The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
A 6-methyl PROGESTERONE acetate with reported glucocorticoid activity and effect on ESTRUS.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Sexual activities of animals.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Pregnane derivatives containing two double bonds anywhere within the ring structures.
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Drugs used to increase fertility or to treat infertility.
The period following ESTRUS during which the phenomena of estrus subside in those animals in which pregnancy or pseudopregnancy does not occur.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
Devices worn in the vagina to provide support to displaced uterus or rectum. Pessaries are used in conditions such as UTERINE PROLAPSE; CYSTOCELE; or RECTOCELE.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.
A synthetic fluorinated steroid that is used as a progestational hormone.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Animals grouped according to ecological, morphological or genetic populations.
A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
17 beta-Hydroxy-4-androsten-3-ones. Testosterone derivatives formed by the substitution of one or more hydroxyl groups in any position.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
A republic located south of HUNGARY, west of ROMANIA and BULGARIA, and part of the former YUGOSLAVIA. The capital is Belgrade.
Chemical compounds causing LUTEOLYSIS or degeneration.
The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.

Plasma concentration changes in LH and FSH following electrochemical stimulation of the medial preoptic are or dorsal anterior hypothalamic area of estrogen- or androgen-sterilized rats.(1/2639)

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Down-regulation of oxytocin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin F synthase expression by interferon-tau in bovine endometrial cells. (2/2639)

Oxytocin (OT) is responsible for the episodic release of luteolytic prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha from the uterus in ruminants. The attenuation of OT-stimulated uterine PGF2alpha secretion by interferon-tau (IFN-tau) is essential for prevention of luteolysis during pregnancy in cows. To better understand the mechanisms involved, the effect of recombinant bovine IFN-tau (rbIFN-tau) on OT-induced PG production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PGF synthase (PGFS) expression in cultured endometrial epithelial cells was investigated. Cells were obtained from cows at Days 1-3 of the estrous cycle and cultured to confluence in RPMI medium supplemented with 5% steroid-free fetal calf serum. The cells were then incubated in the presence or absence of either 100 ng/ml OT or OT+100 ng/ml rbIFN-tau for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. OT significantly increased PGF2alpha and PGE2 secretion at all time points (p < 0.01), while rbIFN-tau inhibited the OT-induced PG production and reduced OT receptor binding in a time-dependent manner. OT increased the steady-state level of COX-2 mRNA, measured by Northern blot, which was maximal at 3 h (9-fold increase) and then decreased with time (p < 0.01). OT also caused an increase in COX-2 protein, which peaked at 12 h (11-fold increase), as measured by Western blot. Addition of rbIFN-tau suppressed the induction of COX-2 mRNA (89%, p < 0.01) and COX-2 protein (50%, p < 0.01) by OT. OT also increased PGFS mRNA, and this stimulation was attenuated by rbIFN-tau (p < 0.01). To ensure that the decrease in COX-2 was not solely due to down-regulation of the OT receptor, cells were stimulated with a phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; PMA) in the presence and absence of rbIFN-tau. The results showed that rbIFN-tau also decreased PMA-stimulated PG production and COX-2 protein. It can be concluded that rbIFN-tau inhibition of OT-stimulated PG production is due to down-regulation of OT receptor, COX-2, and PGFS.  (+info)

Steroid regulation of retinol-binding protein in the ovine oviduct. (3/2639)

Two studies were conducted to identify retinol-binding protein (RBP) expression in the ovine oviduct and to determine the role of ovarian steroids in its regulation. Ewes were salpingectomized on Days 1, 5, or 10 of their respective estrous cycles, and oviducts were homogenized for RNA analysis, fixed for immunocytochemistry (ICC), or cultured for 24 h for protein analysis. ICC localized RBP to the epithelium of all oviducts. RBP synthesis was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled RBP from the medium of oviductal explant cultures. Explant culture medium from oviducts harvested on Day 1 contained significantly more RBP than medium from oviducts collected on Days 5 or 10. Slot-blot analysis demonstrated that steady-state RBP mRNA levels were significantly higher on Day 1 than Day 5 or 10. In the second experiment, ovariectomized ewes were treated with estradiol-17beta (E2), progesterone (P4), E2+P4 (E2+P4), or vehicle control, and oviducts were analyzed as above. P4 alone or in combination with E2 significantly reduced steady-state RBP mRNA levels compared to those in E2-treated animals. Oviductal explants from E2- and E2+P4-treated animals released 3- to 5-fold more RBP into the medium than control and P4 treatments as determined by ELISA. RBP synthesis of metabolically labeled RBP was increased by E2 and E2+P4 treatments. This study demonstrates that P4 applied on an estradiol background negatively regulates RBP gene expression in the oviduct whereas estradiol appears to stimulate RBP synthesis and secretion.  (+info)

Luteal regression in the normally cycling rat: apoptosis, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and inflammatory cell involvement. (4/2639)

In hypophysectomized rats, prolactin induces regression of the corpora lutea. Luteal regression is accompanied by infiltration of monocytes/macrophages, declines in luteal mass and plasma progestins, and increased staining for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). We investigated whether similar events are induced during the estrous cycle, after the proestrous prolactin surge. Rats were killed on proestrus or on estrus, and one ovary was frozen for immunohistochemical detection of MCP-1, monocytes/macrophages (ED1-positive), and differentiated macrophages (ED2-positive) and for in situ detection of apoptotic nuclei. Corpora lutea of the current (proestrus) or preceding (estrus) cycle were dissected from the ovaries of additional rats and frozen for the same analyses and for determination of total protein content. In sections of whole ovaries, intensity and distribution of MCP-1 staining were increased in corpora lutea of multiple ages on estrus as compared to proestrus, as were numbers of differentiated macrophages and apoptotic nuclei per high-power field. Sections of isolated corpora lutea showed these increases on estrus, and the number of monocytes/macrophages per high-power field was also significantly increased. Accompanying these inflammatory/immune events, the corpora lutea on estrus showed decreased weight and total protein per corpus luteum, as compared to corpora lutea on proestrus. These changes are consistent with a proposed role for prolactin in the initiation of luteal apoptosis and of a sequence of inflammatory/immune events that accompany regression of the rat corpus luteum during the normal estrous cycle.  (+info)

Precocious estrus and reproductive ability induced by PG 600 in prepuberal gilts. (5/2639)

A total of 29 SPF Large White prepuberal gilts (mean age 152 days at treatment) were examined for estrous and ovulatory responses after PG 600 treatment. After treatment, 85.2% of the gilts showed standing estrus within 6 days. Whereas the treatment-to-estrus interval and duration were 3.7 and 1.9 days respectively. As ovulation occurred on Day 5 to 6, appropriate timing of artificial insemination would be about 4 days after treatment. Fertility of gilts revealed to be excellent, giving rise to a high percentage of normal embryos, 85.3%. Meanwhile, development and growth of fetuses were mostly normal. Other reproductive performances recorded were: mean litter size 6.8; mean birth weight 1.26 kg; weaning-to-return estrus interval 5 to 8 days. In conclusion, PG 600 was found to be useful in inducing fertile estrus in prepuberal gilts, a result which will be of interest for commercial pig farms.  (+info)

Expression of the oxytocin receptor in relation to steroid receptors in the uterus of a primate model, the marmoset monkey. (6/2639)

The dynamics of the receptors for oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and oxytocin (OTR) in the marmoset uterus have been analysed throughout the entire cycle and early pregnancy. Uteri obtained during the early, mid/late and late proliferative phase, and the early, mid and late secretory phase and early pregnancy were examined by immunohistochemistry (OTR, ER, PR) and autoradiography (OTR). A massive upregulation of the ER in the cell nuclei of glandular epithelium and stromal cells during the mid proliferative phase was succeeded by a declining staining intensity and positively stained cell number in the secretory phase. PR immunoreactivity increased in the late proliferative phase and early secretory phase, mainly within the cell nuclei, and then declined in both intensity and cell number towards the mid to late secretory phase. Myometrium showed a similar staining pattern for the steroid receptors. OTR were expressed weakly in stroma throughout the entire cycle, increasing slightly in the secretory phase. Glandular epithelium showed positive staining only during the periovulatory period. Myometrial OTR expression was weak during the proliferative phase, increased towards the secretory phase, and was maximal in the late secretory phase. Myometrial tissue adjacent to endometrium was most strongly stained. A cyclic shift evidently occurred in the pattern of steroid receptors, perhaps reflecting the steroid environment or the luteinizing hormone increase associated with ovulation.  (+info)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone improves reproductive performance of dairy cows with slow involution of the reproductive tract. (7/2639)

Eighty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly at calving to receive either 100 microg of GnRH or saline 13 or 14 d postpartum (PP). From 4 to 28 d PP the cows' reproductive organs were palpated weekly per rectum, and cows were subclassified within each group as undergoing slow (delayed) cervical and uterine involution (abnormal) or as normal cows. Last milk obtained after removing the milking machine was assayed for progesterone 3 times a week for 120 d PP. Fourteen of the 80 cows were removed from the experiment because of culling or various veterinary treatments of pathologic conditions that could confound analysis of the GnRH treatment effects. As expected, the treatment of normal cows with GnRH had no significant effects on the first estrus or the first estrous cycle PP, on services per conception, days open, or any other reproductive trait measured. However, in the abnormal group of cows receiving saline, first rebreeding after calving was delayed (81 vs. 67 d), fewer were pregnant by 105 d PP (23 vs. 64%), and number of days open was greater (121 vs. 87 d) compared with those receiving GnRH; all were significant (P<.05). Treated abnormal cows were equivalent to the control normal cows. Thus, GnRH given 13 to 14 d PP to cows characterized as undergoing slow involution of the reproductive system, but with no other clinical problems, seems to assist in promoting rapid normal reproductive function. Subsequent losses due to culling were greatly reduced.  (+info)

Effects of twinning on postpartum reproductive performance in cattle selected for twin births. (8/2639)

