A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)
A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The instinctive tendency (or ability) to assume a normal position of the body in space when it has been displaced.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Substances interfering with the metabolism of ethyl alcohol, causing unpleasant side effects thought to discourage the drinking of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol deterrents are used in the treatment of alcoholism.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
Extracellular structures found in a variety of microorganisms. They contain CELLULASES and play an important role in the digestion of CELLULOSE.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
The doctrines and policies of the Nazis or the National Social German Workers party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933-1945. These doctrines and policies included racist nationalism, expansionism, and state control of the economy. (from Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. and American Heritage College Dictionary, 3d ed.)
Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.
A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.
A subjective feeling that an experience which is occurring for the first time has been experienced before.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.

Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures. (1/9751)

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.  (+info)

Quantitative aspects in the assessment of liver injury. (2/9751)

Liver function data are usually difficult to use in their original form when one wishes to compare the hepatotoxic properties of several chemical substances. However, procedures are available for the conversion of liver function data into quantal responses. These permit the elaboration of dose-response lines for the substances in question, the calculation of median effective doses and the statistical analysis of differences in liver-damaging potency. These same procedures can be utilized for estimating the relative hazard involved if one compares the liver-damaging potency to the median effective dose for some other pharmacologie parameter. Alterations in hepatic triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and the activities of various hepatic enzymes can also be quantitiated in a dose-related manner. This permits the selection of equitoxic doses required for certain comparative studies and the selection of doses in chemical interaction studies. The quantitative problems involved in low-frequency adverse reactions and the difficulty these present in the detection of liver injury in laboratory animals are discussed.  (+info)

Toxicological findings in a fatal ingestion of methamphetamine. (3/9751)

This paper presents the case history of a fatality caused by the complications brought about by the presence of methamphetamine and ethanol. Drug concentrations are reported from samples obtained approximately 15 min after the subject was last observed to be chewing what was then believed to be gum, 3 h after the initial toxic symptoms were displayed, 6, 11, and 22 h later. The subjects conditions deteriorated over the course of this time, and he was declared dead 33 h after the initial display of toxic symptoms. The toxicological findings and concentration levels of the reported biological specimens concurred with the expected findings in a case of methamphetamine toxicity.  (+info)

Ciprofloxacin decreases the rate of ethanol elimination in humans. (4/9751)

BACKGROUND: Extrahepatic ethanol metabolism is postulated to take place via microbial oxidation in the colon, mediated by aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. AIMS: To evaluate the role of microbial ethanol oxidation in the total elimination rate of ethanol in humans by reducing gut flora with ciprofloxacin. METHODS: Ethanol was administered intravenously at the beginning and end of a one week period to eight male volunteers. Between ethanol doses volunteers received 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily. RESULTS: A highly significant (p=0.001) reduction in the ethanol elimination rate (EER) was detected after ciprofloxacin medication. Mean (SEM) EER was 107.0 (5.3) and 96.9 (4.8) mg/kg/h before and after ciprofloxacin, respectively. Faecal Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus sp. were totally absent after medication, and faecal acetaldehyde production capacity was significantly (p<0.05) decreased from 0.91 (0.15) to 0.39 (0.08) nmol/min/mg protein. Mean faecal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity was significantly (p<0. 05) decreased after medication, but ciprofloxacin did not inhibit human hepatic ADH activity in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Ciprofloxacin treatment decreased the ethanol elimination rate by 9.4%, with a concomitant decrease in intestinal aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, faecal ADH activity, and acetaldehyde production. As ciprofloxacin has no effect on liver blood flow, hepatic ADH activity, or cytochrome CYP2E1 activity, these effects are probably caused by the reduction in intestinal flora.  (+info)

Acute effects of ethanol on kainate receptors with different subunit compositions. (5/9751)

Previous studies showed that recombinant homomeric GluR6 receptors are acutely inhibited by ethanol. This study examined the acute actions of ethanol on recombinant homomeric and heteromeric kainate (KA) receptors with different subunit configurations. Application of 25 to 100 mM ethanol produced inhibition of a similar magnitude of both GluR5-Q and GluR6-R KA receptor-dependent currents in Xenopus oocytes. Ethanol decreased the KA Emax without affecting the EC50 and its effect was independent of the membrane holding potential for both of these receptors subtypes. Ethanol also inhibited homomeric and heteromeric receptors transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. In these cells, the expression of heteromeric GluR6-R subunit-containing receptors was confirmed by testing their sensitivity to 1 mM alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid. Ethanol inhibited to a similar extent KA-gated currents mediated by receptors composed of either GluR6 or GluR6 + KA1 subunits, and to a slightly lesser extent receptors composed of GluR6 + KA2 subunits. Acute ethanol's effects were tested on GluR5 KA receptors that are expressed as homomers (GluR5-Q) or heteromers (GluR5-R + KA1 and GluR5-R + KA2). Homomeric and heteromeric GluR5 KA receptors were all inhibited to a similar extent by ethanol; however, there was slightly more inhibition of GluR5-R + KA2 receptors. Thus, recombinant KA receptors with different subunit compositions are all acutely inhibited to a similar extent by ethanol. In light of recent reports that KA receptors regulate neurotransmitter release and mediate synaptic currents, we postulate that these receptors may play a role in acute ethanol intoxication.  (+info)

Ethanol exposure differentially alters central monoamine neurotransmission in alcohol-preferring versus -nonpreferring rats. (6/9751)

Individual differences in ethanol preference may be linked to differences in the functional activity of forebrain monoamine systems or their sensitivity to modification by ethanol. To test this hypothesis, basal extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens as well as the effects of repeated ethanol pretreatment on the basal release of these transmitters were examined in alcohol-preferring (P), alcohol-nonpreferring (NP), and genetically heterogeneous Wistar rats. All animals received i.p. injections of ethanol (1.0 g/kg) or saline for 5 consecutive days. Fifteen hours after the final pretreatment, basal extracellular concentrations and "in vivo extraction fraction" values for DA and 5-HT were determined by no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis. In ethanol-naive rats, significant line differences were observed with high basal 5-HT release in P rats, low 5-HT release in NP rats, and intermediate 5-HT levels in Wistar rats. No differences among groups were noted in basal DA release. Ethanol pretreatment decreased basal extracellular 5-HT levels in P rats whereas increasing 5-HT efflux was seen in the Wistar and NP lines. In addition, ethanol pretreatment increased extracellular DA concentrations in Wistar and P rats, but not in NP rats. The results confirm a relationship between the functional status of forebrain DA and 5-HT systems and ethanol preference or aversion. Moreover, the data suggest that ethanol exposure can alter basal DA and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens and that vulnerability to ethanol-induced changes in monoamine neurotransmission may be a factor in genetically determined ethanol preference.  (+info)

Isocitrate lyase of Ashbya gossypii--transcriptional regulation and peroxisomal localization. (7/9751)

The isocitrate lyase-encoding gene AgICL1 from the filamentous hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii was isolated by heterologous complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae icl1d mutant. The open reading frame of 1680 bp encoded a protein of 560 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 62584. Disruption of the AgICL1 gene led to complete loss of AgIcl1p activity and inability to grow on oleic acid as sole carbon source. Compartmentation of AgIcl1p in peroxisomes was demonstrated both by Percoll density gradient centrifugation and by immunogold labeling of ultrathin sections using specific antibodies. This fitted with the peroxisomal targeting signal AKL predicted from the C-terminal DNA sequence. Northern blot analysis with mycelium grown on different carbon sources as well as AgICL1 promoter replacement with the constitutive AgTEF promoter revealed a regulation at the transcriptional level. AgICL1 was subject to glucose repression, derepressed by glycerol, partially induced by the C2 compounds ethanol and acetate, and fully induced by soybean oil.  (+info)

Antisense RNA strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. (8/9751)

We examined the effectiveness of antisense RNA (as RNA) strategies for metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) was developed to produce a 102-nucleotide asRNA with 87% complementarity to the butyrate kinase (BK) gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) exhibited 85 to 90% lower BK and acetate kinase specific activities than the control strain. Strain ATCC 824(pRD4) also exhibited 45 to 50% lower phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and phosphotransacetylase specific activities than the control strain. This strain exhibited earlier induction of solventogenesis, which resulted in 50 and 35% higher final concentrations of acetone and butanol, respectively, than the concentrations in the control. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) was developed to putatively produce a 698-nucleotide asRNA with 96% complementarity to the PTB gene. Strain ATCC 824(pRD1) exhibited 70 and 80% lower PTB and BK activities, respectively, than the control exhibited. It also exhibited 300% higher levels of a lactate dehydrogenase activity than the control exhibited. The growth yields of ATCC 824(pRD1) were 28% less than the growth yields of the control. While the levels of acids were not affected in ATCC 824(pRD1) fermentations, the acetone and butanol concentrations were 96 and 75% lower, respectively, than the concentrations in the control fermentations. The lower level of solvent production by ATCC 824(pRD1) was compensated for by approximately 100-fold higher levels of lactate production. The lack of any significant impact on butyrate formation fluxes by the lower PTB and BK levels suggests that butyrate formation fluxes are not controlled by the levels of the butyrate formation enzymes.  (+info)

