Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
A 6-methyl PROGESTERONE acetate with reported glucocorticoid activity and effect on ESTRUS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.
EEG phase synchronization of the cortical brain region (CEREBRAL CORTEX).
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.
A dithiobiurea compound with anti-gonadotropic activity.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)
Mental disorders related to sexual dysfunction, paraphilias, and gender identity disorders.
A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Education centers authorized by the Comprehensive Health Manpower Training Act, 1971, for the training of health personnel in areas where health needs are the greatest. May be used for centers other than those established by the United States act.
The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.

Intraperitoneal insemination of the guinea pig with synchronized estrus induced by progesterone implant. (1/317)

Female guinea pigs with synchronized ovulation by means of implantation of progesterone-filled tubing (P-tube) followed by a progesterone injection, were inseminated by intraperitoneal injection with sperm suspension. First, to obtain the optimum conditions for insemination, the females were inseminated singly over the range of 1-10 x 10(7) spermatozoa before and after the synchronized ovulation. The incidence of conception and implantation was 100% in the females given more than 5 x 10(7)/animal at 9:00 h on the 5th day after removal of the P-tube. Second, the reproductive ability of the inseminated females under this optimal condition was observed throughout the pregnancy to delivery. Inseminated females had a mean +/- S.D. gestation period of 68.7 +/- 0.5 days, a litter size of 2.8 +/- 0.6 pups and body weight of 110 +/- 14 g. These data were comparable to those of naturally-mated females. Our findings suggest that the artificial insemination by intraperitoneal injection in combination with the synchronized estrus technique is very useful for production control in a small colony of guinea pigs.  (+info)

Synchronization of estrus in beef cattle with norgestomet and estradiol valerate. (2/317)

Fifty-six cows received a norgestomet implant and an injection of norgestomet and estradiol valerate; half (n = 28) received 500 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) at implant removal, 9 d later. A third group (n = 25) received 2 doses of cloprostenol (500 micrograms) 11 d apart. Estrous rate was higher (P < 0.05) for cows given norgestomet and estradiol plus 500 IU eCG (75.0%) than for those receiving cloprostenol (44.0%); for those receiving norgestomet and estradiol alone, it was intermediate (67.8%). Pregnancy rates to artificial insemination (after estrus or timed) were higher (P < 0.05) for cows given norgestomet and estradiol than for those given cloprostenol (23 of 28, 82.1% vs 13 of 25, 52.0%), and intermediate (67.8%) for those given norgestomet and estradiol plus eCG. In a second experiment, for heifers treated with norgestomet and estradiol plus eCG (n = 15) or with 2 doses of cloprostenol (n = 16), estrous rates were 66.7% vs 56.2% (P > 0.5), ovulation rates were 100.0% vs 81.2% (P = 0.08), intervals from implant removal or cloprostenol treatment to estrus were 48.0 +/- 4.4 hours vs 61.3 +/- 7.0 hours (P = 0.12) and to ovulation were 70.4 +/- 4.4 hours vs 93.2 +/- 7.5 hours (P < 0.01), respectively; pregnancy rates were 41.7 and 35.7%, respectively (P > 0.5). Norgestomet and estradiol were as good as (heifers) or superior to (cows) a 2-dose cloprostenol regimen. In cows given norgestomet and estradiol, injecting eCG at implant removal did not significantly improve estrous or pregnancy rates.  (+info)

Estrus synchronization of beef cattle with a combination of melengestrol acetate and an injection of progesterone and 17beta-estradiol. (3/317)

Our hypothesis was that estrus synchronization in beef cattle using melengestrol acetate (MGA) and an injection of progesterone (P4) and 17beta-estradiol (E2) to regress dominant ovarian follicles would improve pregnancy rate (number conceived/number in group) to AI compared with feeding only MGA or injecting PGF2alpha. During 2 yr, peripubertal heifers (n = 52) and cows (n = 327) received either 1) MGA for 18 d (d 0 = 1st d of MGA) plus an injection of P4 and E2 in sesame oil (vehicle) on d 11 to regress persistent ovarian follicles (MGA+P4), 2) MGA for 18 d plus vehicle on d 11 (MGA), or 3) two injections of PGF2alpha 10 d apart (d 7 and 17, PG). Concentration of P4 was assessed in blood samples obtained on d 0, 7, and 17 to indicate estrual status (anestrual or estrual) during treatment to induce estrus synchrony. Observations for detection of estrus occurred every 6 h for 180 h following treatment cessation. Females showing estrus were inseminated 6 to 12 h after estrus detection. Conception to AI was determined by ultrasonography 35 to 40 d later. Conception rate was greater (P < .05) in females in the PG than in those in the MGA group but did not differ from conception rate of females in the MGA+P4 group. Among anestrual females, estrus synchrony rates were greatest (P < .10) among females treated with MGA+P4. Among females that were estrual before treatment cessation, estrus synchrony rates were greater (P < .10) among females treated with MGA+P4 or PG than among those given MGA. Pregnancy rates were greater (P < .05) among females that were anestrual before treatment cessation and treated with MGA or MGA+P4 than among those treated with PG. Estrus synchronization using MGA+P4 and E2 differentially improves estrus synchronization and pregnancy rates among anestrual and estrual beef cattle while maintaining conception rates similar to those of PGF2alpha-treated females.  (+info)

Retention of a functional corpus luteum and peripheral concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2alpha following metestrus administration of Syncro-Mate-B. (4/317)

This study was conducted to examine the effects of metestrus administration of SyncroMate-B (SMB) on PGF2alpha secretion and corpus luteum (CL) development. In a study replicated over 2 yr, cows were observed for spontaneous estrus in yr 1, and cows received an injection of 25 mg of PGF2alpha and were observed for subsequent estrus in yr 2. At standing estrus (estrus = d 1), cows were randomly allotted to receive either the standard SMB regimen (n = 40) on d 3 of the estrous cycle or no treatment (n = 8). Fifty percent (n = 20) of SMB-treated cows were administered PGF2alpha on d 10 of the estrous cycle 48 h prior to implant removal. Twice-daily blood samples were collected in the morning (AM) and evening (PM) from d 2 AM through d 14 AM of the treated estrous cycle and subsequently analyzed for progesterone (P4) and PGF2alpha metabolite (PGFM). Prior to statistical analysis, SMB- and SMB/PGF2alpha-treated cows were sorted according to P4 concentration at d 10 of the treated estrous cycle to either a CL functional group (P4 > or = 1 ng/mL; n = 20) or a CL nonfunctional group (P4 < 1 ng/mL; n = 17). Following d 10 AM administration of PGF2alpha, functional and nonfunctional groups were further subdivided based on treatment. The groups were as follows: untreated control cows (n = 8); SMB-treated cows retaining a functional CL (SMB-F; n = 8); SMB-treated cows with a nonfunctional CL (SMB-N; n = 11); SMB/PGF2alpha-treated cows retaining a functional CL (SMB/PG-F; n = 12); and SMB/PGF2alpha-treated cows with a nonfunctional CL (SMB/PG-N; n = 6). Of all SMB-treated cows, 54% retained a functional CL through d 10 AM of the treated estrous cycle. Mean serum P4 concentrations increased for cows in all groups until d 7, after which P4 concentrations increased for cows in SMB/PG-F, SMB-F, and control groups and decreased for cows in SMB/PG-N and SMB-N groups. Following PGF2alpha administration on d 10, mean serum P4 concentrations remained < 1 ng/mL for cows in SMB/PG-N and SMB-N groups, decreased to < 1 ng/mL for cows in the SMB/ PG-F group, and remained > 1 ng/mL for cows in SMB-F and control groups. Mean serum PGFM concentrations tended (P = .06) to increase in cows with nonfunctional CL compared with control cows on d 8 AM and were greater (P < .05) in cows with functional CL on d 8 PM through d 9 PM. These results indicate that retention of a functional rather than a nonfunctional CL following metestrus administration of SMB is dependent on a premature release of uterine PGF2alpha.  (+info)

Persistent dominant follicle alters pattern of oviductal secretory proteins from cows at estrus. (5/317)

The experimental objective was to compare synthesis of oviductal secretory proteins of dairy cows bearing a persistent dominant follicle (PDF) versus a fresh dominant follicle (FDF) at estrus. On Day 7 after synchronized estrus (Day 0), cows received an intravaginal progesterone device and injection of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). On Day 9, cows received an injection of a GnRH agonist (FDF group; n = 3) or received no injection (PDF group, n = 3). On Day 16, all cows received PGF2alpha, and progesterone devices were removed. At slaughter on Day 18 or Day 19, oviducts ipsilateral and contralateral to the dominant follicle were divided into infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus regions. Explants from oviductal regions were cultured in minimal essential medium supplemented with [3H]leucine for 24 h. Two-dimensional fluorographs of proteins in conditioned media were analyzed by densitometry. Rate of incorporation of [3H]leucine into macromolecules was greater in the infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus of FDF cows (p < 0.01). Overall, intensities of radiolabeled secretory protein (P) 2 and P13 were greater for FDF than for PDF. In the ampulla, P14 was more intense for FDF while P7 was more intense for PDF. Abundance of P1 in the isthmus was greater for PDF cows. Across regions, P5, P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for PDF than for FDF in the ipsilateral side. In the contralateral side, P19 was more intense for PDF than for FDF, whereas P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for FDF. Differences in biosynthetic activity and in secreted oviductal proteins from cows bearing a PDF may contribute to the decrease in fertility associated with a PDF.  (+info)

Follicular, hormonal, and pregnancy responses of early postpartum suckled beef cows to GnRH, norgestomet, and prostaglandin F2alpha. (6/317)

Cycling (n = 16) and noncycling (n = 24), early postpartum, suckled beef cows of three breeds were assigned randomly to three treatments: 1) 100-microg injection of GnRH plus a 6-mg implant of norgestomet administered on d -7 before 25 mg of PGF2alpha and implant removal on d 0 (GnRH+NORG); 2) 100 microg of GnRH given on d -7 followed by 25 mg of PGF2alpha on d 0 (GnRH); or 3) 2 mL of saline plus a 6-mg implant of norgestomet administered on d -7 followed by 25 mg of PGF2, and implant removal on d 0 (NORG). All cows were given 100 microg of GnRH on d +2 (48 h after PGF2alpha). Blood sera collected daily from d -7 to d +4 were analyzed for progesterone and estradiol-17beta, and ovaries were monitored daily by transrectal ultrasonography to assess changes in ovarian structures. Luteal structures were induced in 75% of noncycling cows in both treatments after GnRH, resulting in elevated (P < .01) progesterone on d 0 for GnRH+NORG-treated cows. Concentrations of estradiol-17beta (P < .01) and LH (P < .05) were greater on d +2 after GnRH for cows previously receiving norgestomet implants. Pregnancy rates after one fixed-time AI at 16 h after GnRH (d +2) were greater (P < .05) in GnRH+NORG (71%) than in GnRH (31%) and NORG (15%) cows. Difference in pregnancy rate was due partly to normal luteal activity after AI in over 87% of GnRH+NORG cows and no incidence of short luteal phases. The GnRH+NORG treatment initially induced ovulation or turnover of the largest follicle, induction of a new follicular wave, followed later by increased concentrations of estradiol-17beta and progesterone. After PGF2alpha, greater GnRH-induced release of LH occurred in GnRH+NORG cows before ovulation, and pregnancy rates were greater after a fixed-time AI.  (+info)

Ovulation and estrus characteristics in crossbred Brahman heifers treated with an intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert in combination with prostaglandin F2alpha and estradiol benzoate. (7/317)

