analyzed the atrophic effects of chronic alcohol ingestion in HIV-1 transgenic rats and identified alterations to several catabolic and anabolic factors. Relative plantaris mass, total protein content, and fiber cross-sectional area were reduced in each experimental group compared to healthy, control-fed rats. Alcohol abuse further reduced plantaris fiber area in HIV-1 transgenic rats. Consistent with previous reports, gene levels of myostatin and its receptor activin IIB were not increased in HIV-1 transgenic rat muscle. However, myostatin and activin IIB were induced in healthy and HIV-1 transgenic rats fed
File:Ethanol-2D-flat.svg,thumb,200x200px,Ethanol molecule]] Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is the most common [[alcohol]]. Its formula is C,sub>2,/sub>H,sub>5,/sub>OH. It is clear and colorless. Ethanol is useful mixed into gasoline because it has a higher octane number than gasoline, reducing engine knocking.,ref name=:0>[https://afdc.energy.gov/fuels/ethanol.html Ethanol.] n.d. U.S. Department of Energy: Alternative Fuels Data Center.,/ref> Ethanol is an ingredient in many beverages. It is a mild [[depressant]] when ingested. Besides its recreational use, ethanol is important to many industries and [[food preservation]]. Ethanol can be produced on Mars using [[In-situ resource utilization,In Situ Resources]]. ==[[In-situ resource utilization,In situ Production]]== [[File:Process-Ethanol.png,thumb,600x600px,Ethanol production Paths]] Ethanol is usually produced from [[biomass]]. Most plant material can be transformed to produce Ethanol.,ref ...
This dissertation examines the corn based ethanol industry in the Corn Belt of the U.S. from three different angles: What affects ethanol plant location decisions, how does new ethanol capacity affect the local corn price, and what is the future landscape of ethanol production under an uncertain future? Ethanol production is a significant part of the American economy in terms of market demand for corn, job creation, household income, tax revenue, and decreasing reliance on foreign fuel. The EPA has supported the ethanol industry through the creation of the Renewable Fuels Standards put in place in 2007, however the very mandate created in part to secure the future of renewable energy in the U.S. is also a source of uncertainty. In late 2015, after speculation of a reduction in the requirement for ethanol, the RFS were renewed at an increased ethanol mandate than expected. These three papers enhance general understanding of how ethanol growth may occur, how new ethanol capacity affects local corn ...
Purpose: : To compare the mRNA expression of IL-1α, IL-8, MCP-1, and TGF-ß1 following topical ethanol treatment and mechanical debridement. Methods: : Fifty-eight pigmented rabbit corneas were divided into four groups. Group I (n=18) received mechanical epithelial debridement, group II (n=18) underwent 20% ethanol application for 30 seconds, and group III corneas underwent 20% ethanol application for 60 seconds. Group IV (n=4) did not undergo any procedure. Corneal epithelial and stromal keratocyte change was examined with H&E and TUNEL stains, while the mRNA expression of IL-1α, IL-8, MCP-1, and TGF-ß1 were examined with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: : Stromal keratocyte apoptosis was noticed for three days in group I and up to seven days in group III. Topical ethanol induced significant TUNEL staining of corneal epithelium and stromal keratocyte in an application time dependent manner. In group I, the expression of IL-8 mRNA showed two spikes of up-regulation on day 0 ...
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) results from alcohol overconsumption and is among the leading causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors has been observed in ALD, but how it contributes to ALD pathophysiology is unclear. Here we investigated the impact of VEGF signaling inhibition on an established zebrafish model of acute alcoholic liver injury. VEGF-receptor 2/Kdrl activity was blocked by chemical inhibitor treatment or by genetic mutation. Exposing 4-day-old zebrafish larvae to 2% ethanol for 24 hours induced hepatic steatosis, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis. The liver started self-repair once ethanol was removed. While inhibiting Kdrl did not block the initial activation of hepatic stellate cells during ethanol treatment, it suppressed their proliferation, extracellular matrix protein deposition, and fibrogenic gene expression after ethanol exposure, thus enhancing the liver repair. It also ...
Until the Daniels Administration began pushing for development of ethanol plants in 2005, Indiana had only one commercial ethanol plant that produced ethanol primarily for use in blending with petroleum products in gasoline. Indiana was barely a blip on the radar screen in the ethanol industry nationwide. Now with 13 plants producing 1.2 billion gallons of ethanol annually, Indiana is a player, and is quickly being recognized as a major player in the ethanol energy game. Pence believes part of the solution is giving consumers choices. That means making various blends of ethanol available, and will require investment by different groups at various levels. Like Governor Daniels he also believes there is still hope for cellulosic ethanol. Daniels told the same audience Pence addressed that developments in cellulosic ethanol were coming much slower than he had hoped, and many had anticipated. Nevertheless, Daniels believes it will become a player in the industry. Cellulosic ethanol refers to ethanol ...
The isolated perfused rat kidney was used to investigate the effect of ethanol on the renal excretion and metabolism of choline. Choline at an initial perfusate concentration of 2.8 mM, with tracer amounts of [methyl-14C]choline, was recirculated through kidneys and radioactivity measured in perfusate, urine, and kidney. 14C-Choline and its metabolites were identified by chromatographic and electrophoretic procedures. Tubular excretion of choline was demonstrated and a transport maximum (Tm) of 1.6 mumol/kidney/min was reached at a choline perfusate concentration of 1.2 mM. Addition of 50 mM ethanol resulted in a 56% increase in the choline Tm and 100 mM ethanol decreased the choline Tm by 25%. The rate of loss of 14C-choline from the perfusate was increased by the lower ethanol concentration and decreased by the higher ethanol concentration. Ethanol at both concentrations diminished the amount of 14C remaining in the kidney. 14C-Betaine was the major choline metabolite and the only ...
The processing of raw cannabis plants to extract cannabinoids and other compounds can be carried out using a variety of methods. Some of the most popular methods are extraction using CO2, a hydrocarbon (usually butane), or ethanol. Which one is used depends on a variety of factors, including the amount of raw material to be processed, and the final application of the product, for example what form it will take and whether its for recreational or medicinal use.. In this article, well focus on the method of ethanol extraction. Ethanol extraction can be carried out by a number of methods including cold, warm, or room-temperature processing. Some ethanol extraction processes involve the use of a rotary evaporator setup to remove the ethanol from the extract solution.. Here, we take a closer look at ethanol extraction for cannabis applications, with a particular focus on ethanol removal using a rotary evaporator. Well include information about the steps involved in ethanol extraction, optimal ...
Effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the red blood cell count and RBC indices in the HIV infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP drug regimen in Uganda
Ibdahs research team used rats bred for high activity, or runner rats, to test if increased metabolism protected the liver against fatty deposits and inflammation. One group of rats was exposed to chronic alcohol use for six weeks and compared to a second group that was not exposed to alcohol during the same time period.. As expected, we found that fatty deposits were greater in the livers of the chronic alcohol group, said Ibdah, who also serves as director of the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at the MU School of Medicine. However, chronic alcohol ingestion did not cause significant inflammation in the liver. Higher physical activity levels seemed to protect against the metabolic dysfunction that eventually leads to irreversible liver damage.. Ibdahs team also found that chronic alcohol ingestion caused no discernable increase in free fatty acids, triglycerides, insulin or glucose in the blood of the group exposed to alcohol as compared to the control group.. This is ...
Most of ethanol production processes are limited by lower ethanol production rate and recyclability problem of ethanologenic organism. In the present study, immobilized co-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae GSE1618 was employed for ethanol fermentation using rice straw enzymatic hydrolysate in a packed bed reactor (PBR). The immobilization of S. cerevisiae was performed by entrapment in Ca-alginate for optimization of ethanol production by varying alginic acid concentration, bead size, glucose concentration, temperature and hardening time. Remarkably, extra hardened beads (EHB) immobilized with S. cerevisiae could be used up to repeated 40 fermentation batches. In continuous PBR, maximum 81.82 g L−1 ethanol was obtained with 29.95 g L−1 h−1 productivity with initial glucose concentration of 180 g L−1 in feed at dilution rate of 0.37 h−1. However, maximum ethanol concentration of 40.33 g L−1 (99% yield) with 24.61 g L−1 h−1 productivity was attained at 0.61 h−1 dilution rate in ...
Define blood alcohol concentration. blood alcohol concentration synonyms, blood alcohol concentration pronunciation, blood alcohol concentration translation, English dictionary definition of blood alcohol concentration. n. The concentration of alcohol in the blood, expressed as the weight of alcohol in a fixed volume of blood and used as a measure of the degree of...
Inositol phosphate accumulation and adenylate cyclase activity were investigated in the cortex of young and aged ethanol-treated rats. Three months of ethanol treatment of young rats decreased maximal stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation by carbachol by 26%, from 494 ± 76% of basal turnover in control animals to 396 ± 54% in ethanol-treated animals (mean ± SD). In aged rats ethanol-related changes were no longer observed but age-related changes were evident. EC50 was significantly higher than in young animals and maximal stimulation was significantly lower. Basal adenylate cyclase activity in cortical membranes of all groups of animals was not different. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was not affected by ethanol treatment, but was higher in aged animals. The activity of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the presence of carbachol was higher in both young and aged ethanol-treated animals, when compared to young controls. These results suggest that both ethanol ...
BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of suicide involving acute alcohol intoxication among U.S. ethnic minorities. METHODS: Data were derived from the restricted 2003 to 2009 National Violent Death Reporting System. The study focused on the sociodemographic and toxicological information of 59,384 male and female suicide decedents for 16 states of the United States. Acute alcohol intoxication was defined as having a blood alcohol content (BAC) ,/=0.08 g/dl. Overall, 76% of decedents were tested for the presence of alcohol. RESULTS: The proportion of suicide decedents with a positive BAC ranged from 47% among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) to 23% among Asians/Pacific Islanders (PIs). Average BAC was highest among AIs/ANs. Among those who were tested for BAC, the proportion of decedents legally intoxicated prior to suicide was as follows: Blacks, 15%; AIs/ANs, 36%; Asians/PIs, 13%; and Hispanics, 28%. Bivariate associations showed that most suicide ...
The actions of ethanol on brain ligand-gated ion channels have important roles in the pathophysiology of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders and fetal alcohol syndrome. Studies have shown that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are among the ligand-gated ion channels affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. We exposed pregnant dams to an ethanol-containing liquid diet that results in blood ethanol levels near the legal intoxication limit in most states (0.08%). Primary cultures of hippocampal neurons were prepared from the neonatal offspring of these dams, and NMDA receptor function was assessed by patch clamp electrophysiological techniques after 6-7 days in culture in ethanol-free media. Unexpectedly, we did not detect any changes in hippocampal NMDA receptor function at either the whole-cell or single-channel levels. However, we determined that fetal alcohol exposure alters the actions of the neurosteroids pregnenolone sulfate and pregnenolone hemisuccinate, which potentiate NMDA ...
With the discovery of interspecies hydrogen transfer in the late 1960s (Bryant et al. in Arch Microbiol 59:20-31, 1967), it was shown that reducing the partial pressure of hydrogen could cause mixed acid fermenting organisms to produce acetate at the expense of ethanol. Hydrogen and ethanol are both more reduced than glucose. Thus there is a tradeoff between production of these compounds imposed by electron balancing requirements; however, the mechanism is not fully known. Deletion of the hfsA or B subunits resulted in a roughly 1.8-fold increase in ethanol yield. The increase in ethanol production appears to be associated with an increase in alcohol dehydrogenase activity, which appears to be due, at least in part, to increased expression of the adhE gene, and may suggest a regulatory linkage between hfsB and adhE. We studied this system most intensively in the organism Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum; however, deletion of hfsB also increases ethanol production in other thermophilic bacteria
Alcohol tolerance refers to the bodily responses to the functional effects of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. This includes direct tolerance, speed of recovery from insobriety and resistance to the development of alcoholism. Alcohol tolerance is increased by regular drinking. This reduced sensitivity requires that higher quantities of alcohol be consumed in order to achieve the same effects as before tolerance was established. Alcohol tolerance may lead to (or be a sign of) alcohol dependency. Heavy alcohol consumption over a period of years can lead to reverse tolerance. A liver can be damaged by chronic alcohol use, leading to a buildup of fat and scar tissue. The reduced ability of such a liver to metabolize or break down alcohol means that small amounts can lead to a high blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and more rapid intoxication. Direct alcohol tolerance is largely dependent on body size. Large-bodied people will require more alcohol to reach insobriety than lightly built ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute ethanol intoxication and endotoxemia after trauma. AU - Woodman, George E.. AU - Fabian, Timothy C.. AU - Croce, Martin A.. AU - Proctor, Kenneth G.. PY - 1996/7/1. Y1 - 1996/7/1. N2 - To determine actions of acute intoxication on pathophysiologic responses to trauma, anesthetized and ventilated mongrel pigs received a 20% solution of ethanol (EtOH) by an intravenous (IV group; 2 g/kg, n = 8) or an oral (PO group; 3 g/kg, n = 12 x 60 minutes) route of administration, or the lactated Ringers vehicle (LR group; n = 12). After 60 minutes, all were subjected to soft tissue injury and 30 to 35% hemorrhage, 60-minute shock, and then resuscitation, with shed blood plus supplemental LR. After 3 days, host defense was challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (1 μg/kg x 30-minutes IV). The supplemental resuscitation was identical (50-53 mL/kg/hours), but posttraumatic acidosis was observed in the IV group and the PO group (base deficit = 4.4 ± 1.3 and 5.5 ± 0.9 ...
Caffeine has been shown to reverse some of the performance-impairing effects of ethanol. However, it is not known whether this antagonistic effect of caffeine is mediated by a reduction in sleepiness. The present study assessed physiological alertness/sleepiness, memory, and psychomotor performance following the administration of placebo, ethanol, and caffeine+ethanol combinations. A total of 13 healthy individuals (21-35 years old) underwent four conditions presented in a Latin Square Design: placebo-placebo, ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-placebo, ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-caffeine 150 mg, and ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-caffeine 300-mg. The Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), psychomotor performance battery, memory test, and mood/sleepiness questionnaires were administered following each condition. The peak breadth ethanol concentration (BrEC) was 0.043±0.0197% and did not differ among the three caffeine treatments. As expected, ethanol reduced mean latency on the MSLT. The lowest caffeine dose reversed this effect and the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex-dependent differences in the regulation of myocardial protein synthesis following long-term ethanol consumption. AU - Vary, Thomas C.. AU - Kimball, Scot R.. AU - Sumner, Andrew. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007/2. Y1 - 2007/2. N2 - Chronic heavy alcohol consumption alters cardiac structure and function. Controversies remain as to whether hearts from females respond to the chronic ethanol intake in a manner analogous to males. In particular, sex differences in the myocardial response to chronic alcohol consumption remain unresolved at the molecular level. The purpose of the present set of experiments was to determine whether alterations in cardiac structure and protein metabolism show sexual dimorphism following chronic alcohol consumption for 26 wk. In control animals, hearts from female rats showed lowered heart weights and had thinner ventricular walls compared with males. The smaller heart size was associated with a lower ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dopamine Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens During Consummatory Phases of Oral Ethanol Self-Administration. AU - Doyon, William M.. AU - York, Jennifer L.. AU - Diaz, Laurea M.. AU - Samson, Herman H.. AU - Czachowski, Cristine L.. AU - Gonzales, Rueben A.. PY - 2003/10. Y1 - 2003/10. N2 - Background: This present study was designed to clarify the role of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens during operant ethanol self-administration by separating bar pressing (ethanol seeking) from ethanol consumption. Furthermore, we sought to define the relationship between ethanol in the brain and the accumbal dopamine response after oral self-administration of ethanol. Methods: Two separate groups of male Long-Evans rats were trained to bar press with 10% ethanol or water. Rats were trained to elicit an escalating number of bar presses across daily sessions before gaining access to the drinking solution for 20 min. Microdialysis was performed before (during a waiting period), during, and after ...
Plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone and estradiol levels were determined in six normal adult females before and during a period of acute alcohol intoxication. Plasma hormone levels found in these studies were compared with values obtained after administration of an isocaloric beverage. Each woman served as her own control for both studies which were carried out on the same day of the menstrual cycle (day 8, 9 or 10) over two consecutive menstrual cycles. Integrated plasma samples were obtained every 20 min for 6 consecutive hr before acute alcohol administration and during the ascending, peak and descending portions of the blood alcohol curve. After acute alcohol administration, all women achieved a moderate degree of intoxication, with mean peak blood alcohol levels of 88 mg/100 ml. No significant differences in levels of luteinizing hormone and estradiol were detected during any phase of the blood alcohol curve when compared to prealcohol administration values. No significant differences ...
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Findings show that American Indians are at much greater risk than other ethnic groups.. In 2009, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, suicide ranked as the 10th leading overall cause of death in the United States. Prior research has also shown that alcohol use disorders confer increased risk for suicide, and are second only to mood disorders as common among individuals who have committed suicide. A study of the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of suicide involving acute alcohol intoxication among U.S. ethnic minorities has found that American Indians are at much greater risk than other groups.. Results will be published in the May 2013 issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research and are currently available at Early View.. I do not think that most people in the U.S. are aware that suicide is ranked as the 10th leading cause of death, said Raul Caetano, regional dean (Dallas) and professor of epidemiology at The University of Texas School of Public ...
Preparation of two oligopeptides from corn protein and their protective effect on acute alcohol intoxication in mice, Naxin Sun, Tongcheng Xu, Yuehui Liu, Chunjiang Ye, Zhuqing Jia
The effect of long-term ethanol exposure on muscarinic receptors was investigated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Exposure to 100 mM ethanol for 4 days enhanced both peak and steady-state levels of carbachol-stimulated inositol 1,4,5-bisphosphate increase. An ethanol concentration of 50 mM was sufficient for an enhancement of this event. The carbachol-stimulated decrease in [3H]inositol-labeled [3H]phosphatidylnositol 4,5-bisphosphate and increase [3H]inositol trisphosphate and [3H]inositol bisphosphate were also potentiated in ethanol-treated cells, which demonstrated that the receptor-stimulated activation of phospholipase C is augmented. Experiments with pirenzepine showed that carbachol-stimulated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate increase is mediated via M1 receptors both in ethanol-treated and control cells. Ethanol exposure for 2 or 4 days also caused an increase in [3H]N-methylscopolamine and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites and elevation of [3H]pirenzepine binding, which ...