Author(s): Echevarria, David J.; Hammack, Catherine M.; Jouandot, David J.; Toms, Christina N. | Abstract: Previous research reports that acute alcohol exposure disrupts shoaling behavior in the zebrafish. The purpose of these studies is to better understand how acute alcohol exposure (0%, 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1.0%) alters zebrafish behavior. The effects of alcohol on aggressive behaviors in humans have been widely researched. Previous research from this lab has shown a bimodal effect of alcohol on shoaling behavior in zebrafish, with 0.5% and 2.0% (v/v) disrupting shoaling while 1.0% and 1.5% showing no direct effect. Because shoaling is a social behavior and is altered during acute alcohol exposure, aggressive behavior between fish should be addressed. In this series of experiments we explored alcohols effects on aggressive behaviors. In order to address a possible role for alcohol induced aggression as it relates to shoaling we chose to examine the effects of acute alcohol exposure on zebrafish
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention of alterations in intestinal permeability is involved in zinc inhibition of acute ethanol-induced liver damage in mice. AU - Lambert, Jason C.. AU - Zhou, Zhanxiang. AU - Wang, Lipeng. AU - Song, Zhenyuan. AU - McClain, Craig J.. AU - Kang, Yujian. PY - 2003/6/1. Y1 - 2003/6/1. N2 - Acute ethanol exposure causes liver injury in experimental animals, and accumulating evidence suggests that a major responsible factor for the pathogenesis is endotoxemia, which results from bacterial endotoxin leakage from the small intestine due to increased intestinal permeability under alcohol challenge. The purpose of this study was to examine whether zinc pretreatment would inhibit acute ethanol-induced liver injury through prevention of intestinal permeability changes. Male 129 SvPCJ mice were treated with three intragastric doses of ZnSO4 at 5 mg of zinc ion per kg each dosing prior to acute ethanol challenge with a single oral dose of 6 g/kg ethanol. The zinc treatment did not ...
1 World Production and Consumption 2 Fuel Ethanol Prices 3 International Trade 4 Blending Mandates WORLD Fuel Ethanol Production WORLD Feedstock Use for Fuel Ethanol Production WORLD Fuel Ethanol Consumption WORLD Fuel Ethanol Trade WORLD Ethanol Production WORLD Ethanol Exports WORLD Ethanol Imports ARGENTINA Fuel Ethanol Balance ARGENTINA Fuel Ethanol Reference Prices AUSTRALIA Ethanol Balance BRAZIL Ethanol Balance BRAZIL Fuel Ethanol Balance BRAZIL Fuel Ethanol Consumption by Type and Region BRAZIL Ethanol Production BRAZIL Total Ethanol Production by State BRAZIL Hydrous Ethanol Production by State BRAZIL Anhydrous Ethanol Production by State BRAZIL Hydrous and Anhydrous Ethanol Production BRAZIL São Paulo State Ex-Mill Ethanol Prices (BRL/litre) BRAZIL São Paulo State Ex-Mill Ethanol Prices (USD/litre) BRAZIL Ex-Mill Sugar As Against Hydrous Ethanol Price BRAZIL Hydrous Ethanol Retail Pump Prices BRAZIL Gasohol (Gasolina C) Retail Pump Prices BRAZIL Hydrous Ethanol/Gasohol Retail Pump ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of acute ethanol administration on hepatic protein and glycoprotein secretion in vivo. AU - Volentine, G. D.. AU - Tuma, D. J.. AU - Sorrell, M. F.. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020355393&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0020355393&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0020355393. VL - 2. SP - No. 89. JO - Hepatology. JF - Hepatology. SN - 0270-9139. IS - 5. ER - ...
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor dysfunction has been strongly suggested to link with the abnormalities seen in fetal alcohol syndrome. Thus, the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on the total expression of NR1 splice variants and the cell surface expression of both NR1 and NR2 subunits in brain were investigated in rats. Western blot studies of membrane homogenates from cerebral cortices at postnatal days 1 through 21 indicate that prenatal ethanol treatment does not alter total NR1 expression or differential expression of NR1 splice variants during development. However, immunoprecipitation studies using PSD95 suggest that both C2-terminal variants and NR2A subunits at the cortical postsynaptic membrane of postnatal day 21 were significantly reduced after prenatal ethanol treatment. Moreover, C1-terminal variants were decreased in both pair-fed and ethanol-treated groups, while no significant differences in the levels of total NR1 subunits, NR1 splice variants containing the N- or C2-terminal
Chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure (CIE) in rodents produces reliable and high blood ethanol concentration and behavioral symptoms associated with moderate to severe alcohol use disorder (AUD)—for example, escalation of operant ethanol self-administration, a feature suggestive of transition from recreational to addictive use, is a widely replicated behavior in rats that experience CIE. Herein, we present evidence from a subset of rats that do not demonstrate escalation of ethanol self-administration following seven weeks of CIE. These low responders (LR) maintain low ethanol self-administration during CIE, demonstrate lower relapse to drinking during abstinence and reduced reinstatement of ethanol seeking triggered by ethanol cues when compared with high responders (HR). We examined the blood ethanol levels in LR and HR rats during CIE and show higher levels in LR compared with HR. We also examined peak corticosterone levels during CIE and show that LR rats have higher levels compared
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Emerging evidence suggested mitophagy activation mitigates ethanol-induced liver injury. However, the effect of ethanol on mitophagy is inconsistent. Importantly, the understanding of mitophagy status after chronic ethanol consumption is limited. This study evaluated the effect of quercetin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid, on chronic ethanol-induced mitochondrial damage focused on mitophagy. An ethanol regime to mice for 15 weeks (accounting for 30% of total calories) led to significant mitochondrial damage as evidenced by changes of the mitochondrial ultrastructure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and remodeling of membrane lipid composition, which was greatly attenuated by quercetin (100 mg/kg.bw). Moreover, quercetin blocked chronic ethanol-induced mitophagy suppression as denoted by mitophagosomes-lysosome fusion and mitophagy-related regulator elements, including LC3II, Parkin, p62 and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), paralleling with increased FoxO3a nuclear translocation. AMP
The Ethanol Effect is the newest hour-long special from the team behind Detroit Public Televisions Alfred I. DuPont/Columbia University Award-winning series Beyond the Light Switch.. From Iowas farm fields to Washingtons corridors of power, and from the algae-choked surface of the Great Lakes to the poisoned depths of the Gulf of Mexico, The Ethanol Effect investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for ethanol in America. Our guide through the tangled web of ethanols influence is David Biello. Follow Biello as he untangles the web of ethanols unexpected influence on our daily in The Ethanol Effect ...
The Ethanol Effect is the newest hour-long special from the team behind Detroit Public Televisions Alfred I. DuPont/Columbia University Award-winning series Beyond the Light Switch.. From Iowas farm fields to Washingtons corridors of power, and from the algae-choked surface of the Great Lakes to the poisoned depths of the Gulf of Mexico, The Ethanol Effect investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for ethanol in America. Our guide through the tangled web of ethanols influence is David Biello. Follow Biello as he untangles the web of ethanols unexpected influence on our daily in The Ethanol Effect ...
Title: CYP2E1: Biochemistry, Toxicology, Regulation and Function in Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 6. Author(s):Irina Kessova and Arthur I. Cederbaum. Affiliation:Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Box 1603, Mount Sinai Schoolof Medicine, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029.. Keywords:cyp2e1, ethanol-induced liver injury, chronic alcohol treatment., cyp2e1-dependent oxidative stress. Abstract: Ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to play a major role in mechanisms by which ethanol causes liver injury. Many pathways have been suggested to contribute to the ability of ethanol to induce a state of oxidative stress. One central pathway appears to be the induction of the CYP2E1 form of cytochrome P450 enzymes by ethanol. CYP2E1 is of interest because of its ability to metabolize and activate many toxicological substrates, including ethanol, to more reactive, toxic products. Levels of CYP2E1 are elevated under a variety of physiological and ...
Acute alcohol use is associated with impaired immune responses and decreased proinflammatory cytokine production. Our earlier studies have shown that acute alcohol intake inhibits NF-kappaB DNA binding in an IkappaBalpha-independent manner. We report using human peripheral blood monocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with CD14 cells that acute alcohol treatment in vitro exerts NF-kappaB inhibition by disrupting phosphorylation of p65. Immunoprecipitation of p65 and IkappaBalpha revealed that acute alcohol exposure for 1 h decreased NF-kappaB-IkappaBalpha complexes in the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation of p65 at Ser(536) is mediated by IkappaB kinase (IKK)beta and is required for NF-kappaB-dependent cellular responses. We show that acute alcohol treatment decreased LPS-induced IKKalpha and IKKbeta activity resulting in decreased phosphorylation of p65 at Ser(536). Furthermore, nuclear expression of IKKalpha increased after alcohol treatment, which may contribute to inhibition of NF-kappaB.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Body temperature differentially affects ethanol sensitivity in both inbred strains and selected lines of mice. AU - Finn, Deborah (Deb). AU - Bejanian, M.. AU - Jones, B. L.. AU - McGivern, R. F.. AU - Syapin, P. J.. AU - Crabbe, John Jr. AU - Alkana, R. L.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Offsetting ethanol-induced hypothermia in five inbred strains of mice changed ethanol sensitivity within strains and markedly reduced differences between strains in brain sensitivity to hypnotic ethanol doses. The present study extended this work to mice selectivity bred for sensitivity and resistance to ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) and hypothermia. In all experiments LORR duration and ethanol concentrations at return of righting reflex were measured after i.p. hypnotic ethanol doses and exposure to 22 or 34°C. In experiment 1, C57BL/6J, A/HeJ, 129/J, LS/Ibg and SS/Ibg mice were given 4.2 g/kg ethanol. In experiment 2, the same mouse genotypes were tested with different ethanol ...
Evidence that brain edema and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels have roles in experimental binge ethanol-induced neurodegeneration has stimulated interest in swelling/edema-linked neuroinflammatory pathways leading to oxidative stress. We report here that neurotoxic binge ethanol exposure produces comparable significant effects in vivo and in vitro on adult rat brain levels of AQP4 as well as neuroinflammation-linked enzymes: key phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family members and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In adult male rats, repetitive ethanol intoxication (3 gavages/d for 4 d, ∼9 g/kg/d, achieving blood ethanol levels ∼375 mg/dl;
Dive into the research topics of Glutathione depletion and recovery after acute ethanol administration in the aging mouse. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
4-Methyl pyrazole (4-MP, a specific inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase) reduced ethanol elimination by 30-50% and completely removed the ethanol-induced inhibition of galactose elimination in 2 control subjects. Ethanol elimination was accelerated in 2 alcoholics with adequate nutrition, but the effect of 4-MP was comparable to that in controls. In 2 other alcoholic subjects, who reported poor nutritional intake, intermediate rates of ethanol elimination were observed and 4-MP had almost no effect on ethanol or galactose elimination. These results suggest that alcohol abuse may result in an increased contribution to ethanol elimination by pathways other than that involving alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and that the decreased contribution from ADH, possibly potentiated by inadequate nutrition, may diminish the ethanol-induced shift in the NAD-coupled redox state. Since liver damage produced by alcohol abuse is believed to be related to changes from the normal redox state caused by ethanol, these ...
Rates of exchange catalysed by alcohol dehydrogenase were determined in vivo in order to find rate-limiting steps in ethanol metabolism. Mixtures of [1,1-2H2]- and [2,2,2-2H3]ethanol were injected in rats with bile fistulas. The concentrations in bile of ethanols having different numbers of 2H atoms were determined by g.l.c.-m.s. after the addition of [2H6]ethanol as internal standard and formation of the 3,5-dinitrobenzoates. Extensive formation of [2H4]ethanol indicated that acetaldehyde formed from [2,2,2-2H3]ethanol was reduced to ethanol and that NADH used in this reduction was partly derived from oxidation of [1,1-2H2]ethanol. The rate of acetaldehyde reduction, the degree of labelling of bound NADH and the isotope effect on ethanol oxidation were calculated by fitting models to the found concentrations of ethanols labelled with 1-42H atoms. Control experiments with only [2,2,2-2H3]ethanol showed that there was no loss of the C-2 hydrogens by exchange. The isotope effect on ethanol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subcellular location of secretory proteins retained in the liver during the ethanol-induced inhibition of hepatic protein secretion in the rat. AU - Volentine, Gary D. AU - Tuma, Dean J. AU - Sorrell, Michael Floyd. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - Ethanol administration inhibits the secretion of proteins by the liver, resulting in their hepatocellular retention. Experiments were designed in this study to determine the subcellular location of the retained secretory proteins. Ethanol was administered acutely to nonfasted rats by gastric intubation, whereas control animals received an isocaloric dose of glucose. Two hours after intubation, when maximum blood ethanol levels (45 mM) were observed, [3H]leucine and [14C]fucose were injected simultaneously into the dorsal vein of the penis. The labeling of secretory proteins was determined in the liver and plasma at various time periods after label injection. Ethanol treatment decreased the secretion of both leucine- and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of diet on ethanol withdrawal symptomatology. AU - Baker, T. B.. AU - Cannon, D. S.. AU - Berman, Robert F. AU - Atkinson, C. A.. PY - 1977. Y1 - 1977. N2 - In Experiment 1 rats were gavaged with ethanol and nutrients at 6 hr intervals for 72 hr. Ethanol dosages were assigned by behavioral criteria of inebriation. Nourished animals were able to tolerate higher ethanol dosages than nutrient-deprived rats (9.62 vs 7.60 g/kg/day). Nourished rats were less likely to have withdrawal seizures than were nutrient-deprived rats given an equivalent amount of ethanol, but nourished rats given 25-30% more ethanol than the nutrient-deprived rats did have withdrawal seizures. Nutrient-deprived rats had BECs (Blood Ethanol Contents) higher than those of nourished rats receiving equivalent amounts of ethanol but comparable to the BECs of nourished rats receiving 25-30% more ethanol. All these results were replicated in Experiment 2 in which ethanol dependent rats above starting body ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stable histone methylation changes at proteoglycan network genes following ethanol exposure. AU - Gavin, David P.. AU - Hashimoto, Joel G.. AU - Lazar, Nathan H.. AU - Carbone, Lucia. AU - Crabbe, John Jr. AU - Guizzetti, Marina. PY - 2018/8/30. Y1 - 2018/8/30. N2 - Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic mental illness in which patients often achieve protracted periods of abstinence prior to relapse. Epigenetic mechanisms may provide an explanation for the persisting gene expression changes that can be observed even after long periods of abstinence and may contribute to relapse. In this study, we examined two histone modifications, histone 3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) and histone 3 lysine 27 tri-methylation (H3K27me3), in the prefrontal cortex of Withdrawal Seizure Resistant (WSR) mice 21 days after 72 h of ethanol vapor exposure. These histone modifications were selected because they are associated with active promoters (H3K4me3) and repressed gene expression in a ...
Increasing evidence suggests that ethanol-induced changes in cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction play a critical role in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol. Here we have investigated the effects of ethanol on cAMP signal transduction in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Acute exposure to ethanol had a biphasic effect on glucagon-receptor-dependent cAMP production in intact cells: 25-50 mM-ethanol decreased cAMP, whereas treatment with 100-200 mM-ethanol increased cAMP. After chronic exposure to 50-200 mM-ethanol for 48 h in culture, glucagon-receptor-dependent cAMP levels were increased, but no change in glucagon receptor number was observed. These effects of ethanol were independent of ethanol oxidation. Chronic ethanol treatment also increased adenosine-receptor- and forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. Increased cAMP production was also observed upon stimulation of adenylate cyclase with glucagon, forskolin and F- in membranes isolated from cells cultured with 100 mM-ethanol for ...
We previously reported that ethanol elicits an increased protein oxidation in the liver of rats receiving chronic ethanol by continuous intragastric infusion (Tsukamoto-French method). This accumulation of oxidized proteins could result from a decrease in the cytosolic proteolysis, related specifica …
title Gasoline Example; data Gas; input Fuel :$8. CpRatio EqRatio NOx @@; label Fuel = Fuel CpRatio = Compression Ratio (CR) EqRatio = Equivalence Ratio (PHI) NOx = Nitrogen Oxide (NOx); datalines; Ethanol 12.0 0.907 3.741 Ethanol 12.0 0.761 2.295 Ethanol 12.0 1.108 1.498 Ethanol 12.0 1.016 2.881 Ethanol 12.0 1.189 0.760 Ethanol 9.0 1.001 3.120 Ethanol 9.0 1.231 0.638 Ethanol 9.0 1.123 1.170 Ethanol 12.0 1.042 2.358 Ethanol 12.0 1.215 0.606 Ethanol 12.0 0.930 3.669 Ethanol 12.0 1.152 1.000 Ethanol 15.0 1.138 0.981 Ethanol 18.0 0.601 1.192 Ethanol 7.5 0.696 0.926 Ethanol 12.0 0.686 1.590 Ethanol 12.0 1.072 1.806 Ethanol 15.0 1.074 1.962 Ethanol 15.0 0.934 4.028 Ethanol 9.0 0.808 3.148 Ethanol 9.0 1.071 1.836 Ethanol 7.5 1.009 2.845 Ethanol 7.5 1.142 1.013 Ethanol 18.0 1.229 0.414 Ethanol 18.0 1.175 0.812 Ethanol 15.0 0.568 0.374 Ethanol 15.0 0.977 3.623 Ethanol 7.5 0.767 1.869 Ethanol 7.5 1.006 2.836 Ethanol 9.0 0.893 3.567 Ethanol 15.0 1.152 0.866 Ethanol 15.0 0.693 1.369 Ethanol 15.0 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Responses of cerebral arterioles during chronic ethanol exposure. AU - Mayhan, William. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ethanol exposure on responses of cerebral arterioles in vivo. Rats were fed liquid diets with or without ethanol for 2-3 mo. Using intravital microscopy, we measured diameter of cerebral arterioles in non-ethanol- and ethanol-fed rats in response to acetylcholine, histamine, ADP, the thromboxane analogue (U- 46619), and nitroglycerin. In non-ethanol-fed rats, acetylcholine, histamine, and ADP produced dose-related dilatation of cerebral arterioles. In ethanol- fed rats, however, acetylcholine produced vasoconstriction, and vasodilatation in response to histamine and ADP was impaired. Dilatation of cerebral arterioles in response to nitroglycerin and vasoconstriction in response to the thromboxane analogue (U-46619) were similar in non-ethanol- fed and ethanol-fed rats. Thus these findings suggest that chronic ...
On July 31, 2013, INEOS Bio, a bioenergy company, announced that its Florida facility became the world pioneer in producing commercial-scale cellulosic ethanol. Ethanol, or ethyl alcohol, is a renewable fuel resulting from fermenting plant-based materials. INEOS Bio produces cellulosic ethanol using vegetative and yard waste. Despite the flurry that accompanied last Julys event, Brazil is still regarded as the country that implemented the most successful ethanol industry in the world -the sugarcane ethanol industry. In the United States, the ethanol industry touches on two critical areas. First, ethanol can be used as motor fuel, and it is no secret that the United States relies on motor fuel. Second, the nations reliance on motor fuel, especially gasoline, raises significant environmental concerns, notably, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, given the recent advancements in ethanol production, and the critical areas that ethanol touches on, an issue emerges as to whether Brazils ethanol ...
It is concluded that oxaloacetate, required for the incorporation of ethanol into citrate, arises mainly from the transamination of aspartate and the fixation of carbon dioxide. 1. The pathway of ethanol metabolism in cotyledons of 3-day-old pea seedlings has been examined by incubating tissue slices with [1-(14)C]ethanol and [2-(14)C]ethanol for periods up to 1hr. 2. Ethanol was rapidly incorporated into citrate and glutamate but relatively small amounts of (14)C were present in the evolved carbon dioxide even after 1hr. of ethanol metabolism. 3. Similar data were obtained from experiments in which [1,2-(14)C(2)]acetaldehyde and [(14)C]acetate were supplied. 4. The results are interpreted as indicating that ethanol is metabolized essentially via the reactions of the tricarboxylic acid cycle with a substantial drain of alpha-oxoglutarate to support the biosynthesis of glutamate. 5. It is concluded that oxaloacetate, required for the incorporation of ethanol into citrate, arises mainly from the