Crossbred Brahman heifers (n = 60) were studied to determine the effect of a 7-d intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert (INSERT) in combination with PG (Lutalyse; 25 mg i.m.) and estradiol benzoate (EB; .5 mg i.m.) on time of ovulation and estrous behavior. In Phase I, heifers at unknown stages of the estrous cycle were assigned by BW and body condition score to one of the three treatments on d 0: 1) INSERT for 7 d and PG on d 7 (CONTROL; n = 10); 2) INSERT for 7 d, PG on d 7, and EB 24 h after INSERT removal (EB24; n = 10); or 3) INSERT for 7 d, PG on d 7, and EB 48 h after INSERT removal (EB48; n = 10). Blood samples were collected every 8 h after INSERT removal. Also, blood sampling and ultrasonography began 8 h after the onset of estrus, determined with HeatWatch devices, and every 4 h thereafter to detect ovulation. In Phase II, Phase-I treatments (n = 10/treatments) were replicated, but only behavioral estrus data were collected to minimize handling of heifers. Frequent handling of heifers did not influence (P > .1) the interval from INSERT removal to the onset of HeatWatch and visual estrus and duration of estrus, so behavioral estrus data were combined for Phases I and II. Interval from INSERT removal to HeatWatch estrus was decreased (P < .05) in EB24 (45.5 h) vs EB48 (55.9 h) and CONTROL (59.2 h). Interval from INSERT removal to ovulation differed (P < .04) between CONTROL, EB24, and EB48 (93.5, 74.5, and 78.9 h, respectively). Ovulatory follicle size was similar (P > .1) between CONTROL, EB24, and EB48 (14.4, 12.5, and 14.1 mm, respectively). Duration of estrus was similar for CONTROL, EB24, and EB48 (14.0, 15.1, and 17.6 h, respectively). No difference (P > . 1) was observed in number of mounts received between CONTROL, EB24, and EB48 (28.0, 25.7, and 39.4, respectively), but number of mounts received increased in Phase II vs Phase I (40.0 and 22.2, respectively; P < .05). In conclusion, EB hastened the interval from INSERT removal to ovulation without altering duration of estrus or number of mounts received. Frequent handling of heifers did not affect interval to first mount received after INSERT removal or duration of estrus, but it decreased the total number of mounts received.  (+info)

Effect of estrus synchronization with norgestomet on the integrity of oocytes from persistent follicles in beef cattle. (8/317)

Our objective was to determine whether oocyte integrity is compromised when oocytes are recovered from progestogen-induced persistent follicles. Beef cows were presynchronized using PGF2alpha (PGF). Cows detected in estrus after PGF were assigned to either NOR (one 6-mg norgestomet implant for 10 d starting on d 16 of cycle; day 0 = estrus; n = 112) or CON (control, no implant [n = 128] and presynchronized 8 d later than NOR). All cows received 25 mg of PGF at the end of treatment (NOR, d 26; CON, d 18). Treatments produced persistent preovulatory follicles (NOR) or normal preovulatory-size follicles (CON), which were measured via ultrasonography 1 d before slaughter. Ovaries were collected from all animals (NOR, d 27; CON, d 19) along with random (RAN) ovaries from cattle slaughtered on the same days. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) were aspirated from the preovulatory follicles with recovery rates of 63% across treatments. Small follicles (2 to 7 mm diameter) from NOR, CON, and RAN cows were also aspirated to recover COC. Preovulatory follicles were larger (19.5+/-.9 vs. 13.6+/-.4 mm, P<.05), serum P4 was lower (.4+/-.1 vs. 3.9+/-.2 ng/mL, P<.05), and serum E2 was higher (28.7+/-1.6 vs. 7.6+/-.8 pg/mL, P<.05) in NOR than in CON cows. Cumulus oocyte complexes recovered from preovulatory follicles (62 NOR, 64 CON) were matured, fertilized, and cultured in vitro for comparison of embryonic development. A subset (24 NOR, 34 CON) of COC were assigned morphological quality grades. A separate set of recovered COC (10 NOR, 15 CON) was fixed within 1 h after recovery for assessment of the stage of meiosis. Treatments did not differ for oocyte quality grade or stage of meiosis. However, COC from NOR cows had more layers of cumulus cells (P<.05), and more of those COC had undergone cumulus expansion (29.2 vs. 5.9%, P<.05 for NOR vs. CON, respectively). Development of cleaved embryos to the morula and blastocyst stages from preovulatory follicles (22.6% NOR, 18.9% CON) or small follicles (42% NOR, 40% CON, 42% RAN) did not differ with treatment. Oocyte quality and in vitro developmental competence were not compromised for oocytes from induced persistent follicles compared with oocytes from normal preovulatory follicles. Increased expansion of cumulus cells associated with oocytes from progestogen-induced persistent follicles may be relevant to the reduction of in vivo fertility associated with such follicles.  (+info)