The effects of twinning, dystocia, retained placenta, and body weight on postpartum reproduction were evaluated for 3,370 single and 1,014 twin births. Females were bred by AI for 40 d followed by 20 or 30 d of natural service with equal numbers bred and calved in spring and fall. Percentage of dams cyclic by the end of the AI period was lower (P<.05) for dams birthing and nursing a single calf (92.4%) than for dams birthing twins and nursing zero (98.7%) or two (94.7%) calves. Whereas the interval from parturition to first estrus was shorter (P<.01) for dams birthing and nursing a single (56.9 d) than for dams birthing twins and nursing one (68.5 d) or two (69.6 d) calves, length of the interval was further reduced by dystocia in nonlactating dams of either twins or singles (type of birth x dystocia, P<.05). Ensuing pregnancy rates were also affected by type of birth and dystocia. Without dystocia, dams birthing and nursing a single calf had a higher pregnancy rate (79.2%) than dams birthing twins and nursing one (61.7%) or two (66.3%) calves, whereas the lower ensuing pregnancy rates associated with dystocia in dams of singles (71.9%) resulted in similar rates among dams of singles and twins with dystocia (type of birth x dystocia; P<.01). Having a retained placenta resulted in a lower incidence of (93.5 vs. 96.4%, with vs. without; P<.05) and a longer interval to (64.7 vs. 59.2 d; P<.01) estrus while reducing subsequent pregnancy rates (X = 9.6%) in 3 of the 7 yr evaluated (retained placenta x year, P<.01). Because all parous females were bred during the same calendrical period, the shorter gestation length for twin calves (275.6 vs. 281.3 d) resulted in a longer interval from parturition to conception for twin births, whereas means for conception date differed by only 2 d between dams of twins and singles. Furthermore, a reduction (P<.01) in the interval to conception occurred with dystocia in dams of singles (89.3 vs. 85.0 d, without vs. with dystocia) and of twins nursed by zero (116.9 vs. 83.5 d), one (100.2 vs. 92.8 d), or two (96.1 vs. 97.2 d) calves. Another detriment to fertility was the higher incidence of fetal mortality or abortions associated with twin vs. single pregnancies (12.4 vs. 3.5%; P<.01). However, despite the lower conception rates for dams of twins, the increased prolificacy provides an opportunity to increase total beef production with a twinning technology.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Methods of identifying and inseminating nonpregnant beef females after synchronization of second estrus with norgestomet implants. AU - Domatob, F. N.. AU - Favero, R. J.. AU - Ireland, F. A.. AU - Faulkner, D. B.. AU - Kesler, D. J.. PY - 1997/4/1. Y1 - 1997/4/1. N2 - Beef females (547) were included in three experiments to evaluate methods of identifying and inseminating nonpregnant beef females after synchronization of second estrus with norgestomet implants. In the first experiment, heifers not pregnant to the first insemination were identified for insemination via estrus (inseminated via the a.m./p.m. role or 48 h after implant removal). In the second experiment, females not pregnant to the first insemination were identified for insemination via estrus (inseminated via the a.m./p.m. role) or progesterone concentrations , 1.5 ng/mL at implant removal (inseminated 48 h after implant removal). In the third experiment, heifers not pregnant to the first insemination were ...
Our objective was to determine fertility of heifers after synchronization of estrus using PGF2, preceded by progesterone, GnRH, or both. Dairy heifers (n = 246) were assigned randomly to three treatments: 1) 50 :g of GnRH given 6 d before 25 mg of PGF2 (d -1) plus a used intravaginal progesteronereleasing insert (CIDR-B; d -7 to 0; CIDR+GnRH); 2) same as CIDR+GnRH without the GnRH (CIDR); and 3) same as CIDR+GnRH without the used CIDR (GnRH). All heifers were fitted with Heat- Watch® patches and characteristics of estrus examined before AI included duration of estrus, number of standing events, and total duration of standing events. In addition, all heifers were observed visually twice daily for estrus. Rates of conception and pregnancy differed among treatments. All of the estrus-synchronization treatments produced acceptable estrus detection and pregnancy rates but the CIDR+PGF2 treatment was most effective for improving conception and pregnancy rates ...
Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of inducing estrus during. lactation by reducing the nursing load of the sow between 2 and 4 weeks after. farrowing. lactating sows were separated from their litters for either 6 (20 sows). or 12 (10 sows) hr/day between 2 and 4 weeks postpartum. For comparison, the litters of other sows were weaned at either 2 (13 sows) or 4 (16 sows) weeks of age. Estrus was induced in 13 of 20 (65%) sows and 5 of 10 (50%) sows that were separated from their litters for 6 or 12 hr/day during lactation, respectively, compared with 0/13 and 0/16 sows weaned at 2 or 4 weeks. The 18 sows that. showed estrus during lactation averaged 5.9 days from the first day of litter. separation to estrus compared with 4.4 and 4.2 days from weaning to estrus for. sows weaned at 2 or 4 weeks. Fertility traits (number of corpora lutea, eggs. fertilized, fertilization rate, eggs cleaved, and cleavage rate) were unaffected by treatment. Daily separation of sows from their litters for ...
The result obtained from the acute toxicity studies showed a reasonable safety profile of the extract up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg after a 24 h test. Preclinical toxicity testing is one of the basic screening required to generate important information about potential damage of agents or new compounds to humans and is of utmost importance in drug development processes (Parasuraman 2011; David and Enegide, 2013). The US Food and Drug Administration states that the screening of new molecules for pharmacological activity and toxicity on animals is essential as this reveals similar incidence of occurrence and severity in humans (United States Code Sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, Code 1992).. The study of the effect of EM on the reproductive cycle revealed that high dose of EM prolonged the estrus cycle by prolonged or persistent estrus phase in mice. During normal estrus cycle of mice, increase in estrogen level coincides with proestrus phase and results in ...
Estrus: Estrus, , the period in the sexual cycle of female mammals, except the higher primates, during which they are in heat-i.e., ready to accept a male and to mate. One or more periods of estrus may occur during the breeding season of a species. Prior to ovulation the endometrium (uterine lining)
Estrus Whimper call features the Mac Daddy® mouthpiece. Just depress the lever and blow to produce yips, barks, howls and whimpers. The Estrus Whimper is extremely effective during mating season. Includes instructional DVD. - Estrus Whimper Call (EWP-1)
Proligestone* is alleged to suppress feline oestrus. However, no comparative data exist. The objective of the study was to estimate the impact of proligestone administration on the suppression of oestrus and on the prevention of recurrence of feline oestrous cycle and its probable unwanted effects.. The duration of behavioural alterations indicative of oestrus was recorded in 22 young cats during two consecutive oestrous periods. During the 1st oestrus (puberty), the animals received no treatment while on the 2nd day of overt oestrous sign manifestation of the 2nd oestrus, 18 cats were sc treated with proligestone (33 mg/kg) while the remaining 4 cats received normal saline (NS, 0.33 ml/kg), sc. Of the 18 proligestone-treated cats, 12 and 6, further received a 2nd and a 3rd proligestone administration, respectively, at 12-week intervals. The animals were observed for oestrous behaviour for a 12-week period following NS, 1st, 2nd and 3rd proligestone administration. Data were subjected to ...
Our ideal situation is to use our hormones or injectables, P.G. 600 and Matrix, at a bare minimum, he said. But if the cause for estrus delay is not found, then he will use a product to get females in heat and bred.. The only time P.G. 600 is successful is when a gilts either been cycling and quit cycling through her estrus, or shes never cycled before, he explained. Thats when we can use P.G. 600 to stimulate that gilt to cycle that first time and then go from there.. But if a gilt cycled 7 days ago and the breeding crew missed it, or the gilt didnt have a very strong heat, P.G. 600 will not change the cycle or help it.. An example of how I suggest my clients use P.G. 600 is once we definitely know those gilts are of age and the right size, we really stimulate them with multiple boars…for 4-, 5- and even 6-week period…Then well go in and use P.G. 600 to help stimulate those gilts that havent cycled within that first window.. Matrix is a product Hendrickson uses to help organize ...
Until recently, most estrous synchronization of dairy cows was performed using PGF2α or analogues (Lutalyse or Estrumate). These compounds cause the regression of the corpus luteum (CL), the expression of estrous behavior and ovulation of a follicle 2-5 days after administration. In order for PGF2α to act on a cow, she must have a functional CL on an ovary. The exact time from PGF2α administration until estrus depends on the population of follicles on the ovary. If there are no large follicles on the ovary, it will take more time for them to develop. Since all cows will not be in the same stage of the estrous cycle when injected with PGF2α, they will show estrus at different times after injection of PGF2α. The Targeted BreedingTM (Pharmacia-Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI) scheme uses additional synchronization doses of PGF2α to produce cows that are in the middle of the estrous cycles that all have dominant CLs (2 weeks after estrus). Cows at this stage give the most consistent response to a ...
UDK 619: : ANALIZA FAKTORA KOJI UTICU NA TOK ESTRALNOG CIKLUSA VISOKOMLECNIH KRAVA* ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING ESTRUS CYCLE IN DAIRY COWS M. Jovicin, T. Petrujkic, A. Milovanovic,
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The estrus cycle (also œstrus or estrous cycle) refers to the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian placental females (humans and great apes are the only mammals who undergo a menstrual cycle instead). Estrus cycles start after puberty in sexually mature females and are interrupted by anestrous phases (see below: anestrus). Typically estrus cycles continue until death. Some animals may display bloody vaginal discharge, often mistaken for menstruation ...
Natural breeding of gilts is achieved by placing a boar of similar size (weight) in with the female. Females that are not in estrus tend to move away and squeal when mounted. These females should be removed to prevent physical harm from occurring when and an excited boar attempts to mount or flank stimulate the gilt. A gilt in estrus will become immobilized when physical contact with the male is established. This detection period may require can take from 2-10 minutes. For a female that is in estrus, the male will often mount and once he extends the penis, will insert it into the female vagina. Sometimes, there remains an intact hymen. This is a thin tissue membrane that will tear at 1st breeding. This is sometimes painful for the gilt, and she may not allow intromission again until the next day of estrus. In other females, no pain is evident when the hymen is ruptured.. AI of gilts is standard with respect to timing and procedures. However, the insertion of the catheter is somewhat more snug ...
The average heat cycle for a dog is approximately 3 weeks and since this an an average, some heats are shorter (as little as 7-10 days), others are longer (4 weeks or more). Average times between heat periods is seven months but some dogs can cycle as early as every 4 months, some once a year. Lengths of heat cycles and intervals between cycles are different for each dog, but most dogs hit somewhere close to the averages.. The first part of heat you will notice bleeding from the vulva, swelling of the vulva, possible increase in urination and the most noticeable, male dogs hanging around the house. During this period (proestrus), females will not allow the males to breed with them although the males will be very persistent. The second part or estrus is the time in which the female will allow the male to breed her and this can last anywhere from 4-21 days. A female, most of the time, will allow most any male to breed during this time. As the female starts to go out of heat or enter diestrus, she ...