Author(s): Devineni, Anita | Advisor(s): Heberlein, Ulrike | Abstract: Ethanol is one of the most widely used and abused drugs in the world. Ethanol consumption produces short-term changes in behavior as well as long-term adaptations that can lead to addiction. The mechanisms underlying both acute and chronic responses to ethanol are still not fully understood. Human and rodent studies have suggested that acute ethanol sensitivity may be related to risk of alcohol abuse, and that the same genes often regulate both types of behavior. In this thesis I have used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as a model to study the genetic and neural mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behavior. In Chapter 2, I show that flies prefer to consume food containing ethanol and that this ethanol preference may represent a new model for studying addiction-related behavior. In Chapter 3, I examine the relationships between acute ethanol sensitivity, ethanol tolerance, and ethanol consumption preference by measuring these
The liver plays a key role in the metabolism of alcohol and is also sensitive to the deleterious effects of chronic alcohol consumption. In humans, chronic alcohol consumption leads to a characteristic set of changes to the metabolism of lipids in the liver that is referred to as an alcoholic fatty liver. In humans, AFL is characterized by an increase in liver weight, accumulation of triglyceride and changes in the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. In severe cases, these metabolic changes result in the enlargement and fibrillization of the liver and are considered risk factors for cirrhosis and liver cancer.. Previous work suggests that there may be links between mutations in the circadian system and liver metabolism. The transcription of many genes in liver, including those involved in lipid metabolism, is regulated on the circadian time scale [8, 22]. Furthermore, mice with mutations in core elements of the circadian timing system also exhibit deficits in liver function. In ...
Background: Although the beneficial effects of mild to moderate ethanol consumption have been implied with respect to heart, alcohol abuse has proven to be a major cause of nonischemic cardiomyopathy in Western society. However, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms, which mediate the pathologic cardiac effects of ethanol, remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of chronic ethanol exposure on cardiac apoptosis and expression of some of the genes associated with cardiac remodeling in vivo. Methods: Alcohol-avoiding Alko Non Alcohol rats of both sexes were used. The ethanol-exposed rats (females, n= 6; males, n= 8) were given 12% (v/v) ethanol as the only available fluid from age of three to 24 months of age. The control rats (females, n= 7; males, n= 5) had only water available. At the end of the experiment, free walls of left ventricles of hearts were immediately frozen. Cytosolic DNA fragmentation, reflecting apoptosis, was measured using a commercial ...
Detroit Public Television (DPTV) is debuting a new ethanol documentary this Sunday, October 9, 2016 at 9:00 pm ET called, The Ethanol Effect. The film, produced by DPTV, takes a look at the controversy surrounding the challenges of the best use for Americas corn production: food or biofuel. The worldwide premier of the documentary is on PBS World Channel. (Click here to view promo clips and for additional air times.). The Ethanol Effect delves into what Ethanol is, demonstrates the production process and investigates the human, environmental and political costs of growing and refining corn for fuel in America. The documentary also dives into why the choices between food or biofuel are sparking controversy across the country. Interestingly, I met the production crew this past January in Altoona, Iowa during the Iowa Renewable Fuels Summit where they had access to various speakers including Iowa Governor Terry Branstad, USDA Ag Secretary Tom Vilsack, presidential hopefuls, and more biofuel ...
Your ethanol or alcohol or drinking alcohol as it is also called can provide great taste and strength only when you use the right yeast for fermentation, and infusing top quality ethanol yeast can increase ethanol yield as well as provide that perfect taste. Whether you engage in professional ethanol production or want to ferment a small batch of ethanol at home, using the best yeast can certainly improve the quality and quantity of your end product.. Alcohols and spirits such as whiskey, beer, wine, vodka, rum, etc need to pass through several brewing and even distilling processes before they end up in your glass. These processes start by firstly mixing the raw materials such as wheat, barley, corn, sugar, potatoes, grapes, apples, or any other ingredient based on the country where the drinks are produced and the end product that is required, along with water. This mixture is boiled, milled, and cooled so as to encourage the activation of enzymes that convert all possible starch in the raw ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of protein and dietary fiber levels on the activities of ehanol metabilizing enzymes of the brain in acute and chronic ethanol-treated rats. Male Sprague-Dwley rats were fed on diets containing two levels of protein(7%, 20%)) with two levels of fiber(5%, 105) for 5 weeks. Rats were orally administered 40% (v/v) ethanol(5g/body weight) 90 min before decapitation in the acute ethanol-treated groups and 25% (v/v) ethanol (5g/kg body weight) once a day for 5 weeks in the chronic ethnol-treated groups. Cytosilic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were higher than those of mitochondrial ADH. The ADH activities were increased by 20% protein and %% fiber levels in the diet in two fractions , but were decreased by chronic ethanol treatment. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities did not change by ethanol treatment but were increased by the 20% protein level. However, cytosilic ALDH activities were decreased by chronic ethanol ...
The present article provides an up-to-date review summarizing almost 18 years of research in genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats. The results of this work demonstrate that msP rats have natural preference for ethanol characterized by a spontaneous binge-type of drinking that leads to pharmacologically significant blood ethanol levels. This rat line is highly vulnerable to relapse and presentation of stimuli predictive of alcohol availability or foot-shock stress can reinstate extinguished drug-seeking up to 8 months from the last alcohol experience. The msP rat is highly sensitive to stress, shows an anxious phenotype and has depressive-like symptoms that recover following ethanol drinking. Interestingly, these animals have an up-regulated corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) receptor 1 system. Clinical studies have shown that alcoholic patients often drink ethanol in the attempt to self-medicate from negative affective states and to search for anxiety ...
Thus, cellulosic ethanol provides a unique opportunity in which ethanol is produced not from corn that otherwise is used as food, but from a range of waste biomass, which are normally wasted anyway.. In theory, cellulosic ethanol sounds great. In practice however, cellulosic ethanol has not entered large scale commercial production owing to the high cost of ethanol thus produced. It is hoped that the cellulosic ethanol companies will soon escape from the valley of death phase they are currently in and start producing ethanol from cellulose in a large scale. Ethanol from cellulose raises the interesting question of whether algae could be used as the biomass for ethanol production from cellulose? It appears that some species of algae do have the potential to be considered as a cellulosic feedstock for ethanol production. However, we have not seen many efforts taken in this area of research. In algae, the storage component is starch and the cell wall component is cellulose. Many strains of algae ...
Separately, chronic alcohol ingestion and HIV-1 infection are associated with severe skeletal muscle derangements, including atrophy and wasting, weakness, and fatigue. One prospective cohort study reported that 41% of HIV-infected patients met the criteria for alcoholism, however; few reports exist on the co-morbid effects of these two disease processes on skeletal muscle homeostasis. Thus, we analyzed the atrophic effects of chronic alcohol ingestion in HIV-1 transgenic rats and identified alterations to several catabolic and anabolic factors. Relative plantaris mass, total protein content, and fiber cross-sectional area were reduced in each experimental group compared to healthy, control-fed rats. Alcohol abuse further reduced plantaris fiber area in HIV-1 transgenic rats. Consistent with previous reports, gene levels of myostatin and its receptor activin IIB were not increased in HIV-1 transgenic rat muscle. However, myostatin and activin IIB were induced in healthy and HIV-1 transgenic rats fed
File:Ethanol-2D-flat.svg,thumb,200x200px,Ethanol molecule]] Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is the most common [[alcohol]]. Its formula is C,sub>2,/sub>H,sub>5,/sub>OH. It is clear and colorless. Ethanol is useful mixed into gasoline because it has a higher octane number than gasoline, reducing engine knocking.,ref name=:0>[https://afdc.energy.gov/fuels/ethanol.html Ethanol.] n.d. U.S. Department of Energy: Alternative Fuels Data Center.,/ref> Ethanol is an ingredient in many beverages. It is a mild [[depressant]] when ingested. Besides its recreational use, ethanol is important to many industries and [[food preservation]]. Ethanol can be produced on Mars using [[In-situ resource utilization,In Situ Resources]]. ==[[In-situ resource utilization,In situ Production]]== [[File:Process-Ethanol.png,thumb,600x600px,Ethanol production Paths]] Ethanol is usually produced from [[biomass]]. Most plant material can be transformed to produce Ethanol.,ref ...
This dissertation examines the corn based ethanol industry in the Corn Belt of the U.S. from three different angles: What affects ethanol plant location decisions, how does new ethanol capacity affect the local corn price, and what is the future landscape of ethanol production under an uncertain future? Ethanol production is a significant part of the American economy in terms of market demand for corn, job creation, household income, tax revenue, and decreasing reliance on foreign fuel. The EPA has supported the ethanol industry through the creation of the Renewable Fuels Standards put in place in 2007, however the very mandate created in part to secure the future of renewable energy in the U.S. is also a source of uncertainty. In late 2015, after speculation of a reduction in the requirement for ethanol, the RFS were renewed at an increased ethanol mandate than expected. These three papers enhance general understanding of how ethanol growth may occur, how new ethanol capacity affects local corn ...
Purpose: : To compare the mRNA expression of IL-1α, IL-8, MCP-1, and TGF-ß1 following topical ethanol treatment and mechanical debridement. Methods: : Fifty-eight pigmented rabbit corneas were divided into four groups. Group I (n=18) received mechanical epithelial debridement, group II (n=18) underwent 20% ethanol application for 30 seconds, and group III corneas underwent 20% ethanol application for 60 seconds. Group IV (n=4) did not undergo any procedure. Corneal epithelial and stromal keratocyte change was examined with H&E and TUNEL stains, while the mRNA expression of IL-1α, IL-8, MCP-1, and TGF-ß1 were examined with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: : Stromal keratocyte apoptosis was noticed for three days in group I and up to seven days in group III. Topical ethanol induced significant TUNEL staining of corneal epithelium and stromal keratocyte in an application time dependent manner. In group I, the expression of IL-8 mRNA showed two spikes of up-regulation on day 0 ...
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) results from alcohol overconsumption and is among the leading causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors has been observed in ALD, but how it contributes to ALD pathophysiology is unclear. Here we investigated the impact of VEGF signaling inhibition on an established zebrafish model of acute alcoholic liver injury. VEGF-receptor 2/Kdrl activity was blocked by chemical inhibitor treatment or by genetic mutation. Exposing 4-day-old zebrafish larvae to 2% ethanol for 24 hours induced hepatic steatosis, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis. The liver started self-repair once ethanol was removed. While inhibiting Kdrl did not block the initial activation of hepatic stellate cells during ethanol treatment, it suppressed their proliferation, extracellular matrix protein deposition, and fibrogenic gene expression after ethanol exposure, thus enhancing the liver repair. It also ...
Until the Daniels Administration began pushing for development of ethanol plants in 2005, Indiana had only one commercial ethanol plant that produced ethanol primarily for use in blending with petroleum products in gasoline. Indiana was barely a blip on the radar screen in the ethanol industry nationwide. Now with 13 plants producing 1.2 billion gallons of ethanol annually, Indiana is a player, and is quickly being recognized as a major player in the ethanol energy game. Pence believes part of the solution is giving consumers choices. That means making various blends of ethanol available, and will require investment by different groups at various levels. Like Governor Daniels he also believes there is still hope for cellulosic ethanol. Daniels told the same audience Pence addressed that developments in cellulosic ethanol were coming much slower than he had hoped, and many had anticipated. Nevertheless, Daniels believes it will become a player in the industry. Cellulosic ethanol refers to ethanol ...
The isolated perfused rat kidney was used to investigate the effect of ethanol on the renal excretion and metabolism of choline. Choline at an initial perfusate concentration of 2.8 mM, with tracer amounts of [methyl-14C]choline, was recirculated through kidneys and radioactivity measured in perfusate, urine, and kidney. 14C-Choline and its metabolites were identified by chromatographic and electrophoretic procedures. Tubular excretion of choline was demonstrated and a transport maximum (Tm) of 1.6 mumol/kidney/min was reached at a choline perfusate concentration of 1.2 mM. Addition of 50 mM ethanol resulted in a 56% increase in the choline Tm and 100 mM ethanol decreased the choline Tm by 25%. The rate of loss of 14C-choline from the perfusate was increased by the lower ethanol concentration and decreased by the higher ethanol concentration. Ethanol at both concentrations diminished the amount of 14C remaining in the kidney. 14C-Betaine was the major choline metabolite and the only ...
The processing of raw cannabis plants to extract cannabinoids and other compounds can be carried out using a variety of methods. Some of the most popular methods are extraction using CO2, a hydrocarbon (usually butane), or ethanol. Which one is used depends on a variety of factors, including the amount of raw material to be processed, and the final application of the product, for example what form it will take and whether its for recreational or medicinal use.. In this article, well focus on the method of ethanol extraction. Ethanol extraction can be carried out by a number of methods including cold, warm, or room-temperature processing. Some ethanol extraction processes involve the use of a rotary evaporator setup to remove the ethanol from the extract solution.. Here, we take a closer look at ethanol extraction for cannabis applications, with a particular focus on ethanol removal using a rotary evaporator. Well include information about the steps involved in ethanol extraction, optimal ...
Effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the red blood cell count and RBC indices in the HIV infected patients on d4T/3TC/NVP drug regimen in Uganda
Ibdahs research team used rats bred for high activity, or runner rats, to test if increased metabolism protected the liver against fatty deposits and inflammation. One group of rats was exposed to chronic alcohol use for six weeks and compared to a second group that was not exposed to alcohol during the same time period.. As expected, we found that fatty deposits were greater in the livers of the chronic alcohol group, said Ibdah, who also serves as director of the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at the MU School of Medicine. However, chronic alcohol ingestion did not cause significant inflammation in the liver. Higher physical activity levels seemed to protect against the metabolic dysfunction that eventually leads to irreversible liver damage.. Ibdahs team also found that chronic alcohol ingestion caused no discernable increase in free fatty acids, triglycerides, insulin or glucose in the blood of the group exposed to alcohol as compared to the control group.. This is ...
Most of ethanol production processes are limited by lower ethanol production rate and recyclability problem of ethanologenic organism. In the present study, immobilized co-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae GSE1618 was employed for ethanol fermentation using rice straw enzymatic hydrolysate in a packed bed reactor (PBR). The immobilization of S. cerevisiae was performed by entrapment in Ca-alginate for optimization of ethanol production by varying alginic acid concentration, bead size, glucose concentration, temperature and hardening time. Remarkably, extra hardened beads (EHB) immobilized with S. cerevisiae could be used up to repeated 40 fermentation batches. In continuous PBR, maximum 81.82 g L−1 ethanol was obtained with 29.95 g L−1 h−1 productivity with initial glucose concentration of 180 g L−1 in feed at dilution rate of 0.37 h−1. However, maximum ethanol concentration of 40.33 g L−1 (99% yield) with 24.61 g L−1 h−1 productivity was attained at 0.61 h−1 dilution rate in ...
Define blood alcohol concentration. blood alcohol concentration synonyms, blood alcohol concentration pronunciation, blood alcohol concentration translation, English dictionary definition of blood alcohol concentration. n. The concentration of alcohol in the blood, expressed as the weight of alcohol in a fixed volume of blood and used as a measure of the degree of...
Inositol phosphate accumulation and adenylate cyclase activity were investigated in the cortex of young and aged ethanol-treated rats. Three months of ethanol treatment of young rats decreased maximal stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation by carbachol by 26%, from 494 ± 76% of basal turnover in control animals to 396 ± 54% in ethanol-treated animals (mean ± SD). In aged rats ethanol-related changes were no longer observed but age-related changes were evident. EC50 was significantly higher than in young animals and maximal stimulation was significantly lower. Basal adenylate cyclase activity in cortical membranes of all groups of animals was not different. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was not affected by ethanol treatment, but was higher in aged animals. The activity of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the presence of carbachol was higher in both young and aged ethanol-treated animals, when compared to young controls. These results suggest that both ethanol ...
BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of suicide involving acute alcohol intoxication among U.S. ethnic minorities. METHODS: Data were derived from the restricted 2003 to 2009 National Violent Death Reporting System. The study focused on the sociodemographic and toxicological information of 59,384 male and female suicide decedents for 16 states of the United States. Acute alcohol intoxication was defined as having a blood alcohol content (BAC) ,/=0.08 g/dl. Overall, 76% of decedents were tested for the presence of alcohol. RESULTS: The proportion of suicide decedents with a positive BAC ranged from 47% among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) to 23% among Asians/Pacific Islanders (PIs). Average BAC was highest among AIs/ANs. Among those who were tested for BAC, the proportion of decedents legally intoxicated prior to suicide was as follows: Blacks, 15%; AIs/ANs, 36%; Asians/PIs, 13%; and Hispanics, 28%. Bivariate associations showed that most suicide ...
The actions of ethanol on brain ligand-gated ion channels have important roles in the pathophysiology of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders and fetal alcohol syndrome. Studies have shown that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are among the ligand-gated ion channels affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. We exposed pregnant dams to an ethanol-containing liquid diet that results in blood ethanol levels near the legal intoxication limit in most states (0.08%). Primary cultures of hippocampal neurons were prepared from the neonatal offspring of these dams, and NMDA receptor function was assessed by patch clamp electrophysiological techniques after 6-7 days in culture in ethanol-free media. Unexpectedly, we did not detect any changes in hippocampal NMDA receptor function at either the whole-cell or single-channel levels. However, we determined that fetal alcohol exposure alters the actions of the neurosteroids pregnenolone sulfate and pregnenolone hemisuccinate, which potentiate NMDA ...