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. Problems may include an abnormal appearance, short height, low body weight, small head size, poor coordination, low intelligence, behavior problems, and problems with hearing or seeing. Those affected are more likely to have trouble in school, legal problems, participate in high-risk behaviors, and have trouble with alcohol or other drugs. The most severe form of the condition is known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Other types include partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD). Some accept only FAS as a diagnosis, seeing the evidence as inconclusive with respect to other types. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Surveys from the United States have found about 10% of pregnant women have drunk alcohol in the last month, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ethanol differentially regulates proadrenocorticotropin/endorphin production and corticosterone secretion in ls and ss lines of mice. AU - Wand, Gary S.. PY - 1989/1. Y1 - 1989/1. N2 - The stimulatory effects of ethanol administration on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were investigated in the long sleep (LS) and short sleep SS) lines of mice, selectively bred for differences in sensitivity to ethanol. To characterize the effects of ethanol exposure on levels of anterior pituitary pro-ACTH/endorphin mRNA, animals were treated with ethanol for either 4 or 7 days. Northern analyses of total RNA extracted from anterior pituitary indicated that ethanol-treated SS mice had 1.5-fold higher pro-ACTH/endorphin mRNA levels on day 4 and 2.5-fold higher mRNA levels on day 7 than SS control mice. Although ethanol-treated LS mice had 4-fold higher pro-ACTH/endorphin mRNA levels on day 4 compared to those in control LS mice, by day 7 pro- ACTH/endorphin mRNA levels in ...
Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is a clear, colorless liquid. It is also known as ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and EtOH (see Fuel Properties search.) Ethanol has the same chemical formula regardless of whether it is produced from starch- or sugar-based feedstocks, such as corn grain (as it primarily is in the United States), sugar cane (as it primarily is in Brazil), or from cellulosic feedstocks (such as wood chips or crop residues).. Ethanol has a higher octane number than gasoline, providing premium blending properties. Minimum octane number requirements for gasoline prevent engine knocking and ensure drivability. Lower-octane gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol to attain the standard 87 octane.. Ethanol contains less energy per gallon than gasoline, to varying degrees, depending on the volume percentage of ethanol in the blend. Denatured ethanol (98% ethanol) contains about 30% less energy than gasoline per gallon. Ethanols impact on fuel economy is dependent on the ethanol content in the fuel and ...
Alcohol use disorder is a worldwide public health problem and is a disorder with substantial individual variation. There are suggested links between various behavioral traits, comorbid psychiatric diseases and excessive alcohol consumption. Moreover, the endogenous opioid system is involved in alcohol reward and reinforcement, and implicated in the action of alcohol. However, less is known about the complex associations between individual differences in behavior, alcohol consumption, pharmacotherapy response and related neurochemical mechanisms. Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorder.. The overall aims of this thesis were: i) to study the association between behavior and voluntary alcohol intake in outbred rats; ii) to study the association of voluntary alcohol intake, behavior, opioid receptor density and response to naltrexone; and iii) to obtain detailed behavioral characterizations of the animals on the basis of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen production by steam reforming of ethanol over supported iron-cobalt catalyst. AU - Yoshiyuki Izutsu, Izutsu. AU - Sekine, Yasushi. AU - Atsushi Kazama, Kazama. AU - Matsukata, Masahiko. AU - Kikuchi, Eiichi. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - Steam reforming of ethanol over supported cobalt catalyst consists of following sequential reactions: dehydrogenation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, decomposition of acetaldehyde to CH4 or steam reforming to CO, and water-gas shift of CO to CO2. To obtain higher hydrogen yield, acetaldehyde has to be reformed but not decomposed. Iron added cobalt catalysts showed the ideal performances and produced more hydrogen. Carbon deposits from acetaldehyde staying on the catalyst surface and carbon precursor was oxidized by supplying water enough for reforming.. AB - Steam reforming of ethanol over supported cobalt catalyst consists of following sequential reactions: dehydrogenation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, decomposition of acetaldehyde to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The production of ethanol from D-glucose and D-xylose by different Fusarium strains. AU - Suihko, Maija-Liisa. AU - Enari, Tor-Magnus. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Production of ethanol from glucose and xylose by different Fusarium strains has been studied in shake flask cultures. The best strain was Fusarium oxysporum VTT-D-80134. The best ethanol yields were 50 % ethanol on both sugars. The fermentation time was 3 days on glucose and 6 days on xylose.. AB - Production of ethanol from glucose and xylose by different Fusarium strains has been studied in shake flask cultures. The best strain was Fusarium oxysporum VTT-D-80134. The best ethanol yields were 50 % ethanol on both sugars. The fermentation time was 3 days on glucose and 6 days on xylose.. KW - biofuels. KW - biomass. KW - ethanol. KW - ethanol production. KW - Fusarium. KW - glucose. KW - xylose. U2 - 10.1007/BF00134851. DO - 10.1007/BF00134851. M3 - Article. VL - 3. SP - 723. EP - 728. JO - Biotechnology Letters. JF - ...
This is an interesting case report of a 3-year-old girl who presented to ED with suspected acute ethanol toxicity from ingestion of an alcohol-based hand sanitiser. She presented with a GCS of 10 and developed hypotension BP 70/22 requiring fluid boluses and peripheral adrenaline infusion. She was admitted to PICU without intubation and discharged 24 hours later. Serum ethanol concentration was 260mg/dL (legal blood ethanol level for drivers is ,50mg/dL). This particular sanitiser has 70% ethanol and it is thought that she ingested a total of 55mL. The author highlight the hazards associated with hand sanitiser ingestion.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Alcohol metabolism in hangover sensitive versus hangover resistant social drinkers. AU - Mackus, M.. AU - Lantman, M. van Schrojenstein. AU - Van de Loo, A. J. A. E.. AU - Kraneveld, A. D.. AU - Garssen, J.. AU - Brookhuis, K. A.. AU - Verster, J. C.. PY - 2018/4/1. Y1 - 2018/4/1. N2 - Background: Previous research demonstrated that urinary ethanol concentrations were significantly lower in hangover resistant individuals compared to drinkers who reported having a hangover. This finding suggests that the rate of ethanol metabolism is faster in drinkers who do not experience an alcohol hangover. This study aimed to directly compare alcohol metabolism after administering a low dose of ethanol to hangover sensitive drinkers and hangover resistant drinkers.Methods: Social drinkers who previously participated in hangover trials at Utrecht University were invited to participate. It was aimed to include 12 hangover resistant drinkers and 12 hangover sensitive drinkers. Participants ...
The influence of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on innate immune cells from peripheral blood monocytes to tissue macrophages originating from spleen, lungs, and liver can be diverse. Earlier studies have shown that sterilization of the gut with antibiotics abrogated the in vivo effects of acute alcohol on Kupffer cells, indicating that circulating endotoxin played a key role in the effects of alcohol (32). Furthermore, in vivo acute alcohol exposure of murine Kupffer cells show decreased responsiveness to LPS, and this has been related to decreased IRAK expression, reduced NFκB activity (33), and decreased intracellular Ca2+ concentration (32). Subsequent studies also revealed that acute in vivo ethanol exposure of Kupffer cells increased CD14 expression through a mechanism dependent on AP-1 activation (34). In addition, splenic and alveolar macrophages exposed to a single dose of in vivo alcohol followed by ex vivo stimulation of LPS showed a significant decrease in proinflammatory ...
Youve probably heard of personal breathalysers and wristbands that read your blood alcohol level. But now researchers at the University of California in San Diego have developed a tattoo that analyses your sweat to determine the amount of alcohol in your bloodstream.. The temporary stick-on tattoo releases a drug called pilocarpine onto your skin to induce sweating, and then reads your blood-alcohol levels using a flexible electronic device magnetically attached to the tattoo. The data is beamed via Bluetooth to your smartphone, where you can easily check if youre over the limit. This all happens in less than eight minutes, and if youve had too much to drink, the application can even notify the police or a medical professional.. The developers claim the tattoo is more accurate than a breathalyser, and less invasive than a finger-prick test. They hope the new technology will help individuals to better control their alcohol consumption, as well as empowering bartenders to refuse customers who ...
Youve probably heard of personal breathalysers and wristbands that read your blood alcohol level. But now researchers at the University of California in San Diego have developed a tattoo that analyses your sweat to determine the amount of alcohol in your bloodstream.. The temporary stick-on tattoo releases a drug called pilocarpine onto your skin to induce sweating, and then reads your blood-alcohol levels using a flexible electronic device magnetically attached to the tattoo. The data is beamed via Bluetooth to your smartphone, where you can easily check if youre over the limit. This all happens in less than eight minutes, and if youve had too much to drink, the application can even notify the police or a medical professional.. The developers claim the tattoo is more accurate than a breathalyser, and less invasive than a finger-prick test. They hope the new technology will help individuals to better control their alcohol consumption, as well as empowering bartenders to refuse customers who ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in 4 US communities. AU - May, Philip A.. AU - Chambers, Christina D.. AU - Kalberg, Wendy O.. AU - Zellner, Jennifer. AU - Feldman, Haruna. AU - Buckley, David. AU - Kopald, David. AU - Hasken, Julie M.. AU - Xu, Ronghui. AU - Honerkamp-Smith, Gordon. AU - Taras, Howard. AU - Manning, Melanie A.. AU - Robinson, Luther K.. AU - Adam, Margaret P.. AU - Abdul-Rahman, Omar. AU - Vaux, Keith. AU - Jewett, Tamison. AU - Elliott, Amy J.. AU - Kable, Julie A.. AU - Akshoomoff, Natacha. AU - Daniel, Falk. AU - Arroyo, Judith A.. AU - Hereld, Dale. AU - Riley, Edward P.. AU - Charness, Michael E.. AU - Coles, Claire D.. AU - Warren, Kenneth R.. AU - Jones, Kenneth Lyons. AU - Hoyme, H. Eugene. PY - 2018/2. Y1 - 2018/2. N2 - IMPORTANCE Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are costly, life-long disabilities. Older data suggested the prevalence of the disorder in the United States was 10 per 1000 children; however, there are few current estimates ...
Betaine, a methyl donor active in methionine metabolism, is effective in preventing and reversing experimental alcohol liver disease. The metabolic and molecular biologic mechanisms involved in this prevention are only partially known. To further investigate how betaine modifies the effects of ethanol on the liver, rats were given an acute ethanol bolus with or without betaine and the results were compared to isocaloric dextrose-fed controls. Livers were subjected to microarray analysis, and functional pathways and individual gene expression changes were analyzed. Experimental groups were compared by Venn diagrams showing that both ethanol and betaine caused a change in the expression of a large number of genes indicating that the changes were global. The bio-informatic analysis showed that all the KEGG functional pathways were affected and mainly down regulated at 3 h post bolus when ethanol plus betaine were compared with ethanol-fed rats. The most profound effect of betaine was on the metabolic
Endogenous levels of salsolinol and dopamine were measured by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) - selected ion monitoring technique using deuterated internal standards in Long Evans rats chronically exposed to ethanol for ten months. Chronic ethanol exposure produced significant increases of dopamine and salsolinol concentrations in the medial basal hypothalamus but not striatum. The data suggest that the occurrence of salsolinol in rat brain tissue is a consequence of an in vivo Pictet-Spengler cyclization.
Low ethanol prices relative to the price of gasoline blendstock, and tax credits, have resulted in discretionary blending at wholesale terminals of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels---a practice known as ethanol splashing in industry parlance. No one knows precisely where or in what volume ethanol is being blended with gasoline and this has important implications for motor fuels markets: Because refiners cannot perfectly predict where ethanol will be blended with finished gasoline by wholesalers, they cannot know when to produce and where to ship a blendstock that when mixed with ethanol at 10 percent would create the most economically efficient finished motor gasoline that meets engine standards and has comparable evaporative emissions as conventional gasoline without ethanol blending. In contrast to previous empirical analyses of biofuels that have relied on highly aggregated data, our analysis is disaggregated to the level of individual wholesale fuel terminals or racks (of which
Eriksen BA, Eriksen CW (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a non-search task. Percept Psychophysics 16, 143-146. Ferrara SD, Zancaner S, Giorgetti R (1994). Low blood alcohol concentrations and driving impairment, Int J Leg Med 106, 169-177. Hamilton P, Copeman A (1970). The effect of alcohol and noise on components of a tracking and monitoring task. Br J Psychol 61, 149-156. Jex HR, McDonnell JD (1966). Critical tracking task for manual control research. IEEE Trans Hum Factors 7, 138-145. Maylor EA, Rabbitt PMA, Sahgal A, Wright C (1987). Effects of alcohol on speed and accuracy in choice reaction time and visual search. Acta Psychol 65, 147-163. Mongrain S, Standing L (1989). Impairment of cognition, risk taking, and self-perception by alcohol. Percept Mot Skills 69, 199-210. Moskowitz H (1973). Laboratory studies of the effects of alcohol on some variables related to driving. J Saf Res 5, 185-199. Moskowitz H, Burns MM, Williams AF (1985). Skills ...
Ethanol is known as a potent teratogen responsible for the fetal alcohol syndrome characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Since the mechanisms of these deficits and following partial recovery are not fully elucidated, the aim of the present study was to investigate the process of synaptogenesis in the hippocampus over the first two months of life in control and fetal-alcohol rats. Ethanol was delivered to the pregnant dams by intragastric intubation throughout 7-21 gestation days at the daily dose of 6g/kg generating a mean blood alcohol level of 246.6±40.9mg/dl on gestation day 20. The spine densities as well as the expression of pre- and postsynaptic proteins, synaptophysin (SYP) and PSD-95 protein, were evaluated for three distinct hippocampal regions: CA1, CA2+3, and DG and four postnatal days: PD1, PD10, PD30 and PD60, independently. Our results confirmed an intensive synaptogenesis within the brain spurt period (first 10 postnatal days),
NAD or NADP differ with respect to presence or absence of a phosphate group esterified at the 2′ position of the adenosine ribose and are similar at the level of structure. Rosell et al. (21) have shown complete reversal of ADH cofactor specificity in crystallography studies. However, NAD is typically used in oxidative, ATP-generating degradation reactions, and NADP usually acts as a reductant in reductive biosynthetic reactions. An ethanol cycle with two ADH isozymes catalyzing opposite reactions (i.e., ethanol oxidation or ethanol synthesis) has been proposed for Thermoanaerobacter pseudoethanolicus (formerly Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum) (22) and similarly for the naturally more ethanol-tolerant Zymomonas mobilis (23). We did not test the ethanol cycling hypothesis in this study, but net ethanol oxidation did not appear to be a major detoxification mechanism (SI Appendix, Fig. S6).. The reduction in specific activity with respect to NADH was far greater (∼25-fold less activity) than ...
Rats of the atherosclerosis-prone JCR:LA-corpulent strain were subjected to long-term low (0.5% wt/vol) or high (4% wt/vol) consumption of ethanol from 1 to 12 months of age. The corpulent rats are hyperphagic, obese, and insulin-resistant; exhibit a marked very low density lipoprotein hyperlipidemia; and develop both vascular and myocardial lesions while eating a normal rat chow. The total lipid profile of the rat sera showed only limited changes with ethanol consumption. There were also no significant effects on high density lipoprotein lipids. Ethanol consumption was associated with elevated fasting glucose concentrations in both lean and corpulent rats and a strong decrease in fasting insulin levels and pancreatic B-cell volume density in the hyperinsulinemic corpulent rats. The relative frequency of myocardial nodules of chronic inflammatory cells was increased in the ethanol-consuming rats, both lean and corpulent. In contrast, old organized lesions (scars) were absent in the ...
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose birth mother consumed alcohol during pregnancy. The effects can include physical problems and/or difficulties with behavior and learning. When clinicians identify FASD early, intervention approaches can minimize the potential impact and lessen or even prevent disabilities. Thus, objective markers for prenatal alcohol exposure are desired.. Using dried blood spots from the umbilical cord and a heel stick of newborns, this study will use Phosphatidylethanol (PEth), a novel biomarker for alcohol exposure, to identify and characterize infants exposure to alcohol before birth. Additionally, the dried blood spots will used to validate the use of screening assays using epigenetic changes as markers for prenatal alcohol exposure. Epigenetic changes are heritable changes in DNA that affect DNA function but do not change DNA sequence. The use of PEth testing will allow for the correlation of prenatal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microbial production of ethanol from acetate by engineered Ralstonia eutropha. AU - Lee, Hye Mi. AU - Jeon, Bo Young. AU - Oh, Min-Kyu. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - This study was performed to produce ethanol from acetate using a genetically engineered Ralstonia eutropha. In order to genetically modify R. eutropha H16, phaCAB operon encoding metabolic pathway genes from acetyl-CoA to polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was deleted and adhE encoding an alcohol dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli was overexpressed for conversion of acetyl-CoA to ethanol. The resulting strain produced ethanol up to 170 mg/L when cultivated in minimal media supplemented with 5 g/L of acetate as a sole carbon source. Growth and ethanol production were optimized by adjusting nitrogen source (NH4Cl) content and repetitive feeding of acetate into the bacterial culture, by which the ethanol production was reached to approximately 350 mg/L for 84 h.. AB - This study was performed to produce ethanol from ...