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(154) These can be used to synchronise oestrus in groups of gilts or in sows after weaning. Regumate Porcine (POM) This is an oil based product containing the active principle...
OvaMed is indicated for the suppression of estrus in mares. Suppression of estrus allows for a predictableoccurrence of estrus following drug withdrawal.
Lo-fi garage sounds from Estrus? Whoudda thunk? Id heard of the Von Zippers before, but never actually listened to these boys from the great white north. Political themes but pulled off in a pretty rockin manner, which started me thinking: has there ever been a political garage band? I thought about it on and off for a few days, couldnt come up with anything, and then asked Todd if he knew of any. We sat around the office for a while, but neither of us could come up with any. Not my favorite Estrus release lately, but Ill definitively hold on to it and let it grow on me more. Im pretty sure it will.. -megan (Estrus) ...
present a graph-theoretic framework in which to study instances of the semiunification problem (SUP), which is known to be undecidable, but has several known and important decidable subsets. One such subset, the acyclic semiunification problem (ASUP), has proved useful in the study of polymorphic type inference. We present graph-theoretic criteria in our framework that exactly characterize the ASUP acyclicity constraint. We then use our framework to find a decidable subset of SUP (which we call R-ASUP), which has a more natural description than ASUP, and strictly contains it. ...
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polyestrous definition: Having a few estrous cycles during a single reproduction period.; Ovulating more often than once a-year.; Having several periods of estrus in annually, or during a breeding period;…
A Pomeranian is in heat when she displays a swollen vulva, a strong sex drive, and several other physical and behavioral changes. Also known as estrus, heat involves sharp swings in hormonal levels...
Looking for online definition of postpartum estrus in the Medical Dictionary? postpartum estrus explanation free. What is postpartum estrus? Meaning of postpartum estrus medical term. What does postpartum estrus mean?
Thorough and precise estrus detection plays a crucial role in the fertility of dairy cows. Farmers commonly used direct visual monitoring in recognizing estrus signs which demands time and effort and causes misinterpretations. The primary sign of estrus is the standing heat, where the dairy cows stand to be mounted by other cows for a few seconds. Through the years, researchers developed various detection methods, yet most of these methods involve contact and invasive approaches that affect the estrus behaviors of cows. So, the proponents developed a non-invasive and non-contact estrus detection system using image processing to detect standing heat behaviors. Through the TensorFlow Object Detection API, the proponents trained two custom neural network models capable of visualizing bounding boxes of the predicted cow objects on image frames. The proponents also developed an object overlapping algorithm that utilizes the bounding box corners to detect estrus activities. Based on the conducted tests, an
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Estrus synchronization is a reproductive biotechnology used to improve artificial insemination or pairing through the manipulation of the estrous cycle at a desirable time. Employing this technique in captive pacas (Cuniculus paca L.) is important because it creates expectation of meeting the demand for paca meat and, consequently, reduces poaching. Thus, this research aims to verify the effect of a progestogen implant associated with two doses of eCG on the synchronization and induction of fertile estrus. Twenty-seven adult pacas were used, 18 non-pregnant females and nine males, divided into three groups. G1 and G2 females groups (treatments) received 1.5 mg Norgestomet and were injected intramuscularly, seven days later, with 0.13 mg of prostaglandin. After 24 hours the implants were removed and the animals immediately received 25 IU and 50 IU of ECG intramuscularly, respectively. The mating of the three groups took place on the same days. G3 females group (control) showed estrus on ...
Molecular and intra-cellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of apoptosis processes in endometrial cells are poorly understood and documented. We have investigated the possibility that Akt survival pathway might be involved in the regulation of apoptosis in the uterus during the estrous cycle. Rats with regular estrous cycle (4 days) were killed at different days of estrous cycle (diestrus, proestrus, estrus and metestrus). Uteri were collected and fixed for immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and apoptotic cell death detection by [TdT]-mediated deoxyuridinetriphosphate nick end-labelling (TUNEL) or endometrial protein extracts collected for Western analysis. TUNEL analysis revealed that apoptosis was mainly found at estrus compared to other day of estrous cycle. TUNEL positive cells were apparent in luminal epithelial cells only. No apoptotic cells were observed at proestrus. In contrast, proliferation was maximal at proestrus as confirmed with the expression of CDC47/MCM7 (a cell proliferation
TY - JOUR. T1 - Leptin concentrations in relation to energy balance, milk yield, intake, live weight and estrus in dairy cows. AU - Liefers, S.C.. AU - Veerkamp, R.F.. AU - te Pas, M.F.W.. AU - Delavaud, C.. AU - Chilliard, Y.. AU - van der Lende, T.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - The objective of this study was to describe fluctuations in leptin concentrations during late pregnancy and lactation and to investigate how those fluctuations are related to energy balance, milk yield, milk components, dry matter intake, live weight, first postpartum luteal activity, and first observed estrus during lactation. Live weight, dry matter intake, energy balance, and milk yield were measured weekly on 304 primiparous Holstein cows for the first 80 d of lactation. The first postpartum luteal activity was determined by measuring milk progesterone, and independently, first observed estrus. For measuring leptin concentrations from 30 d before until 80 d after calving, blood samples were taken at 2-wk intervals at ...
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Farm Animal Resources & Management (F.A.R.M.), LLC. 1120 Cherokee Circle, Athens, GA 30606. 706-340-0999 (mobile). Heat detection has a larger impact on the success of bovine artificial insemination (A.I.) programs than any other management factor. The dairy or beef producer must become proficient at heat detection to be successful as an A.I. breeder.. The only reliable sign of bovine estrus is the cow standing to allow other cows to mount her. The cow may stand only 4-6 seconds each time. There will be an average of 1.5 mounts per hour.. The only primary sign of estrus in the cow:. ...
During the follicular phase, elevated estrogen concentrations trigger estrus behavior in cows, and lead to the LH surge and consequent ovulation. Cows are considered in estrus when they stand to be ridden by other animals and therefore are sexually receptive. On average, the estrus period lasts 15 hours, but can range from 6 to 24 hours depending on the animal. Ovulation, the release of the egg from the follicle into the oviduct, occurs between 24 and 32 hours after the onset of estrus.. Therefore, according to the estrous cycle arrangement, including the luteal phase, follicular phase, estrus, and ovulation, cows have the chance of becoming pregnant about every 21 days.. After natural breeding, sperm cells need to move through the cervix to reach the uterus. Sperm cells originated from artificial insemination are already deposited into the uterine body. In the uterus, sperm cells navigate toward both uterine horns, although the egg is typically produced by only one ovary during each ovulation. ...
Breeding onset is at about 50 days of age in both females and males, although females may have their first estrus at 25-40 days. Mice are polyestrous and breed year round; ovulation is spontaneous. The duration of the estrous cycle is 4-5 days and estrus itself lasts about 12 hours, occurring in the evening. Vaginal smears are useful in timed matings to determine the stage of the estrous cycle. Mating is usually nocturnal and may be confirmed by the presence of a copulatory plug in the vagina up to 24 hours post-copulation. The presence of sperm on a vaginal smear is also a reliable indicator of mating.[7] Female mice housed together tend to go into anestrus and do not cycle. If exposed to a male mouse or the pheromones of a male mouse, most of the females will go into estrus in about 72 hours. This synchronization of the estrous cycle is known as the Whitten effect. The exposure of a recently bred mouse to the pheromones of a strange male mouse may prevent implantation (or pseudopregnancy), a ...
The effect of neonatally administered testosterone propionate (TP) on sexual receptivity and fertility was studied. Dosages of 25 μg and ten μg were used and were administered s.c. in peanut oil on the fifth day of life. Vaginal smears of the animals receiving 25 μg were begun at the age of 61 days and indicated that these animals exhibited modified estrous cycles. By 90 days of age, most of the animals in both dosage groups were in constant vaginal estrus. These prolonged periods of vaginal estrus were often interrupted only by mating. At 97 days of age 40 females which received ten μg of TP were caged individually with males for six nights and 40% mated. At this same dose, out of 128 exposures, 42% of the females bred when exposed to males for one night. The latter group received 15 I.U. of chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) on the day of mating. In females receiving 25 μg of TP, out of 481 exposures, 33.6% of the animals mated. Eighty-nine per cent of the females which copulated had a vaginal smear
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Rats typically have rapid cycle times of 4 to 5 days. Although they ovulate spontaneously, they do not develop a fully functioning corpus luteum unless they receive coital stimulation. Fertile mating leads to pregnancy in this way, but infertile mating leads to a state of pseudopregnancy which lasts about 10 days. Mice and hamsters have similar behaviour.[9] The events of the cycle are strongly influenced by lighting periodicity.[7] A set of follicles start to develop near the end of proestrus and grow at a nearly constant rate until the beginning of the subsequent estrus when the growth rates accelerate eightfold. They then ovulate about 109 hours after starting growth. Oestrogen peaks at about 11am on the day of proestrus. Between then and midnight there is a surge in progesterone, LH and FSH, and ovulation occurs at about 4am on the next, estrus day. The following day, metestrus, is called early diestrus or diestrus I by some authors. During this day the corpus lutea grow to a maximal volume, ...
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There are four major hormonal diseases in ferrets. Two of these diseases are covered in separate handouts, namely abnormally high levels of estrogen associated with persistent estrus in female ferrets (see Ferrets - Reproductive diseases), and abnormally high levels of insulin associated with the pancreatic tumor called insulinoma (see Ferrets - Tumors).. ...
There are four major hormonal diseases in ferrets. Two of these diseases are covered in separate handouts, namely abnormally high levels of estrogen associated with persistent estrus in female ferrets (see Ferrets - Reproductive diseases), and abnormally high levels of insulin associated with the pancreatic tumor called insulinoma (see Ferrets - Tumors).. ...