Title: Effects of different estrous synchronization protocols on estrus and subsequent fertility in cycling cows. Authors: Amit Kumar, JS Mehta, Swati Ruhil and GN Purohit. Source: Ruminant Science (2018)-7(1):83-86.. Cite this reference as: Kumar Amit, Mehta JS, Ruhil Swati and Purohit GN (2018). Effects of different estrous synchronization protocols on estrus and subsequent fertility in cycling cows. Ruminant Science 7(1):83-86.. Abstract. Present study was conducted on 53 healthy cyclic cow of 2-5 parity and ,90 day postpartum to evaluate the efficacy and subsequent fertility of three estrus synchronization protocols i.e. CIDR-PG (n=13), Ovsynch (n=15), Heatsynch (n=15). The animals of control group (n=10) remained untreated. After end of the protocol all the treated cows were observed daily morning-evening for 7 days for the occurrence of signs of estrus and inseminated artificially 12 to 18 hrs after the onset of estrus. Cohort development of developing follicles (5 mm) was monitored by ...
He says there are several estrus synchronization programs to help get the heifers bred in a timely manner. He lists the three main estrus synchronization programs recommended for beef heifers -- simple estrus detection, estrus detection with timed AI and fixed-timed artificial insemination (AI) protocols.. Perry encourages livestock growers to choose a protocol that fits their time, facilities and experience.. By using any of these protocols you can better manage your time in that you know you want to detect estrus for this three to five day period or youre going to go out and do a fixed-time AI on them, says Perry. Synchronization really becomes a management tool that benefits you in managing your labor also.. To see the full article, click here.. ...
With spring calving in full swing, it is a good time to start thinking about if your cows are prepared for breeding season. Making sure your cows are in a good body condition score prior to calving is one of the most important steps to ensuring your cows stay on track to rebreed whether you plan to turn bulls out, synchronize, AI, or a combination. If you plan to utilize
The EAZI-BREED CIDR is commonly used in estrous synchronization protocols for both beef heifers and cows. The label calls for insertion of a progesterone-impregnated controlled internal drug release (CIDR) for 7 consecutive days with an injection of prostaglandin F2α given a day before CIDR removal. Animals should display estrus 1 to 3 days after CIDR removal. Modifications to this protocol include administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at the time of CIDR insertion and administration of the prostaglandin injection at the time of CIDR removal on day 7. Use of GnRH in conjunction with a CIDR may improve estrous synchronization in beef cows and fertility at fixed-time insemination but may not be necessary when synchronizing beef heifers. Our objective was to compare heat response and fertility in heifers with or without GnRH administration at the time of CIDR insertion. Our hypothesis was that heifer fertility would be similar between treatments ...
Using an appointment-based medication synchronization program can improve adherence rates among patients taking chronic medications, according to a new study published in the Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy.
BACKGROUND: Improving the reproductive performance of dairy cows requires manipulation of estrus using estrus synchronization protocols. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of reducing the length of estrus synchronization protocol by using two doses of prostaglandin injection on reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows. METHODS: At first, all cows received GnRH (day 0), PGF2α on day 7, and GnRH on day 17. Then, cows assigned randomly to one of 3 groups: Group 1) PGF2α injection on days 22 and 23, estradiol benzoate injection on day 24. Group 2) PGF2α injection on days 23 and 24, estradiol benzoate injection on day 25. Group 3) Control group; injection of PGF2α on day 24, injection of estradiol benzoate on day 25. Estrus detection was performed twice a day up to 48 hours (AM/PM) using signs of estrus and fixed time AI protocol was used after 48 hours (if not previously inseminated). RESULTS: Conception rate in group 2 were significantly higher than control group (P≤
Use of the intravaginal progesterone insert (CIDR) along with PGF2a effectively synchronizes estrus in dairy heifers. It is expected to be available in 2001; however, approval for use in lactating cows is not being sought at this time. Approval for use is lactating cows is expected to be sought after approval is acquired for its use in heifers. During 2001 there will be procedures to synchronize estrus in dairy heifers: PGF2a, MGA and PGF2a (discussed in another article within this publication), and the concurrent use of CIDRs and PGF2a. Producers should obtain the advantages of AI and reduce the reliance on estrus detection as heifers are an easy to bred female.. ...
Estrus synchronization is a reproductive biotechnology used to improve artificial insemination or pairing through the manipulation of the estrous cycle at a desirable time. Employing this technique in captive pacas (Cuniculus paca L.) is important because it creates expectation of meeting the demand for paca meat and, consequently, reduces poaching. Thus, this research aims to verify the effect of a progestogen implant associated with two doses of eCG on the synchronization and induction of fertile estrus. Twenty-seven adult pacas were used, 18 non-pregnant females and nine males, divided into three groups. G1 and G2 females groups (treatments) received 1.5 mg Norgestomet and were injected intramuscularly, seven days later, with 0.13 mg of prostaglandin. After 24 hours the implants were removed and the animals immediately received 25 IU and 50 IU of ECG intramuscularly, respectively. The mating of the three groups took place on the same days. G3 females group (control) showed estrus on ...
Several methods of synchronizing estrus have been tried in swine. One of the oldest and most commonly used natural methods is weaning pigs from a group of sows simultaneously. When this is done, the majority of sows will show estrus 3 to 7 days later if the sows have been nursed for at least 3 weeks. This method is effective and highly fertile; however, in some cases it is not practical to breed at this time and a natural method of synchronization in gilts is not available ...
A method and apparatus are provided for performing acquisition, synchronization and cell selection within an MIMO-OFDM communication system. A coarse synchronization is performed to determine a searching window. A fine synchronization is then performed by measuring correlations between subsets of signal samples, whose first signal sample lies within the searching window, and known values. The correlations are performed in the frequency domain of the received signal. In a multiple-output OFDM system, each antenna of the OFDM transmitter has a unique known value. The known value is transmitted as pairs of consecutive pilot symbols, each pair of pilot symbols being transmitted at the same subset of sub-carrier frequencies within the OFDM frame.
He added that consistency is important to not only her diet, but also her environment. And, if cows need to be moved post-breeding, they need to be transported within the first 72 hours after they are A.I.ed, or they need to wait 45 days before being moved. The more consistency and less stress the cows experience, the more likely they are to conceive on the first breeding.. Synch and Breed. Once you have determined your calving date for the next year, start planning your breeding calendar by working backward. Use a gestation calendar to determine a breeding date based on when you want to calve. Once you know your breeding date, you will continue to work backward to know when to start your estrus synchronization process.. Sexson said that conception rates will increase if you wait at least 55-60 days postpartum to begin synchronizing first-calf heifers; older cows should wait at least 45-60 days after calving. There are three basic synchronization methods using one or a combination of drugs to ...
Many dairy veterinarians prescribe the use of prostaglandin F2α (PG) in dairy herds to control time to estrus (heat), as part of synchronization programs or for postpartum treatments. There are two primary PG products available in the U.S.,
The review work is based on analyzing and recording the effects of the application of ovulation synchronization protocols based on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and insulin for the increase of the pregnancy rate in crossbred Holstein cows in research published between 2013 and 2017. The study was conducted through the integrated search of relevant authors research using key criteria of both inclusion and exclusion, with results from 244 articles analyzed, where 118 analyzed the interaction of energy balance and ovulation of dairy cows. Fifty-three articles relate the effective ovulation synchronization protocol for the luteal process and 73 articles analyze the effect of insulin in the luteal process; and finally 18 articles are important to address the problem; insulin can be altered as a metabolic hormone by the increase of fat components of the feed ration consumed by cows, thus influencing ovarian function; ovulation synchronization is necessary, which can be based on GnRH and insulin.
Utilization of estrus synchronization program in livestock industry would provide greater options for reproductive management in herd. To develop a convenient method for estrus synchronization in pigs, we determined the effective protocol using estradiol dipropionate (EDP) for the establishment of pseudopregnancy and investigated follicular development during the estrus synchronization with prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) in association with reproductive hormone profiles in pseudopregnant sows. In Experiment 1, the effective dose (0, 10, 20, or 30 mg) and timing (5, 8, 11 or 13 days after ovulation) of a single administration of EDP in cyclic pigs for the induction of pseudopregnancy were investigated. In Experiment 2, four pseudopregnant sows were treated with PGF2alpha twice at a 24-h interval between 24 and 28 days after EDP treatment. The changes in plasma concentrations of reproductive hormones were analyzed by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Follicular development and ovulation following
The objective of the present study was to compare estradiol/progesterone ratios of different age categories of red deer hinds and use it as a predictor of estrus synchronization success and consequently conception rate. To accomplish this we used 38 red deer hinds to establish serum progesterone and estradiol levels in young (21 animals), mature (10 animals) and old (7 animals) hinds during the estrus synchronization procedure (transvaginal/cervical AI). The following estrus synchronization was used: at the start of the experiment each hind received a controlled intravaginal drug-releasing device (CIDR, Pharmacia&Upjohn, New Zealand) containing 0.3 g of progesterone. The device was removed on day 11, simultaneously with an application of 250 IU of Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG, Folligon® Intervet International, Boxmeer, Holland). Transvaginal/ cervical AI (artificial insemination) was performed 48 hours after CIDR withdrawal (day 13). Blood samples were obtained from the jugul...ar ...
Cliff Lamb, University of Florida - North Florida Research and Education Center, Marianna, FL. Estrous synchronization (ES) and artificial insemination (AI) are reproductive management tools that have been available to beef producers for over 50 years. Synchronization of the estrous cycle has the potential to shorten the calving season, increase calf uniformity, and enhance the possibilities for utilizing AI. Artificial insemination allows producers the opportunity to infuse superior genetics into their operations at costs far below the cost of purchasing a herd sire of similar standards. These tools remain the most important and widely applicable reproductive bio-technologies available for beef cattle operations (Seidel, 1995). However, beef producers have been slow to utilize or adopt these technologies into their production systems.. Current research has focused on the development of methods that effectively synchronize estrous in postpartum (after calving) beef cows and replacement beef ...
A total of 137 cycling Zebu cows, each receiving a single dose of prostaglandin PGF 2a were used in an oestrus synchronization programme on three different farms. Of the cows on the three farms, 60.6 and 90.5 percent showed over oestrus and luteolysis, respectively. Pregnancy rate to fixed time inseminations following single injection of PGF 2a was 61.4 percent for farm 1, significantly higher than the values of 45.7 and 46.9 percent for farms 2 and 3, respectively. The pregnancy rates to second service of rebred cows were 53.3, 50.0 and 50.0 percent for the three farms, respectively, with no significant differences between each. Fertility classification of the cows based on progesterone (P4) concentration showed that 6.6 percent of cows on the three farms were incorrectly diagnosed as having corpora lutea; 2.9 percent of them had incomplete luteolysis and 5.1 percent may have lost their embryos between days 21 and 45 post-insemination. The pregnancy rate was 10 percent higher in the rainy ...
The Cosynch protocol (GnRH 7 days before and again 48 h after PGF2 with AI at the second GnRH injection) produced pregnancy rates in suckled beef cows that exceeded 50% without heat detection and with only three handlings of all cows. The addition of an intravaginal progesterone insert to the Cosynch protocol improved pregnancy rates in two of the three breeds of cows studied.
METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DATA SYNCHRONIZATION - A data synchronization method is provided. The data synchronization method includes providing a first server with a master flag and a write flag for a data block; providing a second server; and importing a snapshot of the data block to the second server. The method further includes configuring a synchronizing flag for the data block on the second server; synchronizing, by a synchronizing component, data of the data block on the first server to the second server; and removing the write flag of the data block on the first server when the data block is to be migrated out of the first server. The method also includes synchronizing, by the synchronizing component, latest data of the data block on the first server to the second server; removing the master flag of the data block on the first server and removing the synchronizing flag of the data block on the second server after data of the data block on the second server and the data of the data block on the ...