Ethanol is a selective CNS depressant at low concentrations, and a general depressant at high concentrations. Initially, ethanol produces exhilaration and loss of inhibition, which progresses to lack of coordination, ataxia, slurred speech, gait disturbances, drowsiness, and, ultimately, stupor, and coma. The intoxicated child may demonstrate a flushed face, dilated pupils, excessive sweating, gastrointestinal distress, hypoventilation, hypothermia, and hypotension. Death from respiratory depression may occur at serum ethanol concentrations >500 mg/dL. Convulsions and death have been reported in children with acute ethanol intoxication owing to alcohol-induced hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia results from inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and is most common in children younger than 5 years. It does not appear to be directly related to the quantity of ethanol ingested.4 ...
Chronic alcohol intake leads to neuroinflammation and astrocyte dysfunction, proposed to perpetuate alcohol consumption and to promote conditioned relapse-like binge drinking. In the present study, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured in 3D-conditions to generate MSC-spheroids, which greatly increased MSCs anti-inflammatory ability and reduced cell volume by 90% versus conventionally 2D-cultured MSCs, enabling their intravenous administration and access to the brain. It is shown, in an animal model of chronic ethanol intake and relapse-drinking, that both the intravenous and intra-cerebroventricular administration of a single dose of MSC-spheroids inhibited chronic ethanol intake and relapse-like drinking by 80-90%, displaying significant effects over 3-5 weeks. The MSC-spheroid administration fully normalized alcohol-induced neuroinflammation, as shown by a reduced astrocyte activation, and markedly increased the levels of the astrocyte Na-glutamate (GLT-1) transporter. This research
Downloadable! The U.S. biofuel industry is striving to produce ethanol from cellulosic feedstock sources in an effort to augment its existing corn grain-based ethanol production infrastructure. Technology to commercially produce cellulosic ethanol is rapidly advancing due in large part to the availability of substancial federal research and development funding. At the moment, several firms have pilot scale cellulosic ethanol production facilities under construction and testing. The transition from pilot scale to full commercialization of cellulosic ethanol will be difficult, due in large part financial constraints being imposed both internally and externally on the biofuels industry. This paper provides an overview of the biofuel industrys current financial setting and describes future challenges it faces in attempting to expand. These challenges are rooted in lack of industry capital, limited availability of performance benchmarks, concerns regarding future prospects of the industry, and general
Recent research findings show that mid-range ethanol blends - fuel mixtures most likely between E20 and E30 - can in some cases provide better fuel economy than regular unleaded gasoline, even in standard, non-flex-fuel vehicles. Previous assumptions held that ethanols lower energy content directly correlates with lower fuel economy for drivers. Those assumptions were found to be incorrect. E20 and E30 ethanol blends outperformed unleaded gasoline in fuel economy tests for certain autos. The tests were conducted using four 2007 model vehicles: a Toyota Camry, a Ford Fusion, and two Chevrolet Impalas, one flex-fuel and one non-flex-fuel. Contrary to Btu-based estimates of fuel economy for ethanol blends, three of the four vehicles tested achieved their highest fuel efficiency not on gasoline, but on an ethanol blend. Mid-level blends of ethanol E20 (20% ethanol, 80% gasoline) and E30 (30% ethanol, 70% gasoline) offered the best fuel economy in these tests. E30 offered better fuel economy than gasoline
Ethanol biofuels (bioethanol)[edit]. Main articles: Ethanol fuel and Cellulosic ethanol commercialization ... Ethanol Research (2012-04-02). "National Corn-to-Ethanol Research Center (NCERC)". Ethanol Research. Archived from the original ... An advantage of ethanol (CH. 3CH. 2OH) is that it has a higher octane rating than ethanol-free gasoline available at roadside ... Corn-to-ethanol and other food stocks has led to the development of cellulosic ethanol. According to a joint research agenda ...
At ethanol plants[edit]. Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage (IL-CCS) is one of the milestones, being the first ... Ethanol production Fermentation of biomass such as sugarcane, wheat or corn releases CO2 as a by-product Industry ... In addition to the IL-CCS project, there are about three more projects that capture CO2 from the ethanol plant at smaller ... Beside capturing CO2 from the ethanol plants, currently, there are 2 models in Europe are designed to capture CO2 from the ...
Ethanol[edit]. See also: Ethanol fuel and Common ethanol fuel mixtures. European Union[edit]. In the EU, 5% ethanol can be ... Ethanol and, to a lesser extent, the ethanol-derived ETBE are common substitutes. A common ethanol-gasoline mix of 10% ethanol ... ethanol, and 98E5, which is 5% ethanol. Most gasoline sold in Sweden has 5-15% ethanol added. Three different ethanol blends ... The last of these differs from standard ethanol-gasoline blends in that it consists of 15% hydrous ethanol (i.e., the ethanol- ...
Ethanol[edit]. Main article: Ethanol fuel. Ethanol, also known as grain alcohol or ethyl alcohol, is commonly found in ... For the most part, it is used in a 9:1 ratio of gasoline to ethanol to reduce the negative environmental effects of gasoline.[ ... Ethanol for use in gasoline and industrial purposes may be considered a fossil fuel because it is often synthesized from the ... Generally, the term alcohol refers to ethanol, the first organic chemical produced by humans,[1] but any alcohol can be burned ...
Ethanol-induced hypoglycemia[edit]. Ethanol is dehydrogenated to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase, and further into acetic ... If large amounts of ethanol are present, then large amounts of NADH are produced, leading to a depletion of NAD+. Thus, the ... Therefore, anion-gap metabolic acidosis (lactic acidosis) may ensue in ethanol poisoning. ...
Alcohol (ethanol)[edit]. Pure ethanol provides 7 calories per gram. For distilled spirits, a standard serving in the United ... the average ethanol calorie contributions are 48 and 108 cal/day. Alcoholic beverages are considered empty calorie foods ... Wine and beer contain a similar range of ethanol for servings of 5 ounces and 12 ounces, respectively, but these beverages also ... contain non-ethanol calories. A 5 ounce serving of wine contains 100 to 130 calories. A 12 ounce serving of beer contains 95 to ...
Acetic acid versus ethanol[edit]. Cellulosic-ethanol manufacturing plants are bound to be net exporters of electricity because ... The more popular methods for production of ethanol and cellulosic ethanol use enzymes that must be isolated first to be added ... Acetic acid, unlike ethanol, is biologically produced from simple sugars without the production of carbon dioxide:. C6H12O6 → 2 ... A more comprehensive description of the economics of each of the fuels is given on the pages alcohol fuel and ethanol fuel, ...
Ethanol fuel as an oxygenate additive[edit]. The demand for ethanol fuel produced from field corn was spurred in the U.S. by ... The Ethanol Lie . . . aka "The Ethanol Effect". YouTube. 16 September 2008. Retrieved 22 September 2015.. ... While the EROEI and economics of corn based ethanol are a bit weak, it paves the way for cellulosic ethanol which should have ... Cellulosic ethanol commercialization is moving forward rapidly. The world's first commercial wood-to-ethanol plant began ...
"Ethanol from Algae - Oilgae - Oil from Algae". www.oilgae.com.. *^ a b c "Chapter 1 - Introduction to Algae Biofuels - ... "Algenol Announces Commercial Algal Ethanol Fuel Partnership". Energy.gov.. *^ Sims, B. "Blue marble, um partner to optimize ... Ethanol[edit]. The Algenol system which is being commercialized by BioFields in Puerto Libertad, Sonora, Mexico utilizes ... "Large Volume Ethanol Spills - Environmental Impacts and Response Options" (PDF). July 2011. Retrieved November 4, 2016.. ...
Fuel cells powered by an ethanol reformer[edit]. In June 2016, Nissan announced plans to develop fuel cell vehicles powered by ... According to Nissan, the liquid fuel could be an ethanol-water blend at a 55:45 ratio. Nissan expects to commercialize its ... The vehicle would include a tank holding a blend of water and ethanol, which is fed into an onboard reformer that splits it ... ethanol rather than hydrogen. Nissan claims this technical approach would be cheaper, and that it would be easier to deploy the ...
Ethanol-powered fuel cells[edit]. An electrocatalyst of platinum and rhodium on carbon backed tin-dioxide nanoparticles can ... break carbon bonds at room temperature with only carbon dioxide as a by-product, so that ethanol can be oxidized into the ...
Industrial ethanol production. See also: Bioethanol. The ability of yeast to convert sugar into ethanol has been harnessed by ... Alcoholic beverages are defined as beverages that contain ethanol (C2H5OH). This ethanol is almost always produced by ... After this, yeasts are added to convert the simple sugars to ethanol, which is then distilled off to obtain ethanol up to 96% ... Spirits such as whiskey and rum are prepared by distilling these dilute solutions of ethanol. Components other than ethanol are ...
Many oils (such as olive oil) and ethanol are examples of liquids which are more refractive, but less dense, than water, ...
ethanol. Pyridine. Acetic Acid. Water Eluent[edit]. The eluent or eluant is the "carrier" portion of the mobile phase. It moves ...
Ethanol OxAy Molecules with an O at one end H2O Water ...
These convert the ethanol into acetaldehyde (an intermediate more toxic than ethanol). The enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase ... Fructose & ethanol[improper synthesis?] *. Carpenter, Thorne M.; Lee, Robert C (1937). "The effect of fructose on the ... Johnson, R (1982). "Survival After a Serum Ethanol Concentration of 11/2%". The Lancet. 320 (8312): 1394. doi:10.1016/S0140- ... Note: This chart defines a standard drink as 0.6 fluid ounces (14 g) of ethanol, whereas other definitions exist, for example ...
See also: Ethanol. Describing the effects of using alcohol to treat pain is difficult.[21] Alcohol has biological, mental, and ... Comes in free form; soluble in water and ethanol; salicylate.. As per diclofenac.. PO.. Not available.. As per diclofenac.. As ... Practically insoluble in water, soluble in ethanol and acetone; phenylbutazone.. As per diclofenac.. PO, topical.. No data.. ... Comes in free and betadex form; practically insoluble in water and ethanol, soluble in acetone.. As per celecoxib.. PO, rectal ...
Ethanol 1.074 × 10−3 Mercury 1.526 × 10−3 Whole milk (20 °C) 2.12 × 10−3 [65] ...
Ethanol C2H5OH [64-17-5] 1/C2H6O/c1-2-3/h3H,2H2,1H3 ...
Ipecac was used in cough mixtures as an expectorant or an emetic from the 18th until the early 20th century.[citation needed] For instance, Ipecac and opium were used to produce Dover's powder, which was used in syrup form.[citation needed] In 1965, the FDA approved the sale of up to one ounce of syrup of ipecac without a prescription. At the time it was approved, its use was recommended by the AAP, AAPCC, AMA, and the FDA's medical advisory board as a method to induce vomiting "for quick first-aid use in the home, under medical supervision", for use in cases of accidental poisoning.[2][3] Current guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics, however, strongly advise against this and in fact recommend the disposal of any syrup of ipecac present in the home.[4] Many toxicological associations have also issued position papers recommending against its use as a first-line treatment for most ingested poisons,[5] because of a lack of evidence that syrup of ipecac actually helps improve the ...
... (trade name Nimelan), also known as N-allylnormorphine dinicotinate, dinicotinoylnalorphine, or niconalorphine, is a semisynthetic, mixed opioid agonist-antagonist which is described as a narcotic antagonist but may produce limited analgesia and sedation at higher doses in opioid naive patients (with limited euphoria and dependence liability).[1][2] It is the 3,6-dinicotinate ester of nalorphine, and is therefore the nalorphine analogue of nicomorphine (which is the 3,6-dinicotinate ester of morphine). As nalorphine dinicotinate is only regulated at the Rx (prescription required) drug, it would be legal to possess with a valid prescription should a patient manage to acquire it.[citation needed] ...
1.5g/100g ethanol 19 degC [1] Chiral rotation ([α]D). +9.4° (H2O, c = 1.3) ...
"A dual effect of N-acetylcysteine on acute ethanol-induced liver damage in mice". Hepatology Research. 34 (3): 199-206. doi: ...
In naming simple alcohols, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal e and adds the suffix -ol, e.g., as in "ethanol" ... The term ethanol was invented in 1892, blending "ethane" with the "-ol" ending of "alcohol", which was generalized as a libfix. ... Ethanol is obtained by fermentation using glucose produced from sugar from the hydrolysis of starch, in the presence of yeast ... Lobert S (2000). "Ethanol, isopropanol, methanol, and ethylene glycol poisoning". Critical Care Nurse. 20 (6): 41-7. doi: ...
An opioid antagonist, or opioid receptor antagonist, is a receptor antagonist that acts on one or more of the opioid receptors. Naloxone and naltrexone are commonly used opioid antagonist drugs which are competitive antagonists that bind to the opioid receptors with higher affinity than agonists but do not activate the receptors. This effectively blocks the receptor, preventing the body from responding to opioids and endorphins. Some opioid antagonists are not pure antagonists but do produce some weak opioid partial agonist effects, and can produce analgesic effects when administered in high doses to opioid-naive individuals. Examples of such compounds include nalorphine and levallorphan. However, the analgesic effects from these specific drugs are limited and tend to be accompanied by dysphoria, most likely due to additional agonist action at the κ-opioid receptor. As they induce opioid withdrawal effects in people who are taking, or have recently used, opioid full agonists, these drugs are ...
... (INN) (brand names Lethidrone, Nalline), also known as N-allylnormorphine, is a mixed opioid agonist-antagonist with opioid antagonist and analgesic properties.[1] It was introduced in 1954[2] and was used as an antidote to reverse opioid overdose and in a challenge test to determine opioid dependence.[3] It acts at two opioid receptors - the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) where it has antagonistic effects, and at the κ-opioid receptor (KOR) (Ki = 1.6 nM; EC50 = 483 nM; Emax = 95%) where it exerts high-efficacy partial agonist/near-full agonist characteristics.[4] Nalorphine was the second opioid antagonist to be introduced, preceded by nalodeine (N-allylnorcodeine) in 1915 and followed by naloxone in 1960 and naltrexone in 1963.[2] Due to potent activation of the KOR, nalorphine produces side effects such as dysphoria, anxiety, confusion, and hallucinations, and for this reason, is no longer used medically.[1][2][5] Nalorphine has a number of analogues including niconalorphine (the ...
Ethanol. *Benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, clonazepam, nitrazepam, alprazolam, or lorazepam. *Chloramphenicol. * ...
Ethanol. 250. 750[14]. Gallium(III) arsenide. 5.8. 17.4. Gasoline. 317. 950[12]. ...
Where the relative density of the sample is close to that of water (for example dilute ethanol solutions) the correction is ...
Ethanol. In vitro test Vasorelaxant. S. acmella Murr.. Aerial parts. Chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol. ... Ethanol. Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rats Antimicrobial. S. calva. Roots. Methanol. Oral microflora: Streptococcus ... Ethanol. Anopheles, Aedes, Culex larvae Antinociception, antihyperalgesic. S. acmella. Flowers. CWE. Formalin test of ... Ethanol. Lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophage model Antimalarial, larvicidal. S. mauritiana. Aerial parts. Methanol ...
Cassava as ethanol feedstock[edit]. Ethanol can be made from mineral oil or from sugars or starches. Starches are cheapest. The ... Ethanol fermentation has many uses, including the production of alcoholic beverages, the production of ethanol fuel, and bread ... Ethanol fermentation causes bread dough to rise. Yeast organisms consume sugars in the dough and produce ethanol and carbon ... All ethanol contained in alcoholic beverages (including ethanol produced by carbonic maceration) is produced by means of ...
"Ethanol Producer Magazine.. *^ Decker, Jeff. Going Against the Grain: Ethanol from Lignocellulosics, Renewable Energy World, ... emissions from corn ethanol and cellulosic ethanol compared with fossil fuels is drastic. Corn ethanol may reduce overall GHG ... Cellulosic ethanol. 28. -70%. 138. +50% Notes: Calculated using default assumptions for 2015 scenario for ethanol in E85. ... Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) produced from cellulose (the stringy fiber of a plant) rather than from the ...
ethanol (usually uncountable, plural ethanols). *(organic chemistry) A simple aliphatic alcohol formally derived from ethane by ... German: Ethanol (de) n, Äthanol (de) n. *Greek: αιθανόλη f (aithanóli), αιθυλική αλκοόλη f (aithylikí alkoóli), οινόπνευμα (el) ... In 2007, not one drop of ethanol was produced in Ohio. Today, four ethanol facilities in Ohio are producing two hundred and ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=ethanol&oldid=47693150" ...
Al Gore: I Was Wrong About Ethanol Photo: World Economic Forum, Flickr, CC BY-SA Corn ethanol has turned out to be a bad idea ... Senate Votes to End Billions in Ethanol Subsidies A measure that would remove roughly $6 billion in annual ethanol subsidies ... The first large-scale commercial operation to produce cellulosic ethanol (the kind of ethanol made not from corn or other grown ... First Iowa Cellulosic Ethanol Plant Gets $105m Loan Guarantee From DoE If it seems like youve read a variation of the above ...
Ford ethanol research and demonstrations. Ethanol is a fuel with future vision. Ethanol used in fuel cells is superior to ... Build ethanol vehicles. Ethanol can be used economically in advanced vehicles. Continued investments in ethanol vehicle ... By including ethanol-specific design and demonstration tasks, the role of ethanol as a highly desirable fuel cell fuel will be ... Renewable ethanol made from corn can power these fuel cell vehicles using an ethanol fuel processor developed by Arthur D. ...
A REPORTER AT LARGE about substituting ethanol for gasoline. The oil embargo of the OPEC countries in the early 70s caused the ... Gasohol, or gasoline with 20% ethanol has been used in the U.S., but Brazil is the only country to have tried using ethanol ... Ethanol has been used as an anti-knock additive to gasoline, but was replaced by lead until lead poisoning was discovered in ... Tells how the internal-combustion engine works, traces the use of ethanol in cars, which began at the turn of the century. ...
Ethanol is an alcohol-based fuel made by fermenting and distilling starch crops such as corn. It can also be made from " ... Ethanol distiller grain fed to livestock may contain antibiotic residues that are not being regulated by FDA ... American livestock get extra dose of antibiotics from spent ethanol grain, report says ...