According to Moreira and Hansen, cows typically show estrus, or signs of heat, approximately every 21 days. After a cow is inseminated, either naturally or by artificial insemination, the animals corpus luteum will not regress.. The corpus luteum, or yellow body, is a structure that develops from ovarian follicles during ovulation. Moreira and Hanson say that in the event of pregnancy, The corpus luteum will not regress, progesterone concentrations will remain high, and the cow will not return to estrus.. If the cow is not observed to enter back into estrus approximately 21 days after end of the previous cycle, it is highly possible the cow is pregnant. Visual signs to detect estrus include tail chalking, mucus production from the vagina, swollen vulva and a willingness to be mounted.. ...
LETELIER, C et al. Reproductive performance of out of season mating in lactating Latxa dairy sheep. Arch. med. vet. [online]. 2003, vol.35, n.2, pp.237-241. ISSN 0301-732X. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0301-732X2003000200012.. In order to explore the induction of out of season lambing, to reduce the constraint on milk production, which results from the seasonality of estrus activity in ewes, synchronized estrus induction was carried. 47 Latxa dairy ewes, 2 and more years old, with 66 days of lactation and an average daily milk yield of 1265 grams were treated with progestagen and gonadotrophin during october 2001. Estrus detection was carried out with one raddled harnessed ram. Each ewe in heat was hand mated to one fertile ram, with two succesive mounts per ewe. 37/47 ewes showed estrus (78.7%), 26/37 conceived (70.2%), and 25/47 lambed (53.2%) between April 1st to 7 st. Thirty three lambs (132%) were born with an average birth weight of 4.5 Kg, and a perinatal mortality of 3%. April lambing in ...
The objective of this study was to evaluate relationships between rebreeding performance and growth performance (n = 3,777 gilts) and rebreeding performance and reproductive performance (n = 2,242 sows). Our data were from a selection experiment for shorter intervals from weaning to estrus after the first parity (IWE), involving Dutch Landrace pigs, in which a selection line and a control line without selection were maintained for eight generations. Relationships were evaluated before and after transforming IWE to normal interval (NI; IWE &#; 7 d), prolonged interval (PI; IWE | 7 d), and incidence of a prolonged interval (INC). Heritabilities of NI, PI, and INC were .18, .17, and .27. Within-line phenotypic and genetic trends in growth and reproductive performance were not different from zero and did not diverge as a correlated response to the selection applied. Phenotypic correlations between IWE, NI, or PI and growth or reproductive performance were low and ranged from &#;.14 to .11. Genetic
Titre : HORMONAL INDUCTION OF ESTRUS IN HEIFERS OF BOS INDICUS OF SEMI-ARID REGION OF RAJASTHAN. Auteur : SINGH, SHRAVAN. Université de soutenance : Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bikaner. Grade : Master of Veterinary Science 2007. Résumé partiel ...
Complete article is available online.. PDF version is available online.. Real-time ultrasound (RTU) may aid in identifying sources of reproductive failure. In the month prior to observation, a commercial 2500-sow unit experienced an increase in the wean-to-estrus interval and reduced conception rates. A subpopulation of 52 sows was examined using RTU once daily on days 4, 5, and 6 postweaning. Transrectal RTU of the ovaries and uterus, performed following estrus detection, required 3.5 minutes per sow. To identify sources of reproductive failure, measures of follicle size, cysts, and time of ovulation were analyzed with sow records. Only 38 of the 52 sows expressed estrus within 7 days of weaning (73%), and only 29 sows ovulated (56%). Nine of the 23 sows that failed to ovulate (24%) were detected standing. Cystic ovaries were observed in four sows that failed to ovulate (17%) and in two sows that ovulated (7%). Of the 14 sows not detected in estrus, none ovulated (0%). The average ...
There is provided a moveable cart for use in transporting an animal, as a male hog, past one or more rows of cages containing sows to permit the determination of estrus in the sows and also to increase the success rate during artificial insemination by permitting snout to snout contact between the sow and male hog, the cart having a base with wheels mounted thereon, at least one wall extending upwardly from the base, and at least one panel for blocking visual access in at least one direction between the interior and exterior of the cart and at least one opening in the wall sized to permit the head of an animal to least partially extend therethrough.
INTRODUCTION. Nonsurgical contraceptive measures include permanent or temporary pharmaco-castration of males, reversible and nonreversible estrus prevention in females, estrus suppression in females, and pregnancy prevention or termination after unwanted mating. As for females, no new products for estrus prevention or suppression have been introduced in the last decade, other than revised formulations and new brands of progestins previously marketed. In fact, contraceptive options in bitches have decreased in some countries with the recent withdrawal of the androgen mibolerone (Cheque Drops©) as an estrus preventative. However, an implant product providing down-regulating amounts of a potent GnRH-agonist has recently been approved as male dog contraception in New Zealand and Australia, and efforts are underway to obtain approval as a contraceptive in bitches as well, as well as application to cats. Depending on price and regulatory hurdles, the product is likely to become available in many ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Hormonal Control of Estrus in Goats and Sheep. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
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Note incidentally that checking the mare by teasing at 22 days is a bit late. The interovulatory period averages 21 days, but can vary by up to a couple of days in either direction, so it is quite possible that the mare had already returned to estrus, ovulated, and gone back into diestrus. If you want to check by teasing, then one should start teasing at 14 days after the prior estrus, and tease every other day to day 26, but which time if there is no estrus, there is a 90% chance of pregnancy ...
Forty-seven of 50 heifers were in estrus 1 to 5 days after an injection of prostaglandin given when an ear implant of Synchro-mate B was removed. The implant had been in place one week. Thirty of the 47 (63.8%) heifers with synchronized estrus conceived on first artificial insemination. Twenty untreated heifers were in estrus in 27 days; 13 (65%) conceived on first artificial insemination.
Time has come for the 2nd part... Chinchillas Chinchillas become sexually mature at an average age of 8 months: females 8.5 months (2-14), and males at 8 (4-12) months. They are polyestric animals. Females cycle seasonally (November to May in northern hemisphere). They come in estrus every 28-35 days. They also present postpartum estrus: 12 hours…
Read our article about why prostaglandin may not work for more details, but in short form, using PGF2α will not pinpoint ovulation to the same degree that P&E will. Your range of ovulation will be somewhere between 1 and 20 days. If one can palpate/ultrasound, then yes, go ahead, but if youre looking at breeding based solely on timing it will be less reliable. Having said that, if you have a stallion with which to tease, you may also be OK - just start teasing the day after using the PGF2α in case she comes into estrus rapidly, and then breed on day 3 and 5 (and if necessary 7) of standing estrus ...
Irish dairy herd fertility has been declining since the 1980s. The extent, nature and causes of this decline in fertility and the current status of Irish dairy herd fertility were described. An increase in calving interval of approximately one day per year has been recorded. The principal components of this trend have been an increased incidence of postpartum endocrinopathies, reduced expression of oestrus and a fall in conception rate. Both submission rate and calving-to-service interval have increased slightly over time. Significant risk factors associated with these trends have been strain substitution within the Holstein-Friesian breed and single trait selection for milk production. Critically, these changes have been reflected in loss of body condition. Contributory factors included increased herd size and possibly increased use of DIYAI. The most recent Irish study showed that 48% of cows conceived to first service and 14% of cows were not pregnant at the end of the industry-average 15-week spring
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With spring calving in full swing, it is a good time to start thinking about if your cows are prepared for breeding season. Making sure your cows are in a good body condition score prior to calving is one of the most important steps to ensuring your cows stay on track to rebreed whether you plan to turn bulls out, synchronize, AI, or a combination. If you plan to utilize
The worlds most advanced estrus and health monitoring solution for dairy cows. 96% estrus detection rate, 100% 6-week submission rate, 82% 6-week in calf rate, 100% sick cow detection ...
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Stages of the canine estrous cycle can be defined by sexual behavior, vulvar swelling, vaginal bleeding or by vaginal cytology. The period of receptivity... read full [Essay Sample] for free
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"Estrus". www.grunnenrocks.nl. Archived from the original on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2018. "Ugly American Zine ... EP released on Estrus Records in 1995. It was released exclusively on clear yellow-orange vinyl. Art Chantry designed/ ...
This period of advertised fertility is known as oestrus, "estrus" or heat. In species that experience estrus, females are ... express estrus) at regular biologically defined intervals. The female is receptive to males only while experiencing estrus. For ... Also, it has been said that the extended estrus period of the bonobo (reproductive-age females are in heat for 75% of their ... In order to induce estrus, a variety of techniques have been tried in recent years, involving both more natural, and more ...
"Estrus". The University of Sydney. 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2014. Heape, W. (1905). "Ovulation and degeneration of ova in ... This does not explain the evolution of ovulation in all species however, for example some species appear to show estrus ...
doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1989.tb00529.x. "Estrus , reproductive cycle". Putman, R. J. (1986). Grazing in temperate ecosystems: ...
The term "estrus" refers to the phase of the estrous cycle in which a sexually mature, non-pregnant female is receptive to ... This is a more exact but time consuming way to manipulate the cycle of multiple cows to sync up the timing of A.I. Estrus ... Oestrus synchronisation has proven to have many advantages in the dairy and beef industries. The application of estrous ... ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION: A REPRODUCTIVE MANAGEMENT TOOL. [e-book] p. 7. Available through: selectsires.com http://www. ...
Estrus Records. 2000.CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link) "The Mooney Suzuki Bio". The Mooney Suzuki. Retrieved ... The album was later reissued by Estrus in July 2011. People Get Ready was recorded by Tim Kerr with engineer Mike Vasquez at ... The band worked with Kerr on the recommendation of Dave Crider, then-head of Estrus Records, who suggested they "just let the ... Recorded at Sweatbox Studio in Austin, Texas, it was released on September 5, 2000, by Estrus Records. ...
... www.estrus.com. "Stop Draggin' Me Down - Mono Men , Songs, Reviews, Credits , AllMusic" - via www.allmusic.com. MusicHound Rock ...