With the discovery of interspecies hydrogen transfer in the late 1960s (Bryant et al. in Arch Microbiol 59:20-31, 1967), it was shown that reducing the partial pressure of hydrogen could cause mixed acid fermenting organisms to produce acetate at the expense of ethanol. Hydrogen and ethanol are both more reduced than glucose. Thus there is a tradeoff between production of these compounds imposed by electron balancing requirements; however, the mechanism is not fully known. Deletion of the hfsA or B subunits resulted in a roughly 1.8-fold increase in ethanol yield. The increase in ethanol production appears to be associated with an increase in alcohol dehydrogenase activity, which appears to be due, at least in part, to increased expression of the adhE gene, and may suggest a regulatory linkage between hfsB and adhE. We studied this system most intensively in the organism Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum; however, deletion of hfsB also increases ethanol production in other thermophilic bacteria
Alcohol tolerance refers to the bodily responses to the functional effects of ethanol in alcoholic beverages. This includes direct tolerance, speed of recovery from insobriety and resistance to the development of alcoholism. Alcohol tolerance is increased by regular drinking. This reduced sensitivity requires that higher quantities of alcohol be consumed in order to achieve the same effects as before tolerance was established. Alcohol tolerance may lead to (or be a sign of) alcohol dependency. Heavy alcohol consumption over a period of years can lead to reverse tolerance. A liver can be damaged by chronic alcohol use, leading to a buildup of fat and scar tissue. The reduced ability of such a liver to metabolize or break down alcohol means that small amounts can lead to a high blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and more rapid intoxication. Direct alcohol tolerance is largely dependent on body size. Large-bodied people will require more alcohol to reach insobriety than lightly built ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute ethanol intoxication and endotoxemia after trauma. AU - Woodman, George E.. AU - Fabian, Timothy C.. AU - Croce, Martin A.. AU - Proctor, Kenneth G.. PY - 1996/7/1. Y1 - 1996/7/1. N2 - To determine actions of acute intoxication on pathophysiologic responses to trauma, anesthetized and ventilated mongrel pigs received a 20% solution of ethanol (EtOH) by an intravenous (IV group; 2 g/kg, n = 8) or an oral (PO group; 3 g/kg, n = 12 x 60 minutes) route of administration, or the lactated Ringers vehicle (LR group; n = 12). After 60 minutes, all were subjected to soft tissue injury and 30 to 35% hemorrhage, 60-minute shock, and then resuscitation, with shed blood plus supplemental LR. After 3 days, host defense was challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (1 μg/kg x 30-minutes IV). The supplemental resuscitation was identical (50-53 mL/kg/hours), but posttraumatic acidosis was observed in the IV group and the PO group (base deficit = 4.4 ± 1.3 and 5.5 ± 0.9 ...
Caffeine has been shown to reverse some of the performance-impairing effects of ethanol. However, it is not known whether this antagonistic effect of caffeine is mediated by a reduction in sleepiness. The present study assessed physiological alertness/sleepiness, memory, and psychomotor performance following the administration of placebo, ethanol, and caffeine+ethanol combinations. A total of 13 healthy individuals (21-35 years old) underwent four conditions presented in a Latin Square Design: placebo-placebo, ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-placebo, ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-caffeine 150 mg, and ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-caffeine 300-mg. The Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), psychomotor performance battery, memory test, and mood/sleepiness questionnaires were administered following each condition. The peak breadth ethanol concentration (BrEC) was 0.043±0.0197% and did not differ among the three caffeine treatments. As expected, ethanol reduced mean latency on the MSLT. The lowest caffeine dose reversed this effect and the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex-dependent differences in the regulation of myocardial protein synthesis following long-term ethanol consumption. AU - Vary, Thomas C.. AU - Kimball, Scot R.. AU - Sumner, Andrew. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007/2. Y1 - 2007/2. N2 - Chronic heavy alcohol consumption alters cardiac structure and function. Controversies remain as to whether hearts from females respond to the chronic ethanol intake in a manner analogous to males. In particular, sex differences in the myocardial response to chronic alcohol consumption remain unresolved at the molecular level. The purpose of the present set of experiments was to determine whether alterations in cardiac structure and protein metabolism show sexual dimorphism following chronic alcohol consumption for 26 wk. In control animals, hearts from female rats showed lowered heart weights and had thinner ventricular walls compared with males. The smaller heart size was associated with a lower ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dopamine Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens During Consummatory Phases of Oral Ethanol Self-Administration. AU - Doyon, William M.. AU - York, Jennifer L.. AU - Diaz, Laurea M.. AU - Samson, Herman H.. AU - Czachowski, Cristine L.. AU - Gonzales, Rueben A.. PY - 2003/10. Y1 - 2003/10. N2 - Background: This present study was designed to clarify the role of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens during operant ethanol self-administration by separating bar pressing (ethanol seeking) from ethanol consumption. Furthermore, we sought to define the relationship between ethanol in the brain and the accumbal dopamine response after oral self-administration of ethanol. Methods: Two separate groups of male Long-Evans rats were trained to bar press with 10% ethanol or water. Rats were trained to elicit an escalating number of bar presses across daily sessions before gaining access to the drinking solution for 20 min. Microdialysis was performed before (during a waiting period), during, and after ...
Plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone and estradiol levels were determined in six normal adult females before and during a period of acute alcohol intoxication. Plasma hormone levels found in these studies were compared with values obtained after administration of an isocaloric beverage. Each woman served as her own control for both studies which were carried out on the same day of the menstrual cycle (day 8, 9 or 10) over two consecutive menstrual cycles. Integrated plasma samples were obtained every 20 min for 6 consecutive hr before acute alcohol administration and during the ascending, peak and descending portions of the blood alcohol curve. After acute alcohol administration, all women achieved a moderate degree of intoxication, with mean peak blood alcohol levels of 88 mg/100 ml. No significant differences in levels of luteinizing hormone and estradiol were detected during any phase of the blood alcohol curve when compared to prealcohol administration values. No significant differences ...
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Findings show that American Indians are at much greater risk than other ethnic groups.. In 2009, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, suicide ranked as the 10th leading overall cause of death in the United States. Prior research has also shown that alcohol use disorders confer increased risk for suicide, and are second only to mood disorders as common among individuals who have committed suicide. A study of the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of suicide involving acute alcohol intoxication among U.S. ethnic minorities has found that American Indians are at much greater risk than other groups.. Results will be published in the May 2013 issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research and are currently available at Early View.. I do not think that most people in the U.S. are aware that suicide is ranked as the 10th leading cause of death, said Raul Caetano, regional dean (Dallas) and professor of epidemiology at The University of Texas School of Public ...
Preparation of two oligopeptides from corn protein and their protective effect on acute alcohol intoxication in mice, Naxin Sun, Tongcheng Xu, Yuehui Liu, Chunjiang Ye, Zhuqing Jia
The effect of long-term ethanol exposure on muscarinic receptors was investigated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Exposure to 100 mM ethanol for 4 days enhanced both peak and steady-state levels of carbachol-stimulated inositol 1,4,5-bisphosphate increase. An ethanol concentration of 50 mM was sufficient for an enhancement of this event. The carbachol-stimulated decrease in [3H]inositol-labeled [3H]phosphatidylnositol 4,5-bisphosphate and increase [3H]inositol trisphosphate and [3H]inositol bisphosphate were also potentiated in ethanol-treated cells, which demonstrated that the receptor-stimulated activation of phospholipase C is augmented. Experiments with pirenzepine showed that carbachol-stimulated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate increase is mediated via M1 receptors both in ethanol-treated and control cells. Ethanol exposure for 2 or 4 days also caused an increase in [3H]N-methylscopolamine and [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites and elevation of [3H]pirenzepine binding, which ...
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. Problems may include an abnormal appearance, short height, low body weight, small head size, poor coordination, low intelligence, behavior problems, and problems with hearing or seeing. Those affected are more likely to have trouble in school, legal problems, participate in high-risk behaviors, and have trouble with alcohol or other drugs. The most severe form of the condition is known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Other types include partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD). Some accept only FAS as a diagnosis, seeing the evidence as inconclusive with respect to other types. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Surveys from the United States have found about 10% of pregnant women have drunk alcohol in the last month, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ethanol differentially regulates proadrenocorticotropin/endorphin production and corticosterone secretion in ls and ss lines of mice. AU - Wand, Gary S.. PY - 1989/1. Y1 - 1989/1. N2 - The stimulatory effects of ethanol administration on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were investigated in the long sleep (LS) and short sleep SS) lines of mice, selectively bred for differences in sensitivity to ethanol. To characterize the effects of ethanol exposure on levels of anterior pituitary pro-ACTH/endorphin mRNA, animals were treated with ethanol for either 4 or 7 days. Northern analyses of total RNA extracted from anterior pituitary indicated that ethanol-treated SS mice had 1.5-fold higher pro-ACTH/endorphin mRNA levels on day 4 and 2.5-fold higher mRNA levels on day 7 than SS control mice. Although ethanol-treated LS mice had 4-fold higher pro-ACTH/endorphin mRNA levels on day 4 compared to those in control LS mice, by day 7 pro- ACTH/endorphin mRNA levels in ...
Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is a clear, colorless liquid. It is also known as ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and EtOH (see Fuel Properties search.) Ethanol has the same chemical formula regardless of whether it is produced from starch- or sugar-based feedstocks, such as corn grain (as it primarily is in the United States), sugar cane (as it primarily is in Brazil), or from cellulosic feedstocks (such as wood chips or crop residues).. Ethanol has a higher octane number than gasoline, providing premium blending properties. Minimum octane number requirements for gasoline prevent engine knocking and ensure drivability. Lower-octane gasoline is blended with 10% ethanol to attain the standard 87 octane.. Ethanol contains less energy per gallon than gasoline, to varying degrees, depending on the volume percentage of ethanol in the blend. Denatured ethanol (98% ethanol) contains about 30% less energy than gasoline per gallon. Ethanols impact on fuel economy is dependent on the ethanol content in the fuel and ...
Alcohol use disorder is a worldwide public health problem and is a disorder with substantial individual variation. There are suggested links between various behavioral traits, comorbid psychiatric diseases and excessive alcohol consumption. Moreover, the endogenous opioid system is involved in alcohol reward and reinforcement, and implicated in the action of alcohol. However, less is known about the complex associations between individual differences in behavior, alcohol consumption, pharmacotherapy response and related neurochemical mechanisms. Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorder.. The overall aims of this thesis were: i) to study the association between behavior and voluntary alcohol intake in outbred rats; ii) to study the association of voluntary alcohol intake, behavior, opioid receptor density and response to naltrexone; and iii) to obtain detailed behavioral characterizations of the animals on the basis of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen production by steam reforming of ethanol over supported iron-cobalt catalyst. AU - Yoshiyuki Izutsu, Izutsu. AU - Sekine, Yasushi. AU - Atsushi Kazama, Kazama. AU - Matsukata, Masahiko. AU - Kikuchi, Eiichi. PY - 2010/12/1. Y1 - 2010/12/1. N2 - Steam reforming of ethanol over supported cobalt catalyst consists of following sequential reactions: dehydrogenation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, decomposition of acetaldehyde to CH4 or steam reforming to CO, and water-gas shift of CO to CO2. To obtain higher hydrogen yield, acetaldehyde has to be reformed but not decomposed. Iron added cobalt catalysts showed the ideal performances and produced more hydrogen. Carbon deposits from acetaldehyde staying on the catalyst surface and carbon precursor was oxidized by supplying water enough for reforming.. AB - Steam reforming of ethanol over supported cobalt catalyst consists of following sequential reactions: dehydrogenation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, decomposition of acetaldehyde to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The production of ethanol from D-glucose and D-xylose by different Fusarium strains. AU - Suihko, Maija-Liisa. AU - Enari, Tor-Magnus. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Production of ethanol from glucose and xylose by different Fusarium strains has been studied in shake flask cultures. The best strain was Fusarium oxysporum VTT-D-80134. The best ethanol yields were 50 % ethanol on both sugars. The fermentation time was 3 days on glucose and 6 days on xylose.. AB - Production of ethanol from glucose and xylose by different Fusarium strains has been studied in shake flask cultures. The best strain was Fusarium oxysporum VTT-D-80134. The best ethanol yields were 50 % ethanol on both sugars. The fermentation time was 3 days on glucose and 6 days on xylose.. KW - biofuels. KW - biomass. KW - ethanol. KW - ethanol production. KW - Fusarium. KW - glucose. KW - xylose. U2 - 10.1007/BF00134851. DO - 10.1007/BF00134851. M3 - Article. VL - 3. SP - 723. EP - 728. JO - Biotechnology Letters. JF - ...
This is an interesting case report of a 3-year-old girl who presented to ED with suspected acute ethanol toxicity from ingestion of an alcohol-based hand sanitiser. She presented with a GCS of 10 and developed hypotension BP 70/22 requiring fluid boluses and peripheral adrenaline infusion. She was admitted to PICU without intubation and discharged 24 hours later. Serum ethanol concentration was 260mg/dL (legal blood ethanol level for drivers is ,50mg/dL). This particular sanitiser has 70% ethanol and it is thought that she ingested a total of 55mL. The author highlight the hazards associated with hand sanitiser ingestion.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Alcohol metabolism in hangover sensitive versus hangover resistant social drinkers. AU - Mackus, M.. AU - Lantman, M. van Schrojenstein. AU - Van de Loo, A. J. A. E.. AU - Kraneveld, A. D.. AU - Garssen, J.. AU - Brookhuis, K. A.. AU - Verster, J. C.. PY - 2018/4/1. Y1 - 2018/4/1. N2 - Background: Previous research demonstrated that urinary ethanol concentrations were significantly lower in hangover resistant individuals compared to drinkers who reported having a hangover. This finding suggests that the rate of ethanol metabolism is faster in drinkers who do not experience an alcohol hangover. This study aimed to directly compare alcohol metabolism after administering a low dose of ethanol to hangover sensitive drinkers and hangover resistant drinkers.Methods: Social drinkers who previously participated in hangover trials at Utrecht University were invited to participate. It was aimed to include 12 hangover resistant drinkers and 12 hangover sensitive drinkers. Participants ...
The influence of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on innate immune cells from peripheral blood monocytes to tissue macrophages originating from spleen, lungs, and liver can be diverse. Earlier studies have shown that sterilization of the gut with antibiotics abrogated the in vivo effects of acute alcohol on Kupffer cells, indicating that circulating endotoxin played a key role in the effects of alcohol (32). Furthermore, in vivo acute alcohol exposure of murine Kupffer cells show decreased responsiveness to LPS, and this has been related to decreased IRAK expression, reduced NFκB activity (33), and decreased intracellular Ca2+ concentration (32). Subsequent studies also revealed that acute in vivo ethanol exposure of Kupffer cells increased CD14 expression through a mechanism dependent on AP-1 activation (34). In addition, splenic and alveolar macrophages exposed to a single dose of in vivo alcohol followed by ex vivo stimulation of LPS showed a significant decrease in proinflammatory ...
Youve probably heard of personal breathalysers and wristbands that read your blood alcohol level. But now researchers at the University of California in San Diego have developed a tattoo that analyses your sweat to determine the amount of alcohol in your bloodstream.. The temporary stick-on tattoo releases a drug called pilocarpine onto your skin to induce sweating, and then reads your blood-alcohol levels using a flexible electronic device magnetically attached to the tattoo. The data is beamed via Bluetooth to your smartphone, where you can easily check if youre over the limit. This all happens in less than eight minutes, and if youve had too much to drink, the application can even notify the police or a medical professional.. The developers claim the tattoo is more accurate than a breathalyser, and less invasive than a finger-prick test. They hope the new technology will help individuals to better control their alcohol consumption, as well as empowering bartenders to refuse customers who ...
Youve probably heard of personal breathalysers and wristbands that read your blood alcohol level. But now researchers at the University of California in San Diego have developed a tattoo that analyses your sweat to determine the amount of alcohol in your bloodstream.. The temporary stick-on tattoo releases a drug called pilocarpine onto your skin to induce sweating, and then reads your blood-alcohol levels using a flexible electronic device magnetically attached to the tattoo. The data is beamed via Bluetooth to your smartphone, where you can easily check if youre over the limit. This all happens in less than eight minutes, and if youve had too much to drink, the application can even notify the police or a medical professional.. The developers claim the tattoo is more accurate than a breathalyser, and less invasive than a finger-prick test. They hope the new technology will help individuals to better control their alcohol consumption, as well as empowering bartenders to refuse customers who ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in 4 US communities. AU - May, Philip A.. AU - Chambers, Christina D.. AU - Kalberg, Wendy O.. AU - Zellner, Jennifer. AU - Feldman, Haruna. AU - Buckley, David. AU - Kopald, David. AU - Hasken, Julie M.. AU - Xu, Ronghui. AU - Honerkamp-Smith, Gordon. AU - Taras, Howard. AU - Manning, Melanie A.. AU - Robinson, Luther K.. AU - Adam, Margaret P.. AU - Abdul-Rahman, Omar. AU - Vaux, Keith. AU - Jewett, Tamison. AU - Elliott, Amy J.. AU - Kable, Julie A.. AU - Akshoomoff, Natacha. AU - Daniel, Falk. AU - Arroyo, Judith A.. AU - Hereld, Dale. AU - Riley, Edward P.. AU - Charness, Michael E.. AU - Coles, Claire D.. AU - Warren, Kenneth R.. AU - Jones, Kenneth Lyons. AU - Hoyme, H. Eugene. PY - 2018/2. Y1 - 2018/2. N2 - IMPORTANCE Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are costly, life-long disabilities. Older data suggested the prevalence of the disorder in the United States was 10 per 1000 children; however, there are few current estimates ...
Betaine, a methyl donor active in methionine metabolism, is effective in preventing and reversing experimental alcohol liver disease. The metabolic and molecular biologic mechanisms involved in this prevention are only partially known. To further investigate how betaine modifies the effects of ethanol on the liver, rats were given an acute ethanol bolus with or without betaine and the results were compared to isocaloric dextrose-fed controls. Livers were subjected to microarray analysis, and functional pathways and individual gene expression changes were analyzed. Experimental groups were compared by Venn diagrams showing that both ethanol and betaine caused a change in the expression of a large number of genes indicating that the changes were global. The bio-informatic analysis showed that all the KEGG functional pathways were affected and mainly down regulated at 3 h post bolus when ethanol plus betaine were compared with ethanol-fed rats. The most profound effect of betaine was on the metabolic