... is a Public Group with 5198 members.. *For Advanced Beverage Ethanol Distillers ... As for importing the ethanol, yes he pretty much could be doing that and given the flavours that he sells, he could be just ... steeping the fruit in the ethanol. That could also be the reason for NOT wanting to taste test. ...
Ethanol rapidly biodegrades. Concerns over ethanol spills are muted by ethanols low toxicity. In fact, youll find ethanol in ... Flex-fuel cars that run on gasoline and ethanol see 25 percent less mileage with ethanol. However, a gallon of ethanol costs ... Unlike food crops, ethanol crops and cellulosic ethanol crops can grow in any soil that will sustain grass. ... Second, ethanol production has become more energy-efficient. Today, more than 90 percent of corn used in ethanol production ...
... is a Public Group with 5203 members.. *For Advanced Beverage Ethanol Distillers ... of useful ethanol.. Cheers. Rob.. Cheers,. Rob.. __________________________________________________. Do You Yahoo!?. Tired of ...
If we converted Australias entire sugar cane crop into ethanol, using conventional techniques, we still wouldnt have anywhere ... Narration: Ethanol is not a new fuel source. In fact, when the Model T Ford was first built in 1908, it ran on both petrol and ... But current ethanol production makes up less than one per cent of our fuel needs. The problem is, even if we converted the ... Narration: Once the yeast has used the sugar the brew is cleaned and purified and youre left with ethanol. This can then be ...
Ethanol is renewable, but that doesnt mean its good for us. Trumps ethanol plan would be good for farmers, terrible for your ... Genetically Engineered Cells Will Sweat Ethanol and Diesel Fuel in Texas Pilot Plant. The tiny single-cell plants eat, ... Nanotech Wafer Turns Carbon Dioxide Into Ethanol. Technique to create alcohol from thin air has applications in renewable ...
"Ethanol plants are price takers on both sides-they have to pay the price of corn, and accept the price of ethanol," Collins ... corn-based ethanol has become far less costly than Brazilian ethanol, which is mostly made from sugarcane. ... "This will make ethanol stand on its own, something I believe the industry is prepared to do," he says. "It is my belief that ... The ethanol industry has had a profitable year despite the jump in corn prices, but the industry faces a slew of headwinds, ...
ĕth´ənōl˝ [key] or ethyl alcohol, CH 3CH 2OH, a colorless liquid with characteristic odor and taste; commonly called grain alcohol or simply alcohol
Ethanols contribution to greenhouse gas reduction is minimal and expensive, as is its impact on U.S. energy security. ... The Presidents support for a mandate to increase ethanol in gasoline is political pandering at its worst. ... Growth Energy, a supporter of ethanol fuel, under "Ethanol & Our Engines" says "Ethanol works well in all modern cars." Funny ... Ethanols contribution to greenhouse gas reduction is minimal and expensive. The production of ethanol requires a significant ...
... the amount of ethanol blended into gasoline this year-but reducing ethanol content may be the only way to save the ethanol ... In 2007, the Bush Administration implemented the ethanol scheme-a series of annually mandated ethanol volumes- based on the ... In 2007, the Bush Administration implemented the ethanol scheme-a series of annually mandated ethanol volumes- based on the ... the amount of ethanol blended into gasoline this year-but reducing ethanol content may be the only way to save the ethanol ...
CNBC LLC. All Rights Reserved. A Division of NBCUniversal. Data is a real-time snapshot *Data is delayed at least 15 minutes. Global Business and Financial News, Stock Quotes, and Market Data and Analysis.. Data also provided ...
... the biofuel that differs from corn-based ethanol in that it can be made from pretty much any organic matter, has made an ... Cellulosic ethanol has all the advantages of corn-based ethanol - there is no difference in the ethanol, only in the way its ... NEW YORK (CNNMoney.com) -- Cellulosic ethanol, the biofuel that differs from corn-based ethanol in that it can be made from ... But unlike corn-based ethanol, cellulosic ethanol can be made from a variety of things that might otherwise be considered waste ...
2011) Ethanol-the primary renewable liquid fuel. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 86(4):473-480. doi: 10.1002/jctb.2580 CrossRefGoogle ... Ethanol can be considered as the primary renewable liquid fuel. In this chapter enzymes, micro-organisms, and processes for ... 2010) The ethanol tolerance of Pachysolen tannophilus in fermentation on xylose. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 160(2):378-385. doi: ... 2014) Lignocellulosic ethanol: technology design and its impact on process efficiency. Biotechnol Adv. doi: 10.1016/j. ...
... campaign to persuade Washington to waive the federal mandate that requires gasoline refineries to blend corn-based ethanol into ... Waiving the mandate for blending ethanol in gasoline wouldnt hurt ethanol producers -- or help the livestock industry -- ... Even if corn prices soar further, corn-based ethanol is still likely to remain the cheapest renewable to use in blended fuels. ... But politically, ethanol producers face an uncertain future. Before the drought, the industry had hoped to win subsidies for ...
Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ... Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol.. This ... Ethanol (alcohol). In: Aronson JK, ed. Meylers Side Effects of Drugs. 16th ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2016:179-184. ...
... one source of ethanol, and the stalks and leaves, the source of cellulosic ethanol, respond differently to nitrogen ... "The ideal cellulosic ethanol crop has no lignin -- except you cant have a plant without it, because it would fall over. Plants ... Finally, Gallagher noted that improving the yield of feedstock for cellulosic ethanol leaves more corn for food. "Theres a ... The researchers hope their methods can be transferred to other crops grown for ethanol. Gallagher, who recently earned her ...
This year, U.S. automakers will churn out a million flexible-fuel vehicles, and the number of ethanol-stocking gas stations ... We can do better, says Berkeleys Daniel Kammen, who sees corn-based ethanol as a "transition" fuel: "To have ethanol make a ... ethanol_485.jpg. The appealing prospect of throwing money at American farmers rather than Middle Eastern sheiks is just one ... The catch? Most ethanol currently produced in the U.S. is made from corn kernels in a process that consumes significant amounts ...
Ethanol producers in the United States made 6.5 billion gallons of the biofuel last year, and almost all of it is made from ... Ethanols Forecast. Rain and floods in the corn-growing Midwest could drive up the costs of producing the biofuel. ... If corn prices rise further-and some predict that they could reach $8 a bushel or more-this could force some ethanol plants to ... In recent months, demand for corn used to make increasing amounts of ethanol has driven up corn prices, and to some extent food ...
Ethanol Teens Have Died After Possibly Drinking A Mix Of Mountain Dew And Gas Called "Dewshine". Authorities believe the two ... Although he doesnt take their cash, Obama is surrounding himself with ethanol backers and has flown on jets subsidized by ... may have confused ethanol, the consumable form of alcohol, with methanol, a component in gas. ...
Ethanol Fuel Pros and Cons. What is the value of ethanol as a dependable fuel source? Can it really help us to solve the issue ... Corn Ethanol is Bad for the Economy. US economic experts are warning that diverting so much corn crop to ethanol production is ... Density of Ethanol. The density of ethanol, to a great extent, depends on the temperature and pressure of the surroundings. ... the US administration has resorted to development of corn ethanol in its own backyard. Is the production of corn-based ethanol ...
ETHANOL….Thanks to the ethanol boom, the Washington Post reports that:. most farmers earned between $100 and $400 an acre on ... Lets see: (a) environmentally speaking, corn ethanol is a pretty dodgy idea in the first place, (b) were subsidizing it ...
One thing that could help is reducing or eliminating subsidies that give corn ethanol an economic advantage over ethanol from ... Runge says that corn ethanol is squeezing out cellulosic ethanol. With corn prices at record highs, farmers have no incentive ... biofuels mandates call for the use of cellulosic ethanol. But so far, technologies for producing cellulosic ethanol have not ... As a result, ethanol production could reach levels as high as those set by the mandates anyway, putting just as much strain on ...
Arnold Schwarzenegger sits next to an ethanol-powered vehicle after signing an order establishing the world's first low- ... Arnold Schwarzenegger sits next to an ethanol-powered vehicle after signing an order establishing the worlds first low-carbon ... Arnold Schwarzenegger sits next to an ethanol-powered vehicle after signing an order establishing the worlds first low-carbon ... Arnold Schwarzenegger sits next to an ethanol-powered vehicle after signing an order establishing the worlds first low-carbon ...
Enthalpy of dehydration of ethanol to diethyl ether by measurement of equilibrium constants in ethanol + ether+ water by a ... Other names: Ethyl alcohol; Alcohol; Alcohol anhydrous; Algrain; Anhydrol; Denatured ethanol; Ethyl hydrate; Ethyl hydroxide; ... Ethanol 200 proof; Ethyl alc; Etylowy alkohol; EtOH; NCI-C03134; Spirits of wine; Spirt; Alkoholu etylowego; Ethyl alcohol ... Jaysol; Jaysol S; Methylcarbinol; SD Alchol 23-hydrogen; Tecsol; C2H5OH; Absolute ethanol; Cologne spirit; Fermentation alcohol ...
  • One of the benefits of cellulosic ethanol is it reduces greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 85% over reformulated gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] These issues, along with many other difficult production challenges, led George Washington University policy researchers to state that "in the short term, [cellulosic] ethanol cannot meet the energy security and environmental goals of a gasoline alternative. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Fuel cells operate very efficiently compared with internal combustion engines, reducing the price gap between utilization of ethanol and cheap imported gasoline. (tripod.com)
  • A REPORTER AT LARGE about substituting ethanol for gasoline. (newyorker.com)
  • Ethanol has been used as an anti-knock additive to gasoline, but was replaced by lead until lead poisoning was discovered in urban dwellers. (newyorker.com)
  • Gasohol, or gasoline with 20% ethanol has been used in the U.S., but Brazil is the only country to have tried using ethanol exclusively. (newyorker.com)
  • Myth No. 3: Ethanol crops and production emit more greenhouse gases than gasoline. (wired.com)
  • And blending ethanol with gasoline dramatically reduces carbon monoxide tailpipe emissions and tailpipe emissions of volatile organic compounds that form ozone. (wired.com)
  • Finally, a life cycle analysis of ethanol found 'at present and in the near future, using corn ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emission by more than 20 percent, relative to those of petroleum gasoline. (wired.com)
  • Blending cellulosic ethanol with gasoline to make E85 brings the reduction to 63 percent. (wired.com)
  • It is my belief that blenders will continue to blend ethanol at the same volume because it simply makes their gasoline cheaper and they need an additive. (cnbc.com)
  • The tax credits help determine what the price of ethanol can be relative to gasoline, but the Renewable Fuel Standard "means ethanol will either be or will not be demanded," says Elizabeth Collins, a Morningstar analyst. (cnbc.com)
  • Aside from political considerations, the ethanol industry's fortunes swing on the basis of corn and gasoline prices. (cnbc.com)
  • It's these factors, according to the USDA, that can determine how much ethanol is exported and how much is blended into gasoline above the amount mandated by the Renewable Fuel Standard. (cnbc.com)
  • At a campaign rally in Iowa, President Trump indicated that he intends to support requiring a blend of 15% ethanol in the U.S. gasoline supply. (forbes.com)
  • Investors expect the Environmental Protection Agency to back down from a proposal to reduce the amount of ethanol blended into gasoline this year-but reducing ethanol content may be the only way to save the ethanol industry, an energy economist said in Chicago last week. (forbes.com)
  • In November the EPA proposed scaling back the amount of corn ethanol required in gasoline this year from 14.4 to 13 billion gallons, citing decreased demand for motor fuel and a constraint on the percentage of ethanol that can be blended into gasoline without voiding vehicle warranties-10 percent. (forbes.com)
  • But Carter believes this short-term victory for the ethanol industry could send gasoline prices soaring by 50 cents per gallon, enough to discredit and ultimately dismantle the government's ethanol policy. (forbes.com)
  • The ethanol scheme added about 15 cents to the price of each gallon of gasoline in 2013, he said, or about $20 billion total. (forbes.com)
  • That price goes up dramatically if the percentage of ethanol in gasoline passes 'the blend wall' -10 percent, he said. (forbes.com)
  • In 2007, the Bush Administration implemented the ethanol scheme-a series of annually mandated ethanol volumes- based on the assumption that the demand for gasoline would continue to increase, Carter said, but demand has dropped by about 6 percent. (forbes.com)
  • So much higher, Carter said, that gasoline prices could spike, drawing negative attention to ethanol. (forbes.com)
  • If the EPA goes ahead with their proposal it could actually save the ethanol scheme because it's not going to draw the attention to the scheme that you would see if gasoline prices went up 50 cents a gallon,' Carter said. (forbes.com)
  • Second, an expensive infrastructure would need to be built if people started using mostly ethanol in their vehicles, since ethanol is water soluble and the existing pipelines and filling station equipment for gasoline are not completely water tight. (cnn.com)
  • John Ashworth, a biomass expert at the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, said corn could only supply about 12 to 18 billion gallons of ethanol a year, or about 10 percent of the nation's 140 billion gallon-a-year gasoline habit. (cnn.com)
  • While it's not feasible to actually go out and collect every ounce of that one billion tons, he said it's not unreasonable to expect ethanol to replace 40 billion gallons of gasoline in the near future. (cnn.com)
  • Don't expect livestock producers to emerge victorious in their high-pressure campaign to persuade Washington to waive the federal mandate that requires gasoline refineries to blend corn-based ethanol into their fuels each year. (kiplinger.com)
  • This year, the mandate calls for blending 13.2 million gallons of corn ethanol with gasoline. (kiplinger.com)
  • Waiving the mandate for blending ethanol in gasoline wouldn't hurt ethanol producers -- or help the livestock industry -- mainly because the ethanol industry will meet its mandate this year even as it closes down plants. (kiplinger.com)
  • One possible compromise: The EPA could permit more motorists to choose what proportion of ethanol they want in their gasoline by punching a button on the pump, as they do to select regular or premium. (kiplinger.com)
  • Most ethanol currently produced in the U.S. is made from corn kernels in a process that consumes significant amounts of fossil fuels, in everything from fertilizers to gasoline for farm equipment. (popsci.com)
  • While ethanol has been touted as a clean energy source - when it burns, it produces fewer emissions than gasoline - when considering production of the fuel as a whole, it is a far murkier picture. (durangoherald.com)
  • Record corn prices and sluggish gasoline demand are squeezing profits for U.S. ethanol companies, prompting some producers to idle plants or slow production. (wsj.com)
  • Hundreds of measuring devices that are supposed to ensure that gasoline sold in California contains enough smog-reducing ethanol haven't been certified by the state, raising questions about their ability to do the job, Los Angeles County inspectors say. (latimes.com)
  • They say they haven't determined whether the uncertified meters are causing harm by inaccurately measuring the amount of ethanol added to gasoline. (latimes.com)
  • Oil companies are phasing in ethanol to comply with a state requirement that gasoline be blended with that additive instead of methyl tertiary butyl ether, or MTBE, which has been blamed for contaminating groundwater. (latimes.com)
  • Inspectors found flaws in three of the terminal's 12 devices for blending gasoline and ethanol, and shut those three systems down pending repairs and further testing. (latimes.com)
  • There are about 60 major fuel terminals in the state, operated by companies including ChevronTexaco Corp., BP's Arco division and Shell Oil Co. About 47 of the terminals are already blending ethanol with gasoline. (latimes.com)
  • In early 2011, the Environmental Protection Agency approved the corn ethanol industry's petition to increase the amount of ethanol that can be blended with gasoline. (ewg.org)
  • Since ethanol is more corrosive and burns hotter than gasoline, it may cause higher rates of engine stalling, misfiring and overheating. (ewg.org)
  • The Facts Instead of relying on just gasoline, many cars are now also burning ethanol, more commonly known as drinking alcohol. (livescience.com)
  • Although ethanol has just roughly two-thirds as much energy as gasoline, it already is finding increasing use in the gas tank. (livescience.com)
  • In 2007, ethanol displaced roughly 3 percent of U.S. gasoline usage, according to the Union of Concerned Scientists, a science advocacy group. (livescience.com)
  • Moreover, fuels high in ethanol may pose an equal or greater risk to public health than regular gasoline. (livescience.com)
  • Enter Stage Right) -- The rocketing costs of gasoline and the price of corn being paid worldwide are the result of U.S. government mandates requiring the inclusion of ethanol in the gasoline all Americans must use. (wnd.com)
  • The study found that the corn-importing countries of Central America and North Africa are at the highest risk from ethanol expansion-the requirement to include ethanol with gasoline. (wnd.com)
  • Last Friday's biannual report from the Agriculture Department has re-ignited debate on the wisdom of using ethanol in gasoline to reduce emissions. (thenewamerican.com)
  • Another fact missing from the revived controversy about ethanol use in gasoline to reduce emissions is that, according to two studies , done at Princeton University back in 2008, ethanol usage actually increases emissions once all direct and indirect costs in producing it are considered. (thenewamerican.com)
  • The president's victory lap in Iowa, the nation's largest ethanol producer, comes after the Environmental Protection Agency finalized a rule in May allowing for year-round access to E15 , the shorthand for gasoline blended with 15% ethanol. (usatoday.com)
  • Most gasoline sold in the U.S. contains 10% ethanol. (usatoday.com)
  • Ethanol, an alcohol distilled from corn and mixed with gasoline to form gasohol, enjoys a huge tax break without which it could never compete at the pump. (nytimes.com)
  • Shortly thereafter the Environmental Protection Agency ruled that one-tenth of all gasoline must contain ethanol, a bad deal for consumers that a court struck down. (nytimes.com)
  • CHICAGO (Reuters) - Gasoline futures soared to a record premium over ethanol on Monday as gas prices topped $4 per gallon in some states while stocks of the biofuel were likely to continue swelling, analysts and traders said. (reuters.com)
  • The drop in demand for gas has helped push up ethanol stocks to a record high last week of 22.7 million barrels as the U.S. government mandates that each gallon of gasoline in the country can contain only 10 percent ethanol. (reuters.com)
  • Many ethanol plants ramped up production at the end of 2011, ahead of the expiration of the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit, or VEETC, a tax incentive that provided 45 cents per gallon to blenders who mixed ethanol with gasoline. (reuters.com)
  • Kinder Morgan Energy Partners LP recently completed a series of tests to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of transporting batched denatured ethanol in its 16-inch gasoline pipeline between Tampa and Orlando, Fla. The company is finalizing mechanical modifications to the pipeline and intends to begin offering the ethanol service by mid-November. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • A long-standing promise to boost the ethanol content in gasoline sold at Ontario pumps may never come to pass, Premier Dalton McGuinty said today, just a few months after he reassured farmers he'd stick to the plan. (thestar.com)