" "Estrus LP/CD Releases". www.estrus.com. "CD Review Revue". The Stranger. "The Rest of Us - Gas Huffer , Songs, Reviews, ...
It was recorded in 1998 and released on Estrus. The CMJ New Music Report review by Tad Hendrickson states "Like Booker T. & the ... at Estrus Hendrickson, Tad. Funky-Do! review. CMJ New Music Report. 26 April 99: page 30. Print.. ...
Females enter estrus in spring. Mating can last as long as eight hours. After insemination, the blastocyst does not implant ...
At their most fertile stage in their menstrual cycle, during estrus, women are far less likely to engage in rape-risky ... doi:10.1016/s1090-5138(98)00016-6. Gangestad S. W., Thornhill R. (2008). "Human oestrus". Proceedings of the Royal Society of ... phase or women using a hormonal contraceptive are much less likely to become pregnant after sexual intercourse than estrus ...
They found that the females concealed estrus and were sexually receptive during the entire mating season. Concealed estrus and ... Research is fairly consistent in the finding that species with concealed estrus mate at all stages of their ovarian cycle. For ... A review of studies revealed that, in humans, females only exhibit subtle changes during estrus, making it difficult for males ... Gangestad, S. W.; Thornhill, R. (2008). "Human oestrus". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 275 ...
... indicating that women do possess an estrus phase and that their ovulation is not completely concealed. During estrus, many ... which may indicate that humans have retained an estrus-like state. Estrus evolved to facilitate reproduction and maximize ... This has led many researchers to conclude that humans lost their estrus through evolution. It has been hypothesized that this ... This phase of sexual receptivity and proceptivity, estrus, is often referred to as being "in heat". Human females, however, ...
"oestrus (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "Haggai (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. "baroque (BrE)". Oxford Dictionaries. Wells 2000 " ...
A female's estrus lasts 33 days. During courting, the female first licks the male's neck. The male will then rub his cheek ...
Gangestad, S., & Haselton, M. (2015). Human estrus: implications for relationship science. Current opinion in psychology, 1, 45 ...
... thus bringing the mare into estrus sooner than she would in nature. Mares signal estrus and ovulation by urination in the ... Levels of FSH rise slightly at the end of estrus, but have their highest peak about 10 days before the next ovulation. FSH is ... Ovulation occurs in the final 24-48 hours of estrus. Diestrus, or Luteal, phase: 14-15 days in length, the mare is not sexually ... This cycle contains 2 phases: Estrus, or Follicular, phase: 5-7 days in length, when the mare is sexually receptive to a ...
Generally, one estrus occurs per year. The amount of sperm produced by the maned wolf is lower compared to those of other ... Copulation occurs during the four-day estrus period, and is followed by up to 15 minutes of sexual intercourse. Courtship is ... Females ovulate spontaneously, but some authors suggest that the presence of a male is important for estrus induction. Captive ... Data on the maned wolf's estrus and reproductive cycle mainly come from captive animals, particularly about breeding ...
Estrus is often called standing heat in cattle and refers to the time in their cycle where the female is receptive towards the ... Artificial insemination uses estrus synchronization to indicate when the cow is going through ovulation and is susceptible to ... Estrus behaviour can be detected by an experienced stockman. These behaviours can include standing to be mounted, mounting ... "Estrus Synchronization of Dairy Cattle" (PDF). Retrieved 28 March 2018. "Heat Detection and Timing of Insemination for Cattle ...
When females go into estrus aggressiveness increases. On the other hand, when male approaches females in order to mate, it ...
This causes the mother to go into estrus sooner. However, most infanticide is done by close relatives. Lactating females will ... Behaviors that signal that a female is in estrus include underground consorting, self-licking of genitals, dust-bathing, and ... doi:10.1644/BRB-109.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Hoogland, J. L. (1998). "Estrus and Copulation of Gunnison's ...
The estrus period lasts 5-9 days.[citation needed] In China, leopard cats are hunted mainly for their fur. Between 1984 and ...
The estrus cycle is about 21 days. A bull may breed as many as 20 cows in a season. It has become a very common practice ...
During estrus, a female releases one egg. Mating usually lasts three to four minutes; the male bat mounts the female from the ... Female animals, particularly those in estrus, are more often targeted than males. This could be because of the hormones. ...
Females of colonies living at high elevation enter estrus as the photoperiod increases. Their estrus cycle is 1-5 days. For ... example, in the Serengeti, there is a discrete mating season of seven weeks in which females with enter estrus several times ...
It was released in 1997 on Estrus. The Chicago Tribune review by Mo Ryan states "This instrumental Chicago quartet plays a ... tenor sax All Night Burner at Estrus Ryan, Mo. All Night Burner review at Chicago Tribune Corbett, John. Crown Royals at ...
Females have only a single estrus cycle; estrus lasts three to five days in captivity. Individuals have been observed making ...
Estrus is characterized by the presence of all superficial cells, many of which are anuclear (without a nucleus) or have small ... A smear made during late estrus to early diestrus may appear similar to one made in early- or mid-proestrus. The final stage of ... "Determining Canine Estrus Stage via Vaginal Cytology". www.cliniciansbrief.com. Retrieved 2019-12-08. Cowell, R., & Valenciano ...
Some fillies may exhibit estrus as yearlings. The equivalent term for a male is a colt. When horses of either sex are less than ...
Concannon, P.W. (2013). "Chapter 215: Estrus Suppression in the Bitch". In Bonagura, J.D.; Twedt, D.C. (eds.). Kirk's Current ...
Oestrus ovis, the sheep bot fly, is a widespread species of fly of the genus Oestrus. It is known for its parasitic predation ... McGarry, J.; Penrose, F; Collins, C (2012), "Oestrus ovis infestation of a dog in the UK.", Journal of Small Animal Practice, ... Masoodi, Mohsen; Hosseini, Keramatalah (2004), External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by Sheep Botfly (oestrus ovis) Larva: A Report ... Capelle, Kenneth J. (1966), "The Occurrence of Oestrus ovis L. in the Bighorn Sheep from Wyoming and Montana. Vol.52, No.3", ...
One or more periods of estrus may occur during the breeding season of a species. Prior to ovulation the endometrium (uterine ... Estrus, , the period in the sexual cycle of female mammals, except the higher primates, during which they are in heat-i.e., ... Alternative Titles: heat, oestrus. Estrus, also spelled Oestrus, the period in the sexual cycle of female mammals, except the ... mammal: Estrus and other cycles. Estrus, or "heat," typically coincides with ovulation, and during this time the female is ...
List of record labels "Estrus Records". www.estrus.com. Retrieved 2018-10-18. "Label: Estrus Records - Rate Your Music". ... At the start of 2020 work began on a giant book about Estrus Records to be published by Korero Press, titled Estrus: Shovelin ... "PODSHOCK - Estrus Records Podcast!". Official site PodShock - The Estrus Records Podcast v t e. ... For many years Estrus hosted an annual festival, Garage Shock, at The 3B Tavern in Bellingham. Garage Shock featured bands from ...
Estrus EP is the first EP by John Frusciante. Its a 7" extended play, released in 1997. Only 400-500 copies of this vinyl EP ... The first song, "Estrus", was released as the last song on Smile from the Streets You Hold under the title "Estress". The b- ...
The second part or estrus is the time in which the female will allow the male to breed her and this can last anywhere from 4-21 ...
Estrus EP" yra John Frusciante EP, išleistas 1997 m. tik vinilinėje plokštelėje. Buvo pagaminta tik 400-500 albumo kopijų, ... Pirmoji albumo daina „Estrus" pasirodė albume „Smile from the Streets You Hold" pavadinimu „Estress". Antroji daina „Outside ... Rodomas puslapis "https://lt.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Estrus_EP&oldid=5986800" ...
1. The estrus cycles have tended to be long. Many have gone the full 24 days.. 2. Activity has been suppressed. Almost ... 5. I observed that if more than one cow is close to their estrus, there is mounting activity. But if a lone cow comes in, she ... I have been documenting their cycles all fall to prepare me for when to suspect the onset of estrus.. OBSERVATIONS:. ... I have had 4 of the 13 serviced to date come into estrus and show no sign of having been mounted enough to significantly erase ...
... from Latin oestrus frenzy, gadfly, from Greek oistros gadfly; breeze; sting; anything which makes one… See more. ... estrus (n.). 1850, frenzied passion, from Latin oestrus frenzy, gadfly, from Greek oistros gadfly; breeze; sting; anything ...
Oh estrus.. All About Estrus. In the five to seven days before ovulating, mares go through estrus, says Christine Aurich, DVM, ... Manipulating estrus is essentially a game of altering hormonal balance to "trick" a mares reproductive system into staying ... Very basically, estrus makes a mare sexually excited, whereas progesterone keeps a mare calm and "maternal." ... Oral altrenogest (Regu-Mate) is todays gold standard in estrus manipulation for performance horses in the U.S. and many other ...
Estrus is defined as the period where a female (in this case, a cow or heifer) is receptive to a male (or, the bull). Estrous, ... How to Tell when a Cow or Heifer is in Estrus. ... Look for behavioral signs if estrus: (Note that the herd is ... Looking for Behavioral and Physical Signs of Estrus * {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/5\/5e\/Tell-when-a ... or-Heifer-is-in-Estrus-Step-11.jpg\/v4-460px-Tell-when-a-Cow-or-Heifer-is-in-Estrus-Step-11.jpg","bigUrl":"https:\/\/www. ...
This type of surgery results in the cessation of subsequent estrus (heat) symptoms in the female. ... A cytological examination of samples taken from the vagina will also help in determining the status of estrus in your dog. In ... This type of surgery results in the cessation of subsequent estrus (heat) symptoms in the female. However, sometimes after an ... If such tissue remains functional and continues to secrete hormones, behavioral and/or physical signs of estrus in the female ...
Natural Doe Urine with Estrus Secretions. Carefully collected from whitetail does. Triggers the sexual attraction instinct of ... Youre reviewing:Wildlife Research Doe in Estrus. Your Rating. Rating. 1 star. 2 stars. 3 stars. 4 stars. 5 stars. ... Natural Doe Urine with Estrus Secretions. Carefully collected from whitetail does. Triggers the sexual attraction instinct of ...
Read Estrus Synchronization Products in addition to hundreds of recent farming and agriculture news articles. View up to date ... The cow will then return to estrus (Patterson et al., 2004). An injection of PG is required as part of many estrus ... Estrus synchronization can lead to an increased proportion of females conceiving earlier in the calving season and will wean ... Exogenous hormones and their analogues are used to manipulate the bovine estrous cycle and allow for use of estrus ...
Special golden Estrus is collected in a unique way by bringing select whitetail does into heat early in the season through ... premium whitetail doe in estrus urine collected, bottled and dated, then shipped to you at the height of its potency. ... Youre reviewing:Wildlife Research Special Golden Estrus 1oz. Your Rating. Rating. 1 star. 2 stars. 3 stars. 4 stars. 5 stars. ... Special golden Estrus is collected in a unique way by bringing select whitetail does into heat early in the season through the ...
N Estrus has been responsible for countless buck kills and encounters in the past two decades. The Buck Bomb Doe in Estrus ... The simple convenience of Buck Bomb Doe in Estrus means the end of fumbling with messy screw-top bottles of attractant scent.