Endogenous levels of salsolinol and dopamine were measured by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) - selected ion monitoring technique using deuterated internal standards in Long Evans rats chronically exposed to ethanol for ten months. Chronic ethanol exposure produced significant increases of dopamine and salsolinol concentrations in the medial basal hypothalamus but not striatum. The data suggest that the occurrence of salsolinol in rat brain tissue is a consequence of an in vivo Pictet-Spengler cyclization.
Low ethanol prices relative to the price of gasoline blendstock, and tax credits, have resulted in discretionary blending at wholesale terminals of ethanol into fuel supplies above required levels---a practice known as ethanol splashing in industry parlance. No one knows precisely where or in what volume ethanol is being blended with gasoline and this has important implications for motor fuels markets: Because refiners cannot perfectly predict where ethanol will be blended with finished gasoline by wholesalers, they cannot know when to produce and where to ship a blendstock that when mixed with ethanol at 10 percent would create the most economically efficient finished motor gasoline that meets engine standards and has comparable evaporative emissions as conventional gasoline without ethanol blending. In contrast to previous empirical analyses of biofuels that have relied on highly aggregated data, our analysis is disaggregated to the level of individual wholesale fuel terminals or racks (of which
Eriksen BA, Eriksen CW (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a non-search task. Percept Psychophysics 16, 143-146. Ferrara SD, Zancaner S, Giorgetti R (1994). Low blood alcohol concentrations and driving impairment, Int J Leg Med 106, 169-177. Hamilton P, Copeman A (1970). The effect of alcohol and noise on components of a tracking and monitoring task. Br J Psychol 61, 149-156. Jex HR, McDonnell JD (1966). Critical tracking task for manual control research. IEEE Trans Hum Factors 7, 138-145. Maylor EA, Rabbitt PMA, Sahgal A, Wright C (1987). Effects of alcohol on speed and accuracy in choice reaction time and visual search. Acta Psychol 65, 147-163. Mongrain S, Standing L (1989). Impairment of cognition, risk taking, and self-perception by alcohol. Percept Mot Skills 69, 199-210. Moskowitz H (1973). Laboratory studies of the effects of alcohol on some variables related to driving. J Saf Res 5, 185-199. Moskowitz H, Burns MM, Williams AF (1985). Skills ...
Ethanol is known as a potent teratogen responsible for the fetal alcohol syndrome characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Since the mechanisms of these deficits and following partial recovery are not fully elucidated, the aim of the present study was to investigate the process of synaptogenesis in the hippocampus over the first two months of life in control and fetal-alcohol rats. Ethanol was delivered to the pregnant dams by intragastric intubation throughout 7-21 gestation days at the daily dose of 6g/kg generating a mean blood alcohol level of 246.6±40.9mg/dl on gestation day 20. The spine densities as well as the expression of pre- and postsynaptic proteins, synaptophysin (SYP) and PSD-95 protein, were evaluated for three distinct hippocampal regions: CA1, CA2+3, and DG and four postnatal days: PD1, PD10, PD30 and PD60, independently. Our results confirmed an intensive synaptogenesis within the brain spurt period (first 10 postnatal days),
NAD or NADP differ with respect to presence or absence of a phosphate group esterified at the 2′ position of the adenosine ribose and are similar at the level of structure. Rosell et al. (21) have shown complete reversal of ADH cofactor specificity in crystallography studies. However, NAD is typically used in oxidative, ATP-generating degradation reactions, and NADP usually acts as a reductant in reductive biosynthetic reactions. An ethanol cycle with two ADH isozymes catalyzing opposite reactions (i.e., ethanol oxidation or ethanol synthesis) has been proposed for Thermoanaerobacter pseudoethanolicus (formerly Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum) (22) and similarly for the naturally more ethanol-tolerant Zymomonas mobilis (23). We did not test the ethanol cycling hypothesis in this study, but net ethanol oxidation did not appear to be a major detoxification mechanism (SI Appendix, Fig. S6).. The reduction in specific activity with respect to NADH was far greater (∼25-fold less activity) than ...
Rats of the atherosclerosis-prone JCR:LA-corpulent strain were subjected to long-term low (0.5% wt/vol) or high (4% wt/vol) consumption of ethanol from 1 to 12 months of age. The corpulent rats are hyperphagic, obese, and insulin-resistant; exhibit a marked very low density lipoprotein hyperlipidemia; and develop both vascular and myocardial lesions while eating a normal rat chow. The total lipid profile of the rat sera showed only limited changes with ethanol consumption. There were also no significant effects on high density lipoprotein lipids. Ethanol consumption was associated with elevated fasting glucose concentrations in both lean and corpulent rats and a strong decrease in fasting insulin levels and pancreatic B-cell volume density in the hyperinsulinemic corpulent rats. The relative frequency of myocardial nodules of chronic inflammatory cells was increased in the ethanol-consuming rats, both lean and corpulent. In contrast, old organized lesions (scars) were absent in the ...
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose birth mother consumed alcohol during pregnancy. The effects can include physical problems and/or difficulties with behavior and learning. When clinicians identify FASD early, intervention approaches can minimize the potential impact and lessen or even prevent disabilities. Thus, objective markers for prenatal alcohol exposure are desired.. Using dried blood spots from the umbilical cord and a heel stick of newborns, this study will use Phosphatidylethanol (PEth), a novel biomarker for alcohol exposure, to identify and characterize infants exposure to alcohol before birth. Additionally, the dried blood spots will used to validate the use of screening assays using epigenetic changes as markers for prenatal alcohol exposure. Epigenetic changes are heritable changes in DNA that affect DNA function but do not change DNA sequence. The use of PEth testing will allow for the correlation of prenatal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microbial production of ethanol from acetate by engineered Ralstonia eutropha. AU - Lee, Hye Mi. AU - Jeon, Bo Young. AU - Oh, Min-Kyu. PY - 2016/6/1. Y1 - 2016/6/1. N2 - This study was performed to produce ethanol from acetate using a genetically engineered Ralstonia eutropha. In order to genetically modify R. eutropha H16, phaCAB operon encoding metabolic pathway genes from acetyl-CoA to polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was deleted and adhE encoding an alcohol dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli was overexpressed for conversion of acetyl-CoA to ethanol. The resulting strain produced ethanol up to 170 mg/L when cultivated in minimal media supplemented with 5 g/L of acetate as a sole carbon source. Growth and ethanol production were optimized by adjusting nitrogen source (NH4Cl) content and repetitive feeding of acetate into the bacterial culture, by which the ethanol production was reached to approximately 350 mg/L for 84 h.. AB - This study was performed to produce ethanol from ...
Ethanol is a selective CNS depressant at low concentrations, and a general depressant at high concentrations. Initially, ethanol produces exhilaration and loss of inhibition, which progresses to lack of coordination, ataxia, slurred speech, gait disturbances, drowsiness, and, ultimately, stupor, and coma. The intoxicated child may demonstrate a flushed face, dilated pupils, excessive sweating, gastrointestinal distress, hypoventilation, hypothermia, and hypotension. Death from respiratory depression may occur at serum ethanol concentrations >500 mg/dL. Convulsions and death have been reported in children with acute ethanol intoxication owing to alcohol-induced hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia results from inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and is most common in children younger than 5 years. It does not appear to be directly related to the quantity of ethanol ingested.4 ...
Chronic alcohol intake leads to neuroinflammation and astrocyte dysfunction, proposed to perpetuate alcohol consumption and to promote conditioned relapse-like binge drinking. In the present study, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured in 3D-conditions to generate MSC-spheroids, which greatly increased MSCs anti-inflammatory ability and reduced cell volume by 90% versus conventionally 2D-cultured MSCs, enabling their intravenous administration and access to the brain. It is shown, in an animal model of chronic ethanol intake and relapse-drinking, that both the intravenous and intra-cerebroventricular administration of a single dose of MSC-spheroids inhibited chronic ethanol intake and relapse-like drinking by 80-90%, displaying significant effects over 3-5 weeks. The MSC-spheroid administration fully normalized alcohol-induced neuroinflammation, as shown by a reduced astrocyte activation, and markedly increased the levels of the astrocyte Na-glutamate (GLT-1) transporter. This research
Downloadable! The U.S. biofuel industry is striving to produce ethanol from cellulosic feedstock sources in an effort to augment its existing corn grain-based ethanol production infrastructure. Technology to commercially produce cellulosic ethanol is rapidly advancing due in large part to the availability of substancial federal research and development funding. At the moment, several firms have pilot scale cellulosic ethanol production facilities under construction and testing. The transition from pilot scale to full commercialization of cellulosic ethanol will be difficult, due in large part financial constraints being imposed both internally and externally on the biofuels industry. This paper provides an overview of the biofuel industrys current financial setting and describes future challenges it faces in attempting to expand. These challenges are rooted in lack of industry capital, limited availability of performance benchmarks, concerns regarding future prospects of the industry, and general
Recent research findings show that mid-range ethanol blends - fuel mixtures most likely between E20 and E30 - can in some cases provide better fuel economy than regular unleaded gasoline, even in standard, non-flex-fuel vehicles. Previous assumptions held that ethanols lower energy content directly correlates with lower fuel economy for drivers. Those assumptions were found to be incorrect. E20 and E30 ethanol blends outperformed unleaded gasoline in fuel economy tests for certain autos. The tests were conducted using four 2007 model vehicles: a Toyota Camry, a Ford Fusion, and two Chevrolet Impalas, one flex-fuel and one non-flex-fuel. Contrary to Btu-based estimates of fuel economy for ethanol blends, three of the four vehicles tested achieved their highest fuel efficiency not on gasoline, but on an ethanol blend. Mid-level blends of ethanol E20 (20% ethanol, 80% gasoline) and E30 (30% ethanol, 70% gasoline) offered the best fuel economy in these tests. E30 offered better fuel economy than gasoline
... surface tension of ethanol Ethanol History A look into the history of ethanol ChemSub Online: Ethyl alcohol Industrial ethanol ... Ethanol fireplaces can be used for home heating or for decoration. Ethanol can also be used as stove fuel for cooking. Ethanol ... Ethanol is a byproduct of the metabolic process of yeast. As such, ethanol will be present in any yeast habitat. Ethanol can ... The most ethanol-tolerant yeast strains can survive up to approximately 18% ethanol by volume. To produce ethanol from starchy ...
Petroleum derived ethanol (synthetic ethanol) is chemically identical to bio-ethanol and can be differentiated only by ... see also Ethanol fuel by country). Most cars on the road today in the U.S. can run on blends of up to 15% ethanol, and ethanol ... potential ethanol competitor biofuel) Dimethyl ether Energy crop Ethanol effect Ethanol from coal Flexible-fuel vehicle Food vs ... This mixture is called hydrous ethanol and can be used as a fuel alone, but unlike anhydrous ethanol, hydrous ethanol is not ...
CYP2E1, another enzyme involved in ethanol oxidation, is upregulated by ethanol exposure, meaning that ethanol is capable of ... ΔGf = Σ ΔGfp − ΔGfo C2H6O(ethanol) + NAD+ → C2H4O(acetaldehyde) + NADH + H+ Ethanol: −174.8 kJ/mol Acetaldehyde: −127.6 kJ/mol ... per molecule of ethanol. The first three steps of the reaction pathways lead from ethanol to acetaldehyde to acetic acid to ... exhibits high activity for ethanol oxidation and plays a major role in ethanol catabolism. Three genes encoding alpha, beta and ...
... is ethanol produced from corn biomass and is the main source of ethanol fuel in the United States, mandated to be ... Cellulosic ethanol Ethanol fuel Ethanol fuel in the United States Smil, Vaclav (2017). Energy Transitions: Global and National ... Corn ethanol has yet to be proven to be as cost effective as gasoline due to corn ethanol being much more expensive to create ... Currently, corn ethanol is mainly used in blends with gasoline to create mixtures such as E10, E15, and E85. Ethanol is mixed ...
... causes bread dough to rise. Yeast organisms consume sugars in the dough and produce ethanol and carbon ... In Japan, it has been proposed to use rice normally made into sake as an ethanol source. Ethanol can be made from mineral oil ... Ethanol fermentation is the basis for alcoholic beverages, ethanol fuel and bread dough rising. The chemical equations below ... Less than 2% ethanol remains after baking. Ethanol contained in alcoholic beverages is produced by means of fermentation ...
... (C2D5OD) is a form (called an isotopologue) of ethanol (C2H5OH) in which the hydrogen atom ("H") is replaced ... "Ethanol-d6". Sigma-Aldrich. March, Raymond E.; Todd, John F. J. (2010). Practical Aspects of Trapped Ion Mass Spectrometry: ... with deuterium (heavy hydrogen) isotope ("D"). Deuterated ethanol is an uncommon solvent used in NMR spectroscopy. " ... Ethanol, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ...
Ethanol is much less polar than water, with a dielectric constant of 24.3 (at 25 °C). This means that adding ethanol to ... bitesizebio.com The Basics: How Ethanol Precipitation of DNA and RNA Works Zeugin JA, Hartley JL (1985). "Ethanol Precipitation ... "Ethanol Precipitation of DNA" (PDF). Focus. 7 (4): 1-2. Retrieved 2008-09-10. Crouse J, Amorese D (1987). "Ethanol ... Ethanol precipitation is a method used to purify and/or concentrate RNA, DNA, and polysaccharides such as pectin and xyloglucan ...
Ethanol is a chemical and intoxicant with the formula C 2H 5OH. Ethanol (data page) Ethanol may also refer to: For ethanol ... Look up ethanol in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... specifically as a drug, see alcohol (drug) Ethanol fuel, used ... to power vehicles This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Ethanol. If an internal link led you here, ...
Ethanol Plants Cellulosic Ethanol Path is Paved With Various Technologies The Transition to Second Generation Ethanol USDA & ... Interest in cellulosic ethanol is driven by its potential to replace ethanol made from corn or sugarcane. Since these plants ... Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) produced from cellulose (the stringy fiber of a plant) rather than from the ... Cellulosic ethanol can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 85% over reformulated gasoline. By contrast, starch ethanol (e.g., ...
An ethanol fireplace (also bio-ethanol fireplace, bio fireplace), is a type of fireplace which burns ethanol fuel. They are ... There are manual ethanol fireplaces and automatic ethanol fireplaces. Automatic ethanol fireplace flames have no direct user ... Table-top ethanol fireplaces are the smallest versions of ethanol fireplaces and are often used as a decoration. Biofuel Biogas ... Ethanol for these fires is often marketed as bioethanol (ethanol produced from biomass).[clarification needed] The main part of ...
The Minnedosa Ethanol Plant is an ethanol plant located in Minnedosa, Manitoba. The plant is owned by Husky Energy and produces ... In Canada, ethanol is blended into gasoline. The plant feedstock for the facility is non-food feed-grade wheat purchased from ... The feed-stock is milled, cooked, fermented, distilled and dehydrated resulting in ethanol fuel and the remaining waste ... new plant came on line in 2008 replacing an older plant on the site that from 1981 had produced 10 million litres of ethanol ...
... is a possible treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. Also used for thyroid and parathyroid ... October 2012). "Percutaneous ethanol injection for hepatocellular carcinoma: 20-year outcome and prognostic factors". Liver ... Bennedbaek FN, Karstrup S, Hegedüs L (March 1997). "Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy in the treatment of thyroid and ...
"Ethanol". webbook.nist.gov. Retrieved 7 December 2021. Atkins, Peter; de Paula, Julio (2010). Atkins' Physical Chemistry (9th ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on ethanol. External MSDS Data obtained from Lange 1967 These data correlate as ...
... is the ethanol produced using coal as its carbon source. The anaerobic bacterium Clostridium ljungdahlii ... Distillation: Ethanol is separated from hydrogen and water. Green car Springerlink Resting cells Ethanol from coal advancing ( ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Coal, Ethanol, Synthetic fuels, Ethanol fuel). ... Early studies with C. ljungdahlii showed that relatively high concentrations of ethanol were produced. This process involves ...
The Jigawa ethanol program is a program to produce ethanol from agricultural products in Jigawa, Nigeria. The ethanol programme ... Nigeria portal Energy portal Jigawa to flag off ethanol programme[permanent dead link], Vanguard, January 30, 2006 FG to make ... Ethanol fuel, Agriculture in Nigeria, Biofuel in Nigeria, All stub articles, Energy stubs, Nigeria stubs). ... use of ethanol in fuel compulsory, Business Day, September 8, 2006 http://www.unep.org/cpi/briefs/2006Apr10.doc Nigeria to ...
Ethanol fuel in the United States Ethanol fermentation Corn ethanol Cellulosic ethanol Biofuel "Blue Flint Ethanol: Home page ... "Ethanol Production Using Waste Heat" (PDF). Blue Flint Ethanol. Retrieved 2008-07-29. "Headwaters and GRE to Create Blue Flint ... Although the Blue Flint Ethanol plant is the first in the United States to utilize waste heat for ethanol production, other ... Jessen, Holly (2012-01-06). "Full ownership of Blue Flint Ethanol passes to Great River Energy". Ethanol Producer Magazine. ...
Sunoco's Fulton ethanol plant in Fulton, New York is the first such facility owned by the company. The plant is spread over an ... "Sunoco Ethanol Fuel Plant, New York, USA". Chemicals-technology.com. Retrieved 12 September 2011. "Air State Facility Permit" ( ... The plant has the capacity to produce 85m gallons of ethanol annually. Northeast Biofuels opened the plant in 2008; however, ... The refurbished facility became fully operational with the production of the first batch of ethanol in June 2010. Facility ...
... s or DEFCs are a category of fuel cell in which ethanol is fed directly into the cell. They have been ... Ethanol is a hydrogen-rich liquid and it has a high specific energy (8.0 kWh/kg) compared to methanol (6.1 kWh/kg). Ethanol can ... DEFC uses Ethanol in the fuel cell instead of the more toxic methanol. Ethanol is an attractive alternative to methanol because ... Bio-generated ethanol (or bio-ethanol) is thus attractive since growing crops for biofuels absorbs much of the carbon dioxide ...
... by country Ethanol fuel by country Ethanol fuel in Australia Ethanol fuel in the Philippines Ethanol fuel in Sweden Ethanol ... low-interest loans for agro-industrial ethanol firms, and fixed gasoline and ethanol prices where hydrous ethanol sold for 59% ... The ethanol share in the transport fuel market decreased from 55% in 2008 to 35% in 2012. As a result of higher ethanol prices ... This hydrous ethanol is the fuel used by ethanol-only and flex vehicles in the country. Further dehydration is normally done by ...
... , also known under many trade names, is the organic compound with the formula CH3CH2OCH2CH2OCH2CH2OH. ... It is produced by the ethoxylation of ethanol. It is a solvent for dyes, nitrocellulose, paints, inks, and resins. It is a ...
The microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS) is an alternate pathway of ethanol metabolism that occurs in the smooth ... The MEOS pathway converts ethanol to acetaldehyde by way of a redox reaction. In this reaction, ethanol is oxidized (losing two ... nine calories per gram of ethanol to metabolize versus 7 calories per gram of ethanol ingested. This results in a net loss of 2 ... Ethanol's affinity for CYP2E1 is lower than its affinity for alcohol dehydrogenase. It has delayed activity in non-chronic ...
... a total of 230.5 million gallons of ethanol, representing 54.1% of U.S. fuel ethanol imports. Brazil began exporting ethanol to ... Ethanol use as fuel dates back to Henry Ford, who in 1896 designed his first car, the "Quadricycle" to run on pure ethanol. ... Due to ethanol's greater stability under pressure it is used by Shell in their 100 octane fuel. Similarly IFS add 10% ethanol ... Colombia's ethanol program began in 2002, based on a law approved in 2001 mandating a mix of 10% ethanol with regular gasoline ...