  • McGuinty said he was rethinking his commitment to increase the ethanol content in gasoline to 10 per cent by 2010, given the dubious environmental benefits of the biofuel and the impact it's having on food prices. (thestar.com)
  • In April, McGuinty said he was convinced his government's decision to increase the ethanol content in gasoline wasn't having a significant impact on food costs "because of a whole bunch of circumstances" that were driving up prices. (thestar.com)
  • Currently, gasoline sold in Ontario must contain an average of five per cent ethanol, which is derived from corn, wheat and straw. (thestar.com)
  • If the province turns its back on its promise to increase the ethanol content in gasoline, it could also threaten the development of new technologies that could yield "huge" environmental benefits, Speer suggested. (thestar.com)
  • NEW YORK (MarketWatch) -- Hawkeye Holdings has filed to raise up to $350 million in an initial public offering as ethanol emerges as a summer trend in the IPO market in the face of lofty gasoline prices. (marketwatch.com)
  • The DOE saw "no significant difference" in impact on the fuel systems between E0-gasoline without ethanol-and E15. (popularmechanics.com)
  • At the moment, the Obama administration is previewing next year's rules for the amount of ethanol that has to be mixed with gasoline -- a regulation that has fueled the ethanol industry and earned untold millions for corn growers. (politico.com)
  • It sent a letter to Jeff Broin, the head of Poet, the largest ethanol producer in the country, saying that "Ford endorses efforts to increase base level blends [of gasoline] up to E15 and collaborate with key stakeholders to overcome challenges with introducing these higher levels of ethanol. (kiplinger.com)
  • EPA currently limits ethanol blending to 10%, except for E85, a fuel blend that is 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline and can only be used in the 6 million or so cars and trucks built specifically to run on it. (kiplinger.com)
  • Ethanol is now widely used as a fuel additive, and it can also be used as a substitute for gasoline in some vehicles. (technologyreview.com)
  • This year, an estimated 4.3 billion bushels of corn will go to ethanol production under a federal mandate to blend 36 billion gallons of biofuel into gasoline by 2022, of which 15 billion gallons would come from corn. (ibtimes.com)
  • LOS ANGELES, May 6 (UPI) -- A prominent national consumer group has called on the oil industry to be more open to ethanol as a means of letting some of the steam out of sky-high gasoline prices. (upi.com)
  • In a report, "Over a Barrel: Why Aren't Oil Companies Using Ethanol to Lower Gasoline Prices? (upi.com)
  • Oil companies in many parts of the country easily can blend ethanol -- a high-octane, domestically produced renewable fuel -- into gasoline, but have chosen not to. (upi.com)
  • Oil-industry executives take issue with this seemingly simple solution to tight gasoline supplies, but the entry of the CFA potentially could make ethanol more palatable to politicians outside the farm states, as the Senate once again considers energy policy legislation and its provisions to increase ethanol consumption. (upi.com)
  • The CFA report concluded that by bumping up the amount of ethanol used in a gallon of gasoline to 10 percent, the average price of regular could be cut by some 8 cents. (upi.com)
  • Cooper said retail gasoline-price reductions certainly would differ from region to region, but the overall impact of boosting ethanol consumption would be lower gasoline prices and a tangible step toward the elusive goal of using less oil. (upi.com)
  • By way of a very rough comparison, the price of June ethanol futures on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange was around $1.20 per gallon Thursday compared to nearly $1.48 per gallon for June gasoline on the New York Mercantile Exchange. (upi.com)
  • Oil industry officials might take exception to the notion that ethanol is a cheap and easy ingredient to add to gasoline. (upi.com)
  • As a coincidence, the Minnesota Legislature passed a bill Thursday that would double the amount of ethanol added to gasoline from 10 percent to 20 percent within eight years. (upi.com)
  • Supporters of the legislation touted it primarily as a boon to corn growers in the Land of 10,000 Lakes, but ethanol's backers are increasingly anxious to drive home their contention that consumers would benefit as well, due to the assumption that ethanol costs less than finished gasoline. (upi.com)
  • The bill includes a national "renewable fuels standard," which would mandate the use of 5 billion gallons of ethanol in the U.S. gasoline supply by 2012. (upi.com)
  • Recently ADM has pushed national politicians for further breaks, including laws that favor ethanol-based products in the nation's gasoline supply. (motherjones.com)
  • During the 1992 presidential election, when George Bush was trailing Clinton, Bush proposed gasoline volatility standards that favored ethanol products as the additives to make the "reformulated gasolines" called for in the 1990 Clean Air Act. (motherjones.com)
  • Instead, just days after receiving the $100,000 check, the Clinton administration simply ordered that 30 percent of the gasoline sold in America's nine most polluted cities contain ethanol-based additives by 1996. (motherjones.com)
  • Scientists and economists looked at life-cycle emissions of growing, harvesting, producing and burning different fuels, and concluded that ethanol made from switchgrass and other plant materials is far better than either corn ethanol or gasoline. (businessinsider.com)
  • The study concluded that the total environmental and health costs of making a gallon of gasoline was about 71 cents, compared with a range of 72 cents to $1.45 for corn-based ethanol, and 19 to 32 cents for cellulosic ethanol, depending upon the technology and type of plants used. (businessinsider.com)
  • What we found, adjusting six studies of ethanol input demands so they could be compared is that ethanol from corn (maize) as we make it today is a big petroleum saver, and offers modest gains in global warming, compared to gasoline. (prospect.org)
  • The ethanol is then put into a blend with 15% gasoline to create E85, a flex-fuel that requires minimal retrofitting for cars or gas stations. (prospect.org)
  • AS THE price of gasoline hovers near $3 a gallon, alternative fuels like ethanol are getting inquisitive attention from motorists trying to save a few bucks on a fill-up. (toledoblade.com)
  • All gasoline-powered cars and trucks now sold in the United States run just fine on a fuel mixture that contains up to 10 percent ethanol, which is routinely sold without any fanfare by most filling stations. (toledoblade.com)
  • A few vehicles, but still just a fraction, will work properly on an 85 percent ethanol-15 percent gasoline blend known as E85. (toledoblade.com)
  • In 1978 a Clean Air Act waiver allowed the use of 10 volume percent ethanol in gasoline, known as gasohol or E10. (epa.gov)
  • In June 2011, EPA approved blends of 15 volume percent ethanol in gasoline for use in model year 2001 and newer passenger cars, light-trucks and medium-duty vehicles. (epa.gov)
  • Brazil will reduce the ethanol content in gasoline in another effort to contain inflation since sugar (and ethanol) prices because of a poor crop have been soaring, according to the Sao Paulo press. (mercopress.com)
  • Our ethanol lowers life cycle greenhouse gas emissions up to 28%, compared to non-blended gasoline. (valero.com)
  • Learn about the fuels we produce: gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, ethanol and renewable diesel. (valero.com)
  • Ethanol strengthened against gasoline on speculation that plant shutdowns will help drain a glut of the biofuel and lift prices. (bloomberg.com)
  • The contract covers reformulated gasoline, which is made to be blended with ethanol. (bloomberg.com)
  • Ethanol-blended gasoline made up 87 percent of the total U.S. gasoline pool in the week ended Jan. 25, down from 90 percent a year earlier. (bloomberg.com)
  • Estimated average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cellulosic ethanol derived from switchgrass were 94% lower than estimated GHG from gasoline. (pnas.org)
  • Ethanol is the most common biofuel in the U.S. and is projected to increase in the short term because of the voluntary elimination of methyl tertiary butyl ether in conventional gasoline and in the long term because of U.S. government mandates ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Even disregarding the mandate, US refiners need billions of gallons of ethanol to meet environmental specifications for their gasoline. (cnn.com)
  • This paper estimates household preferences for ethanol as a gasoline substitute. (nber.org)
  • The demand for ethanol as a gasoline substitute, " Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 151-168. (nber.org)
  • Not all refiners can blend ethanol with gasoline to meet the standard. (mysanantonio.com)
  • The agency has proposed refinements of the 2007 U.S. Renewable Fuels Standard which mandated the blending into gasoline of 36 billion gallons per year of fuels like ethanol from corn, biodiesel and second-generation biofuels like cellulosic ethanol by 2022. (ibtimes.com)
  • Ethanol is also better for our environment than gasoline refined from oil. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Research published in Yale University's Journal of Industrial Ecology shows that ethanol can reduce greenhouse-gas emissions by as much as 59 percent relative to gasoline. (washingtontimes.com)
  • And ethanol delivers better value for the U.S. consumer on a dollar-for-dollar basis compared to gasoline. (washingtontimes.com)
  • But new research says that the global effects of losing agricultural land for corn ethanol production will result in twice the carbon emissions of gasoline. (npr.org)
  • A new study from Stanford University suggests that pollution from ethanol could be even worse than from traditional gasoline. (npr.org)
  • But now a study from Stanford University says ethanol pollution may be worse than gasoline. (npr.org)
  • So there's - the bad ozone is what's being affected here by both gasoline and ethanol vehicles. (npr.org)
  • Prof. JACOBSON: Ozone that's formed is formed from the emissions of either ethanol vehicles or gasoline vehicles. (npr.org)
  • And in terms of climate, the latest study shows - and that's out of U.C. Davis - that there's only a 2 percent difference in the net carbon emissions between ethanol and gasoline, which is virtually negligible - when the ethanol comes from corn. (npr.org)
  • What's more, burning more and more corn ethanol in gasoline releases more benzene, a known carcinogen, and other toxic air pollutants that are linked to asthma, bronchitis, and other respiratory ailments. (commondreams.org)
  • Ethanol fuel has a "gasoline gallon equivalency" (GGE) value of 1.5, i.e. to replace the energy of 1 volume of gasoline, 1.5 times the volume of ethanol is needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most cars on the road today in the U.S. can run on blends of up to 10% ethanol, and ethanol represented 10% of the U.S. gasoline fuel supply derived from domestic sources in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1976 the Brazilian government has made it mandatory to blend ethanol with gasoline, and since 2007 the legal blend is around 25% ethanol and 75% gasoline (E25). (wikipedia.org)
  • Since October 2010, an E5 blend of 95% gasoline and 5% cellulosic ethanol blend has been available at 100 filling stations across Denmark. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contends that 75 percent of cars on the road today can safely burn up to 15 percent ethanol. (forbes.com)
  • EPA has apparently bought into the oil industry's fictitious 10 percent ethanol 'blend wall' concept,' the agency said in a January response to the EPA's proposal, 'and the Agency's proposal effectively halts the transformation of the liquid fuels marketplace just as it was beginning in earnest. (forbes.com)
  • Existing cars can run on 10 percent ethanol with no modifications, and they'd need only about $100 worth of tinkering to be 85 percent ethanol powered. (cnn.com)
  • After months of extensive testing, Underwriters Laboratories Inc. announced Feb. 19 it supports the use of fuel blended with up to 15 percent ethanol in existing fuel dispensers. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency recently announced its approval of 15 percent ethanol blended fuel for cars made since 2007. (popularmechanics.com)
  • If someone with a car made before 2007 opts for E15 instead of the 10 percent ethanol blend currently sold at most gas stations, they would be breaking federal law and could potentially harm their car. (popularmechanics.com)
  • E85 is a fuel mixture of 85 percent ethanol by volume. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Another proposal, more worrisome to the industry, would reduce the amount of ethanol required by the Renewable Fuel Standard when corn supplies are tight. (cnbc.com)
  • That's a 50 percent increase in the amount of ethanol allowed in the widely available E10. (ewg.org)
  • To make up the difference, it would like to increase the amount of ethanol in American fuel above 15 billion gallons. (mysanantonio.com)
  • An ethanol production mandate could be in conflict with efforts to reduce the Gulf Coast dead zone. (treehugger.com)
  • In dueling TV ads, foes of the federal ethanol mandate claim that it "doubles greenhouse gas emissions," while the ethanol lobby says that "the oil industry is lying" and the mandate will lead to lower emissions. (factcheck.org)
  • A congressional mandate to turn corn into ethanol in order to reduce emissions requires converting nearly 40 percent of that harvest into 13.2 billion gallons of ethanol. (thenewamerican.com)
  • We ask you to adjust the corn grain-ethanol mandate of the RFS to reflect this natural disaster and these new market conditions. (thenewamerican.com)
  • Those benefitting from the ethanol mandate, in the biofuels industry, are pushing back, holding that the drought isn't likely to have any continuing impact on corn prices at the consumer level and that ethanol producers have plenty of supplies already stockpiled to meet the requirements of the RFS. (thenewamerican.com)
  • In April, a federal appeals court blocked the implementation of the ethanol mandate, saying the Clinton administration lacked the statutory authority to discriminate between ethanol and methanol. (motherjones.com)
  • The US is poised to divert around 40 per cent of its corn into ethanol because of the Congress-enacted mandate despite "huge damage" to the crop because of the worst drought in at least half a century, José Graziano da Silva, director-general of the UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation, warned. (cnn.com)
  • An immediate, temporary suspension of that [ethanol] mandate would give some respite to the market and allow more of the crop to be channelled towards food and feed uses," he wrote in an opinion piece in the Financial Times. (cnn.com)
  • Moreover, ethanol is now a huge component of global energy supplies and the suspension of the mandate could push up oil prices. (cnn.com)
  • Tom Vilsack, US agriculture secretary, raised doubts about the impact of waiving the ethanol mandate, arguing that the US biofuel industry had reduced petrol prices and created jobs. (cnn.com)
  • A coalition of beef, pork, chicken and dairy producers petitioned the US Environmental Protection Agency last month to waive the ethanol mandate in response to rising corn prices. (cnn.com)
  • In response, the federal government has exempted small refineries from the ethanol mandate, a move the Renewable Fuel Association has said will cost the industry $5 billion. (mysanantonio.com)
  • The only thing going for the ethanol mandate is politics. (mysanantonio.com)
  • Rather than increase the ethanol mandate, Congress should shuck it. (mysanantonio.com)
  • By dramatically increasing the price of corn, the corn ethanol mandate has, in just the last four years, contributed to the conversion of 23 million acres of wetland and grassland - an area the size of Indiana - to cropland. (commondreams.org)
  • By encouraging farmers to plow up wetlands and grasslands, the corn ethanol mandate is causing more carbon to be released into the atmosphere, causing more fertilizers and pesticides to wash off farm fields and destroying more habitat that supports wildlife - and millions of jobs. (commondreams.org)
  • Kidney failure is killing sugarcane workers in Central America who supply sugar for both our sweet tooth and demand for ethanol. (treehugger.com)
  • Despite the cheers, Iowa leaders worry that hardship waivers the EPA has provided to oil refineries will undermine the expected increase in demand for ethanol - and the corn typically used to make it. (usatoday.com)
  • Initially touted as a "clean" energy source, critics warn that the growing demand for ethanol is actually doing little to help the environment while driving up world food prices. (thestar.com)
  • Archer Daniels Midland Co. said Tuesday that profit more than doubled in its fiscal fourth quarter on rising demand for ethanol. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Despite controversy over ethanol using more fossil fuel energy to produce than it saves, the demand for ethanol continues to grow. (ehow.com)
  • A measure that would remove roughly $6 billion in annual ethanol subsidies just passed the U.S. Senate, signaling, among other things, a shift in public attitude towards the once-heralded alternative fuel. (treehugger.com)
  • Before the drought, the industry had hoped to win subsidies for expanding ethanol pipelines, service station pumps and other infrastructure, along with research and development of nongrain alcohol. (kiplinger.com)
  • No matter what the outcome, it's clear that the ethanol industry's giant subsidies won't come back soon. (kiplinger.com)
  • Are ethanol subsidies really that bad? (washingtonmonthly.com)
  • Now, in an effort to make food less expensive, experts are calling for limits on ethanol production, subsidies for corn, and more incentives for biofuels made from nonfood sources. (go.com)
  • One thing that could help is reducing or eliminating subsidies that give corn ethanol an economic advantage over ethanol from other sources, such as sugar cane, Runge says. (go.com)
  • Ethanol, long oversold as a source of cheap, clean energy, has been the beneficiary of generous subsidies provided by politicians whose favor has been bought at bargain prices by Archer Daniels Midland, ethanol's leading American manufacturer. (nytimes.com)
  • Sen. John McCain famously wrote off Iowa in 2000, citing his objection to ethanol subsidies, and this cycle, candidates from Sen. Bernie Sanders to (before he dropped out) Gov. Scott Walker have walked back early expressions of skepticism. (politico.com)
  • The model is so effective that a lobbyist recently proposed that Palmetto State primary voters make Boeing subsidies "South Carolina's version of ethanol. (politico.com)
  • The federal government provides an array of subsidies to increase the consumption of biofuels such as corn ethanol. (cato.org)
  • Here in the United States, the federal government is offering large subsidies to encourage corn-based ethanol. (npr.org)
  • Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) produced from cellulose (the stringy fiber of a plant) rather than from the plant's seeds or fruit . (wikipedia.org)
  • Articles on ethanol (ethyl alcohol, ETOH). (buzzle.com)
  • This invention is an ethanol sensitive solid useful for the colorimetric determination of ethyl alcohol in human breath samples. (google.com)
  • A 60 percent surge since June in the U.S. corn price has reignited the on-again-off-again debate over using corn to produce ethyl alcohol, also known as ethanol, as a motor fuel additive. (ibtimes.com)
  • Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic chemical compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Absence of production of cellulosic ethanol in the quantities required by the regulation was the basis of a United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia decision announced January 25, 2013, voiding a requirement imposed on car and truck fuel producers in the United States by the Environmental Protection Agency requiring addition of cellulosic biofuels to their products. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biggest ethanol producers in the market are Archer Daniels Midland and, more recently, oil refiners, including Valero and Sunoco. (cnbc.com)
  • While high levels of production from producers both big and small are contributing to lower prices for ethanol compared with other countries, Morningstar's Collins remains concerned with overcapacity in the industry, particularly when there are few barriers to entry for new competitors. (cnbc.com)
  • Given that the new sanctions on Iranian oil exports could reduce global oil supply by 2 million barrels a day, and Venezuelan production has been declining by 50 thousand barrels a day per month, the inability of ethanol producers to offset this is glaringly obvious. (forbes.com)