Reduction in the frequency of undesirable recessive genes is examined for several combinations of initial gene frequencies and number of offspring obtained by random mating of young sires to the population. Only sires not having affected offspring are then returned to heavy use. Such selection can very rapidly reduce the number of affected offspring, if the initial gene frequency is high or if the number of tested offspring is 200-500 for lower gene frequencies. For some combinations, frequency of affected offspring in the population is higher after two or three generations of selection than in the first generation of selection. With high initial gene frequencies, practically all heterozygous males are detected and culled during the test period, resulting in practically no affected offspring in the first generation. The population gene frequency remains relatively high, due to the influence of the unselected females. In the next generation the heterozygous males are not detected with high probability
The Select Synch protocol (GnRH at day - 7, PGF2 at day 0, AI at detected heat) was compared to protocols using either MGA + prostaglandin (Colorado system) or two injections of prostaglandin to synchronize estrus in replacement heifers at three locations. Percentage of heifers detected in heat before, during, or after the target breeding week was not different among treatments but varied in percentages among locations. Overall conception rates ranged from 64 to 69%. Pregnancy rates varied from 46 to 56% and tended to be greatest in the MGA + PGF2 treatment. Costs of these treatments ranged from $3.50 to $8 and were lowest for the MGA + PGF2 protocol.
File Title: Synchronization of estrus and subsequent conception rates in dairy heifers and rats following treatment with melengestrol acetate ...
Anticipated and zero-lag synchronization have been observed in different scientific fields. In the brain, they might play a fundamental role in information processing, temporal coding and spatial attention. Recent numerical work on anticipated and zero-lag synchronization studied the role of delays. However, an analytical understanding of the conditions for these phenomena remains elusive. In this paper, we study both phenomena in systems with small delays. By performing a phase reduction and studying phase locked solutions, we uncover the functional relation between the delay, excitation and inhibition for the onset of anticipated synchronization in a sender-receiver-interneuron motif. In the case of zero-lag synchronization in a chain motif, we determine the stability conditions. These analytical solutions provide an excellent prediction of the phase-locked regimes of Hodgkin-Huxley models and Roessler oscillators. Anticipated and zero-lag synchronization are phenomena that are believed to ...
Authors: OKTAY YILMAZ, EBUBEKİR YAZICI, MEHMET UÇAR, MUHAMMED KÜRŞAD BİRDANE Abstract: A case of congenitally developed fused labia in a 13-month-old Brown-Swiss heifer, an uncommon entity, is described. On gross appearance of vulva, it was observed that there were only 2 small openings in the dorsal and ventral vulvar commissures. Ultrasonography of the genital tract revealed the presence of left and right ovaries, uterine horns, and cervix uteri. The abnormality of the vulva was surgically corrected. The heifer was synchronized and artificially inseminated postsurgically. During delivery, no complication was observed and a healthy male calf was born. To the authors knowledge, this is the first report describing both the surgical treatment of and delivery of a heifer with congenitally developed fused labia in Brown-Swiss cattle. Keywords: Congenital fused labia, no vulva, surgery, estrous synchronization, parturition Full Text: PDF ...
Hi I was just put on progesterone inserts as I had a miscarriage a few months ago and have found out I am expecting again... could you please help me in letting me know if this made anyone sick or had awful side effects?
The IEEE 1588 Conformity Alliance will advocate and certify the Standard for a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement and Control Systems.
This topic applies to Junos OS release 16.1 and higher. (For Junos OS release 15.1 and earlier, see Inter-Chassis High Availability for MS-MIC and MS-MPC (Release 15.1 and earlier)).
A prolongation of the ventricular effective refractory period in response to cholinergic agonists or vagal stimulation has been demonstrated in a number of in vivo animal models. However, exposure of isolated myocardial tissues obtained from these hearts to as much as 10(-4) M acetylcholine has been shown to produce essentially no change in action potential duration or effective refractory period. The discrepancy between the in vivo and in vitro findings generally has been explained on the basis of accentuated antagonism, whereby parasympathetic agonists exert their influence through antagonism of the effects of beta-adrenergic tone in vivo. The fact that acetylcholine exerts little if any direct effect on the electrical activity of ventricular myocardium, although well accepted, is based exclusively on studies performed using endocardial preparations. Our recent demonstration of major electrophysiological differences between canine ventricular endocardium and epicardium prompted us to examine ...
Serum progesterone concentration and conception rate of beef cows supplemented with ground corn after a fixed-time artificial insemination protocol
A group of 97 spring-calving beef cows were initially oestrus synchronised with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) intravaginal progesterone implants inserted for nine days and a prostaglandin injection on day 7. Approximately half the cows were given 10 μg buserelin when the implants were inserted, and they all received a single fixed-time artificial insemination (Al) 56 hours after the withdrawal of the implants. The overall pregnancy rate to the first synchronised Al was 55 per cent, the buserelin-treated cows having a pregnancy rate of 63 per cent compared with 47 per cent in the untreated cows (P,0.05). Sixteen days after the first synchronised Al all the cows were re-implanted with used CIDR implants which were removed five days later, and the cows received a second synchronised Al on days 23 to 24. Cows which received the second Al were implanted with new CIDR devices 16 days later and these were removed after five days and the non-pregnant cows received a third synchronised Al. The ...
The objective of this study was to compare the effect of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) administration on day 5 after artificial insemination (AI) on luteal function. Thirty-three dairy cows were synchronized by the Ovsynch protocol and assigned randomly into 3 equal groups to receive on day 5 after AI 1500UI hCG, 100µg GnRH, and 2mL saline solution (Control), respectively. progesterone concentration (P4) in blood was measured every 3 days from day 5 to 23 after timed AI. Ultrasound examination of ovaries was performed on days -10, 0 (day of AI), 2, 5, 8, 11 and 14. The results revealed a development of an accessory corpus luteum(CL), 100% in the group received GnRH and 90.9% in that received hCG. No accessory corpus luteum in control group was observed. Total luteal tissue area on the ovaries was increased in hCG and GnRH group compared to control. Plasma P4 concentration was significantly (P , 0.05) higher in hCG and GnRH groups than control ...
Thorough and precise estrus detection plays a crucial role in the fertility of dairy cows. Farmers commonly used direct visual monitoring in recognizing estrus signs which demands time and effort and causes misinterpretations. The primary sign of estrus is the standing heat, where the dairy cows stand to be mounted by other cows for a few seconds. Through the years, researchers developed various detection methods, yet most of these methods involve contact and invasive approaches that affect the estrus behaviors of cows. So, the proponents developed a non-invasive and non-contact estrus detection system using image processing to detect standing heat behaviors. Through the TensorFlow Object Detection API, the proponents trained two custom neural network models capable of visualizing bounding boxes of the predicted cow objects on image frames. The proponents also developed an object overlapping algorithm that utilizes the bounding box corners to detect estrus activities. Based on the conducted tests, an
This study was undertaken as a series of projects which involved selected studies with the CIDR Controlled internal drug releasing device (Eazi-Breed CIDRtm-B, Carter Holt Harvey Plastic Products, Hamilton, N.Z. intravaginal device in dairy cattle. In the first project, a CIDR device was inserted at different stages of the oestrous cycle to characterize the dynamic changes of the follicles in the ovaries of cycling cows, the associated changes in plasma progesterone concentrations (PPC), and the effects of progesterone from the device on cycle lengths. The results demonstrated that the progesterone released by the CIDR appeared to enhance the development and maintenance of a dominant follicle. The reproductive responses after device removal were influenced by the follicular population, and by the stage of the follicular wave even in the absence of a corpus luteum (CL) The PPCs during CIDR insertion or after removal were influenced by the type of animal and the stage of the cycle when treatment ...
In second experiment, a total of 114 lactating Bangladeshi Indigenous buffalo cows were used to study the efficiency of Ovsynch protocol for oestrous and fertility after AI with frozen semen of Italian Mediterranean buffaloes. The effect of some factors such as follicles and corpus luteum numbers, postpartum period on the fertility of synchronized Bangladeshi water buffaloes was also studied. Buffaloes were selected from two different areas in Bangladesh and were divided into three groups. Buffaloes of each group were subdivided as AM and PM according to time of administration of hormones of synchronization protocols. Among three groups, higher pregnancy rate (78% in AM) was observed in buffaloes of Group-3 where Ovsynch protocol was combined with a third GnRH injection at the time of AI. Similar to first experiment, we observed higher pregnancy rate (74 %) in buffaloes received induction treatment and insemination at AM time than that of PM counterpart (63%). Regarding the post-partum days, ...
The University of Minnesota Beef Team has created a Estrus Synch Planner, available on CD. It is a user-friendly Excel spreadsheet designed to customize a breeding schedule utilizing estrus synchronization (ES) and artificial insemination (AI). The planner consists of five worksheets including a planner worksheet, printout worksheet and a printable calendar. The planner provides tips and program overviews, optional supporting papers and a list of 22 ES protocols described in detail. The planner worksheet allows customization of a specific breeding season using any of the ES protocols with the capabilities of choosing breeding date, type of AI method, product cost and preferred time of day to AI. The reports give detailed cost of the protocol, operating cost and cost analysis with varying estrous responses and conception rates, based on the number of head synchronized. A detailed calendar is created with capabilities of printing your customized calendar, along with tips to achieve optimal ...
0065] Another aspect of at least certain embodiments described herein relates to a manner in which a software layer for creating and maintaining a data connection for one or more services may be used for each of those services and may provide an interface to one or more stream handlers which implement transport protocols to send structured data, files and other data through a physical interface, such as a wired USB interface or a Bluetooth wireless interface or other wireless interfaces, such as a WiFi interface or a wireless cellular telephone interface. The same layer may also provide for encrypted authentication, and this authentication may be a two-way authentication which establishes an authenticated connection throughout the transmission back and forth between a device and a host through the device link connection layer. The software architecture shown in FIG. 4 shows a device link 107 which may be implemented in the manner shown in FIG. 10 which illustrates a software architecture in ...
Synchronization programs aim to effectively create an ideal hormonal environment to successfully induce the development of a dominant follicle containing a healthy oocyte that is capable of being fertilized and developing to term. It has been repeatedly suggested that greater gonadotropin stimulation for a finite period during follicular development may enhance fertility in beef cattle. It was hypothesized that decreased progesterone (P4) concentrations during early follicular development would result in increased luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency, leading to oocytes of greater developmental capacity, ultimately increasing pregnancy rate to AI in beef cattle. In the first experiment, decreased P4 concentration during early follicular development and its effect on pregnancy rate to timed-AI and estrus-AI were investigated in multiparous beef cows in Ohio (Experiment 1.1) and Montana (Experiment 1.2). In both experiments, P4 concentrations at the end of P4 treatment were, as designed, greater in
Three levels of dietary crude protein (8.6, 11.4, and 17.2) were fed to 24 pony mares to determine the effects on the estrous cycle, conception rate, and serum progesterone concentrations. Mares were allotted into three treatment groups designated as low protein (LP), medium protein (MP), and high protein (HP). Following estrous synchronization with progesterone and prostaglandin F₂∞, dietary protein at the levels investigated, did not affect (P ,.05) estrous synchronization, length of estrus, the number of days to ovulation, or the number of inseminations per conception. Conception rate following two cycles tended (P, .05) to be higher in the MP (87%) group than the LP (50%) or HP {57%) fed groups. Serum progesterone concentrations were affected (P ,.05) by diet with levels of 6.5±.8, 7.9±.8, and 10.3±.8 ng/ml progesterone (least squares means±SE) in the LP, MP, and HP fed groups respectively. Serum progesterone on days 4, 8, 12, and 16 post-ovulation tended (P =.12) to be higher in ...
Comparison of two intravaginal progesterone releasing devices in lactating dairy cows: blood progesterone profile and field fertility. ...
A method of arranging data synchronization of at least one application in a networked system, which comprises at least one terminal, at least one synchronization server, a first database in the terminal, and a second database. In the method, a configuration message is formed which comprises data required for the application data synchronization, said data comprising settings of at least the second database. The configuration message is transmitted from the synchronization server to the terminal. A synchronization connection is arranged between the terminal and the synchronization server to perform the synchronization. The synchronization is initialized using the arranged synchronization connection and at least part of said data, data of the first database and the second database being synchronized using at least part of said data.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate growth and development of corpus luteum (CL) using protein, DNA analysis and PCNA labeling index throughout the estrous cycle in goats. Non pregnant goats (n=20), 12 months of age were assigned for estrus synchronization. Goats CL were obtained from days 3, 8, 13 and 18 of estrous cycle using bilateral ovariectomy and blood samples were taken for plasma progesterone (P4) concentration. The CL was weighed, and samples of each were fixed in Carnoys solution. Additional samples of each CL were frozen and stored at -70 °C until analyzed for tissue DNA and protein. Luteal fresh weight and DNA contents increased (P,0.01) from day 3 to day 8, were similar between days 8 and 13, and then decreased (P,0.01 ...