Estrus while in your stand or blind, or when stalking deer to create a barrier of cover scent between you ... Use Buck Bomb Doe in Estrus while in your stand or blind, or when stalking deer to create a barrier of cover scent between you ...

CH.FI/MVA/EST/RUS Palabras Keep on Movin (A/A). Palabras King Creole (FCI D/D). Palabras Kinks. Palabras Kissin Time. Palabras ... CH.FI/MVA/EST/RUS Palabras Keep on Movin. A vertical pedigree lists the siblings of each dog in the pedigree. Siblings are ...
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What is Estrus cycle? Meaning of Estrus cycle as a legal term. What does Estrus cycle mean in law? ... Definition of Estrus cycle in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... redirected from Estrus cycle). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Encyclopedia.. Related to Estrus cycle ... In addition to secondary signs of estrus, the stage of estrus cycle was confirmed by the presence of fluctuant Graafian ...
Estrus synchronization in sheep is a great tool to help reduce lambing season labor. Build a sheep nutrition plan to support ... the need for estrus synchronization in sheep is a must. Other reasons to synchronize estrus in sheep could be to group estrus ... Purpose of estrus synchronization in sheep. Estrus synchronization in sheep is the act of preventing ewes from cycling ... Estrus synchronization in sheep can help reduce strain on rams and provide a shorter, more consistent lambing season window to ...
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Estrus refers to a cow or heifer in standing heat or standing to be mounted. Estrous is the 21-day cycle from one estrus (heat ... Why Do Estrus Synchronization Programs Fail?. The following are the two main reasons why estrus synchronization programs fail: ... Estrus synchronization with AI in beef cattle offers the following advantages over entirely natural mating or AI without estrus ... Commonly, estrus synchronization and AI are used for one AI service, and then cleanup bulls are turned out for the remainder of ...
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This calls higher pitch produces the sound of a young doe in estrus and is very effective throughout the rut. ... This calls higher pitch produces the sound of a young doe in estrus and is very effective throughout the rut. ...
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What is postpartum estrus? Meaning of postpartum estrus medical term. What does postpartum estrus mean? ... Looking for online definition of postpartum estrus in the Medical Dictionary? postpartum estrus explanation free. ... postpartum estrus. post·par·tum es·trus. estrus with ovulation and corpus luteum production that occurs in some animals (for ... bimodal polyestry with postpartum estrus, bimodal seasonal polyestry, continuous and bimodal polyestry with postpartum estrus, ...
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... estrus in postlactational females despite their isolation from the male st ... Previous studies of the gray short-tailed opossum have shown that ovarian activity and estrus are induced by male pheromones, ... Plasma estradiol was elevated at estrus in all groups, and females that were paired with males at postlactational estrus mated ... and at estrus. Average days to UGS estrus from pup removal or initial pheromone exposure differed (P,0.05) only between the ...
... pro-oestrus explanation free. What is pro-oestrus? Meaning of pro-oestrus medical term. What does pro-oestrus mean? ... Looking for online definition of pro-oestrus in the Medical Dictionary? ... pro-oestrus. Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. pro·es·trus (prō-estrŭs) The period preceding estrus, ... Pro-oestrus , definition of pro-oestrus by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/pro-oestrus ...
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  • Wildlife Research Center Special Golden Estrus 8oz. (franksgreatoutdoors.com)
  • Special golden Estrus is collected in a unique way by bringing select whitetail does into heat early in the season through the use of hormones and lighting conditions. (franksgreatoutdoors.com)
  • Wildlife Research Center® Golden Estrus® Elk Scent Attractant uses the gold standard of scents - fresh, extra-premium cow elk estrus scent - to distract bulls and bring them in! (basspro.com)
  • Highly effective during the rut when big bulls are bugling, Golden Estrus Elk Scent features fresh, ultra premium components. (basspro.com)
  • Anybody ever use Tinks or Golden Estrus? (texashuntingforum.com)
  • Exogenous hormones and their analogues are used to manipulate the bovine estrous cycle and allow for use of estrus synchronization and artificial insemination (AI). (farms.com)
  • Since the use of Artificial Reproductive Techniques, such as Artificial Insemination and Embryo Transfer, have become more prevalent, the need for estrus synchronization in sheep is a must. (purinamills.com)
  • New systems of synchronizing estrus (heat) in cows for artificial insemination (AI) have been developed using commercially available Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH). (vt.edu)
  • and 4) in some cases, a "fertile quasi-estrus" or "fertile proestrus" that involves most or all of the endocrinological changes seen in normal proestrus and estrus as well as a fertile ovulation, but also involves a less than normal change in vaginal cytology, vulval swelling and/or receptive behavior, or even an absence of receptive behavior, with fertility only demonstrable by appropriately timed artificial insemination. (vin.com)
  • With the increased use of artificial insemination in cattle, the ability of farm staff to accurately identify and detect estrus in their cattle is crucial to successful reproductive performance. (vetstream.com)
  • estrus-synchronization agent for both natural mating and artificial insemination. (k-state.edu)
  • The presentation gives an overview of principles to remember and utilize to enhance the likelihood for estrus synchronization and artificial insemination success. (unl.edu)
  • The development of estrus synchronization protocols for beef cattle that can be used for either natural service or artificial insemination has provided greater opportunities for cattle producers to benefit from these technologies. (unl.edu)
  • Despite the widespread adoption of hormonal synchronization protocols that allow for timed artificial insemination ( TAI ), detection of behavioral estrus continues to play an important role in the overall reproductive management program on most dairies in the United States (Caraviello et al. (extension.org)
  • Cervical artificial insemination was performed 12 h after estrus onset. (scialert.net)
  • If such tissue remains functional and continues to secrete hormones, behavioral and/or physical signs of estrus in the female dog are seen. (petmd.com)
  • The history will usually include behavioral changes and signs of estrus that have occurred even after a successful surgical removal of the ovaries and uterus had been done. (petmd.com)
  • In addition to secondary signs of estrus, the stage of estrus cycle was confirmed by the presence of fluctuant Graafian Follicles and the absence of corpus luteum by rectal palpation for all animals prior to AI. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The hormones administered can also cause stronger heats that have more noticeable signs of estrus. (aces.edu)
  • Determination of the optimal insemination time in dairy cows is vital for fertilization success and is a challenging task due to silent or weak signs of estrus shown by some cows. (diva-portal.org)
  • My 11-month-old unaltered female cat shows no signs of estrus. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • If this were my kitty, even though she hasn't yet had signs of estrus I would have her spayed. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • Cows and heifers typically go into heat or estrus every 17 to 24 days (average is 21 days). (wikihow.com)
  • Characteristics of a synchronized and spontaneous estrus cycle in Brahman, Angus, and Senepol cows. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Part of a successful AI program is estrus synchronization, which typically involves administering a series of hormones to induce a group of cows or heifers to be fertile at a chosen time period, which makes it easier to determine when the cows are in heat. (aces.edu)
  • Comparative effects of early weaning or once-daily suckling on occurrence of postpartum estrus in primiparous beef cows. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To assess the interval from calving to first postpartum estrus , data of mounting activity were collected by Heat-Watch[R] mount detectors (Ddx Inc Denver, CO, USA) fitted to all cows in the study at the initiation of the experiment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fertility and Open Days and Their Relation With Associated Factors With the First Postpartum Estrus in Crossbred Dual Purpose Cows. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sorting cows into groups by BCS 90 days prior the calving season can help provide extra supplementation as well as utilizing estrus synchronization protocols to help thin cows return to estrus. (unl.edu)
  • However, an efficient, noninvasive method for detecting estrus in cows is still needed. (diva-portal.org)
  • Such cues could be used in an industrial setting to detect cows in estrus. (diva-portal.org)
  • At the website is the current recommended estrus synchronization protocols for both heifers and cows along with several resources related to understanding the estrus cycle in cattle. (unl.edu)
  • After PRID withdrawal, both heifers and cows receiving 1 PRID exhibited behavioral estrus earlier (p (unl.edu)
  • Kyoto/Neuss - Kyocera Corporation will commence research and development next month of the world's first* sensing system that can detect the onset of estrus in cows by combining a high-accuracy sensor and wireless networks. (kyocera.co.uk)
  • To address these issues, Kyocera is developing a revolutionary sensing system to detect indications of estrus in cows by combining a unique high-accuracy sensor and communications networks. (kyocera.co.uk)
  • Low semen dose intracornual insemination of cows at synchronized and spontaneous estrus. (etis.ee)
  • 2004), low number of cows expressing standing estrus (Lyimo et al. (extension.org)
  • Cows without signs of uterine disease and at least one follicle ≥ 10 mm in diameter received an intramuscular (i.m.) injection of GnRH followed by an i.m. injection of PGF 2α 7 d later to synchronize estrus (Figure 1). (extension.org)
  • therefore, understanding the physiology of the normal estrous cycle is critical to understanding estrus synchronization. (aces.edu)
  • With the help of induction of estrus and ovulation, breeding processes are much easier and, overall, fertility (conception rate) is much improved," she says. (thehorse.com)
  • Estrus is actually a result of the release in estrogen from a maturing follicle in the cow's ovaries prior to ovulation. (wikihow.com)