  • About 25% of the nation's corn crop goes to produce ethanol each year (counting the grain returned by biofuels producers for use as livestock feed). (kiplinger.com)
  • But politically, ethanol producers face an uncertain future. (kiplinger.com)
  • Although U.S. ethanol producers didn't put up a fight -- partly because the industry was on a good financial footing then -- the action was regarded as a political setback. (kiplinger.com)
  • ethanol producers have already cut production by 14% this year. (kiplinger.com)
  • The current high corn prices could cut into the profit margins of ethanol producers, who rely on corn as a feedstock. (technologyreview.com)
  • Ethanol producers in the United States made 6.5 billion gallons of the biofuel last year, and almost all of it is made from corn. (technologyreview.com)
  • Still, the higher corn prices have been somewhat offset for ethanol producers by the skyrocketing price of petroleum, which has, in turn, kept biofuel demand high. (technologyreview.com)
  • Douglas Tiffany , a research fellow at the University of Minnesota, estimates that with oil prices above $130 a gallon, at least some ethanol producers could afford to pay as much as $9.50 a bushel for corn. (technologyreview.com)
  • Indeed, agricultural experts say that rising corn prices could hit the livestock industry, which depends on corn for feed, even harder than they could hit ethanol producers, who can afford to pay higher prices for corn than livestock producers can. (technologyreview.com)
  • Given the intersection of the various conflicting interests in the ethanol debate - the producers and consumers of corn, the ethanol producers, the EPA, the political interests of legislators, and the weather - it is highly unlikely that anything will be done. (thenewamerican.com)
  • and a professor of economics at Iowa State University, projects that allowing the blender credit and tariff to expire would have neither the dramatic, adverse effect U.S. ethanol producers claim nor create the export bonanza foreign producers hope for. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Both automakers and ethanol producers worry the new policy will complicate fueling decisions for consumers. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Ethanol producers fear the partial approval will discourage consumers from embracing ethanol blends. (popularmechanics.com)
  • With all the critics out there, ethanol producers have banded together to fight the backlash from food company CEOs, meat and dairy producers, food security advocates and the petroleum lobby. (ibtimes.com)
  • Alternative fuel producers have their congressional backers, like Sen. Charles Grassley (R-Iowa), who says ethanol opponents are exaggerating when they say more corn is used in ethanol production than to feed livestock, because they don't factor in dried distillers' grains, the corn that is re-introduced into the livestock-feed market after the distillation process. (ibtimes.com)
  • Though environmentalists point out that it takes as much energy to produce a gallon of ethanol as can be had by burning it, producers such as Archer Daniels Midland have long benefited from a 54-cent-per-gallon tax break. (motherjones.com)
  • Last year, Brazil imposed a 20% tax on ethanol imported from the U.S. that exceeds a 600 million liter annual quota to protect local producers as imports spiked. (mercopress.com)
  • The number of plants in Monday's report included units that had been idled or temporarily shut down during 2012 as ethanol producers reacted to market forces pushing costs higher, it added. (marketwatch.com)
  • Ethanol producers faced unusual weakness in the second quarter, which has tipped off a volatile week for Pacific Ethanol stock. (yahoo.com)
  • By 2000, this powerplant--capable of operating on both ethanol and ethanol blends--will be ready for integration into a prototype light-duty vehicle or hybrid bus. (tripod.com)
  • And ethanol promoters try to obscure the fact that ethanol blends can damage small engines. (forbes.com)
  • At some Midwestern service stations, motorists may choose 10%, 15% or 85% ethanol in vehicles built to burn those blends. (kiplinger.com)
  • State officials estimate that there could be as many as 12 ethanol meters at every site that blends the additive with the gas during loading. (latimes.com)
  • Over two trillion kilometres have been traveled using fuel ethanol blends. (sentex.net)
  • Ethanol blends are sold at the same price as conventional fuels. (sentex.net)
  • This company renovated a distillery in Minnedosa, Manitoba and began retailing wheat-based ethanol blends across Western Canada. (sentex.net)
  • In 1992, UCO Petroleum (now UPI Inc.) first launched ethanol blends in Ontario. (sentex.net)
  • Retailers from this province, where the bulk of production is based on corn, are now the national leaders in selling ethanol blends. (sentex.net)
  • The Province of Quebec began retailing ethanol blends in 1995, and now has the second largest retailing base in the country. (sentex.net)
  • Mohawk Oil is presently selling ethanol blends at over 290 stations in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, the Yukon and Northern Ontario. (sentex.net)
  • Across southern Ontario, UPI Inc. retails ethanol blends at over 60 UPI Inc., FS and Co-op gasbars and cardlocks. (sentex.net)
  • In eastern Ontario and western Quebec, MacEwen Petroleum Inc. is retailing ethanol blends at over 60 locations. (sentex.net)
  • and John Shimkus, R-Ill., introduced the Renewable Fuels Marketing Act of 2010 on July 20, saying it would open up a greater potential market for ethanol or biodiesel blends. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • But the ethanol industry believes that testing will ultimately show that blends of 15% and even 20% won't cause engine damage. (kiplinger.com)
  • Former NATO commander and presidential candidate Gen. Wesley Clarke, now representing Growth Energy, argued at a news conference that lifting the 10% cap on ethanol blends could result in the creation of more than 130,000 new American jobs and "inject $24 billion into the American economy annually. (kiplinger.com)
  • Debates about ethanol tend to vanish into the gap between detractors talking about yesterday's blends and supporters boosting tomorrow's technologies. (prospect.org)
  • Ethanol fermentation has many uses, including the production of alcoholic beverages , the production of ethanol fuel , and bread cooking. (wikipedia.org)
  • During batch fermentation, the rate of ethanol production per milligram of cell protein is maximal for a brief period early in this process and declines progressively as ethanol accumulates in the surrounding broth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corn stover , Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Miscanthus grass species, wood chips and the byproducts of lawn and tree maintenance are some of the more popular cellulosic materials for ethanol production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Production of ethanol from lignocellulose has the advantage of abundant and diverse raw material compared to sources such as corn and cane sugars, but requires a greater amount of processing to make the sugar monomers available to the microorganisms typically used to produce ethanol by fermentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first commercialized ethanol production began in Germany in 1898, where acid was used to hydrolyze cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, the Standard Alcohol Company opened the first cellulosic ethanol production plant in South Carolina in 1910. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oil companies, who made enormous profits due to the energy crisis, are loath to relinquish control of U.S. fuel production, and argue that ethanol consumes more energy in distillation than it yields. (newyorker.com)
  • Second, ethanol production has become more energy-efficient. (wired.com)
  • Today, more than 90 percent of corn used in ethanol production goes through a dry milling process that uses far less energy than the wet milling process used before. (wired.com)
  • Myth No. 2: Ethanol production reduces our food supply. (wired.com)
  • But current ethanol production makes up less than one per cent of our fuel needs. (abc.net.au)
  • The production of ethanol requires a significant amount of energy, which combined with the land impact of increased corn production means that ethanol usage increases greenhouse gas emissions. (forbes.com)
  • Our production of ethanol is the roughly equal to 1 million barrels a day of oil, an amount which has been increasing by a whopping 50 thousand barrels a day per year! (forbes.com)
  • The claim is made that higher ethanol production reduces oil imports and thus makes the nation better able to resist political pressure from oil exporters, but U.S. imports of petroleum have not constituted a major foreign policy constraint except in the minds of pundits. (forbes.com)
  • In this chapter enzymes, micro-organisms, and processes for ethanol production based on renewable resources are described. (springer.com)
  • 2015) Challenges and opportunities in improving the production of bio-ethanol. (springer.com)
  • A new paper in today's online edition of the American Chemical Society's journal Environmental Science and Technology shows how farmers can save money on fertilizer while they improve their production of feedstock for ethanol and alleviate damage to the environment. (redorbit.com)
  • While farmers have a clear incentive to maximize grain yields, the research shows a path to even greater benefits when corn residues are harvested for cellulosic ethanol production, she said. (redorbit.com)
  • Lignin breaks down slowly via bacterial enzymes, and it is expensive to remove by chemical or mechanical processes that create a bottleneck in cellulosic ethanol production. (redorbit.com)
  • If crop shortages are bad enough, ethanol production could fall by a billion gallons compared with predictions for this year, Tyner says, and that could lead to higher fuel prices in areas that use a lot of ethanol. (technologyreview.com)
  • Is the production of corn-based ethanol a smart move? (buzzle.com)
  • US economic experts are warning that diverting so much corn crop to ethanol production is driving up food prices, just when people can't afford it. (buzzle.com)
  • April 19, 2008 -- Food prices worldwide have risen dramatically in the past few years, due in part to a similarly dramatic rise in the amount of corn used for ethanol production in the United States. (go.com)
  • Part of this increase is due to corn being diverted from use as animal feed and food to use as a feedstock for ethanol production. (go.com)
  • The mandates require an increase in biofuel production in the United States, including 15 billion gallons of corn ethanol production by 2015--considerably more than the 6.5 billion gallons produced last year. (go.com)
  • Notably, higher demand for corn for use in ethanol production has actually increased corn exports in the short term. (go.com)
  • As a result, ethanol production could reach levels as high as those set by the mandates anyway, putting just as much strain on the corn supply. (go.com)
  • Ethanol can be made from sugar more efficiently than it can from corn, so diversion of sugar to fuel production wouldn't have as much of an effect on food markets. (go.com)
  • While Colorado's involvement in ethanol production has been correspondingly affected, it has been less so than in other places across the nation. (durangoherald.com)
  • In Colorado, five ethanol plants are staying afloat thanks in part to the facilities' close proximity to the corn supply needed to generate the fuel as well as buyers for the grains left over after production. (durangoherald.com)
  • By slowing the rate and fervor with which ethanol production is developed, proponents and skeptics alike can take more time to study all the repercussions of the technology. (durangoherald.com)
  • As problematic as corn-based ethanol production can be, it embodies the innovation necessary for developing a broader menu of energy options. (durangoherald.com)
  • Some scientists contend that ethanol consumes more energy in its production than it yields in gas tanks. (nytimes.com)
  • Ethanol stocks have remained high since the expiration of the credit, forcing some plants to reduce production or close. (reuters.com)
  • Penford Products Co. has resumed its production and sale of ethanol in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, after being off-line for more than three months following record flooding in the state, which forced the plant to shut down in June. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Xylose is an unused waste sugar in the cellulosic ethanol production process. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Ontario has invested heavily in its promise to boost ethanol production. (thestar.com)
  • Hawkeye, which ranks as the third largest ethanol producer in the U.S. based on production capacity, said first-quarter net income rose to $6.8 million on revenue of $27.7 million, from net income of $1.4 million and revenue of $18 million in the year-ago period. (marketwatch.com)
  • According to the Nebraska Energy Office, as of June 2010 the ethanol production capacity in the United States was approximately 13.5 billion gallons per year with another 1.2 billions per year of capacity under construction. (ehow.com)
  • They have plants in Big Stone, Chancellor, Groton, Hudson, Mitchel and Scotland, which produce a total of 377 million gallons of ethanol a year, 37 percent of South Dakota's annual production. (ehow.com)
  • Valero Renewable Fuels in Aurora produces 120 million gallons of ethanol every year, a contribution of 12 percent of the total production in South Dakota. (ehow.com)
  • This will bring their Huron operation to 65 million gallons annually and raise South Dakota ethanol production to 1.049 billion gallons per year. (ehow.com)
  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture currently estimates that 37 percent of America's corn goes to ethanol production. (ibtimes.com)
  • Meanwhile, in other bad news for ethanol, in a conference call today Archer Daniels Midland said that ethanol production is down 21% from a year ago, as cheap oil, tight credit and weak demand take their toll. (businessinsider.com)
  • The U.S. biofuel industry is striving to produce ethanol from cellulosic feedstock sources in an effort to augment its existing corn grain-based ethanol production infrastructure. (repec.org)
  • At the moment, several firms have pilot scale cellulosic ethanol production facilities under construction and testing. (repec.org)
  • As the world's largest sugar and ethanol exporter, Brazil is in the middle of a record cane harvest in which mills are favoring biofuel production due to poor returns on sugar. (reuters.com)
  • It has ethanol production plants in Oregon, Idaho, Stockton and an idled plant in Madera. (bizjournals.com)
  • A recent study, released on 11 October, Bio-fuel Markets and Technologies released by Pike Research states that the global bio-fuel market will double within the next decade to 183.3 billion dollars from its current level of 82.7 billion, with ethanol production accounting for 78 billion of future worldwide bio-fuel production, while predicting that bio-diesel production will reach 25.5 billion. (mercopress.com)
  • Brazil's government unveiled new financing and other incentives for sugar cane ethanol production, vowing to work closely with the private sector to boost production in an industry that has struggled recently despite its immense promise. (mercopress.com)
  • This year in the United States, more acres of corn are expected to be planted than any year since World War II to help meet increased demand, driven in part by increased ethanol production. (howstuffworks.com)
  • U.S. scientists say a byproduct of corn ethanol fuel production might become useful as a way of controlling weeds in potted ornamental plants. (redorbit.com)
  • Total nameplate production capacity in the Midwest, where most ethanol production is concentrated, was 822,000 barrels a day as of January 1, the EIA said. (marketwatch.com)
  • Maize or corn ( Zea mays ) grain and other cereals such as sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) are the primary feedstock for U.S. ethanol production, but competing feed and food demands on grain supplies and prices will eventually limit expansion of grain-ethanol capacity. (pnas.org)
  • Net energy production has been used to evaluate the energy efficiency of ethanol derived from both grain and cellulosic biomass ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • The UN has called for an immediate suspension of government-mandated US ethanol production, adding to pressure on Barack Obama to address the food-versus-fuel debate in the run-up to presidential elections. (cnn.com)
  • In addition, high corn prices were already curbing ethanol production, he said. (cnn.com)
  • That rule gave biofuels like first-generation ethanol low marks for indirect land use, but it gave some time for the industry to shift to greater production of next-generation fuels, which were expected to be cleaner over their life-cycle. (ibtimes.com)
  • In 2009, ethanol production contributed $53.3 billion to the nation's gross domestic product and generated $8.4 billion in federal tax revenues, resulting in a surplus of $3.4 billion for the federal treasury. (washingtontimes.com)
  • A new study finds that ethanol production drives such land clearing, contributing greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. (npr.org)
  • I mean, sure, today ethanol production or renewable fuel technology itself is not perfect. (npr.org)
  • But the new study concludes that even vast efficiency improvements in ethanol production won't change the equation. (npr.org)
  • In addition, most other economic calculations of ethanol production have ignored the costs of environmental damage associated with corn production. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • WASHINGTON -- The Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) thanked President Bush for his participation in a panel discussion on advances in industrial biotechnology that can help dramatically increase ethanol production, held today during a visit to Novozymes North America of Franklinton, N. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The process "produces high-quality alternative energy sources for the production of electricity or ethanol, while reducing sludge formation and lowering wastewater treatment plant costs and increasing plant capacity," Qteros said in a statement. (xconomy.com)
  • The first production car running entirely on ethanol was the Fiat 147, introduced in 1978 in Brazil by Fiat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concerns about its production and use relate to increased food prices due to the large amount of arable land required for crops, as well as the energy and pollution balance of the whole cycle of ethanol production, especially from corn. (wikipedia.org)
  • SEKAB has developed an industrial process for production of ethanol from biomass feed-stocks, including wood chips and sugar cane bagasse. (wikipedia.org)
  • In ethanol fermentation, (1) one glucose molecule breaks down into two pyruvates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethanol fermentation , also called alcoholic fermentation , is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose , fructose , and sucrose into cellular energy , producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical equations below summarize the fermentation of sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ) into ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcoholic fermentation converts one mole of glucose into two moles of ethanol and two moles of carbon dioxide, producing two moles of ATP in the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fermentation of sugar to ethanol and CO 2 can also be done by Zymomonas mobilis , however the path is slightly different since formation of pyruvate does not happen by glycolysis but instead by the Entner-Doudoroff pathway . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other microorganisms can produce ethanol from sugars by fermentation but often only as a side product. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] The hydrolyzed sugar could then be processed to form ethanol through fermentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethanol is a fuel made from the fermentation and distillation of sugars and starches. (howstuffworks.com)
  • An additional feedstock source for producing ethanol is the lignocellulosic components of plant biomass, from which ethanol can be produced via saccrification and fermentation ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The complete genome sequence of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis provides new opportunities for industrial alcohol fermentation. (usda.gov)
  • Ethanol is naturally produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts or via petrochemical processes such as ethylene hydration. (wikipedia.org)