Aside from ethanol, Fox River Valley Ethanol produces a number of high quality by-products such as CO2, corn oil, and wet and ... Fox River Valley Ethanol is a privately owned ethanol fuel plant located in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. Opened in the spring of 2003 by ... Ace Ethanol acquired the facilities of Utica Energy LLC in 2013. The plant was renamed ″Fox River Valley Ethanol" at that time ... Fox River Valley Ethanol Ace Ethanol LLC Coordinates: 43°58′52″N 88°39′13″W / 43.98111°N 88.65361°W / 43.98111; -88.65361 ( ...
The plant is owned by Husky Energy and produces 130 million litres of ethanol per year. In Canada ethanol is blended into ... The Husky Lloydminster Ethanol Plant is located in Lloydminster, Saskatchewan, Canada next to the Husky Lloydminster Upgrader ... The feed-stock is milled, cooked, fermented, distilled and dehydrated resulting in ethanol fuel and the remaining waste ...
Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, also known as the Weizmann process, is a process that uses bacterial fermentation ... Kraemer K, Harwardt A, Bronneberg R, Marquardt W (May 2011). "Separation of butanol from acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation ... Ezeji TC, Qureshi N, Blaschek HP (February 2004). "Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) production from concentrated substrate: ... differently from ethanol, it can be directly and efficiently used in gasoline engines. Moreover, it has the advantage that it ...
The process and technology was similar to a proposal by Clear Fuels, without the sugar to ethanol element. Food-based ethanol ... ethanol (E-10). In 2015, the requirement was repealed (Act 161, Session Laws of Hawaii 2015). In 2010, E-85 (85% ethanol) ... Ethanol is not presently manufactured in Hawaii. Between April 2, 2006, and June 26, 2015, Hawaii State law (Hawaii Revised ... Pacific West proposed to run an ethanol plant and a waste to electricity plant on Kauai and even reached a power agreement with ...
... , also known under trade names Methyl Carbitol, is an industrial solvent and is also commonly used as ...
energy portal Butanol fuel Ethanol fuel Ethanol fuel energy balance Ethanol fuel in Brazil Biofuel in Sweden Ethanol fuel in ... fuel-grade ethanol. The use of ethanol blends in conventional gasoline vehicles is restricted to low mixtures, as ethanol- ... E100 is pure ethanol fuel. Straight hydrous ethanol as an automotive fuel has been widely used in Brazil since the late 1970s ... Hydrous ethanol or E100 is used in Brazilian neat ethanol vehicles and flex-fuel light vehicles and hydrous E15 called hE15 for ...
The farm equipment and ethanol plant use an ethanol engine, biodiesel, air engine or electricity cogenerated during ethanol ... Both have been exceptionally critical of ethanol and other biofuels. Their studies contend that ethanol, and biofuels in ... Depending on the ethanol study you read, net energy returns vary from .7-1.5 units of ethanol per unit of fossil fuel energy ... said that ethanol plants produce 15 percent more ethanol from a bushel of corn and use about 20 percent less energy in the ...
... ethanol fuel mixtures Ethanol fuel by country Ethanol fuel in Australia Ethanol fuel in Brazil Ethanol fuel in Sweden Ethanol ... Fuel Ethanol Industry (All articles with unsourced statements, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, Ethanol ... In 2005, Seaoil pioneered the use of ethanol as gasoline blend in the country, and the first to offer E10 Fuel in the market in ... The new law is expected to bring a number of benefits to the country: "Commercial production of ethanol from sugarcane, cassava ...
Clariant - Cellulosic ethanol from agricultural residues. Think Ahead. Think Sunliquid.. Kiewit - driving project certainty - ... In Brazil, the decision to reinstate a tax on hydrous ethanol at the mill gate from January 1 hasnt yet been decided as the ... Brazilian hydrous ethanol tax still under negotiation. December 21, 2016 , Meghan Sapp ... Convergence - A new ethanol fermentation platform of high performance yeast and enzymes, united - Lallemand Biofuels & ...
Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ... Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol.. This ... Ethanol (alcohol). In: Aronson JK, ed. Meylers Side Effects of Drugs. 16th ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2016:179-184. ...
Ethyl alcohol (Ethanol). CAS No: 64-17-5. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references ... Ethyl alcohol (Ethanol). Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
Advantages of cellulosic ethanol over corn or sugar-based ethanol[edit]. See also: Environmental and social impacts of ethanol ... Disadvantages of cellulosic ethanol over corn or sugar-based ethanol[edit]. The main disadvantage of cellulosic ethanol is its ... Ethanol produced from cellulose. Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) produced from cellulose (the stringy fiber of a ... "Ethanol Benefits and Considerations". Alternative Fuels Data Center.. *^ "Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Benefits and ...
Chart and table showing yearly production of ethanol fuel by country (North America). Data obtained from the US Energy ... Ethanol Fuel Definition: Ethanol intended for fuel use. Fuel ethanol in the United States must be anhydrous (less than 1 ... Fuel ethanol is used principally for blending in low concentrations with motor gasoline as an oxygenate or octane enhancer. In ... percent water). Fuel ethanol is denatured (made unfit for human consumption), usually prior to transport from the ethanol ...
Biden eases ethanol restrictions in hopes of taming US fuel prices. White House announces latest gambit to bring down petrol ... Trump ethanol plan fails to cheer biofuel markets. Reforms are aimed at Midwestern states crucial to presidents re-election ... Brazilian ethanol producer sees boost from plant waste. Raízen Energia plans fivefold rise in output from second-generation ... Faltering ethanol refiners switch to hand sanitiser. Coronavirus outbreak dramatically reduces demand for fuel produced with ...
Ethanol ablation is a cheap and safe alternative to neck exploration in patients with a previously resected, low-risk papillary ... Ideally, the injected ethanol will be contained inside the lymph node, but if it migrates out into other tissue, "it can cause ... The foci of metastatic disease that might respond to ethanol ablation have to be very small because if they are too big, ... Sylvia Asa, MD, PhD, from the University of Toronto in Ontario, Canada, told Medscape Medical News that ethanol ablation might ...
in ethanol-induced ulcer model of experimental rats. Values are expressed as Means ± SEM, n=5; One way ... for Ethanol-induced Gastric Mucosal Ulcer Muhammad Ahsan Javed1, Mahtab Ahmad Khan2,*, Haroon Arshad3, Nazia Aslam4, Azeem Ahm ... Methods: We evaluated anti-ulcer potential of plant extract in ethanol- ... 100 g) was dipped in ethanol (1 L, 95%) for 3 days ... Ethanol treated rats showed necrosis of gastric epithelium, ...
Ethanol level can be measured by blood, urine, saliva, or breath tests. Toxic concentration is dependent on individual ... To convert serum ethanol level to BAC, move the decimal point 3 places to the left. Example, a 100 mg/dL serum ethanol level is ... Conversion unit: one millimole of ethanol per liter of blood is equal to 4.61 milligrams of ethanol per 100 milliliters of ... The unreliability of using a urine ethanol concentration to predict a blood ethanol concentration. Forensic Sci Int. 1984 Aug. ...
WASHINGTON - Congress is unlikely to muster enough support in 2014 to repeal or significantly roll back a controvers...
not to reduce the standards for ethanol use. Unless Mr. Pruitt. gave in to their demands, Mr. Grassley. threatened to "hold up ... But the federal governments warped ethanol policy is pitting corn-state Republicans against refinery-state Republicans, and ...
Tharaldson Ethanol starts up North Dakota plant. Tharaldson Ethanol LLC confirmed that its 120 MMgy corn-based ethanol facility ... based ethanol producer Riverland Biofuels LLC to exclusively market the plants ethanol.READ MORE Iowa considers ethanol fuel ... ACGA to discuss ethanol at annual convention. Ethanol will be the focus of several sessions at the 22nd annual American Corn ... Ethanol projects receive Colorado grants. The Colorado Agricultural Value Added Development Board has awarded $200,000 in ...
A computer simulation of a world using ethanol for fuel finds more respiratory illness. ... Stanford scientist Mark Jacobson used a computer model to predict air quality in the year 2020, when ethanol-powered cars are ... His simulation showed, among other things, that cars that burn a blend of 85 percent ethanol will significantly increase ozone ... For those interested in preserving the environment, this week brings sobering news about ethanol. This fuel, distilled from ...
... a 45 cents a gallon excise tax credit for domestic ethanol production and a 54 cents a gallon tariff on imported ethanol - were ... The ethanol lobby wasnt about to let that much pork fade away without a fight. And in a little-noticed provision of the tax ... Ethanol industry nets big $6 billion subsidy. The lobbyists net another victory at taxpayer expense.. Express-News Editorial ... Ethanol producers have a captive customer base. The Environmental Protection Agency has mandated that 14 billion gallons of ...
The parent Pacific Ethanol once was an industry golden child that boasted of an $84-million investment from Microsoft Corp. ... Energy company Pacific Ethanol Holding Co. revealed Monday that it had filed a bankruptcy reorganization plan after being hit ... Pacific Ethanol Holding expects to exit bankruptcy around the end of the second quarter, but if negotiations result in an ... The subsidiary of Sacramento-based Pacific Ethanol Inc. would restructure its $293.5 million of debt into a combination of ...
A shuttered ethanol plant in Buffalo Lake, Minn., is being turned over to its lender under a court order Monday that leaves ... Its shutdown came as many U.S. ethanol plants have struggled to stay open or at least in the black. One other Minnesota plant ...
Most US ethanol is made from corn. The dispute over ethanol promotion pits states such as Iowa that benefit from higher corn ... The US corn-ethanol programme is and always has been insane (when looked at from a fuel perspective, or a food perspective, or ... I raised a smile when they asked me for my opinion on corn to ethanol, and i said, "you mean, to drink ?" (they dont drink ... If you decide to make this a matter of ethics - as in, were making ethanol from food for our SUVs whilst poor folk are ...
While farmers and producers remain bullish on corn ethanols prospects, a once-enthusiastic Wall Street is growing skeptical. ... An ethanol oversupply would make ethanol blends cheaper for consumers, potentially eliminating the need for the 51¢-per-gallon ... A tanker leaves the Tall Corn Ethanol plant in Coon Rapids, Iowa. The problem of transporting ethanol could lead to an ... "Looking ahead we continue to believe that an oversupply of ethanol in the second half of 2007 will depress ethanols premium to ...
Ethanol prices (D2), including contracts quotes and price charts from the NYMEX. Ethanol futures prices and ethanol options ... Ethanol August 2019 (NYMEX) Date. Open. High. Low. Last. Change. Percent. 08/30. 575.024. 575.024. 575.024. 575.024s. -2.143. - ...
... Ian Mc i.mcfarlane at icrf.icnet.uk Thu Mar 11 10:08:24 EST 1999 *Previous message: ...
Its now all but certain that the ethanol tax credit will expire at the end of the year, and the ethanol producers continue to ... Tax-Subsidized Ethanol Boondoggle Set to Expire. Coalition Urges Congress to End Tax Breaks Tariff Protection for Ethanol ... Special tax credits and tariff protection for ethanol are set to expire at the years end. To counter the corn ethanol lobby, ... The domestic ethanol industry currently enjoys a 45¢ per gallon "Volumetric Ethanol Tax Credit" (VEETC), which costs taxpayers ...
When ethanol-laced gasoline, or E10-a blend of 90 percent gas and 10 percent ethanol-was first introduced for widespread use in ... Furthermore, the ethanol in E10 can hold a significant quantity of water in suspension, up to a point. When it reaches its ... But ethanol, also called gasohol, introduced a steep learning curve for boat owners. It can have a powerful, solvent-like ... Ethanol will disassemble the tanks structure, molecule by molecule. When the dissolved resin makes its way into a hot engine, ...
Synonyms: Ethyl alcohol, Ethanol, Ethanol denatured. CAS 64-17-5. Molecular Weight 46.07. Browse Ethanol and related products ...
... corn ethanol has helped drive down the energy content in a gallon of gasoline by 3 percent since 1993. And less energy per ... According to a new study from the Department of Energy, corn ethanol has helped drive down the energy content in a gallon of ... Because it burns hotter than gasoline, corn ethanol can damage a car, boat or small non-road engine. But you dont have to take ... The U.S. Coast Guard has warned that increasing the ethanol content in gasoline would heighten risk of fires and explosions in ...
John Acquaviva, Julio Navas and David Amo have joined forces !! From this team, a new project for fresco records was born; a project that disassociates...
USDAs Tom Vilsack say he thinks the administration will restore some of the ethanol cuts. ...
are facing their toughest fight ever as new opponents line up against subsidies and other federal support for ethanol. Fear ... that the Obama administration will soon allow gasoline to contain 50% more ethanol has united 39… ... At 10%, ethanol makers will soon hit a wall-the so-called blend wall-in the amount of ethanol they can sell, given the amount ... The ethanol industry itself is divided. Full extension of the tax credit is backed by ADM and other big refiners in the RFA, ...
Representatives attending the recent American Bankers Associations Agricultural Bankers Conference predict over 40 ethanol ... You Tube explanation of the dangerous delusion called ethanol.. Stories You Might Like. Ted Cruz wins Iowa despite corn ethanol ... Corn-based ethanol, made from corn starch as opposed to the plants fiber or perennial grasses such as switch grass, carries a ... The ethanol industry is already drunk with excessive taxpayer-supported subsidies and bi-partisan support in Congress but now ...
  • His simulation showed, among other things, that cars that burn a blend of 85 percent ethanol will significantly increase ozone, a prime ingredient in smog. (scientificamerican.com)
  • When ethanol-laced gasoline, or E10-a blend of 90 percent gas and 10 percent ethanol-was first introduced for widespread use in the northeastern part of the United States, the ill effects were immediate. (cruisingworld.com)
  • At issue is a state law adopted in spring 2008, which states all gasoline sold in Florida must contain 10 percent ethanol, called E10, by the end of 2010 as part of conservation measures. (royaldutchshellplc.com)
  • Ten states require all gas to include 10 percent ethanol . (motherjones.com)
  • But we'll have to start paying attention soon, as the Environmental Protection Agency has approved a new policy that will allow states to raise the blend to up to 15 percent ethanol (also known as E15). (motherjones.com)
  • The company would make ethanol-blended fuel, E85 -- 85 percent ethanol, 15 percent gasoline -- that could be used in any of the 130,000 flex-fuel vehicles in New Jersey. (nj.com)
  • E85 Ethanol Flex Fuel Explained About one-third of all gasoline sold in the United States contains some ethanol, typically in a ratio of 90 percent gasoline and 10 percent ethanol. (howstuffworks.com)
  • E85 gets its name from the way it inverts that formula, at 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent conventional gasoline. (howstuffworks.com)
  • That quote comes to mind when considering the vocal group of neoconservatives, agribusiness lobbyists, and politicians that claims that the best way to cut American oil imports, and thereby impoverish the petrostates (and, in theory, reduce terrorism), is to require automakers to manufacture "flex-fuel" cars that can burn motor fuel containing 85 percent ethanol or methanol. (slate.com)
  • The state of New Jersey owns more than 2,200 cars and light trucks that run on a cleaner-burning fuel mix of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline, called E85. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Support HB 4013 and SB 238 to repeal the requirement to have at least 9 percent ethanol in gasoline. (floridasportsman.com)
  • Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol (ethyl alcohol) produced from cellulose (the stringy fiber of a plant) rather than from the plant's seeds or fruit . (wikipedia.org)
  • The carbon dioxide that plants absorb as they grow offsets some of the carbon dioxide emitted when ethanol made from them is burned , so cellulosic ethanol fuel has the potential to have a lower carbon footprint than fossil fuels . (wikipedia.org)
  • Interest in cellulosic ethanol is driven by its potential to replace ethanol made from corn or sugarcane . (wikipedia.org)
  • The main current disadvantage of cellulosic ethanol is its high cost of production, which is more complex and requires more steps than corn-based or sugarcane-based ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulosic ethanol received significant attention in the 2000s and early 2010s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United States government in particular funded research into its commercialization and set targets for the proportion of cellulosic ethanol added to vehicle fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • A large number of new companies specializing in cellulosic ethanol, in addition to many existing companies, invested in pilot-scale production plants . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the much cheaper manufacturing of grain-based ethanol, along with the low price of oil in the 2010s, meant that cellulosic ethanol was not competitive with these established fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • as of 2021, none produces cellulosic ethanol at scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulosic ethanol is a type of biofuel produced from lignocellulose , a structural material that comprises much of the mass of plants and is composed mainly of cellulose , hemicellulose and lignin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellulosic ethanol can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 85% over reformulated gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] Absence of production of cellulosic ethanol in the quantities required by the regulation was the basis of a United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia decision announced January 25, 2013, voiding a requirement imposed on car and truck fuel producers in the United States by the Environmental Protection Agency requiring addition of cellulosic biofuels to their products. (wikipedia.org)
  • [7] These issues, along with many other difficult production challenges, led George Washington University policy researchers to state that "in the short term, [cellulosic] ethanol cannot meet the energy security and environmental goals of a gasoline alternative. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, the Standard Alcohol Company opened the first cellulosic ethanol production plant in South Carolina in 1910. (wikipedia.org)
  • Or, Congress might scrap the advanced biofuel RFS altogether as cellulosic ethanol is yet to exist. (globalwarming.org)
  • USA TODAY's story on cellulosic ethanol reports only the potential benefits and doesn't mention the huge burdens it will have to overcome ('General Motors finances ethanol maker Coskata,' Money, Monday). (cei.org)
  • If cellulosic ethanol is viable, it might lower the cost of ethanol production. (cei.org)
  • Is producing cellulosic ethanol from bacteria and transporting it on trucks cleaner than pumping oil, refining it and shipping it through pipelines? (cei.org)
  • Is using wood to make cellulosic ethanol environmentally friendly? (cei.org)
  • Genetically engineered bacteria could make cellulosic ethanol cheaper to manufacture, researchers report, in a finding that may unlock more energy from the waste products of farming and forestry. (abc.net.au)
  • The researchers say that cellulosic ethanol has almost no net emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases because the carbon dioxide captured in growing the plants that go into it roughly equals what is emitted while running an engine. (abc.net.au)
  • In addition to being a professor at Dartmouth, Lynd is chief scientific officer and co-founder of Mascoma Corp, a company working to develop processes to make cellulosic ethanol. (abc.net.au)
  • As one of the industry's most accomplished industry voices on the Hill, Dinneen champions the RFA's mission to increase the production and use of grain and cellulosic ethanol and to create a dynamic, robust industry. (agwired.com)
  • [2] However, they also require more processing to make the sugar monomers available to the microorganisms typically used to produce ethanol by fermentation, which drives up the price of cellulos-derived ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The newly engineered bacterium, known as ALK2, ferments cellulose to produce ethanol more efficiently, the scientists write in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science . (abc.net.au)
  • However, if the United States successfully develops cellulosic biomass (e.g., wood fibers and crop residues) as an economical alternative feedstock for ethanol production, corn would become one of many crops and plant-based materials used to produce ethanol (see box, "That 70s Energy Scene" ). (usda.gov)
  • Can you produce ethanol or methanol from hemp? (hempbuzz.com)
  • It demonstrates that more fossil energy is used to produce ethanol from corn than the ethanol's calorific value. (edu.sa)
  • Texas Tech scientists can speak on a range of alternative energy topics, including their own collaborative investigations into new methods to more cheaply and efficiently produce ethanol and other fuels. (ttu.edu)