  • estrus with ovulation and corpus luteum production that occurs in some animals (for example, the fur seal) immediately following the birth of the young. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2008) reported that ovulation during the first postpartum estrus was seen at 6 to 12 days post partum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effect of chloroquine on estrus cycle and ovulation in cyclic rats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Traditional estrus synchronization systems only synchronized heat, not ovulation. (vt.edu)
  • Lutenizing hormone (LH) serum concentration increases approximately one to two days after the onset of oestrus and this increase initiates ovulation within 24 to 48 hours and the formation of the corpora lutea. (dpca.org)
  • Recent studies have explored novel approaches to managing the biological activity of estrus-controlling hormones, the impact they have on ovulation rates and the potential for 'fixed time' inseminations. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • The first study explores the effectiveness of synchronizing estrus in gilts and the impact it may have on ovulation rates. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Methods to improve estrus induction could impact reproduction through greater numbers and higher quality oocytes (eggs) at ovulation. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • Most techniques for inducing estrus and ovulation rely on pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG), with or without human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • The goal of this study was to determine the temporal pattern of putative sex pheromone components during estrus and to assess the reproducibility of changes in pheromone concentration with respect to ovulation time. (diva-portal.org)
  • The precise time of ovulation was determined by means of an ultrasound technique, and estrus was determined by visual observation. (diva-portal.org)
  • From the beginning of sfrous until ovulation, ultrasonography was conducted at the time of estrus, 24, 32 and 40 hours after standing estrus. (sid.ir)
  • Pelengaris S.A., Abbott D.H., Barrett J., Mocre H.D.M. (1992) Induction of Estrus and Ovulation in Female Grey Short-Tailed Opossums, Monodelphis Domestica , Involves the Main Olfactory Epithelium. (springer.com)
  • The weaning-to-estrus interval can, due to its inverse relation with length of estrus and time of ovulation, interfere with ovulation and make it asynchronous, which reduces the probability of obtaining zygotes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Oestrus ovis , the sheep bot fly , is a widespread species of fly of the genus Oestrus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Collins, C (2012), "Oestrus ovis infestation of a dog in the UK. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capelle, Kenneth J. (1966), "The Occurrence of Oestrus ovis L. in the Bighorn Sheep from Wyoming and Montana. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the first record of Oestrus ovis infestion in a dog in Italy and, at the same time, the most northerly finding of larvae of sheep bot fly in the country. (hindawi.com)
  • Oestrus ovis L. (Diptera: Oestridae), a sheep nasal bot fly, affects sheep and goats worldwide and, particularly, in areas where adult flies can be active all the year round thanks to favourable climatic conditions [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The heads of 139 slaughtered sheep were examined with the aim of determining Oestrus ovis prevalence and infestation intensity in the central region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • Com o objetivo de determinar a prevalência e intensidade de infestação por larvas de Oestrus ovis na região Central do Estado de São Paulo, 139 cabeças de ovinos obtidas de um abatedouro foram examinadas. (scielo.br)
  • Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae), the sheep nasal bot fly, is a cosmopolitan parasite whose larvae develop in the head sinuses and nasal passages of sheep and goats in all sheep-farming areas worldwide. (scielo.br)
  • A serodiagnostic test for the diagnosis of infestation by the sheep nasal bot fly, Oestrus ovis (Linné) was examined. (ovid.com)
  • Seasonal infestation of Oestrus ovis larvae in sheep heads in central region of Saudi Arabia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • During a period of 12 months, 544 sheep heads were examined for infestation with Oestrus ovis larvae in Riyadh abattoir, Central Region of Saudi Arabia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Buck Bomb Doe in Estrus contains 6.65 ounces of pure, fresh doe-in-heat urine. (bobwards.com)
  • Use Buck Bomb Doe in Estrus while in your stand or blind, or when stalking deer to create a barrier of cover scent between you and the animal. (bobwards.com)
  • The simple convenience of Buck Bomb Doe in Estrus means the end of fumbling with messy screw-top bottles of attractant scent. (bobwards.com)
  • The Buck Bomb® Doe In Estrus scent is the most effective way to get to get Estrus scent out to the big boys from a long distance. (kitterytradingpost.com)
  • The Buck Bomb Doe In Estrus is pure, fresh doe in heat urine. (kitterytradingpost.com)
  • Buck Bomb Doe In Estrus 6.65 oz.Unique attractant has a delivery rate and broadcast area that cannot be duplicated with liquids, solids or gel scent. (wholesalehunter.com)
  • There's not an easier way to lay down doe in estrus scent than with the Buck Bomb. (bowhunting.com)
  • The Doe In Estrus scent can be dispersed in short bursts from your treestand or ground blind, or locked down to fog out the entire contents. (kitterytradingpost.com)
  • The Doe In Estrus scent provides incredible cover scent, creating a barrier between you and animals approaching from downwind. (kitterytradingpost.com)
  • Wildgame Innovations Wild Estrus Burst Scent, 7 oz. (sportsmansguide.com)
  • High Octane Doe Estrus Urine by Heated Hunts is Laboratory Verified that a high density of estrus is within the bottle making the scent a TRUE Doe in Estrus Urine. (campingworld.com)
  • Examining Attorney Martha L. Fromm submitted numerous NEXIS excerpts establishing that "doe estrus" is a type of buck lure and doe scent used by deer hunters. (blogspot.com)
  • Internet web page printouts showed generic use of "doe in estrus" to refer to a type of lure or scent. (blogspot.com)
  • The Board, however, concluded that the evidence "clearly establishes that 'doe in estrus' would be recognized by the purchasing public as referring to a type or category of buck lure and doe scent, and that it is therefore generic for applicant's goods. (blogspot.com)
  • Very basically, estrus makes a mare sexually excited, whereas progesterone keeps a mare calm and "maternal. (thehorse.com)
  • Estrus synchronization in sheep is the act of preventing ewes from cycling naturally by introducing progesterone or a progesterone derivative into the vaginal vault of the ewe. (purinamills.com)
  • Once the progesterone is removed, the ewe will cycle usually within a 48-hour window creating a "synchronized" estrus. (purinamills.com)
  • While the CL is secreting progesterone, the cow does not come into estrus. (aces.edu)
  • and the estrus length and concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) in the blood were examined. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Use of deslorelin implants may also be effective for induction of estrus but has been associated with low progesterone values during diestrus and, subsequently, prolonged estrus suppression. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • It is because of such variation in "responses" to many protocols that the bitch should be carefully monitored for clinical signs including vaginal cytology and changes in vulval and vaginal morphology, as performed for any critical managed breeding, and also monitored for changes in circulating progesterone concentrators that can differentiate between a false and ovulatory estrus. (vin.com)
  • Serum oestrogen concentration during oestrus rapidly decreases and the progesterone (also produced by the ovaries) concentration increases. (dpca.org)
  • Prior to Dr. Gradil's research, many mare owners would employ the use of progesterone (the estrous cycle's dominant hormone) or oxytocin to suppress estrus. (equinechronicle.com)
  • Increasing Exogenous Progesterone during Synchronization of Estrus Dec" by M. E. Wehrman, M. S. Roberson et al. (unl.edu)
  • Progesterone is produced by the ovary when the sow is in the middle of the oestrus cycle or pregnant. (thepigsite.com)
  • In turn, the level of progesterone decreases and the estrus cycle resumes. (practicalhorsemanmag.com)
  • It has been difficult to induce estrus in miniature pigs by intramascular (i.m.) injection of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2(2alpha)) in the early luteal stage of the estrous cycle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The dopamine agonists cabergoline (5 mcg/kg/day, PO, until 2 days after onset of proestrus), metergoline (0.56-1.2 mg/kg, IM, every third day until proestrus), and bromocryptine (0.3 mg/bitch for 3 days followed by 0.6-2.5 mg per bitch for 3-6 days after onset of proestrus) are reported to induce fertile estrus in most bitches. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • However, whelping rates of 50%-84% have also been reported when eCG and hCG were used to induce estrus in bitches. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • A number of methods to induce estrus in dogs have been reported. (vin.com)
  • Male pheromonal cues alone are quite sufficient to induce behavioral estrus (Fadem, 1989). (springer.com)
  • Use of melengestrol acetate-based treatments to induce and synchronize estrus in seasonally anestrous ewes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The cow will then return to estrus (Patterson et al. (farms.com)
  • Those that had a normal weaning-to-estrus interval lost about three times fewer piglets during the week after cross-fostering and about 50% fewer piglets overall during lactation compared with their counterparts that had delayed estrous activity or failed to return to estrus after weaning. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • I have had 4 of the 13 serviced to date come into estrus and show no sign of having been mounted enough to significantly erase their chalk. (cattletoday.com)
  • If a portion of the herd is artificially synchronized, some of the remaining does also may come into estrus. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Estrous, on the other hand, is the whole reproductive heat cycle that a female goes through, from heat period to no heat period (Proestrus, Estrus, Metestrus, and Diestrus). (wikihow.com)
  • Thus, considering sex-related influences in pain response and the effects elicited by the injection of formalin into deep tissues not yet been explored by metabolic parameters, the aim of this study is to compare metabolic and hormonal changes between males rats and females rats in proestrus and estrus cycle after painful stimulus by formalin into the masseter muscle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • and 4, the administration of a dopamine agonist that provokes hypothalamic or pituitary hormone responses that lead in time to a premature but otherwise apparently natural proestrus and fertile estrus. (vin.com)