The table lists cell cycle regulated chromatin remodeling genes. Five transcriptome data sets, in which the genes that are periodically expressed in at least one data set, and one ribosomal profiling (translationally regulated) data set are included. Periodically expressed genes are indicated with cell cycle phase in which they show the highest expression level. Gene sets in which a given gene is not significantly cell cycle regulated is indicated as NR (not transcriptionally regulated in the cell cycle) or NTR (not translationally regulated in the cell cycle) in transcriptome and ribosomal profiling data sets, respectively. Four experiments are supplemented with expression profiles which can be found by clicking the gene name. Synchronization methods are abbreviated as: SS=serum starvation, TT= double thymidine block, NZ=nocodazole, MS=mitotic shake-off ...
Estrous synchronization (ES) and artificial insemination (AI) of beef cattle has been shown to increase genetic quality of progeny and be economically competitive with natural service. While this technology is size neutral, it has not been well adopted. In this project, virgin heifers will be synchronized and bred artificially to calving ease sires. Factors to be measured include response to synchronization, rates of estrous observation, pregnancy rate, hours of labor required and associated costs. The analysis of this data will be compared to the costs and benefits of using natural service. A fact sheet on ES and AI protocols will be developed, a poster display developed for Empire Farm Days, along with extension newsletter articles and web posts. Results of the project will be presented at an Extension field day. It is anticipated that beef producers will adopt ES and AI as part of their reproductive strategy.. ...
At temperatures above 35 degrees the human bodys ability to cool itself reduces, making it a common benchmark temperature for occupational health and safety experts, academic and government researchers. Combined with 70% humidity, conditions over 35 degrees are considered extremely dangerous by government agencies such as the US Government National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The number of days over 35 degrees per year in Rockhampton has nearly doubled from an average of 18.1 days per year in the mid-20th century to 31.6 days per year in the last five. Mid-20th century levels will more than triple to a projected 70 days over 35 by 2070. Combined with the humidity of Rockhamptons summer, more days are seeing dangerous heat levels.. [READ THE FULL REPORT]. ...
Whitetail Supplies Eazi Breed CIDR Sheep Insert - 20 or More [Eazi Breed CIDR Sheep Insert 20+] - EAZI BREED CIDR SHEEP INSERT - 20 or More The Eazi Breed CIDR Sheep Insert is a convenient and effective method for inducing estrus in production animals. Each Insert contain the natural hormone progesterone. Intra-vaginally placed CIDRs release progesterone at a controlled rate into the blood stream. Each EAZI-BREED CIDR Sheep Insert
Whitetail Supplies Eazi Breed CIDR Sheep Insert - 20 or More [Eazi Breed CIDR Sheep Insert 20+] - EAZI BREED CIDR SHEEP INSERT - 20 or More The Eazi Breed CIDR Sheep Insert is a convenient and effective method for inducing estrus in production animals. Each Insert contain the natural hormone progesterone. Intra-vaginally placed CIDRs release progesterone at a controlled rate into the blood stream. Each EAZI-BREED CIDR Sheep Insert
Estrus: Estrus, , the period in the sexual cycle of female mammals, except the higher primates, during which they are in heat-i.e., ready to accept a male and to mate. One or more periods of estrus may occur during the breeding season of a species. Prior to ovulation the endometrium (uterine lining)
Methods and apparatuses are described for monitoring synchronization of two or more brain areas and delivering an electrical therapy to the brain to facilitate synchronization of the two or more brain areas. The electrical therapy can be titrated to improve synchronization between the two or more areas of the brain based on the one or more signals, the synchronization between the two or more areas of the brain occurring in response to the patient being exposed to external sensory stimulus, wherein the electrical therapy does not independently cause activation of either of the two or more areas of the brain.
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The objective was to evaluate if supplemental LH given at the end of FSH treatment would synchronize the time of ovulation and increase the ovulation rate and embryo yield in Santa Ines ewes. Twenty superovulatory (SOV) programs were accomplished in cross-over design (60d interval). On D0, a CIDR device was inserted, and the device was replaced with a new one 7 days later, when 37.5µg of d-cloprostenol was administered. On D12, we started the SOV treatment, administering 256mg of pFSH 8 times, 12h apart. On D14, the CIDR was removed, and 200IU of eCG and 37.5µg of d-cloprostenol were administered. On D15, the ewes were allocated into one of two groups, a Control group (n=10) that received no supplemental LH and a LH group (n=10) treated with 7.5mg of LH ...
This paper investigates the adaptive cluster synchronization in the complex networks with different orders. By means of Lyapunov stability theory and the adaptive control technique, a novel adaptive synchronization controller is developed. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed method, the examples for the synchronization of systems with the chaotic and hyperchaotic node dynamics are presented.
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The worlds most advanced estrus and health monitoring solution for dairy cows. 96% estrus detection rate, 100% 6-week submission rate, 82% 6-week in calf rate, 100% sick cow detection ...
OvaMed is indicated for the suppression of estrus in mares. Suppression of estrus allows for a predictableoccurrence of estrus following drug withdrawal.
For audiovisual and haptic interactive IP communications, the authors propose a media adaptive intra-stream synchronization control schem...
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Mga Nilalaman: Sino ang kailangang isang clip. Paano sa kumuha alisan ng hilik. Paano gumagana ang anti-hilik. Mga natatanging katangian. Mga benepisyo. Kapakipakinabang na mga katangian Snorest. Paano gamitin ang mga clip. Saan bibili. Real review.
Risk of Dairy Heifer CDiff: High* is the default risk category where bulls are not genotyped and have less than 50 progeny; N/A = Not calculated for Females. Disclaimer ...
Artificial insemination uses estrus synchronization to indicate when the cow is going through ovulation and is susceptible to ... "Estrus Synchronization of Dairy Cattle" (PDF). Retrieved 28 March 2018. "Heat Detection and Timing of Insemination for Cattle ... Estrus is often called standing heat in cattle and refers to the time in their cycle where the female is receptive towards the ... Estrus behaviour can be detected by an experienced stockman. These behaviours can include standing to be mounted, mounting ...
Synchronisation of oestrus in conjunction with prostaglandin F2α. The PGF2α injection helps to ensure there is no residual CL ... PGF2α injection on days 5-8. Serve on observed oestrus or fixed time once at 56h or twice at 48h and 72h. Induction of oestrus ... 1983). Multiple use of progesterone releasing intravaginal devices for synchronisation of oestrus and ovulation in cattle. ...
Pheromonal cues aid synchronization of oestrus in many species; in women, synchronized menstruation may also arise from ...
Indigenous intra-vaginal sponges for oestrus induction and synchronization. Intensive lamb rearing techniques for maximizing ... Indigenous progesterone impregnated vaginal sponges for estrus synchronization in sheep Method to deliver nematophagous fungus ... Low cost, indigenous vaginal sponges for estrus control in buffaloes. Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute - What does ...
These estrus synchronization protocols allow Fixed Time Artificial Insemination to be used, giving herd managers more accurate ... Controlled internal drug release (CIDR) devices are used in livestock for the synchronization of estrus. They are T-shaped ... Although there is variability in the response to estrus synchronization, studies show consistently high pregnancy rates ... "Evaluation of progesterone controlled internal drug release dispensers for synchronization of estrus in sheep". Animal ...
"Synchronizing Estrus in Cattle - How does estrus synchronization work?". Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service. Retrieved 2021- ... Variant terms for proestrus include pro-oestrus, proestrum, and pro-oestrum. Estrus or oestrus refers to the phase when the ... The pro-oestrus is relatively long at 5 to 9 days, while the oestrus may last 4 to 13 days, with a dioestrus of 60 days ... Apparently a mechanism used in livestock for the synchronization of estrus are called Controlled internal drug release. This ...
Klinskii ID, Zhirkov GF (1982). "[Use of mepregenol diacetate (Diamol), a gestagen preparation, for estrus synchronization in ... on estrus induction in sheep in physiological anestrus. Reguliatsiia i intensifikatsiia protsessov razmnozheniia ...
Throughout the 1950s, Bruce studied sexual behaviour in laboratory mice, with a particular interest in oestrus synchronisation ... As a result, the rate of miscarriages increased, these females subsequently returning to oestrus and mating with the new male. ...
... flehmen behavior in females has also been shown to stimulate the onset of estrus and copulation synchronization. Post- ... Bland, K. P.; Jubilan, B. M. "Correlation of flehmen by male sheep with female behavior and oestrus". 1987. Animal Behavior 35( ... Stallions usually smell the urine of mares in estrus whereas the male giraffe's flehmen response includes actually tasting the ... but this occurs most frequently on the day before estrus when the ewes are sexually receptive. Reproductive synchrony - flehmen ...
... for example some species appear to show estrus synchronisation. In spontaneous ovulators, estrogen and progesterone secreted by ... "Estrus". The University of Sydney. 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2014. Heape, W. (1905). "Ovulation and degeneration of ova in ... Wiltbank, Milo C.; Pursley, J. Richard (2014-01-01). "The cow as an induced ovulator: Timed AI after synchronization of ...
Analogs of PGF2α have been developed for estrus synchronization, abortion in domestic animals, influencing human reproductive ...
CIDR may also refer to: Controlled internal drug release, devices used in livestock for the synchronization of estrus Center ...
... estrus detection MeSH E05.820.150.370 - estrus synchronization MeSH E05.820.150.390 - hybridization, genetic MeSH E05.820. ...
... estrus MeSH G08.520.188.500.500 - estrus synchronization MeSH G08.520.188.750 - metestrus MeSH G08.520.188.875 - proestrus MeSH ...
Oestrus synchronisation has proven to have many advantages in the dairy and beef industries. The application of estrous ... Estrus synchronisation has major advantages in making artificial insemination more practical. Increasing the productivity of ... The term "estrus" refers to the phase of the estrous cycle in which a sexually mature, non-pregnant female is receptive to ... Estrous synchronisation is the process of targeting female mammals to come to heat within a short time frame (36 to 96 hours). ...
This synchronization of the estrous cycle is known as the Whitten effect. The exposure of a recently bred mouse to the ... If exposed to a male mouse or the pheromones of a male mouse, most of the females will go into estrus in about 72 hours. ... Pups are weaned at 3 weeks of age; weaning weight is 10-12 g (0.35-0.42 oz). If the postpartum estrus is not utilized, the ... Breeding onset is at about 50 days of age in both females and males, although females may have their first estrus at 25-40 days ...
Cutler hypothesizes the synchronization with the full moon and Law with the new moon. Neither offer hypotheses regarding how ... Oestrus synchrony has been reported of lions in the wild. Culture and menstruation Knight, C. (1995). Blood Relations: ... The phenomenon is not synchronization in the strict sense of concordance of menstrual cycle onsets but the term menstrual ... 2007). "Estrus cycle asynchrony in wild female chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii". Behavioral Ecology and ...
... s are also used in the detection of oestrus in sows. Boar pheromones are sprayed into the sty, and those sows that ... The best-known case study involves the synchronization of menstrual cycles among women based on unconscious odor cues, the ...
Mounting is a playful behavior shown by calves of both sexes and by bulls and sometimes by cows in estrus, however, this is not ... Synchronization of cattle ovulation to benefit dairy farming may be accomplished via induced ovulation techniques. Bulls become ... Calves can recognize their mothers using vocalizations; vocal behaviour may play a role by indicating estrus and competitive ...
The synchronisation of births is advantageous because the cubs grow to being roughly the same size and have an equal chance of ... Interactions between prides and nomads tend to be hostile, although pride females in estrus allow nomadic males to approach ...
Pheromonal cues aid synchronization of oestrus in many species; in women, synchronized menstruation may also arise from ...
Read Estrus Synchronization Products in addition to hundreds of recent farming and agriculture news articles. View up to date ... Estrus synchronization can lead to an increased proportion of females conceiving earlier in the calving season and will wean ... The cow will then return to estrus (Patterson et al., 2004). An injection of PG is required as part of many estrus ... Estrus synchronization can lead to an increased proportion of females conceiving earlier in the calving season and will wean ...
Estrus synchronization in sheep is a great tool to help reduce lambing season labor. Build a sheep nutrition plan to support ... Purpose of estrus synchronization in sheep. Estrus synchronization in sheep is the act of preventing ewes from cycling ... the need for estrus synchronization in sheep is a must. Other reasons to synchronize estrus in sheep could be to group estrus ... Estrus synchronization in sheep can help reduce strain on rams and provide a shorter, more consistent lambing season window to ...