  • During ethanol fermentation, glucose and other sugars in the corn (or sugarcane or other crops) are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • C6H12O6 → 2 C2H5OH+ 2 CO2 + heat Ethanol fermentation is not 100% selective with side products such as acetic acid and glycols. (wikipedia.org)
  • C2H4 + H2O → C2H5OH Most ethanol is produced by fermentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process technology uses enzymatic hydrolysis, followed by fermentation of C5 and C6 sugar into ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • based cellulosic ethanol development company, has signed a multi-year feedstock supply agreement with Nebraska-based Energy Grains Biomass LLC. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • UTB ID 201503541, Liquid hydrocarbons from biomass derived ethanol, U.S. Patent App. (ornl.gov)
  • In addition to processing municipal waste, the technology can be used to create ethanol out of agricultural biomass waste, providing a potentially less expensive way to make ethanol than current corn-based plants. (technologyreview.com)
  • Cellulosic ethanol is the conversion of otherwise useless biomass, like switchgrass and corn husks, into ethanol -- it releases 80% less CO2 and no sulfur dioxide. (prospect.org)
  • In this report, we summarize the agricultural energy input costs, biomass yield, estimated ethanol output, greenhouse gas emissions, and net energy results. (pnas.org)
  • Dedicated perennial energy crops such as switchgrass, crop residues, and forestry biomass are major cellulosic ethanol sources that could potentially displace 30% of our current petroleum consumption ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • In initial analyses, switchgrass was estimated to have a net energy balance of 343% when used to produce biomass ethanol ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Ethanol is commonly made from biomass such as corn or sugarcane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is why commercially practical cellulosic ethanol is widely viewed as a next level of development for the biofuel industry that could reduce demand for oil and gas drilling in ways that grain -based ethanol fuel alone cannot. (wikipedia.org)
  • Why Are Germans Boycotting E10, the Ethanol Fuel? (treehugger.com)
  • The ideal fuel for a fuel cell is ethanol. (tripod.com)
  • Over the past several years, Arthur D. Little, with support from the Illinois Corn Marketing Board and other organizations, has developed a fuel processor that allows fuel cell powerplants to operate on ethanol. (tripod.com)
  • 2. Hydrated ethanol (alcohol which still has some water content, not 200 proof) can be used in a fuel cell system with no loss in efficiency compared with 100 % high-grade ethanol, opening the way for the use of ethanol that can be used at a lower cost. (tripod.com)
  • In a program conducted in 1996 for the ICMB, Arthur D. Little conducted a series of tests to demonstrate the use of hydrated ethanol in an advanced fuel processor. (tripod.com)
  • This research is also the subject of a paper entitled, "Evaluation of Hydrated Ethanol in an Advanced Fuel Processor," which has already been accepted for publication and will be presented at The Society of Automotive Engineers Annual Conference in March, 1997. (tripod.com)
  • This technical work and publication effort has kept ethanol positioned as a desirable fuel cell vehicle fuel. (tripod.com)
  • The proposed program for 1997-2000 will continue to promote the use of ethanol in advanced fuel cell powerplants. (tripod.com)
  • This program thus positions ethanol as a premier fuel for transportation powerplants of the 21st century. (tripod.com)
  • This program will demonstrate that ethanol--even low-cost hydrated ethanol--can be used in advanced fuel cell vehicles. (tripod.com)
  • By 2008, a fleet of 3,000 fuel cell buses and 5,000 fuel cell cars could consume about 18 million gallons of ethanol yearly. (tripod.com)
  • Breakthrough research sponsored by the Illinois Corn Marketing Board and the State of Illinois has opened the way for efficient, zero-pollution fuel cell cars and buses powered by ethanol. (tripod.com)
  • Renewable ethanol made from corn can power these fuel cell vehicles using an ethanol fuel processor developed by Arthur D. Little, Inc., of Cambridge, MA. (tripod.com)
  • Ethanol is the ideal fuel for advanced fuel cell vehicles since it reduces oil imports and has fewer negative consequences for the environment than any other practical fuel alternative. (tripod.com)
  • If ethanol becomes a considerable part of our energy mix, we may be replacing the Middle East dependency with a fix for Brazilian fuel. (wired.com)
  • Ethanol is an alcohol-based fuel made by fermenting and distilling starch crops such as corn. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Additionally, the food-versus-fuel debate has spurred significant research and development of second-generation biofuels like cellulosic ethanol that do not use food crops. (wired.com)
  • If we converted Australia's entire sugar cane crop into ethanol, using conventional techniques, we still wouldn't have anywhere enough fuel to drive our cars. (abc.net.au)
  • Some oil experts predict we'll hit the bottom of the barrel within 30 years.Ethanol, a form of alcohol, could be the answer a cleaner, greener fuel made from sugar and starch rich plants. (abc.net.au)
  • The problem is, even if we converted the whole of the Australian sugar cane crop into ethanol, using conventional techniques, we still don't have anywhere near enough fuel to drive our cars. (abc.net.au)
  • Ethanol is not a new fuel source. (abc.net.au)
  • However, the duel fuel system was phased out when oil prices plummeted, making ethanol uncompetitive. (abc.net.au)
  • Under the legislation , which was introduced by Rep. Bob Goodlatte, R-Va., and Jim Costa, D-Calif., in the U.S. House of Representatives, a stocks-to-use ratio of below 10 percent would allow the U.S. Department of Agriculture to lower the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) for ethanol in the following year on a sliding scale by as much as 50 percent. (cnbc.com)
  • Promoters of ethanol as a fuel try to insist that it serious benefits, but the arguments don't pass the laugh test. (forbes.com)
  • According to Carter, there's nothing fictitious about the economics of ethanol: 'We have flex fuel vehicles that will burn E85 but nobody buys E85 because it's so expensive, so it's just very difficult to increase past that 10 percent. (forbes.com)
  • Ethanol can be considered as the primary renewable liquid fuel. (springer.com)
  • 2011) Ethanol-the primary renewable liquid fuel. (springer.com)
  • This year, U.S. automakers will churn out a million flexible-fuel vehicles, and the number of ethanol-stocking gas stations will increase by a third, to about 1,000. (popsci.com)
  • We can do better, says Berkeley's Daniel Kammen, who sees corn-based ethanol as a "transition" fuel: "To have ethanol make a dent in gas consumption and global warming, we'll need a wide-scale switch from corn to cellulosic ethanol," a fuel made from switchgrass, wood chips and agricultural waste such as corncobs and stocks. (popsci.com)
  • What is the value of ethanol as a dependable fuel source? (buzzle.com)
  • Those concerns, along with criticism that using corn to produce fuel drives up the cost of one of the most important - and widely used - food sources on the planet, make corn-based ethanol less than ideal as an alternative to oil dependence. (durangoherald.com)
  • The economic factors that have slowed the ethanol rush can provide the opportunity to more thoroughly examine the best way to produce the clean fuel at the least cost - economic, environmental and otherwise. (durangoherald.com)
  • Valero Energy Corp., Abengoa Bioenergy US Holding Inc. and Nedak Ethanol LLC have idled plants since mid-June, citing poor market conditions for the corn-based fuel additive. (wsj.com)
  • Six biorefineries originally scheduled for completion by 2011 sought to create such "cellulosic ethanol" to help the United States produce more than 130 million gallons of the fuel per year at roughly $1.20 a gallon. (livescience.com)
  • The number of deaths and hospitalizations linked with respiratory ailments might rise if every vehicle in the United States used the latest automotive technology to run on fuel containing high levels of ethanol, according to a 2007 study from Stanford University. (livescience.com)
  • It is difficult to ascertain current levels of fuel ethanol use in Canada. (sentex.net)
  • Fuel ethanol retailing has expanded into Quebec with over 100 Sonic stations and other independent retail outlets. (sentex.net)
  • For years there's been buzz -- both positive and negative -- about generating ethanol fuel from corn. (kqed.org)
  • The time has long since passed to eliminate ethanol from this primary fuel. (wnd.com)
  • The province also has a policy to purchase vehicles that can accept 85 per cent ethanol fuel in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (thestar.com)
  • However, research has shown that the environmental benefit of grain-based ethanol fuel is modest at best, said Dale Marshall, a climate change analyst with the David Suzuki Foundation in Ottawa. (thestar.com)
  • All three deals have ties to big names on Wall Street as institutions line up to fuel the growth of ethanol with an eye on future profits. (marketwatch.com)
  • Peter Brabeck-Letmathe, chairman of Switzerland's giant Nestlé S.A. (ETR: NESR) food company, has taken his stance on ethanol: making the fuel from corn makes food items more expensive and making it from corn or sugarcane uses a lot of water. (ibtimes.com)
  • the CFA chastised the oil industry for supposedly stonewalling the idea of using ethanol to stretch out the supply of fuel. (upi.com)
  • In my view our most important finding is that the "net energy" measure, which looks only at the fossil fuel energy consumed to make a unit of energy in the form of ethanol, asks the wrong question. (prospect.org)
  • The specific technology used to make it matters a lot, but what matters more is the crop you start with: ethanol from grass or wood will be a very attractive fuel on energy, global warming, and petroleum displacement grounds. (prospect.org)
  • In addition, environmentalists point out that ethanol made from corn isn't as "green" a fuel as it could be. (toledoblade.com)
  • Researchers said the potential herbicide -- dried distillers grains with solubles, or DDGS -- is a byproduct of converting corn to fuel ethanol. (redorbit.com)
  • Slider said an influx of Brazilian supply into states in the Southeastern U.S., such as Florida , has exacerbated the glut of the fuel and displaced product from the ethanol-dense Midwest. (bloomberg.com)
  • As a first step towards the development of a direct injected dual fuel engine using diesel fuel and renewable alcohols such as methanol or ethanol, we have studied ethanol (E100) sprays generated with a standard high pressure diesel fuel injection system in a high pressure/temperature spray chamber with optical access. (sae.org)
  • The only reason the ethanol industry needs government support today is because we are denied access to the fuel market, which is controlled by the oil industry. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Growth Energy's Fueling Freedom Plan would redirect tax credits to build out an ethanol infrastructure, including "blender pumps" and a U.S. fleet of "flex-fuel" vehicles and to allow access to a fair and open market. (washingtontimes.com)
  • If we truly want to meet our nation's energy independence, we must invest in the expanded use of clean, renewable fuels - like ethanol - in our fuel system. (washingtontimes.com)
  • CHADWICK: First, with all the news about climate change, ethanol - that's fuel from corn - is supposed to be one answer. (npr.org)
  • CHADWICK: So there would be more of this produced, you think, from using ethanol as a fuel? (npr.org)
  • The RFS requires refiners to blend 15 billion gallons of conventional biofuels (i.e. corn ethanol) into the U.S. fuel supply by 2015. (commondreams.org)
  • It's petrol from poop: Marlborough, MA-based Qteros today unveiled a joint development agreement with Israeli commodities recycler Applied CleanTech under which the two companies are using Qteros' modified microorganisms to turn Applied CleanTech's "Recyllose" feedstock, which is made from the solid matter in municipal wastewater, into ethanol for vehicle fuel and other uses. (xconomy.com)
  • Ethanol-blended fuel is widely used in Brazil, the United States, and Europe (see also Ethanol fuel by country). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some flexible-fuel vehicles are able to use up to 100% ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • By December 2011 Brazil had a fleet of 14.8 million flex-fuel automobiles and light trucks and 1.5 million flex-fuel motorcycles that regularly use neat ethanol fuel (known as E100). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethanol supporters point to studies claiming it would reduce emissions, but t hose studies assume the use of switchgrass , not corn, which is not presently feasible). (forbes.com)
  • But unlike corn-based ethanol, cellulosic ethanol can be made from a variety of things that might otherwise be considered waste -- sewage sludge, switchgrass, plant stalks, trees, even coal -- virtually anything that contains carbon. (cnn.com)
  • The U.S. DOE has awarded a grant to Clemson University in South Carolina to build a pilot-scale facility to research switchgrass, sweet sorghum, trees and other ethanol feedstocks. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • For example, one acre of corn can be processed into about 330 gallons of ethanol, while one acre of switchgrass can be processed into about 1,150 gallons of ethanol a year! (howstuffworks.com)
  • 700% more output than input energy ( 8 - 10 ), whereas GHG have been assumed to be near zero ( 1 ) or estimated to be slightly positive ( 8 ) for ethanol derived from switchgrass. (pnas.org)
  • Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ethanol (alcohol). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Denatured alcohol is a form of ethanol with specific additives that make it unfit for human consumption. (buzzle.com)
  • The ethanol test, commonly known as alcohol test, is used for both medical and legal purposes. (labcorp.com)
  • Post-mortem ethanol testing may be done to determine whether alcohol contributed to a person's death. (labcorp.com)
  • Hawkeye buys corn and converts it into ethanol, a type of grain alcohol. (marketwatch.com)
  • Hepatotoxicity of ethanol results from alcohol dehydrogenase-mediated excessive hepatic generation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and acetaldehyde. (nih.gov)
  • The contribution of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase to the first pass metabolism of ethanol and alcohol-drug interactions is now recognized. (nih.gov)
  • The term "alcohol" now refers to a wider class of substances in chemistry nomenclature, but in common parlance it remains the name of ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of "alcohol" for ethanol (in full, "alcohol of wine") is modern, first recorded 1753, while before the late 18th century the term "alcohol" generally referred to any sublimated substance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absolute ethanol may inactivate microbes without destroying them because the alcohol is unable to fully permeate the microbe's membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid preparations of pain medications, cough and cold medicines, and mouth washes, for example, may contain up to 25% ethanol and may need to be avoided in individuals with adverse reactions to ethanol such as alcohol-induced respiratory reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, ethanol is primarily metabolized in the liver and stomach by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the symptoms typically associated with alcohol intoxication - as well as many of the health hazards typically associated with the long-term consumption of ethanol - can be attributed to acetaldehyde toxicity in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new system for converting trash into ethanol and methanol could help reduce the amount of waste piling up in landfills while displacing a large fraction of the fossil fuels used to power vehicles in the United States. (technologyreview.com)
  • The next step is a catalyst-based process for converting syngas into equal parts ethanol and methanol. (technologyreview.com)
  • Ethanol may be administered as an antidote to ethylene glycol poisoning and methanol poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • On Oct. 13, representatives from the Democratic Party toured Range Fuels' pilot-scale cellulosic ethanol plant in Denver. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • DuPont exec defends cellulosic ethanol plant in Nevada DuPont's William Feehery said the plant will pay off as companies such as Procter & Gamble Co. add to demand for renewable chemicals and fuels. (desmoinesregister.com)
  • DuPont's cellulosic ethanol plant in Iowa has been in the news this week, first with its announcement that Procter & Gamble Co. would use the biofuel to make Tide Cold Water detergent , and then yesterday as a DuPont executive defended its $500 million investment in the plant. (desmoinesregister.com)
  • Believed to be the world's largest cellulosic ethanol plant as of early 2011, the facility runs on about 30,000 metric tons (33,000 tons) of straw per year and the plant employs about 30 people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clariant is building a cellulosic ethanol plant to be sourced with agricultural residues and based on their sunliquid® technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • This largess to both parties helped the ethanol industry in its infancy and staved off the opposition even of Ronald Reagan, who sought the elimination of ethanol tax breaks early in his Presidency. (nytimes.com)
  • Corn growers, ethanol refiners and farm-belt politicians have pressured the EPA to abandon this plan, The Renewable Fuels Association threatened to sue, and market signals suggest the pressure is working. (forbes.com)
  • Even if corn prices soar further, corn-based ethanol is still likely to remain the cheapest renewable to use in blended fuels. (kiplinger.com)
  • Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger sits next to an ethanol-powered vehicle after signing an order establishing the world's first low-carbon standard for transportation fuels in California in January. (latimes.com)
  • By using a wider lens to view the potential for ethanol, its growth as an alternative to fossil fuels, clean energy developers can more easily overcome the obstacles that have stymied corn-based ethanol's projected rapid growth. (durangoherald.com)
  • Pros Since ethanol is made from plants, this means it is made renewably, unlike fossil fuels. (livescience.com)
  • Across Canada, there are 929 retailers of ethanol-blended fuels (November, 1998), excluding those who are not listed with the Canadian Renewable Fuels Association. (sentex.net)
  • On January 1, 1998, Sunoco Inc. launched ethanol-enhanced fuels at all of its 275 retail outlets in Ontario. (sentex.net)
  • Other companies that have joined in the retailing of ethanol-blended fuels include Mr. Gas, Pioneer Petroleum, Frances Fuels, Stinson Petroleum and Sunys. (sentex.net)
  • We have seen some plants slow down in our direct area," said Chuck Woodside, chief executive officer at KAAPA Ethanol in Nebraska and chairman of the Renewable Fuels Association. (reuters.com)
  • Two ethanol industry veterans are joining the Renewable Fuels Association. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Although testing will continue into 2011, the Renewable Fuels Association , an ethanol advocacy group, would like the EPA to approve E15 for vehicles made since 1994-about 87 percent of the U.S. fleet-as soon as possible. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Heartland Grain Fuels has two ethanol plants in South Dakota. (ehow.com)
  • As families face record prices at the pump, it's time to reduce our dependence on expensive petroleum imports and ratchet up our use of lower-cost, domestically produced ethanol," Robert Dineen, president of the Renewable Fuels Association, said in a news release shortly after the House passed its version of the energy bill. (upi.com)
  • Pacific Ethanol (Nasdaq: PEIX) markets and produces low carbon, renewable fuels in the West. (bizjournals.com)
  • Nineteen ethanol plants have been idled since June as the drought wilted the corn crop, according to the Renewable Fuels Association , a Washington-based trade group. (bloomberg.com)
  • Under a 2007 energy law, U.S. refiners are to use 13.8 billion gallons of renewable fuels, such as ethanol this year and 15 billion by 2015. (bloomberg.com)
  • I develop a theoretical model linking the shape of the ethanol demand curve to the distribution of price ratios at which individual households switch fuels. (nber.org)
  • The White House has finished a review of a rule that aims to cut emissions from alternative motor fuels like ethanol, federal environmental regulators said on Thursday. (ibtimes.com)