  • Energy company Pacific Ethanol Holding Co. revealed Monday that it had filed a bankruptcy reorganization plan after being hit hard by fluctuating prices for the biofuel and its main source, corn. (latimes.com)
  • a) go back to horses b) burn some biofuel, hopefully better than corn-ethanol c) Use windmillls, solar cells and electric tractors. (scienceblogs.com)
  • There are also other longer term political considerations: if sugarcane ethanol is kept out, the corn ethanol folks might lobby to lift the cap on corn ethanol and allow it to qualify as an advanced biofuel. (globalwarming.org)
  • Ethanol makers have disputed their critics, saying their product is the only biofuel with short-term viability to make a dent in the nation's appetite for petroleum-based fuel. (greentechmedia.com)
  • Dec 2 (Reuters) - U.S. ethanol production is likely to continue at a record rate despite its rare premium to gasoline as cheap corn, high biofuel prices and even cool weather provide ideal conditions and strong profit margins. (governorsbiofuelscoalition.org)
  • Production surged 6 percent from the same period last year as multimonth highs in ethanol futures resulted in the best profits for biofuel makers since summer. (governorsbiofuelscoalition.org)
  • Hemp ethanol is a biofuel made from the fermented stalk of hemp plants. (hempbuzz.com)
  • Each individual state decides and controls how renewable fuels (ethanol and biofuel) will be sold. (floridasportsman.com)
  • This article defines sustainability and sustainable cyclic processes, and quantifies the degree of non-renewability of a major biofuel: ethanol produced from industrially grown corn. (edu.sa)
  • Their rationale is simple: Using more ethanol from corn or other biomass, as well as methanol from coal or other sources, will create competition in the motor-fuel market and depose oil as the main transportation fuel. (slate.com)
  • The whole hemp plant also has the potential for ethanol or methanol production, where these can also be used as fuel for vehicles. (hempbuzz.com)
  • They figured they would go from CO2 to methanol, and then work out the logistics of going from methanol to ethanol, when they realized the first step in their process managed to do it all by itself. (southernfriedscience.com)
  • The clinical effects of methanol and ethanol poisoning are similar (e.g., headache, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, loss of coordination, and decreased level of consciousness), but methanol poisoning may result in severe metabolic acidosis and blindness, and can be fatal if untreated. (cdc.gov)
  • United States Fuel Ethanol Net Imports is at a current level of -3190.283 (Thousand Barrels) recorded on March 1, 2021. (dataandcharts.com)
  • Fuel Ethanol Net Imports contains twenty eight years of data from 1993 to 2021 with a total of 308 records. (dataandcharts.com)
  • 2021). The Comparison of Hind Limb Mass Loss in House Mice Preserved with Advanced Fixative Solutions of Ethanol - Glycerin and 4% Formaldehyde. (annalsofrscb.ro)
  • With Brazilian biofuels on the rise, can we keep ethanol green? (ft.com)
  • Provista Renewable Fuels Marketing LLC announced it has entered into an agreement with Canton, Ill.-based ethanol producer Riverland Biofuels LLC to exclusively market the plant's ethanol. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • In 2007, Congress passed the Renewable Fuel Standard, which requires fuel refiners to blend increasing amounts of biofuels, such as corn ethanol, into American gasoline. (ewg.org)
  • Corn-based ethanol has come under attack from critics that say it may not reduce greenhouse gas emissions and can lead to other negative environmental impacts, although those criticisms are hotly disputed (see Tesoro Sues California Over Ethanol Mandate and Biofuels to More Then Double by 2030 ). (greentechmedia.com)
  • But corn-based ethanol makers have suffered from a boom-and-bust cycle, as the massive growth in production has led to higher corn prices, cutting into producers' profit margins and leading some to insolvency (see The Year in Biofuels , VeraSun Files for Bankruptcy and Ethanol's Tough Times Continue . (greentechmedia.com)
  • Waldron says the problem isn't a lack of demand for ethanol, which remains high, especially given that the federal Renewable Fuel Standard mandates at least 4 billion gallons, or about 3% of all U.S. transportation fuels, to come from alternative sources today, and nearly double that amount, or 7.5 billion gallons, by 2012. (nbcnews.com)
  • If demand for ethanol reduces the availability of U.S. corn for export, one might ask how this will alter the geographical composition of U.S. exports. (usda.gov)
  • This study arrives as the Environmental Protection Agency is belatedly deciding whether to increase the amount of corn ethanol refiners must blend into gasoline during the 2014 calendar year. (ewg.org)
  • Illinois corn farmers and refiners such as Archer Daniels Midland Co. are facing their toughest fight ever as new opponents line up against subsidies and other federal support for ethanol. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • We call it the odd-fellows coalition," says Gregory Scott, executive vice-president and general counsel of the National Petrochemical and Refiners Assn. in Washington, D.C. "They are all strongly saying the science is not complete, the testing is not done" on potential harm to engines and increased emissions from higher ethanol blends. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • Full extension of the tax credit is backed by ADM and other big refiners in the RFA, while a newer coalition of ethanol makers called Growth Energy takes the fallback position that the tax credit should be converted into federal spending on badly needed ethanol pipelines and gasoline pumps that carry fuel containing 85% ethanol. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • A bipartisan group of senators introduced legislation on July 20th that would eliminate the corn ethanol volume mandate that requires oil refiners. (instituteforenergyresearch.org)
  • We've force fed a fuel into every American's car that benefits a few thousand corn farmers and ethanol refiners at the expense of virtually every other American," EWG's vice president of governmental affairs, Scott Faber, told Mother Jones . (motherjones.com)
  • Refiners of ethanol receive a 51-cent tax credit for every gallon they use, affectively lowering the price of the fuel in the market. (greentechmedia.com)
  • Ethanol producers have a captive customer base. (mysanantonio.com)
  • President George W. Bush's January, 2006 declaration that the U.S. is "addicted to oil" marked the beginning of a gold rush for corn growers: The government policies the comment helped spur have been a boon for the producers of corn-based ethanol, the all-American fuel that now displaces about 4% of U.S. gasoline supply. (nbcnews.com)
  • It's now all but certain that the ethanol tax credit will expire at the end of the year, and the ethanol producers continue to claim credit for "giving it up" despite that it was obviously lost due to larger political considerations, and the fact that they lobbied initially for its extension and then eventually for a substitute which would have still funneled money into their industry. (globalwarming.org)
  • banking and automobile manufacturing - except ethanol producers, farmers and their corpulent intermediary Archer Daniels Midland don't have to beg for help because they are celebrating their 30 year anniversary of government largesse. (marketplace.org)
  • Spurred by public and private efforts to pump up E85 ethanol demand, ethanol producers themselves are pouring billions of dollars into building new refineries. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The ethanol producers and the flex-fuel-car advocates are wrong because their solution replaces only part of the crude-oil barrel and won't reduce demand for that entire barrel in any meaningful way. (slate.com)
  • In short, the corn ethanol producers are making the wrong type of fuel at the wrong time. (slate.com)
  • The tremendous expansion of the ethanol sector raises a key question: Where will ethanol producers get the corn needed to increase their output? (usda.gov)
  • One possibility is that ethanol producers will secure the additional corn they need by competing with other buyers in the marketplace and bidding up the price of corn. (usda.gov)
  • The "world's largest gathering of ethanol producers" gets underway today in St. Louis as the 26th annual International Fuel Ethanol Workshop & Expo boasts that 500 ethanol plant employees representing 11.7 billion gallons, 170 plants and 80% of installed capacity will be in attendance. (agwired.com)
  • At a blood ethanol level of less than 50 mg/dL, or 0.05% concentration, an individual is not considered to be intoxicated. (medscape.com)
  • Blood ethanol levels are also useful in the diagnosis of alcoholism because individuals who habitually use this drug become tolerant. (medscape.com)
  • This diagnosis is suggested when a person can function in a relatively normal capacity (without evidence of intoxication) with a blood ethanol level greater than 150 mg/dL. (medscape.com)
  • 6 In addition,verapamil has been shown to increase blood ethanol levels,presumably by interfering with metabolism. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Binge drinking describes the pattern of consuming alcoholic beverages that results in blood ethanol concentration equal to or greater than 0.08 g / dL (consumption of 70/56 grams of ethanol for men / women) in a period of 2 hours. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ethanol (alcohol). (medlineplus.gov)
  • I'm not convinced this is a requiem for ethanol, a fuel born as a commodity for drunks (it was a prohibited grain alcohol before it became a fuel) that has enjoyed a long history of tax subsidies, tariffs, loans and other love, starting with President Carter in the 1970s. (marketplace.org)
  • Bilyk said most of the corn he grows is used for animal feed, and that an ethanol plant, after taking alcohol out of the corn, can still use the byproduct for animal feed. (nj.com)
  • Burn E85 -- a blend of 85 percent of the alcohol-based fuel ethanol and 15 percent gasoline, which American automakers flaunt as their latest alternative-energy idea -- and the Impala's EPA numbers shrivel to 16 mpg city, 23 highway. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Mechanisms of interaction may involve ethanol metabolism.Once ingested, a small percentage of ethanol is metabolizedin the stomach to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH). (pharmacytimes.com)
  • The ethyl alcohol (ethanol) has a higher octane content and is faster burning, meaning faster ignition times leading to more horsepower and increased torque. (motorspeednews.com)
  • Segundo informe / Comité expertos de la OMS en Problemas Relacionados con el Consumo de Alcohol. (who.int)
  • Most commercially available alcohol-based hand sanitizers or rubs (ABHSR) contain either ethanol or isopropanol as active ingredients. (cdc.gov)
  • Examples include young children who accidentally swallow these products and adolescents or adults who intentionally swallow these products as an alcohol (ethanol) substitute. (cdc.gov)
  • Ethanol and acetaldehyde: alcohol (as ethanol) is converted in our bodies into a chemical called acetaldehyde. (who.int)
  • The American Automobile Association, better known as AAA, has said that higher blends of gasoline and ethanol, such as E15, can put motorists and their vehicles at risk. (ewg.org)
  • Blends that contain petrol and ethanol are presently used by about 80 million vehicles throughout the world (Schell and Hogan, 2003). (cyberessays.com)
  • The Philippine government is currently studying higher ethanol blends in gasoline on a voluntary basis up to 20 percent (beyond the 10 percent mandate). (usda.gov)
  • The US is poised to divert around 40 per cent of its corn into ethanol because of the Congress-enacted mandate despite "huge damage" to the crop because of the worst drought in at least half a century, José Graziano da Silva, director-general of the UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation, warned. (scienceblogs.com)
  • First, restrictions on trade are not normally good, but the fact that much of ethanol consumption is due to the renewable fuel standard mandate (and not market forces) complicates things. (globalwarming.org)
  • A public backlash would threaten the underpinnings of the ethanol industry: a long-standing, 45-cent-per-gallon tax credit and a two-year-old federal mandate to increase annual ethanol consumption to 15 billions gallons by 2015, roughly a 25% increase from today. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • At 10%, ethanol makers will soon hit a wall-the so-called blend wall-in the amount of ethanol they can sell, given the amount of gasoline consumed in the U.S. At the same time, they are gearing up to produce much more under the federal mandate that requires gasoline purveyors to increase the amount of ethanol they buy. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • Without an increase in the ethanol blend, Congress would have to cut back the mandate unless the EPA waives the requirement. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • The federal mandate to blend corn-based ethanol into the U.S. vehicle fuel mix is an economically absurd practice. (instituteforenergyresearch.org)
  • Additionally, this result indicated that heart damage induced by ethanol shows a higher malonic dialdehyde level compared with heart homogenate treated with Ganoderma lucidum. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanisms that mediate organic damage induced by ethanol consumption in a binge pattern are not known. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency has mandated that 14 billion gallons of renewable fuels, primarily ethanol, be blended into gasoline this year, and 36 billion gallons by 2022. (mysanantonio.com)
  • U.S. corn-based ethanol production has grown from 3.9 billion gallons in 2005 to a projected 9 billion gallons in 2008, according to the Renewable Fuels Association. (greentechmedia.com)
  • Work is underway to add another 6.2 billion gallons to the annual capacity of the U.S. ethanol sector. (usda.gov)
  • As of February 2007, the annual capacity of the U.S. ethanol sector stood at 5.6 billion gallons, and plants under construction or expansion are likely to add another 6.2 billion gallons to this number (map). (usda.gov)
  • If this trend and the existing and anticipated policy incentives in support of ethanol continue, U.S. ethanol production could easily reach 11 billion gallons in 2011, 7.3 billion more than the amount produced in 2005. (usda.gov)
  • The U.S. ended the 2005/06 Marketing Year (MY-September 2005-August 2006) with stocks of 2.0 billion bushels, enough to produce 5.3 billion gallons of ethanol, and ending stocks declined by only 143 million bushels between MYs 2004/05 and 2005/06. (usda.gov)
  • The ethanol trade group the Renewable Fuels Association pegs annual stated production capacity - or "nameplate" capacity - at about 14.9 billion gallons, or 354 million barrels. (governorsbiofuelscoalition.org)
  • [9] The hydrolyzed sugar could then be processed to form ethanol through fermentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doing it the natural way produces organic acids in addition to the ethanol, while ethanol is the only organic product of fermentation with the new bacteria, he adds. (abc.net.au)
  • Ethanol can be produced through the fermentation of sugars and starch as well as the hydration of petroleum fractions (Eng, Lim and Lim, 2007). (cyberessays.com)
  • Fuel ethanol can be produced from pretreated spruce wood through enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. (ncsu.edu)
  • Furtermore, using the whole slurry, final ethanol concentration was improved in all tests due to the increase of potential fermentable sugars in the fermentation broth. (chalmers.se)
  • This is mainly due to the following reasons (1) certain amounts of ethanol are still tolerated in "nonalcoholic" beer and (2) presence of endogenous produced ethanol in bananas or baked goods via fermentation . (bvsalud.org)
  • Fuel ethanol is denatured (made unfit for human consumption), usually prior to transport from the ethanol production facility, by adding 2 to 5 volume percent petroleum, typically pentanes plus or conventional motor gasoline. (indexmundi.com)
  • If imports of sugarcane ethanol are merely going to cut down on corn ethanol consumption/production, then it seems that the removal of the trade barrier would be a neutral/good thing. (globalwarming.org)
  • From year to year, EPA tweaks the maximum amount of ethanol required in vehicle fuel, based on U.S. fuel consumption. (ewg.org)
  • Muscle relaxants such as tizanidine and chlorzoxazonehave additive CNS depression with ethanol.Chlorzoxazone is a CYP2E1 substrate, and its metabolismmay be inhibited by acute ethanol consumptionor induced by chronic consumption. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Based on these results, ethanol levels resulting from acute or chronic ethanol intake was calculated using consumption data from the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database. (bvsalud.org)
  • Most analysed food samples , however, do not result in elevated ethanol doses linked with a potentially high risk following acute and chronic consumption by adults and children . (bvsalud.org)
  • Intermittent consumption of ethanol, called binge drinking, is related to damage to the individual's health. (bvsalud.org)
  • Therefore, the present project was designed to investigate the participation of AT1 receptors in systemic oxidative stress induced by the consumption of ethanol in a binge pattern. (bvsalud.org)
  • A shuttered ethanol plant in Buffalo Lake, Minn., is being turned over to its lender under a court order Monday that leaves most creditors unpaid. (startribune.com)
  • [1] These raw materials for ethanol production have the advantage of being abundant and diverse and would not compete with food production, unlike the more commonly used corn and cane sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first commercialized ethanol production began in Germany in 1898, where acid was used to hydrolyze cellulose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bernard DuClos has written "Article V (the movie)," a story about fictional Iowa Gov. Kathy Brandon and her efforts to promote increased ethanol production in the face of $10-per-gallon gasoline, and her opponents' efforts to squash her resolve. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Projects receiving grants will study the collocation of ethanol facilities and feedlots, a wood pellet production facility, energy crop rotation and the development of an E85 infrastructure in rural Colorado. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Tharaldson Ethanol LLC confirmed that its 120 MMgy corn-based ethanol facility in Casselton, N.D., has completed construction and commenced production. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Even their efforts weren't enough, however, to prevent the extension of wasteful subsidies for corn ethanol production. (mysanantonio.com)
  • The subsidies - a 45 cents a gallon excise tax credit for domestic ethanol production and a 54 cents a gallon tariff on imported ethanol - were to expire Dec. 31. (mysanantonio.com)
  • The UN has called for an immediate suspension of government-mandated US ethanol production, adding to pressure on Barack Obama to address the food-versus-fuel debate in the run-up to presidential elections. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Of course, it would be gauche to mention that all the protein, minerals, fiber and vitamins in corn are preserved in the ethanol production process. (scienceblogs.com)
  • So saying that distiller's grain doesn't count because it isn't people food is another attempt to mislead the public about the impact of ethanol production. (scienceblogs.com)
  • 27, a Lehman Brothers report projected that production will outstrip demand in the second half of 2007, measuring the domestic thirst for corn ethanol at 420,000 barrels per day but supply at 445,000 barrels a day, mainly because the U.S. lacks the infrastructure to move the product to market. (nbcnews.com)
  • Between corn farming and refining by Decatur-based ADM and others, ethanol production is at least a $15-billion business in Illinois, he estimates, with thousands of jobs on the line. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • But one sliver of hope is in the production of ethanol. (nj.com)
  • It pits, for example, E85 ethanol's ability to lower air pollution because it burns cleaner than gasoline against the potential environmental costs involved in ethanol production. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Cardinal Ethanol LLC engages in the production of fuel-grade ethanol and distillers grains. (barrons.com)
  • The Ethanol Division segment is involved in the production and sale of ethanol and its co-products. (barrons.com)
  • In the future, corn may cease to be the main feedstock for U.S. ethanol production if cellulosic biomass is successfully developed as an alternative. (usda.gov)
  • The most recent USDA projections suggest that much of the additional corn needed for ethanol production will be diverted from exports and feed. (usda.gov)
  • Large corn stocks will enable U.S. ethanol production to increase initially without requiring much additional adjustment in the corn market. (usda.gov)
  • As long as corn is the primary feedstock for ethanol in the U.S., however, sustained increases in ethanol production will eventually require major adjustments in the corn market. (usda.gov)
  • The U.S. Energy Information Administration last week said ethanol production averaged 982,000 barrels per day in the week ending Nov. 21, the largest volume in the dataset that started in 2010. (governorsbiofuelscoalition.org)