Why Do Estrus Synchronization Programs Fail?. The following are the two main reasons why estrus synchronization programs fail: ... Estrus synchronization with AI in beef cattle offers the following advantages over entirely natural mating or AI without estrus ... Commonly, estrus synchronization and AI are used for one AI service, and then cleanup bulls are turned out for the remainder of ... The majority of estrus synchronization programs use one or a combination of the following three basic methods that work with ...
Although some synchronization protocols help induce estrus and ovulation in non-cycling cows, cows that calved at less than 20 ... Other factors that may impact the success of an estrus synchronization program are cow age (first calf heifers tend to take ... Considerations for Successful Estrus Synchronization Programs Sydney ODaniel, Nebraska Exension Beef Educator ... Anyone who has used an estrus synchronization protocol knows that timing is critical and keeping track of dates of injections ...
How are GnRH systems different from other estrus synchronization systems?. Traditional estrus synchronization systems only ... Until recently, the rewards of engaging in an estrus synchronization and AI program, for most commercial producers, were not ... However, estrus synchronization and AI allows commercial producers affordable access to these bulls. ... The GnRH based synchronization systems are illustrated in Figure 3. Ovsynch and CO-Synch® are timed AI systems whereas Select- ...
EFFECT OF ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION PROTOCOLS INCLUDING PGF2[alpha] AND GnRH ON FERTILITY PARAMETERS IN HAIR GOATS DURING BREEDING ... SYNCHRONIZATION+PROTOCOLS+INCLUDING+PGF2%5balpha%5d+AND...-a0505170102. *APA style: EFFECT OF ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION PROTOCOLS ... EFFECT OF ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION PROTOCOLS INCLUDING PGF2[alpha] AND GnRH ON FERTILITY PARAMETERS IN HAIR GOATS DURING BREEDING ... MLA style: "EFFECT OF ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION PROTOCOLS INCLUDING PGF2[alpha] AND GnRH ON FERTILITY PARAMETERS IN HAIR GOATS ...
... K-REx Repository. Search K-REx. This Collection. ... Estrus synchronization of cattle in Kansas. Simms, D.D.; Sprott, L.R.; Odde, Kenneth G.; Corah, L.R. ... estrus-synchronization agent for both natural mating and artificial insemination. Only 52.7% of the females in all 22 trials ... pregnancy rate in the 2 or 3 days of synchronization was 38.4% for all 453 females bred artificially in 12 trials in ...
... but now is a good time to review estrus synchronization protocols and develop a plan for this year. There are several Extension ... Estrus Synchronization and the Breeding Season - Resources to Review for 2020. Aaron Berger, Nebraska Extension Beef Educator ... The development of estrus synchronization protocols for beef cattle that can be used for either natural service or artificial ... Correctly following an estrus synchronization protocol is critical to success. This planner helps clarify details in an easy to ...
Experiments evaluated estrus synchronization and periconceptual supplementation on pregnancy rate and calf production. ... Estrus Synchronization and Periconceptual Supplementation Affect the Profitability of a Replacement Heifer Enterprise ... Experiments evaluated estrus synchronization and periconceptual supplementation on pregnancy rate and calf production. ...
Following PRID removal, animals were artificially inseminated 12 h after signs of behavioral estrus were observed. A treatment- ... After PRID withdrawal, both heifers and cows receiving 1 PRID exhibited behavioral estrus earlier (p , 0.006) than animals ... Increasing Exogenous Progesterone during Synchronization of Estrus Decreases Endogenous 17β-Estradiol and Increases Conception ... Following PRID removal, animals were artificially inseminated 12 h after signs of behavioral estrus were observed. A treatment- ...
... K-REx Repository. Search K-REx. This Collection. ... Estrus synchronization in swine: trials with Aimax (I.C.I. 33,838). Kiracofe, G.; Koch, B.A.; Hines, Robert H. ... Keywords: Swine; Estrus synchronization; Sows. Conference: Swine Day, Manhattan, KS, September 26, 1968. Starting Page: 5. , ... When this is done, the majority of sows will show estrus 3 to 7 days later if the sows have been nursed for at least 3 weeks. ...
Test of oestrus synchronisation in water buffaloes with ICI 81008 - a PGF2 alpha analogue ... Synchronization of oestrus in cattle and buffaloes with ICI 80996, an analogue of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha ). ... Use of PGF2 alpha for oestrus synchronisation in cattle. I. Effects according to the site of injection in the genitalia. ... Oestrus synchronisation in heifers using a synthetic analogue of PGF2 alpha - Oestrophan inj. (SPOFA). Biologizace a Chemizace ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Effects of Breed and Progestin Source on Estrus Synchronization and Rates of Fertility and Fecundity in Iranian Sanjabi and ... The overall estrus response was 72.5%. The source of progestin did not influence the efficiency of estrus response but a ... Cervical artificial insemination was performed 12 h after estrus onset. ... estrus response was significantly (p,0.05) higher in the Lori (CIDR: 82.2%, FGA: 91.1%) than in the Sanjabi (CIDR: 64.4%, FGA: ...
Download Free Full-Text of an article THE EFFECT OF PMSG ON OUTPUT OF ESTRUS SYNCHRONISATION FOLLOWING USING NORGESTOMET IN ... In this experiment, the effect of PMSG on the output of estrus synchronization following using norgestomet implant was ... THE EFFECT OF PMSG ON OUTPUT OF ESTRUS SYNCHRONISATION FOLLOWING USING NORGESTOMET IN RIVER BUFFALO. ... 2 days prior to the termination of 9 days estrus synchronization program could hasten the time of estrous expression in river ...
... llerian Hormone Levels and Antral Follicle Populations Measured After Estrus Synchronization in Nellore Cattle", ... Association Studies for Anti-Müllerian Hormone Levels and Antral Follicle Populations Measured After Estrus Synchronization in ... Association Studies for Anti-Müllerian Hormone Levels and Antral Follicle Populations Measured After Estrus Synchronization in ... Association Studies for Anti-Müllerian Hormone Levels and Antral Follicle Populations Measured After Estrus Synchronization in ...
Repeated oestrus synchronisation of beef cows with progesterone implants and the effects of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone ... Repeated oestrus synchronisation of beef cows with progesterone implants and the effects of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone ... A group of 97 spring-calving beef cows were initially oestrus synchronised with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) ...
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... ... Oestrus synchronization and AI as tools for rapid dissemination of improved sheep genotypes. Presented at the EIAR/ATA/ICARDA ...
Current Trends in Estrus Synchronization in the Bitch: A Review on Literature ...
... Presented at the EIAR-DBARC-ICARDA-ILRI (LIVES)-FAO Training Workshop ...
We will be using the estrus synchronization protocol developed by Dr. Monica Stoops of Cincinnati Zoos Center for Conservation ... The goal of this project is to implement estrus synchronization and artificial insemination (AI) techniques to achieve ... and Research of Endangered Wildlife to stimulate follicular development, estrus, and ovulation. In some cases, natural breeding ...
Oestrus Synchronization in Beef Cattle: A Review. Abstract. No Abstract Supplied. JF, Smith. Proceedings of the New Zealand ...
Mississippi State University is an equal opportunity institution. Discrimination in university employment, programs or activities based on race, color, ethnicity, sex, pregnancy, religion, national origin, disability, age, sexual orientation, genetic information, status as a U.S. veteran, or any other status protected by applicable law is prohibited. Questions about equal opportunity programs or compliance should be directed to the Office of Compliance and Integrity.. ...
Wholesale Estrous Synchronization,Estrus Synchronization for Vet with low price, high quality. ... Professional manufacturer of Estrus Synchronization Medicine,Chorionic Gonadotropin for Animals in China, ... Estrus Synchronization Medicine Chorionic Gonadotropin for Animals Estrous Synchronization Estrus Synchronization for Vet ... In agriculture, estrous synchronization is used (particularly in the dairy and beef industries) to facilitate breeding by ...
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2.1 Estrus Synchronization and AI. The early investigations on estrus synchronization in swamp buffalo were based on approaches ... Estrus activity in swamp buffaloes is characterized by a marked seasonal influence. The duration of estrus is shorter, estrus ... Estrus behaviour is less evident in the postpartum swamp buffaloes. About 25-30% of estrus periods, which were associated with ... Mucus secreted from the cervix during estrus is less copious (Fig. 1c); the vulval changes and expression of estrus mucus are ...
Cow-Calf Corner - Estrus Synchronization (2/15/20) - Duration: 3 minutes, 46 seconds.. *221 views ...
We concluded that estrus synchronization and TAI had a positive economic impact on subsequent weaning weights of exposed cows. ... What are the Long-Term Impacts of Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination? Categories: Panhandle Agriculture ... For More information, and the most current recommendations on Estrus Synchronization and Timed A.I. visit the the Beef ... Recently we performed an experiment using partial budget analysis to determine the economic outcome of estrus synchronization ...
  • Traditional estrus synchronization systems only synchronized heat, not ovulation. (vt.edu)
  • From the beginning of sfrous until ovulation, ultrasonography was conducted at the time of estrus, 24, 32 and 40 hours after standing estrus. (sid.ir)
  • We will be using the estrus synchronization protocol developed by Dr. Monica Stoops of Cincinnati Zoo's Center for Conservation and Research of Endangered Wildlife to stimulate follicular development, estrus, and ovulation. (sezarc.org)
  • Various hormone treatments have been developed which prohibit manifestations of estrus and ovulation until after withdrawal of the exogenous autacoid. (sdstate.edu)
  • Synchronization of estrus and ovulation in cattle. (anandpub.com)
  • Synchronization of ovulation in dairy cows using PGF2alpha and GnRH. (anandpub.com)
  • In conclusion, the use of exogenous gonadotropins for second estrus synchronization in gilts, either alone or in association with dietary flushing , does not increase the incidence of ovarian cysts , nor does it decrease the ovulation rate. (bvsalud.org)
  • this probably resulted in the synchronous estrus and ovulation in anestrous ewes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • When withdrawn, follicular development commences, leading to estrus and ovulation. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • 2012. Protocols for Synchronization of Estrus and Ovulation. (uidaho.edu)
  • Although the estrous cycle length of goats (21 days) is 3-4 days longer than in sheep, gestation length, duration of estrus and timing of ovulation are similar between the two species. (goatworld.com)
  • Application of milk progesterone estimation for determining the incidence of false oestrus detection and ovulation failures in zebu and crossbred cattle and Murrath buffaloes. (springer.com)
  • The review work is based on analyzing and recording the effects of the application of ovulation synchronization protocols based on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and insulin for the increase of the pregnancy rate in crossbred Holstein cows in research published between 2013 and 2017. (intechopen.com)
  • ovulation synchronization is necessary, which can be based on GnRH and insulin. (intechopen.com)
  • Many of the investigations carried out in the field of the application of the ovulation synchronization protocol, gonadotropin release (GnRH), and insulin use to increase the pregnancy rate of dairy cattle tend to use literature in English in their bibliographical references, with the convinced that this gives more prestige to work. (intechopen.com)
  • These procedures include synchronization of estrus in cycling females, and induction of estrus accompanied by ovulation in heifers that have not yet reached puberty or among cows that have not returned to estrus after calving. (missouri.edu)
  • When consumed by cows or heifers on a daily basis, MGA will suppress estrus and prevent ovulation. (missouri.edu)
  • Embryo transfer, in vitro embryo production technology and the control of oestrus and ovulation are then reviewed. (pighealth.com)
  • In this study it was found that there were no statistical differences among the three groups in terms of showing oestrus and it was also found that application of GnRH, to stimulate ovulation, before insemination and pregnancy resulted in similar findings as hCG application. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Part of a successful AI program is estrus synchronization, which typically involves administering a series of hormones to induce a group of cows or heifers to be fertile at a chosen time period, which makes it easier to determine when the cows are in heat. (aces.edu)
  • Sorting cows into groups by BCS 90 days prior the calving season can help provide extra supplementation as well as utilizing estrus synchronization protocols to help thin cows return to estrus. (unl.edu)
  • New systems of synchronizing estrus (heat) in cows for artificial insemination (AI) have been developed using commercially available Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH). (vt.edu)
  • At the website is the current recommended estrus synchronization protocols for both heifers and cows along with several resources related to understanding the estrus cycle in cattle. (unl.edu)
  • After PRID withdrawal, both heifers and cows receiving 1 PRID exhibited behavioral estrus earlier (p (unl.edu)
  • A group of 97 spring-calving beef cows were initially oestrus synchronised with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) intravaginal progesterone implants inserted for nine days and a prostaglandin injection on day 7. (bmj.com)
  • Current research has focused on the development of methods that effectively synchronize estrous in postpartum (after calving) beef cows and replacement beef heifers by decreasing the period of time over which estrus detection is required, thus facilitating the use of fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI). (ufl.edu)
  • and 2) cows were exposed to natural service (NS) without estrous synchronization (Control). (ufl.edu)
  • We concluded that estrus synchronization and TAI had a positive economic impact on subsequent weaning weights of exposed cows. (ufl.edu)
  • Reed, John D., "Influence of Estrus Synchronization with MGA on Subsequent Ovum Transport and Fertility in Beef Cows" (1972). (sdstate.edu)
  • After end of the protocol all the treated cows were observed daily morning-evening for 7 days for the occurrence of signs of estrus and inseminated artificially 12 to 18 hrs after the onset of estrus. (anandpub.com)
  • Efficacy of estrus synchronization protocols during summer and winter seasons together with biochemical and minerals profile in anoestrus crossbred cows. (anandpub.com)