  • Biofuels like corn ethanol have been hailed as climate-friendly fuels. (npr.org)
  • Sustainable biofuels such as corn ethanol are climate solutions ready for use today, as the Climate Ethanol Alliance showed at COP 23 in Bonn. (euractiv.com)
  • At first blush, biofuels such as corn ethanol and soybean diesel seem like they would be great from the standpoint of global warming. (npr.org)
  • [1] By contrast, starch ethanol (e.g., from corn), which most frequently uses natural gas to provide energy for the process, may not reduce GHG emissions at all depending on how the starch-based feedstock is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ethanol used in transportation applications reduces oil dependence and results in lower emissions. (tripod.com)
  • However, another study showed ethanol reduces tailpipe carbon monoxide as much as 30 percent and tailpipe particulate matter emissions by 50 percent (.pdf). (wired.com)
  • Researchers have also suggested that ethanol may not cut down on carbon dioxide emissions as much as hoped, since creating ethanol generates a lot of the greenhouse gas in the first place. (livescience.com)
  • Ethanol: Higher Emissions or Lower? (factcheck.org)
  • The report by economist Douglas Ault at the University of Guelph concluded there was no conclusive scientific evidence that ethanol reduces emissions and has largely failed as a tool to spur rural development. (thestar.com)
  • Ethanol promoters try to portray themselves as opposing the oil industry's attempts to limit consumer choice. (forbes.com)
  • The CFA chalked up the industry's reluctance to jump on the ethanol bandwagon as a sign of lack of competition and a desire to maintain what has been, of late, a very profitable status quo. (upi.com)
  • The first large-scale commercial operation to produce cellulosic ethanol (the kind of ethanol made not from corn or other grown crops, but from organic waste) in the US just got major backing from the oil industry, and will be online in 2013. (treehugger.com)
  • Unlike food crops, ethanol crops and cellulosic ethanol crops can grow in any soil that will sustain grass . (wired.com)
  • Researchers, including Argonne, are investigating using marginal land to grow ethanol crops. (wired.com)
  • The ethanol scheme favors these energy crops, she argued, because they can grow on marginal land without impacting food prices. (forbes.com)
  • But when the EPA backs down from the ethanol mandates, she said, it creates uncertainty for investors and farmers, undermining the potential of energy crops. (forbes.com)
  • Rice University scientists and their colleagues have found that when growing corn crops for ethanol, more means less. (redorbit.com)
  • Ethanol is typically made from corn, sugar cane and other crops. (livescience.com)
  • Cellulosic ethanol may be an improvement over ethanol made from crops, "but we won't know until the plants get built. (livescience.com)
  • Mr. Dole's home state of Kansas has plenty of corn growers whose crops are used to make ethanol, but studies indicate that they benefit less than the company does. (nytimes.com)
  • And even with corn ethanol falling of favor, farmers who grow the crops to make the next generation biofuel, known as cellulosic ethanol, are also predominantly in the Hawkeye State. (politico.com)
  • But there are several smaller companies across the country, including Pacific Ethanol in Sacramento and BioFuel Energy in Denver. (cnbc.com)
  • Pacific Ethanol however, is under threat of having its stock delisted from the Nasdaq because it's trading under $1 a share. (cnbc.com)
  • Sacramento-based Pacific Ethanol reported record sales for the third quarter, in part due to marketing efforts and rising sales prices per gallon. (bizjournals.com)
  • Pacific Ethanol Inc. (Nasdaq: PEIX) reported net sales of $271.6 million, compared to $46 million in the same period in 2010. (bizjournals.com)
  • it was idle in the third quarter in 2010, according to Pacific Ethanol. (bizjournals.com)
  • In the first nine months of the year, Pacific Ethanol reported $659.4 million in sales, compared to $194.1 million in the same period in 2010. (bizjournals.com)
  • Pacific Ethanol shares closed trading at 34 cents Wednesday, up 2 cents from Tuesday. (bizjournals.com)
  • Pacific Ethanol Inc. said it's struck an agreement with lenders that brings the Sacramento-based company into full compliance with the terms of its debt on an ethanol refinery in Pekin, Illinois. (yahoo.com)
  • PEIX : Summary for Pacific Ethanol, Inc. (yahoo.com)
  • Categories: ETFs Yahoo FinanceClick here to see latest analysis ETFs with exposure to Pacific Ethanol, Inc. Here are 5 ETFs with the largest exposure to PEIX-US. (yahoo.com)
  • Comparing the performance and risk of Pacific Ethanol, Inc. with the ETFs that have exposure to it gives us some ETF choices that could give us similar returns with lower volatility. (yahoo.com)
  • In addition, because plants naturally soak up the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, in principle, using ethanol could in total release little or no carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, or even help remove it. (livescience.com)
  • and (3) metabolic interactions, where the interaction takes place at the level of metabolism of ethanol or the second drug. (springer.com)
  • Creaven, P. J., & Roach, M. K. Effect of chloral hydrate on the metabolism of ethanol. (springer.com)
  • These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of ethanol into acetaldehyde (ethanal): CH3CH2OH + NAD+ → CH3CHO + NADH + H+ When present in significant concentrations, this metabolism of ethanol is additionally aided by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2E1 in humans, while trace amounts are also metabolized by catalase. (wikipedia.org)
  • If oil prices stay around $100 a barrel, ethanol will remain an attractive alternative even without the mandates, Westhoff says. (go.com)
  • Federal grants are already starting to make that happen, and certain provisions in the U.S. biofuels mandates call for the use of cellulosic ethanol. (go.com)
  • It is time to rethink ethanol mandates that ensure that cars eat before people. (thenewamerican.com)
  • The number of E85 stations across the United States has increased by 28 percent in the past year, according to the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • In Michigan, only four stations are listed on the web site of the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition. (toledoblade.com)
  • The transition from pilot scale to full commercialization of cellulosic ethanol will be difficult, due in large part financial constraints being imposed both internally and externally on the biofuels industry. (repec.org)
  • The US government actively supports the development and commercialization of cellulosic ethanol through a variety of mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since 1978, the industry had enjoyed a mounting tax subsidy (for refiners that used ethanol) and trade protection against foreign competitors. (kiplinger.com)
  • Bob Slaughter, president of the National Petrochemical and Refiners Association said the added logistics costs play a large role in a refiner's decisions whether to use ethanol. (upi.com)
  • Feedstocks are the basic components of ethanol. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Cellulosic ethanol can be produced from a diverse array of feedstocks, such as wood pulp from trees or any plant matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, the researchers found only a modest increase in plant and stem cellulose, the basic component used to produce cellulosic ethanol. (redorbit.com)
  • Technology to commercially produce cellulosic ethanol is rapidly advancing due in large part to the availability of substancial federal research and development funding. (repec.org)
  • And Archer Daniels Midland Co., the biggest U.S. ethanol producer by capacity, said that its ethanol margins had eroded to a loss of well over 20 cents a gallon. (wsj.com)
  • POET Biorefining is South Dakota's largest ethanol producer. (ehow.com)
  • The ethanol producer posted revenue of $405.2 million in the period, missing Street forecasts. (yahoo.com)
  • the leading West Coast-based marketer and producer of ethanol , announced today its intention to temporarily suspend operations at its 40 million gallon per year ethanol facility located in Madera, CA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At today's prices, corn represents roughly 76 percent of the cost of producing ethanol. (technologyreview.com)
  • Of course the same problem would emerge with ethanol made with sugarcane or soy or any other food crop. (cnn.com)
  • The drought's damage to the U.S. corn crop puts the ethanol industry on the spot. (kiplinger.com)
  • The ideal cellulosic ethanol crop has no lignin -- except you can't have a plant without it, because it would fall over. (redorbit.com)
  • Based on the estimate of 56 pounds of corn per bushel, 15 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol in 2022 would require almost six billion bushels of corn, or more than half of this year's estimated national corn crop. (ibtimes.com)
  • Ethanol, which can be made from farm-grown corn or even certain crop waste, is among the category of internal-combustion propellants known as biofuels. (toledoblade.com)
  • The $225 million plant, now under construction in Nevada, will use crop residue -- corn cobs, leaves and stalks -- to make ethanol. (desmoinesregister.com)
  • Dakota Ethanol has a plant in Wentworth producing 50 million gallons of ethanol per year. (ehow.com)
  • Their plant in Watertown produces 100 million gallons of ethanol per year. (ehow.com)
  • North Country Ethanol in Rosholt produces 20 million gallons of ethanol per year, 2 percent of the total for South Dakota. (ehow.com)
  • America's ethanol industry creates a steady grain market for our nation's farmers and plays a critical role in revitalizing America's rural areas by stimulating economic growth. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Cellulosic ethanol is made from the 'woody' structural material in plants that is unusable by humans. (wired.com)
  • Exports have provided a bright spot for the industry since last year as U.S. corn-based ethanol has become far less costly than Brazilian ethanol , which is mostly made from sugarcane. (cnbc.com)
  • NEW YORK (CNNMoney.com) -- Cellulosic ethanol, the biofuel that differs from corn-based ethanol in that it can be made from pretty much any organic matter, has made an impression among people who matter. (cnn.com)
  • And last month Goldman Sachs ( Charts ), the world's largest investment bank, poured $27 million into Iogen, a Canadian-based biotech specializing in ethanol made from cellulose. (cnn.com)
  • Most ethanol currently produced in the U.S. is made from corn kernels. (cnn.com)
  • In a year when announcements of equity drives have been few and far between, East Coast Ethanol LLC made a big splash Oct. 14, holding concurrent events announcing plans to build four 110 MMgy corn-based ethanol plants along the Atlantic Coast. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • The EPA recently approved a higher blend of ethanol for cars, but only those made since 2007. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Nameplate capacity refers to the volume of 'made-unfit-for-human-consumption' ethanol that can be produced over the course of a year under normal operational conditions. (marketwatch.com)
  • Most US ethanol is made from corn. (cnn.com)
  • The tests may be ordered for a person who presents to the emergency room with signs and symptoms suggesting ethanol toxicity. (labcorp.com)
  • Conversely, nutritional deficits may affect the toxicity of ethanol and acetaldehyde, as illustrated by the depletion in glutathione, ameliorated by S-adenosyl-L-methionine. (nih.gov)
  • The resulting intermediate, acetaldehyde, is a known carcinogen, and poses significantly greater toxicity in humans than ethanol itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the U.S. only produces 10.8 billion bushels of corn and 5 billion bushels still goes to make ethanol, a shrinking percentage of corn is left for food and feed. (thenewamerican.com)
  • The ethanol industry says small refinery exemptions have destroyed demand for 2.6 billion gallons of ethanol, and 1 billion bushels of corn, since the president took office. (usatoday.com)
  • So it should be no surprise that the anti-ethanol contingent, of which Brabeck-Letmathe is a part, is up in arms again as America's corn harvest is forecast to be down 14.5 percent this year to 11.8 billion bushels. (ibtimes.com)
  • If the new study holds up to scrutiny, America's main biofuel industry, corn-based ethanol, would flunk that test. (npr.org)
  • Lifting that cap is crucial for the struggling ethanol industry. (kiplinger.com)
  • The ethanol industry has had a profitable year despite the jump in corn prices, but the industry faces a slew of headwinds, including overcapacity and political pressure to cut generous incentives. (cnbc.com)
  • This will make ethanol stand on its own, something I believe the industry is prepared to do," he says. (cnbc.com)
  • The EPA has a method to save the ethanol scheme, but now they're being scared off by the very industry that would go down with it,' Colin Carter, director of the Gianinni Foundation of Agricultural Economics at UC Davis, told about 65 people at the University of Chicago on Thursday. (forbes.com)
  • Yes, the drought has put the ethanol industry -- and Washington -- in a box. (kiplinger.com)
  • Critics of ethanol are often accused of shilling for the oil industry. (livescience.com)
  • The higher ethanol blend had been banned in the summer, a rule the ethanol industry said was outdated. (usatoday.com)
  • Now the industry is trying to resist House Republicans who want to cut the budget by cutting the subsidy for ethanol. (nytimes.com)
  • The economic crisis in the United States has resonated in virtually every market, including the ethanol industry. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Help on the Way for Ethanol Industry? (kiplinger.com)
  • The ailing ethanol industry is pushing for a stimulus package all its own -- and for a change it wouldn't cost the taxpayer a dime. (kiplinger.com)
  • And also listed ethanol upstream raw materials equipments and down stream client survey analysis and Safety light curtainmarketing channels industry development trend and proposals. (slideshare.net)
  • In the end, this report introduced ethanol new project SWOT analysis Investment feasibility analysis investment return analysis and also give related research conclusions and development trend analysis of Global and China Polyethylene wax industry. (slideshare.net)
  • In a word, it was a depth research report on Global and China ethanol Industry. (slideshare.net)
  • And thanks to the support and assistance from ethanol Industry chain related technical experts and marketing engineers during Research Team survey and interviews. (slideshare.net)
  • 3. 11.3 New Project Investment Proposals 11.4 Competitive Environment Strategy Proposals chapter Twelve Ethanol New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis 12.1 Ethanol Project Swot Analysis 12.2 Ethanol New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis chapter Thirteen Global And China Ethanol Industry Research Conclusions ResearchMoz(http://www.researchmoz.us/) is the one stop online destination to find and buy market research reports & Industry Analysis. (slideshare.net)
  • We think there is a competitive market in ethanol that, unlike the oil industry, has become more competitive. (upi.com)
  • Cooper, who said the CFA was not affiliated with the ethanol industry, urged Big Oil not to wait for Senate's vote on energy legislation expected later this month and instead should drop its cautious approach and warmly embrace ethanol -- if for no other reason than to give the little guy a needed break at the pump. (upi.com)
  • Kate McMahon and Ryan Alexander's Dec. 22 opinion column "Corn pork in the tax bill" (Commentary) is breathless in its unfair dismissal of what America's ethanol industry has done and what it can do for our economy, environment and national security, given the chance to compete against oil in a fair and open market. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The ethanol industry supports more than 400,000 jobs that cannot be exported or outsourced. (washingtontimes.com)
  • a local company planning to build an ethanol plant is facing what is becoming an increasingly common battle against local opposition. (wsj.com)
  • High corn prices have led farmers to plant more corn, and last year, not all of the increased supply went to ethanol. (go.com)
  • President Donald Trump came to an Iowa ethanol plant to discuss year-round access to E-15. (usatoday.com)
  • Green Plains Renewable Energy Inc. is moving to Phase II with its algae project at one plant and planning to install corn oil extraction technology at all six of its ethanol plants. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Panda Ethanol Inc. has restructured the funding arrangements on its 115 MMgy ethanol plant in Hereford, Texas. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • A corn ethanol plant under construction. (ehow.com)
  • The Wentworth plant produces just under 5 percent of South Dakota's ethanol. (ehow.com)
  • A major difference between corn-based and 'cellulosic' ethanol is that biorefineries producing corn ethanol need to purchase electricity, while those producing cellulosic ethanol can burn the plant waste and generate their own power, the study said. (businessinsider.com)
  • A field of dead corn sits next to the Lincolnland Agri-Energy ethanol plant in Palestine, Illinois on Wednesday, July 25. (cnn.com)
  • A handful of corn is shown before it is processed at the Tall Corn Ethanol plant in Coon Rapids, Iowa in 2006. (mysanantonio.com)
  • The plant is able to produce up to 1000 tons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural residues such as wheat straw, corn stover or sugarcane bagasse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plant will have an annual capacity of 50,000 tons of ethanol and be located in Podari in southwestern Romania. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myth No. 1: Ethanol requires more energy to make than it yields. (wired.com)
  • This can then be mixed straight into unleaded petrol to make E10, that's petrol with 10% ethanol. (abc.net.au)
  • Greenspan said cellulosic ethanol is the only alternative energy source that could be produced in enough volume to make a dent in gas usage. (cnn.com)
  • In recent months, demand for corn used to make increasing amounts of ethanol has driven up corn prices, and to some extent food prices . (technologyreview.com)
  • About half of that increase, or 40 million tons, comes from corn used to make ethanol. (go.com)
  • You're gonna own whatever the EPA puts out," said Monte Shaw, head the Iowa-based America's Renewable Future, which is launching a campaign to get caucus-goers to make ethanol a big factor in their decision. (politico.com)
  • But in this case, boring is better and the cheap, easy tweaks required by ethanol would make any changeover infinitely easier. (prospect.org)
  • Can I Make My Own Ethanol? (howstuffworks.com)
  • Just as different foods give your body more or less energy, so will different stock plants make for better ethanol. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The key to making great ethanol is to find feedstock close to you and make it work. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The crush spread, or the price of ethanol minus the price of the corn needed to make it, is minus 21 cents a gallon. (bloomberg.com)
  • Unfortunately for the farmers, the Environmental Protection Agency has proposed reducing the ethanol requirement below the level mandated by law. (politico.com)
  • Brazil exports of ethanol grew by 20.7 percent to more than 145 million liters in February over last year, according to the Energy Management Institute. (wired.com)
  • According to the USDA, the U.S. had already exported more ethanol in the first five months of 2011 than it had in all of 2010, which was also a big year for exports. (cnbc.com)
  • SAO PAULO, July 31 (Reuters) - Brazil's largest sugar and ethanol group, Cosan CSAN3.SA , said on Thursday it expects record exports of ethanol in 2008/09 (May-April), half of which will go to the U.S. market. (reuters.com)
  • The group's ethanol exports should account for 25 percent of the expected output for the season, compared with less than 20 percent in recent years, said Cosan's commercial vice president Marcos Lutz. (reuters.com)
  • Brazil's center-south ethanol exports are estimated at around 5 billion liters this season, compared with 3.1 billion liters in 2007/08, due mainly to strong demand from the United States. (reuters.com)
  • Brazil is studying the removal of a 20% tariff on ethanol imports from the United States, Agriculture Minister Blairo Maggi said on Wednesday, in a decision that could depend on Washington lifting a ban on fresh beef exports from Brazil. (mercopress.com)