  • But many ethanol plants can produce above that and production could reach a peak of 1 million barrels per week, said Scott Irwin, an agricultural economist at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (governorsbiofuelscoalition.org)
  • Analysis of the carbon cycle shows that all leftovers from ethanol production must be returned back to the fields to limit the irreversible mining of soil humus. (edu.sa)
  • Thus, production of ethanol from whole plants is unsustainable. (edu.sa)
  • In 2004, ethanol production from corn will generate 8 million tons of incremental CO 2 , over and above the amount of CO 2 generated by burning gasoline with 115% of the calorific value of this ethanol. (edu.sa)
  • It next calculates the cumulative exergy (available free energy) consumed in corn farming and ethanol production, and estimates the minimum amount of work necessary to restore the key non-renewable resources consumed by the industrial corn-ethanol cycle. (edu.sa)
  • The subsidiary of Sacramento-based Pacific Ethanol Inc. would restructure its $293.5 million of debt into a combination of equity and $115 million in debt. (latimes.com)
  • The parent Pacific Ethanol once was an industry golden child that boasted of an $84-million investment from Microsoft Corp. Chairman Bill Gates . (latimes.com)
  • Pacific Ethanol Holding expects to exit bankruptcy around the end of the second quarter, but if negotiations result in an acquisition agreement with the lenders, the company said it would modify its reorganization plan. (latimes.com)
  • However, if imports of sugarcane ethanol require that Americans purchase additional ethanol relative to a baseline with the tariff, then an argument could be made for keeping the tariff. (globalwarming.org)
  • How Green Is Sugarcane Ethanol? (mit.edu)
  • I use a dynamic model of land use to disentangle the roles of acreage and yields in the supply of sugarcane ethanol in Brazil. (mit.edu)
  • While they are not likely to stop the Environmental Protection Agency from granting the ethanol industry's request to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline to 15% from 10%, probably this month, it will be a short-lived victory if the higher blend unleashes a chorus of consumer complaints over poor gas mileage, confusion at the pump and even broken-down lawn mowers and boat engines, as critics claim it will. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • The coalition opposing the 15% ethanol blend is neutral on tax credits, Mr. Scott says, but there is "clearly a growing number of people who believe the tax credit is not justified anymore. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • Will the New Ethanol Blend Tank My Ride? (motherjones.com)
  • E10 means gasoline with a 10 percent mix of ethanol, generally derived from corn, and it used to be the highest blend of ethanol allowed in the United States. (motherjones.com)
  • If you're unfamiliar with it, phase separation is the condition where an ethanol-gasoline blend fuel absorbs too much water, causing the ethanol to drop out of the gasoline, destroying the gasoline's quality. (bellperformance.com)
  • Also problematic for fuel injectors is the use of ethanol-blend gasoline in older engines built before 2001. (bellperformance.com)
  • East Coast Energy Solutions, formed to build and operate a 40 million-gallons-per-year ethanol manufacturing facility on the East Coast, has looked at Warren County towns close to rail lines -- Greenwich, Pohatcong, White, Oxford and Phillipsburg -- as possible locations. (nj.com)
  • With a corn-to-ethanol conversion rate of 2.7 gallons per bushel (a rate that many state-of-the-art facilities are already surpassing), the U.S. ethanol sector will need 4 billion bushels per year by 2011-roughly twice as much as it consumed in 2006. (usda.gov)
  • We're running at capacity and our plants are filled to capacity with corn," said Jim Seurer, chief executive of Glacial Lakes Energy LLC, which has two South Dakota ethanol plants that each can produce as much as 100 million gallons annually. (governorsbiofuelscoalition.org)
  • Exposure to regular gasoline and ethanol oxyfuel during refueling in Alaska. (cdc.gov)
  • Levels of methyl-isobutyl-ketone (108101) (MIBK), ethanol (64175), isopropanol (67630), and toluene (108883) were also below the suggested limits. (cdc.gov)
  • Commercially available ABHSR usually contain either ethanol or isopropanol. (cdc.gov)
  • To counter the corn ethanol lobby, which urges Congress to reauthorize these special-interest giveaways plus enact new mandates and subsidies, a coalition of free-market groups advises Congress to "do nothing" and let the clock run out on the tax credit and tariff. (globalwarming.org)
  • The ethanol industry is already drunk with excessive taxpayer-supported subsidies and bi-partisan support in Congress but now it's facing opposition from a fascinating consortium of revolters ranging from The National Turkey Federation, National Cattleman's Beef Association and (the very conservative) Grocery Manufacturer's Association to the Environmental Working Group, Food for All and Earth Policy Institute. (marketplace.org)
  • Corn ethanol received 76 percent of all federal government renewable energy subsidies in 2007, despite its unclear environmental and energy benefits, according to the Environmental Working Group. (greentechmedia.com)
  • The article estimates the U.S. taxpayer subsidies of the industrial corn-ethanol cycle at $3.8 billion in 2004. (edu.sa)
  • The new price will be applicable from the forthcoming sugar season 2018-19 during the ethanol supply period from 1st December 2018 to 30th November 2019. (siasat.com)
  • Acute ethanol use may inhibit warfarin metabolism,increasing the INR. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • To convert serum ethanol level to BAC, move the decimal point 3 places to the left. (medscape.com)
  • Example, a 100 mg/dL serum ethanol level is equivalent to a 0.10 (g/dL) BAC, or 0.10% (weight/volume). (medscape.com)
  • The domestic ethanol industry currently enjoys a 45¢ per gallon "Volumetric Ethanol Tax Credit" (VEETC), which costs taxpayers $5-6 billion annually, and a 54¢ per gallon protective tariff, which prevents lower-cost Brazilian ethanol from competing in U.S. markets. (globalwarming.org)
  • According to a new study from the Department of Energy, corn ethanol has helped drive down the energy content in a gallon of gasoline by 3 percent since 1993. (ewg.org)
  • The U.S. Coast Guard has warned that increasing the ethanol content in gasoline would heighten risk of fires and explosions in vessels and pose safety issues for boaters. (ewg.org)
  • 8 Thetyramine content of some wines precludes concomitant useof ethanol with monoamine oxidase inhibitors. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Most gas comes with detergent from the refinery, but many times it's not enough to contend with the additional load brought to the table from the ethanol content. (bellperformance.com)
  • According to the USDA projections (released in February 2007), the share of ethanol in total corn use will rise from 14 percent in 2005/06 to 31 percent in 2016/17. (usda.gov)
  • About 80 percent of the gasoline consumed in the US is blended with ethanol, according to the industry's trade group, the Renewable Fuels Association. (motherjones.com)
  • And a University of Minnesota study casts doubt on how much ethanol would reduce dependence on foreign oil, finding that converting all of America's corn into ethanol would satisfy only 12 percent of the nation's gasoline demand. (nj.com)
  • And that, according to President Bush and proponents of E85 ethanol, can help America end its dependence on foreign oil. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Not only are these fans among the most brand loyal in all of sports, but they also understand the importance of creating jobs here in America that cannot be outsourced, reducing our dependence on foreign oil and using a cleaner burning fuel to protect our environment - all of which American Ethanol does. (prnewswire.com)
  • The Renewable Fuels Association , an ethanol trade group, has also pointed to the industry's role in bringing hundreds of thousands of jobs to rural areas. (greentechmedia.com)
  • Methods: We evaluated anti-ulcer potential of plant extract in ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. (researchgate.net)
  • To explore this issue, Wistar rats and mouse hepatoma cells (Hepa 1-6) were exposed to ethanol, 8 g·kg−1·d−1 for 3 months and 100 mM for 48 h, respectively. (umanitoba.ca)
  • The results revealed that glucose levels were increased, and insulin sensitivity was impaired accompanied with liver injury in rats exposed to ethanol compared with controls. (umanitoba.ca)
  • The 11-HSD1, GR, PEPCK, G6Pase, and GSK3α proteins were increased in the liver of rats treated with ethanol compared with controls. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Using a feature-positive discrimination training, we evaluated the contribution of contexts as occasion setters of the ataxic effect of ethanol in rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • But Bilyk and other Warren County farmers think bringing an ethanol plant to the county would be a good gamble. (nj.com)
  • Another criticism of ethanol is that farmers, in their quest for higher profits than what corn provides, might produce corn on farmland where other food products could have been grown, causing shortages and higher consumer costs for those other products. (nj.com)
  • Ethanol relies heavily on the corn that farmers in places like Warren County grow in volume. (nj.com)
  • Representing a wide array of ethanol supporters, from farmers to bio-engineering firms, American Ethanol was established by Growth Energy in partnership with the National Corn Growers Association and others. (prnewswire.com)
  • Increased ethanol blending in petrol has many benefits including reduction in import dependency, support to agricultural sector, more environmental friendly fuel, lesser pollution and additional income to farmers. (siasat.com)
  • Solubility of pioglitazone hydrochloride in ethanol, N-methyl pyrrolidone, polyethylene glycols and water mixtures at 298.20 °K. (openrepository.com)
  • Ethanol is one of many alternatives to petroleum that must be utilized in the United States' transition to a renewable energy-based economy, yet corn ethanol alone is not a viable replacement for the future of our current petroleum driven industry. (sae.org)
  • In theory, the 1992 law should have been a boon for ethanol, which has been promoted as a petroleum replacement since the energy crisis of the 1970s. (pewtrusts.org)
  • As the price of ethanol is based on estimated Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) for sugar season 2018-19, it will be modified by Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas as per actual FRP declared by the government. (siasat.com)
  • Personal breathing zone samples were collected from 124 workers and analyzed for toluene (108883), ethanol (64175), and ethyl-acetate (141786). (cdc.gov)
  • Thanks to a quick setup and pre-installed models, all important results for wine analysis, including ethanol, sugars, and acid profile, are just a tap away. (anton-paar.com)
  • Receive results for more than 15 parameters for wine and must, including ethanol, sugars, and acid profile in a single measurement. (anton-paar.com)
  • The Bio Flame ethanol fireplaces use bio-ethanol fuel, an environmentally-friendly, biodegradable, renewable energy source made by fermenting sugars from plants such as sugar cane, beets, and potatoes. (usfireplacestore.com)
  • the highest ethanol concentration, 23.7 g/L, was reached using the whole slurry (10%, w/v) and the recombinant strain (F12) an an SSF process, it showed an ethanol yield on cunsumed sugars of 0.43 g/g and a volumetric ethanol productivity of 0.7 g/l h for the first 3 h. (chalmers.se)
  • Critics, however, say making ethanol requires almost as much energy as it produces. (nj.com)
  • The use of ethanol with warfarin produces variable effectson the international normalized ratio (INR). (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Ethanol produces 70% of the heat that is produced by petrol. (cyberessays.com)
  • Stanford scientist Mark Jacobson used a computer model to predict air quality in the year 2020, when ethanol-powered cars are expected to be widely available in the US. (scientificamerican.com)
  • VENUS: Vein of Marshall Ethanol Infusion for AF Now Published - Medscape - Nov 04, 2020. (medscape.com)
  • Ethanol, as a renewable fuel, is one of the alternative fuels that appears to have the potential to substitute the demand for petrol. (cyberessays.com)
  • Several countries have been using ethanol, either in its own right or mixed with petrol, as liquid transport fuel (Enecon, 2002). (cyberessays.com)
  • Meanwhile, ethanol availability for Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) Programme is expected to increase significantly due to higher price for C heavy molasses based ethanol and enabling procurement of ethanol from B heavy molasses and sugarcane juice for the first time. (siasat.com)
  • This Ethanol Burning Smart Firebox is created to provide elegant dancing flames without the hassle of traditional fireplaces. (soothingcompany.com)
  • The 51.2" XL Firebox Ethanol Fireplace comes with a patented heat isolation chamber to ensure the safety of your home and requires no permanent or expensive connections - no chimneys, gas lines, venting, electricity or flues required. (usfireplacestore.com)
  • Converting standard wood-burning, gas, or electric fireplaces to Ethanol Fireplaces is simple, convenient, and adaptable with a Bio Flame 51.2" Ethanol Firebox. (usfireplacestore.com)
  • We're sort of at a crossroads," says Robert Dinneen, president of the Renewable Fuels Assn., the ethanol industry group founded by ADM, which declines to comment. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • [4] By contrast, starch ethanol (e.g., from corn), which most frequently uses natural gas to provide energy for the process, may not reduce greenhouse gas emissions at all depending on how the starch-based feedstock is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Colorado Agricultural Value Added Development Board has awarded $200,000 in Advancing Colorado's Renewable Energy grants to four organizations for ethanol-related projects. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Many environmental groups agree corn-based ethanol is not a suitable green energy source. (mysanantonio.com)
  • The Department of Energy has found that higher levels of ethanol in gasoline can trigger safety problems in common non-road engines - such as lawnmowers, generators, chainsaws and handheld trimmers. (ewg.org)
  • The American Coalition for Ethanol (ACE) expresses its appreciation toward U.S. Department of Energy Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) scientists for updates to the Greenhouse gas and Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, which is widely recognized as the gold-standard tool used to audit the energy and environmental effects of transportation fuels such as ethanol and gasoline. (ethanol.org)
  • Corn-based ethanol, beloved by farm states and maligned by some environmentalists, received more than three-quarters of all federal renewable energy tax credits in 2007 - a balance that the Environmental Working Group says needs to change. (greentechmedia.com)
  • The Washington, D.C.-based group released a report Thursday citing U.S. Department of Energy data showing the corn-based ethanol industry took about $3 billion in federal tax credits in 2007, or 76 percent of all the tax credits going to renewable energy nationwide. (greentechmedia.com)
  • NASCAR is the perfect platform to dispel the myths about U.S. made ethanol," said Tom Buis , CEO of Growth Energy. (prnewswire.com)
  • To evaluate the efficacy of 95% ethanol in removal of residues of epoxy-based (AH Plus), methacrylate-based (Epiphany SE) or calcium-based (Sealapex) sealers on dentinal surface. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the case of propoxyphene, bioavailabilityis increased when it is used with ethanol, likelydue to reduced first-pass metabolism. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Ethanol inhibits benzodiazepine metabolism, althoughnot all agents are equally affected. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Reduced metabolism of imipramine andamitriptyline has been shown with chronic ethanol use. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Polymorphism of ethanol metabolism genes in alcoholic chronic pancreatitis]. (cdc.gov)
  • The concomitant use of ethanol and narcoticscauses additive depression of the central nervoussystem (CNS), with impairment of speech, sedation,and lethargy. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • The combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatorydrugs (NSAIDs) and ethanol may cause gastritis orgastrointestinal bleeding through additive irritation. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • The use ofethanol and benzodiazepines results in additive CNS depression.Other antianxiety agents, such as meprobamate,also may potentiate CNS depression with ethanol. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Ethanol causes additive vasodilation with such agents asnitroglycerin, methyldopa, and hydralazine. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • It involved the use of dilute acid to hydrolyze the cellulose to glucose, and was able to produce 7.6 liters of ethanol per 100 kg of wood waste (18 US gal (68 L) per ton). (wikipedia.org)
  • Airborne solvent levels ranged from below 0.25 to 1,240mg/m3 for ethanol, from 1.1 to 2,635mg/m3 for ethyl-acetate, and from 0.14 to 919mg/m3 for toluene. (cdc.gov)
  • Does Ethanol Make Gasoline Cheaper? (instituteforenergyresearch.org)
  • Oil and gas distribution is much cheaper than ethanol distribution. (cei.org)
  • Use these social-bookmarking links to share New bacteria could make cheaper ethanol . (abc.net.au)
  • Ian Hay, MD, and colleagues from the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, report that in 83 patients with stage I recurrent PTC followed for an average of 5 years, 50% of ablated nodes disappeared from repeat sonograms typically after 2 ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation 10-minute sessions. (medscape.com)
  • Fuel ethanol is used principally for blending in low concentrations with motor gasoline as an oxygenate or octane enhancer. (indexmundi.com)
  • Finally, avoid higher concentrations of ethanol, such as E15. (cruisingworld.com)
  • Ethanol concentrations obtained in SSF processes were in all cases higher than those from SHF at the same conditions. (chalmers.se)
  • In other words, fill up on environmentally friendly E85 ethanol, and you'll get fewer miles per gallon than you would on gasoline. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Ethanol from cellulose is regarded as an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels, with the advantage that it does not use food crops such as corn as raw materials. (abc.net.au)
  • On May 1, the largest U.S. ethanol producer, Archer Daniels Midland, reported quarterly earnings that fell short of analyst expectations, citing higher corn costs as a problem. (nbcnews.com)
  • Although flex-fuel cars can use conventional gasoline, they emit more carbon dioxide, the most prevalent greenhouse gas, than if they used the mostly ethanol mix, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency found. (pewtrusts.org)
  • However, carbon dioxide and water are the only products of ethanol combustion, and hence it is known as a clean fuel (ibid. (cyberessays.com)
  • While traditional fireplaces such as natural gas fireplaces release toxins into the air, bio-ethanol fireplace fuel burns cleanly, with the only byproducts being small amounts of water vapor and carbon dioxide. (usfireplacestore.com)
  • In Brazil, the decision to reinstate a tax on hydrous ethanol at the mill gate from January 1 hasn't yet been decided as the government is still in talks with the industry , but even if a decision is reached it won't be before the beginning of the year. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • The industry is working to get the government to find a solution that won't increase inflation nor negatively impacts ethanol demand. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • A Minneapolis author and Iowa native has published a 196-page novella that includes the history of the ethanol industry, politics and sabotage. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • It's a very important time in the industry," says Jim Murphy, president of Carbon Green LLC, a Chicago firm that invests in and operates ethanol plants. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • Even Sen. Richard Durbin, D-Ill., a mainstay of congressional support for ethanol, favors a shorter extension of the tax credit, not the five years the industry wants. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • The ethanol industry itself is divided. (chicagobusiness.com)
  • The "American Ethanol Sweepstakes" includes a national promotion from June 8 through August 31 , paid media with Turner Sports for NASCAR on TNT and NASCAR.com, race entitlement sponsorships at Iowa Speedway and Chicagoland Speedway, and experiential activation at select tracks and industry events. (prnewswire.com)
  • WEG offers the widest range of solutions in electric equipment, automation and coatings for the Sugar & Ethanol industry, combining the experience of a market leader with the technology of a global company. (weg.net)
  • The last 2 years were marked by a flurry of construction activity in the U.S. ethanol industry, as ground was broken on dozens of new plants throughout the Corn Belt and plans were drawn for even more facilities. (usda.gov)
  • Don't let the ethanol industry and lobbyists tell you what type of fuel you must use. (floridasportsman.com)