  • Influence of different estrus synchronization protocols on fertility and plasma progesterone in anoestrus crossbred cows. (anandpub.com)
  • Efficacy of different estrus synchronizing protocols on estrus induction in postpartum lactating dairy cows. (anandpub.com)
  • Addition of GnRH to a melengestrol acetate (MDA) estrus synchronization treatment improves synchrony of estrus and maintains high fertility in postpartum suckled beef cows. (anandpub.com)
  • Over a 3-year period, 88 Angus and 87 Brahman cows were used as recipients to determine the effects of breedtype and method of estrous synchronization on induced estrus and subsequent pregnancy following embryo transfer . (bvsalud.org)
  • This is a more exact but time consuming way to manipulate the cycle of multiple cows to sync up the timing of A.I. Estrus synchronisation has major advantages in making artificial insemination more practical. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrogens and compounds with estrogenic activity have been used for many years as animal growth promoters and to synchronize estrus in cows. (biomedsearch.com)
  • All cows were estrus synchronized using standard methods. (scienceblog.com)
  • Modified conventional synchronization systems for beef cows boost fertility and increase the total number of females that can be inseminated. (missouri.edu)
  • Recent surveys indicate, however, that less than 5 percent of the beef cows in the United States are bred by artificial insemination (AI), and only half of the cattle producers who practice AI use any form of estrus synchronization to facilitate their AI programs. (missouri.edu)
  • The inability to predict time of estrus for individual cows or heifers in a group often makes it impractical to use artificial insemination because of the labor required for detection of estrus. (missouri.edu)
  • Cows or heifers are in estrus during a predictable interval, which allows for artificial insemination, embryo transfer, or other planned reproductive techniques. (missouri.edu)
  • Four methods will be outlined for using the melengestrol acetate (MGA Premix, Pharmacia Animal Health, Kalamazoo, Mich.) program to facilitate estrus synchronization in heifers or cows. (missouri.edu)
  • Cows and heifers will exhibit estrus beginning 48 hours after MGA withdrawal, and this may continue for 6 to 7 days. (missouri.edu)
  • Sud SC: Synchronization of estrus in cows with melengestrol acetate. (drugbank.ca)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the effect of GnRH + PGF_{2\alpha} and hCG + PGF_{2\alpha} applications on oestrus and fertility in dairy cows postpartum between days 35 and 45. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Izard, M. K., and Vandenbergh, J. G., 1982, Priming pheromones from oestrous cows increase synchronization of oestrous in dairy heifers after PGF-2 a injection, J. Reprod.Fertil. (springer.com)
  • Exogenous hormones and their analogues are used to manipulate the bovine estrous cycle and allow for use of estrus synchronization and artificial insemination (AI). (farms.com)
  • therefore, understanding the physiology of the normal estrous cycle is critical to understanding estrus synchronization. (aces.edu)
  • The average estrous cycle, from one standing heat (estrus) to the next, is 21 days in the cow (figure 1), with a range of 18 to 24 days. (aces.edu)
  • Synchronization of the estrous cycle has the potential to shorten the calving season, increase calf uniformity, and enhance the possibilities for utilizing AI. (ufl.edu)
  • Since the initial observation that the removal of the corpus luteum would shorten the estrous cycle in guinea pigs, much research has been done to develop an effective method of estrus synchronization. (sdstate.edu)
  • Estrus synchronization is a reproductive biotechnology used to improve artificial insemination or pairing through the manipulation of the estrous cycle at a desirable time. (usp.br)
  • The objective of these experiments was to determine the effects of and/or interactions among estrous synchronization treatments, reproductive status, and stage of the estrous cycle on estrous response (ER), first service conception rates (CR), pregnancy rates (PR), and embryonic mortality (EM) after 25 d of gestation. (vt.edu)
  • The term "estrus" refers to the phase of the estrous cycle in which a sexually mature, non-pregnant female is receptive to sexual advances from the male³. (wikipedia.org)
  • These "Synch" protocols may include: Select Synch, OvSynch, CoSynch, and Modified Select Synch The synchronization of the estrous cycle is commonly used in different industries, such as Dairy and Beef cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the use of Artificial Reproductive Techniques, such as Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer, have become more prevalent, the need for estrus synchronization in sheep is a must. (purinamills.com)
  • Synchronisation of estrus in embryo transfer recipients after using a combination of PRID or CIDR-B plus PGF2a. (sruc.ac.uk)
  • 2009). For more information on product considerations or usage in estrus synchronization protocols, visit beefrepro.unl.edu. (farms.com)
  • Synchronization protocols are very time sensitive and may be less effective or fail if not followed correctly. (unl.edu)
  • UNL has many resources listed on the Beef Reproduction website such as the "Estrus Synchronization Planner" that has been developed and maintained by Iowa State University to help plan and schedule protocols as well as UNL's own "Breeding Cost Cow-Q-Later " to help make financial decisions on the most economical protocol for your herd. (unl.edu)
  • 1999). On the other hand, adding GnRH injection(s) to progesterone based protocols improve the success of estrous synchronization programs but do not increase the fertility (Saribay et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The development of more practical and/or economic synchronization programs to minimalize the possible disadvantages of protocols in small ruminant breeding still maintains its importance for researchers and breeders (Holtz et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Now is a good time to review estrus synchronization protocols and develop a plan for this year. (unl.edu)
  • For most producers the spring breeding season is still a ways off, but now is a good time to review estrus synchronization protocols and develop a plan for this year. (unl.edu)
  • The development of estrus synchronization protocols for beef cattle that can be used for either natural service or artificial insemination has provided greater opportunities for cattle producers to benefit from these technologies. (unl.edu)
  • 90 day postpartum to evaluate the efficacy and subsequent fertility of three estrus synchronization protocols i.e. (anandpub.com)
  • A comparative oestrus and fertility study on evaluation of three synchronization protocols. (anandpub.com)
  • Estrus Synchronization Protocols. (eventbrite.com)
  • In addition, the influence of ovarian status (e.g., size of antral follicles and/or presence of corpora lutea) at the outset of the estrus synchronization protocols on the ensuing development of ovulatory follicles was examined. (unesp.br)
  • The objectives of the present study were to determine the efficiency of short time protocols based on combined FGA, PGF2α, GnRH and eCG treatments on oestrus synchronization and reproductive performance of kermani ewes during the breeding season. (biomedscidirect.com)
  • Induction of estrus in non-lactating dairy goats with different estrous synchrony protocols. (semanticscholar.org)
  • synchronization of estrus using different hormone protocols, followed by fixed time Al. (ebscohost.com)
  • There can be many reasons to synchronize estrus in sheep. (purinamills.com)
  • Other reasons to synchronize estrus in sheep could be to group estrus to reduce strain on your ram battery, tighten the lambing season to reduce labor over a long period or even to bring the ewes into heat at an earlier time for breeding and thus getting lambs for a certain time period. (purinamills.com)
  • Use of melengestrol acetate-based treatments to induce and synchronize estrus in seasonally anestrous ewes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • hormone (Altrenogest) to synchronize estrus in gilts. (thepigsite.com)
  • For example, progestogens are used to suppress estrus in the mare, bitch, and queen but are also used in the mare, cow, and sow to induce and synchronize estrus for managed mating programs. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • However, reduced fertility at the synchronized estrus has offset any apparent advantages. (sdstate.edu)
  • Fertility at the second estrus post-treatment appears to be normal, but the effects of synchronization are lost due to variation intime of estrus following treatment and differences in length of individual estrous cycles. (sdstate.edu)
  • It is indicated that PGF2α injection at the end of short-time treatment led to diversity in oestrus cycle process due to differences in the presence or absence of CL on the ovaries of sheep and required time for increasing the progesterone to optimum level in the blood which finally affected the fertility rate after artificial insemination. (ac.ir)
  • The percentages of female in estrus and the interval to oestrus (h after treatment), fertility and proli﫿cacy rate were recorded. (biomedscidirect.com)
  • Also GnRH PGF2α eCG 5-day treatment has been found effective to provide high level of oestrus followed by acceptable levels of fertility after natural mating. (biomedscidirect.com)
  • As in natural mating, season affects fertility after AI, although hormonal treatment is used to synchronise and induce oestrus. (intechopen.com)
  • Proper nutrition is key for successful estrus synchronization in sheep. (purinamills.com)
  • The end result of a successful estrus synchronization and AI program early in the breeding season is a more consistent, uniform calf crop that is older and heavier at weaning because of the increased growth time as is shown in Table 1. (aces.edu)
  • Successful estrus synchronization would allow optimum use of labor and facilities thus allowing maximum use of A.I. It would also enable the producer to more closely control calving dates. (sdstate.edu)
  • estrus-synchronization agent for both natural mating and artificial insemination. (k-state.edu)
  • The presentation gives an overview of principles to remember and utilize to enhance the likelihood for estrus synchronization and artificial insemination success. (unl.edu)
  • Cervical artificial insemination was performed 12 h after estrus onset. (scialert.net)
  • The goal of this project is to implement estrus synchronization and artificial insemination (AI) techniques to achieve pregnancy. (sezarc.org)
  • What are the Long-Term Impacts of Estrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination? (ufl.edu)
  • They are the result of a disciplined estrus synchronization and artificial insemination program. (ufl.edu)
  • Estrous synchronization (ES) and artificial insemination (AI) are reproductive management tools that have been available to beef producers for over 50 years. (ufl.edu)
  • The Southern Maryland Meats program of the Southern Maryland Agricultural Development Commission (SMADC) is partnering with the University of Maryland Extension (UME) to offer a series of workshops on beef genetics, estrus synchronization and artificial insemination (AI). (eventbrite.com)
  • Accurate detection of oestrus for the purpose of artificial insemination is a difficult task for large scale pig producers. (edu.au)
  • The artificial insemination group was bred using either timed schemes or following detected estrus. (scienceblog.com)
  • With the increased use of artificial insemination in cattle, the ability of farm staff to accurately identify and detect estrus in their cattle is crucial to successful reproductive performance. (vetstream.com)
  • Beef females (547) were included in three experiments to evaluate methods of identifying and inseminating nonpregnant beef females after synchronization of second estrus with norgestomet implants. (elsevier.com)
  • The cow will then return to estrus (Patterson et al. (farms.com)
  • The present results confirm the efficacy of PG600 (R) for inducing a predictable return to estrus and to facilitate achievement of breeding targets. (aasv.org)
  • Animals that fail to consume the required amount of MGA on a daily basis may prematurely return to estrus during the feeding period. (missouri.edu)
  • A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of FGA (Fluorogestone acetate) and CIDR (Controlled internal drug release) on the induction of estrus and pregnancy and fecundity rates of the Sanjabi and Lori sheep. (scialert.net)
  • It was concluded that among these estrous synchronization protocol heatsynch protocol was most effective for induction of estrus and expression of signs of estrus while ovsynch protocol as most effective in term of conception rate. (anandpub.com)
  • The exogenous progestagen protocol plus ecg used for estrus induction/synchronization improved the pregnancy rate of mixed-breed wool and hair ewes by about 29% points at the end of the breeding season. (petsdocbox.com)
  • 2008). The use of slow-releasing progesterone/ progestagen devices is effective for estrus induction/ synchronization in small ruminants. (petsdocbox.com)
  • Thus, this research aims to verify the effect of a progestogen implant associated with two doses of eCG on the synchronization and induction of fertile estrus. (usp.br)
  • A standard dose of 500 IU of eCG is commonly given to progestogen pre-treated anestrous ewes for induction of estrus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Since the sow genetics and parity did not differ between our present and previous studies, it serves to emphasize that while PG600 (R) is an excellent tool for the induction of a fertile estrus, no claim should be made with respect to subsequent litter size. (aasv.org)
  • 3. Karlberg K, Skei HR, Schie KA, Bock R. Should oestrus induction treatment with PMSG/ HCG be given on the day of weaning or on the following day? (aasv.org)
  • Induction of estrus Estrus: signs and detection of . (vetstream.com)
  • This control may take the form of suppression or induction and synchronization of reproductive activity. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The Zoetis (formerly Pfizer) CIDR Sheep and Goat Device treatment programs represent a convenient and effective method for both synchronising and inducing oestrus in production animals. (animalhealthsupplies.com.au)
  • Effect of CIDR and intravaginal sponge on oestrus synchronization during the long time period (12-14 days) in ewes is well documented, but use of short times requires more studies. (ac.ir)
  • Mean duration of onset of estrus post protocol was shortest in ovsynch protocol (27.46±0.97 h) whereas mean duration of estrus was significantly longer in CIDR-PG protocol (23.53±0.96 h). (anandpub.com)
  • In conclusion, the replacement of CIDR devices prevented the occurrence of lower-than-normal luteal phase levels of P4 at the end of the 14-day estrus synchronization protocol. (unesp.br)
  • Reproduction in the swamp buffalo appears to be similar to the river buffalo with delayed puberty, poor estrus expression, prolonged calving intervals and seasonal breeding limiting the reproductive performance. (ivis.org)
  • Estrus stimulation by exogenous gonadotropins (EG) in association with dietary flushing is an important tool for theimprovement of gilt reproductive performance. (bvsalud.org)
  • Furthermore, maintaining nutrition and herd health are major factors when it comes to the achieving optimum reproductive performance through estrous synchronisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • and 2) eliminate detection of estrus (heat) by employing TAI. (ufl.edu)
  • Estrus detection involved direct boar contact for 15 minutes daily from 2 days after weaning. (aasv.org)
  • Sows were bred naturally at estrus detection and again 24 hours later. (aasv.org)
  • This project is focused on evaluating existing methods of oestrus detection and developing new ones that will enable producers to quickly and easily determine the optimal time of AI for their sows and gilts. (edu.au)
  • Ewes show no overt signs of estrus, and heat detection requires the presence of a ram, a teaser ram (made infertile by either vasectomy or epididymectomy), or a testosterone - or estrogen-treated wether. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The clinic will provide hands-on training in reproductive tract anatomy, estrus synchronization, heat detection, semen handling and insemination. (wiu.edu)
  • Ewes will be in oestrus for mating or insemination approximately 54 hours after device removal. (animalhealthsupplies.com.au)
  • In the first experiment, heifers not pregnant to the first insemination were identified for insemination via estrus (inseminated via the a.m./p.m. role or 48 h after implant removal). (elsevier.com)
  • Recent advances in estrous synchronization using GnRH are allowing these groups to take advantage of AI. (vt.edu)
  • How are GnRH systems different from other estrus synchronization systems? (vt.edu)
  • Twenty two cyclic female river buffalos at unknown stages of estrus cycle were selected and received norgestomet implant (Crestar, 3mg norgestomet , Intervet , Holland), with an injection of GnRH at first day of experiment. (sid.ir)
  • The hormones administered can also cause stronger heats that have more noticeable signs of estrus. (aces.edu)
  • Animals should be observed for behavioral signs of estrus each day of the feeding period. (missouri.edu)
  • The duration of estrus (~30 hours) is influenced by the breed and age of the ewe, the onset of puberty, the presence of the male, and the season. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Estrus synchronization with AI in beef cattle offers the following advantages over entirely natural mating or AI without estrus synchronization. (aces.edu)
  • A second resource is a webinar titled "Principles for Improving Conception Rates with Estrus Synchronization and AI" by Nebraska Extension Beef Cattle Reproductive Physiologist, Dr. Rick Funston. (unl.edu)
  • This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters (heritability and genetic correlation) and identify genomic regions and candidate genes associated with anti-Müllerian hormone levels (AMH) and antral follicle populations measured after estrous synchronization (AFP) in Nellore cattle. (dtu.dk)
  • In conclusion, PRID for 7 d combined with PGF was a superior synchronization treatment for the mixed group of cyclic and anestrous cattle. (vt.edu)
  • Synchronization allows these industries to improve management and nutrition of the cattle, while also decreasing expenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classroom education on cattle reproductive anatomy and physiology, estrus synchronization, nutrition, bull selection and herd health. (missouri.edu)
  • Estrus synchronization in sheep can help reduce strain on rams and provide a shorter, more consistent lambing season window to increase efficiency and reduce labor. (purinamills.com)
  • Synchronization has been utilized successfully in sheep for many years, but there are some important details that can assist in a stronger estrus and a higher conception rate. (purinamills.com)
  • Estrus synchronization in sheep is the act of preventing ewes from cycling naturally by introducing progesterone or a progesterone derivative into the vaginal vault of the ewe. (purinamills.com)
  • Oestrus synchronization is one of the ways for improvement of sheep reproduction management. (ac.ir)
  • Two exceptions exist: lambs born in the fall to a spring breeding will reach puberty in the spring and be less fertile to an induced estrus, and some breeds of sheep are slow maturing (eg, range breeds) and may not be fertile at 7-8 months of age. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a progestagen treatment (fluorogestone acetate sponge) alone or in combination with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) on oestrus response in Red Sokoto (RS) goats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Altresyn ® (Altrenogest) contains progestagen used for synchronization of oestrus in gilts. (thepigsite.com)
  • However, for the average beef producer, the rewards of AI from better genetics in the cowherd or higher weaning weights were not easily recognized and AI pregnancy rates with existing synchronization systems were sometimes disappointing. (vt.edu)
  • Experiments evaluated estrus synchronization and periconceptual supplementation on pregnancy rate and calf production. (unl.edu)
  • Estrous Synchronization programs allow beef producers to improve the rate of pregnancy production during the breeding season through increased submission rates. (eventbrite.com)
  • Two staining methods were tested to evaluate the vaginal epithelial cell morphology of nulliparous and multiparous ewes during the estrus period. (comunicatascientiae.com.br)
  • Therefore, both staining methods were efficient, and a predominance of intermediate cells is found in nulliparous and multiparous ewes during the estrus period. (comunicatascientiae.com.br)
  • The proportion of each type of vaginal epithelial cell of ewes, during the estrus manifestation, is shown in Table 1. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this experiment, the effect of PMSG on the output of estrus synchronization following using norgestomet implant was investigated in river buffaloes. (sid.ir)
  • In conclusion, PMSG injection, 2 days prior to the termination of 9 days estrus synchronization program could hasten the time of estrous expression in river buffalo. (sid.ir)
  • A large field study recently confirmed the efficacy of a combination of 400 IU PMSG and 200 IU hCG (PG600 (R) ) administered on the day of weaning to induce a rapid and synchronous postweaning estrus in primiparous sows. (aasv.org)
  • a combination of hormones (PMSG and HCG) to induce oestrus, to reduce the Weaning-to-Oestrus Interval and to treat the seasonal anoestrus in gilts and sows. (thepigsite.com)
  • In the longer days of spring, there is a break in the reproductive period, whereas the shorter days of autumn are associated with the onset of estrus (Dogan and Nur, 2006). (petsdocbox.com)
  • The optimal time to breed ewes (naturally or artificially) is in the first half of the estrous period, or 12-18 hours after the onset of estrus. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Several methods of synchronizing estrus have been tried in swine. (k-state.edu)
  • Completing the range of prostaglandins are: Enzaprost ® T (Dinoprost) and Alfabedyl ® (Alfaprostol) which allow farrowing synchronization and prevention of endometritis postpartum. (thepigsite.com)
  • Adequate time has elapsed between calving and the time synchronization treatments are implemented (a minimum of 40 days postpartum at the beginning of treatment is suggested). (missouri.edu)
  • Cavalieri J, Hepworth G and Fitzpatrick LA (2005).Synchronising oestrus with oestradiol benzoate after using a two dose prostaglandin treatment to synchronise luteolysis in dairy heifers. (anandpub.com)
  • Treatments had no significant effect on incidence of oestrus, however, ewes received T4 tended to show a lower oestrus. (biomedscidirect.com)
  • Hormonal treatments significantly affected the interval to oestrus which was earlier in treated control ewes than in T4 and T2 (P (biomedscidirect.com)
  • Results of the present study showed that PGF2α FGA eCG as well as FGA PGF2α eCG short term 5-day treatments is effective in synchronizing oestrus in ewes during the breeding season. (biomedscidirect.com)
  • The time required to detect estrus is reduced, which in turn decreases labor expense associated with the breeding program. (missouri.edu)
  • After removal, implants favored the occurrence of a fertile estrus. (usp.br)
  • Anyone who has used an estrus synchronization protocol knows that timing is critical and keeping track of dates of injections can be the difference between success or a lot of wasted money. (unl.edu)
  • A low performing bull that has been sneaking by can cause a synchronization protocol to fall apart. (unl.edu)
  • This free Excel® spreadsheet tool can be utilized to help identify the best estrus synchronization protocol based on desired goals. (unl.edu)
  • The planner also provides a detailed calendar with the correct products to use along with dates and times based on the selected estrus synchronization protocol. (unl.edu)
  • Correctly following an estrus synchronization protocol is critical to success. (unl.edu)
  • The ewes allocated to the G-1CIDR group had mean serum P4 concentrations less than 2 ng/mL during the last 4 days of the synchronization protocol. (unesp.br)
  • The other two groups had embryo transfers seven days after completion of the estrus synchronization protocol. (scienceblog.com)
  • There are two basic methods which could be applied in oestrus synchronization. (ac.ir)
  • Both synchronization methods ( PGF vs. PRO) were similarly effective in inducing estrus (89.8 vs. 86.7 percent). (bvsalud.org)
  • In conclusion, it is suggested that all treatment procedures may be used for estrous synchronization in Hair goats during breeding season due to the satisfactory results. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Usually, gonadotropins are used mostly at the intra-vaginal device withdrawal in the process of oestrus synchronization in ewes and goats. (ac.ir)
  • The females were inseminated with frozen semen, after rectal examination to confirm oestrus, or on the 3rd or 4th day after PGF2 alpha treatment. (eurekamag.com)
  • An intravaginal device impregnated with medroxyprogesterone acetate was kept into 10 nulliparous and 10 multiparous ewes for 14 days for estrus synchronization. (comunicatascientiae.com.br)
  • Estrus Synchronization and Periconceptual Supplementation Affect the" by D. M. Larson, R. D. Richardson et al. (unl.edu)
  • Once the progesterone is removed, the ewe will cycle usually within a 48-hour window creating a "synchronized" estrus. (purinamills.com)
  • Estrous is the 21-day cycle from one estrus (heat) to the next. (aces.edu)
  • Print off the farmer information sheet on The Oestrus Cycle to give to your clients. (vetstream.com)
  • Until recently, the rewards of engaging in an estrus synchronization and AI program, for most commercial producers, were not sufficient to offset the time and labor involved. (vt.edu)
  • However, estrus synchronization and AI allows commercial producers affordable access to these bulls. (vt.edu)
  • Thanks to financial support from a multi-state extension group, beef producers are now able to get the Bovine Estrus Synchronization Planner at no charge. (iastate.edu)
  • Estrus Synchronization - Rick Rasby, UNL Extension beef specialist, says producers can plan now for estrus synchronization during the upcoming breeding season. (unl.edu)
  • Estrus refers to a cow or heifer in standing heat or standing to be mounted. (aces.edu)
  • Estrous synchronisation is the process of targeting female mammals to come to heat within a short time frame (36 to 96 hours). (wikipedia.org)
  • Each treatment used for oestrus synchronization increased the percentage of twinning on expected date in comparison with control group. (ac.ir)
  • Females under treatment displayed estrus only after removing the implant (D8). (usp.br)
  • Synchronization treatment had no effect on the extent of EM occurring after 25 d of gestation. (vt.edu)
  • Fertipig ® (chorionic gonadotropin and serum), is used for oestrus synchronization, treatment of seasonal anoestrus and improved weaning rate. (thepigsite.com)
  • If females are cycling when an estrus synchronization treatment is implemented and they exhibit estrus during the synchronized period, they would have three opportunities to conceive during a 45-day breeding period or four opportunities during a 63-day period. (missouri.edu)
  • Reproductive tract scores (RTS) are assigned to heifers no more than two weeks before a synchronization treatment begins (scores of 3 or higher on a scale of 1 to 5) and at least 50 percent of the heifers are assigned a score of 4 or better. (missouri.edu)
  • Following PRID removal, animals were artificially inseminated 12 h after signs of behavioral estrus were observed. (unl.edu)
  • A third resource that is extremely helpful is the Estrus Synchronization Planner developed and maintained by the Iowa Beef Center . (unl.edu)
  • however, in some cases it is not practical to breed at this time and a natural method of synchronization in gilts is not available. (k-state.edu)
  • Intervet Inc. recently announced the launch of Matrix, the first product approved for estrus synchronization in mature, cycling gilts. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Research has shown that when gilts were fed 15 mg. of altrenogest daily for 14 consecutive days, up to 85% displayed estrus within 4-9 days after withdrawal. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • If you plan to utilize synchronization to tighten your breeding season, there are a few things you should consider. (unl.edu)
  • Oestrus synchronisation during the breeding season. (animalhealthsupplies.com.au)
  • When this is done, the majority of sows will show estrus 3 to 7 days later if the sows have been nursed for at least 3 weeks. (k-state.edu)
  • Estrus response observation and mating were performed during Days 10, 11 and 12 from 7 to 9 AM and 4 to 6 PM. After Day 12, males were separated from females for 10 days and later reintroduced into the flock for 45 days. (petsdocbox.com)
  • G3 females' group (control) showed estrus on different days after D0. (usp.br)
  • To minimize the inclusion of sows bred at their second postweaning estrus, only sows bred by 25 days after weaning were considered. (aasv.org)
  • 3 Therefore, we investigated the potential benefit of inducing estrus in primiparous sows using PG600 (R) injected either on the day of weaning or 1 day after weaning. (aasv.org)
  • hormone (Dinoprost) to induce farrowing and reduce the weaning to oestrus interval (WOI) and weaning to fertile service interval (WFSI) in sows. (thepigsite.com)
  • Knowledge of these processes facilitates an understanding of the techniques that can be used to control reproduction (superovulation, estrus synchronization etc.) in the doe. (goatworld.com)