  • Proestrus is the phase of the estrus cycle when ovarian follicles develop and produce oestrogen. (dpca.org)
  • The bloody vaginal discharge apparent in proestrus usually diminishes and the vulva tends to soften in tone during oestrus. (dpca.org)
  • Estrus , also spelled Oestrus , the period in the sexual cycle of female mammals, except the higher primates, during which they are in heat- i.e., ready to accept a male and to mate. (britannica.com)
  • Likewise, success of assisted reproduction techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer require careful control of the estrous cycle to eliminate the complication of finding a recipient mare at the right stage of estrus, says Marco Antonio Alvarenga, PhD, of the Department of Animal Reproduction and Veterinary Radiology at Sao Paulo State University, in Botucatu, Brazil. (thehorse.com)
  • Some clinicians feel that a woman may regress to the estrus cycle with stimulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The first egg ovulated will not have been exposed to all the hormonal signals of a regular estrus cycle like eggs ovulated later. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The estrus cycle in the rat and it's associated phenomena. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It will regulate the entire estrus cycle and should always be given as a routine preliminary remedy in treatment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 3% was observed in the female moose smears taken at the end of the estrus cycle in autumn. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If this is done prior to her first estrus cycle - outside of eliminating the possibility of uterine infections and uterine or ovarian cancer - you're also decreasing her chances of developing mammary cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since, this anovulatory follicle become partly luteinized and then regress during the estrus cycle as does a normal corpus luteum (Hafez,1987). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Estrous is the 21-day cycle from one estrus (heat) to the next. (aces.edu)
  • The average estrous cycle, from one standing heat (estrus) to the next, is 21 days in the cow (figure 1), with a range of 18 to 24 days. (aces.edu)
  • The effect of Se on the plasma P4 concentration was assessed at each estrus cycle (Figure 5). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is no coincidence that humans and gibbons, the only primates not subject to an estrus cycle , are also the only primates that practise monogamy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Comparison of different protocols used to induced and synchronize estrus cycle of Saanen goats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The role of suboptimal preovulatory estradiol secretion in the etiology of premature luteolysis during the short estrus cycle in the cow. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Epithelial cells within the vagina undergo distinct morphologic changes throughout the estrus cycle under the influence of ovarian hormones. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Print off the farmer information sheet on The Oestrus Cycle to give to your clients. (vetstream.com)
  • Oestrus cycle in guinea pigs. (oginet.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to better characterize the changes in the canine cardiovascular system throughout the estrus cycle and pregnancy, and to determine whether fetal echocardiography can tell us information about the cardiovascular demand of large litters of puppies. (iastate.edu)
  • Twenty two cyclic female river buffalos at unknown stages of estrus cycle were selected and received norgestomet implant (Crestar, 3mg norgestomet , Intervet , Holland), with an injection of GnRH at first day of experiment. (sid.ir)
  • The bovine estrous cycle occurs over 21-day intervals, with estrus itself lasting only around 12 hours. (kyocera.co.uk)
  • For this reason, the estrus cycle is currently monitored using 24-hour surveillance cameras and acceleration sensors. (kyocera.co.uk)
  • De Winter P, Verdonck M, de Kruif A, Devriese L. The influence of the oestrus cycle on the development of endometritis and vaginal discharge in the sow after uterine inoculation of E. coli. (ugent.be)
  • Female mammals of many species have a reproductive cycle that includes a recurring period of sexual receptivity (estrus). (practicalhorsemanmag.com)
  • Oestrus is defined as the period of sexual receptivity. (dpca.org)
  • The female's genital area may be swollen during estrus, and she may show by a variety of behavioral signals that she is ready to mate. (britannica.com)
  • However, sometimes after an ovariohysterectomy, some female dogs continue to exhibit the behavioral and/or physical signs pertaining to estrus. (petmd.com)
  • Following PRID removal, animals were artificially inseminated 12 h after signs of behavioral estrus were observed. (unl.edu)
  • Manipulating estrus is essentially a game of altering hormonal balance to "trick" a mare's reproductive system into staying longer in a nonestrous phase or to bring on estrus faster and shorten its duration, our sources say. (thehorse.com)
  • Heifers have reached puberty if they have resumed normal estrus function (cycling) after calving (typically 40 days or more postcalving), are free of reproductive disorders or reproductive tract infections, and are open. (msucares.com)
  • A second resource is a webinar titled "Principles for Improving Conception Rates with Estrus Synchronization and AI" by Nebraska Extension Beef Cattle Reproductive Physiologist, Dr. Rick Funston. (unl.edu)
  • Consequently, establishment of this suckling-induced inhibition of LH and FSH secretion early in lactation is important for a normal weaning-to-estrus period and probably is one reason why there appears to be a positive correlation between the number of piglets that sows nurse at the beginning of lactation and their subsequent reproductive performance - hence, the common recommendation of "loading sows up with pigs," especially first parity sows. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • The rate of EcoHIV/NDK sexual transmission to females in estrus declined sharply ( P =0.003) but their infection by injection was unaffected, indicating that the local environment in the female reproductive tract influences susceptibility to HIV. (biologists.org)
  • Oestrus was identified by typical female reproductive behaviours, as well as by enlarged and separated vulvar lips, and a predominant proportion of superficial cornified cells, clearing of the background, and high bacterial presence in the vaginal smear. (up.ac.za)
  • Induction of estrus by prostaglandin F2alpha administration in the vaginal vestibules of miniature pigs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results suggest that in miniature pigs, administration of at least 3.0 mg of PGF2alpha is required for the induction of luteolysis and injection of PGF2alpha into the vaginal vestibule is a useful method of estrus induction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Vaginal cytology during estrus is characterized by a predominance of superficial cells, no WBCs, rare RBCs, and often large amounts of bacteria in the background. (dpca.org)
  • Simonsiellaspp were identified by their characteristic morphology in 58% (60 of 103) of the vaginal samples collected during oestrus. (up.ac.za)
  • Additionally, Simonsiellaspp were opportunistically found in a vaginal smear from a zoo housed female Sri Lankan leopard in oestrus, during a routine reproduction assessment. (up.ac.za)
  • There can be many reasons to synchronize estrus in sheep. (purinamills.com)
  • Other reasons to synchronize estrus in sheep could be to group estrus to reduce strain on your ram battery, tighten the lambing season to reduce labor over a long period or even to bring the ewes into heat at an earlier time for breeding and thus getting lambs for a certain time period. (purinamills.com)
  • There are many things during lactation that can affect weaning-to-estrus intervals including feed intake, loss of body condition and season. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • If this doesn't happen, then delayed weaning-to-estrus intervals or even anestrus can occur. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • In a recent study, changes in the number of pigs nursing during each week of lactation were examined in relation to subsequent weaning-to-estrus intervals. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
  • This retrospective study compared the effects of three weaning-to-estrus intervals of 3, 4 or 5 days on zygote collection efficiency in a total of 17 trials over a 3-year period including 223 sows. (diva-portal.org)
  • The weaning-to-estrus intervals did not affect the in vitro developmental ability of zygotes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Natural Doe Urine with Estrus Secretions. (franksgreatoutdoors.com)
  • A super fresh, premium whitetail doe in estrus urine collected, bottled and dated, then shipped to you at the height of its potency. (franksgreatoutdoors.com)
  • High Octane Doe Estrus Urine is collected in small quantities and sent to a lab to verify their levels. (campingworld.com)
  • At Kishel's we take great pride in providing our customers with the highest grade of Estrus Urine available on the market. (kishelscents.com)
  • I have been documenting their cycles all fall to prepare me for when to suspect the onset of estrus. (cattletoday.com)
  • The onset of diestrus is defined behaviourally as the first day of refusal of the male for breeding, and cytologically as the first day of an apparent change from a predominance of the superficial cells of estrus to as little as 20% superficial cells, with a concomitant increase in Para basal cells. (dpca.org)
  • Collected structures during laparotomy on Day 2 (Day 0: onset of estrus) were morphologically evaluated and only those with a single cell and two visible polar bodies were considered as zygotes. (diva-portal.org)
  • In experiments with 67 cats of various breeds (mainly European shorthair) treatment with D-norgestrel (Levonnorgestrel) crystal suspension successfully suppressed oestrus for at least 8 weeks, following two i/m injections at 3-week intervals. (eurekamag.com)
  • The estrus was induced in cent per cent of buffaloes in the Gr-I and Gr-II with mean estrus induction intervals of 2.17 0.06 and 2.03 0.05 days, respectively. (scopemed.org)
  • Proper nutrition is key for successful estrus synchronization in sheep. (purinamills.com)
  • The end result of a successful estrus synchronization and AI program early in the breeding season is a more consistent, uniform calf crop that is older and heavier at weaning because of the increased growth time as is shown in Table 1. (aces.edu)
  • In performance mares owners might prefer to delay estrus to avoid its undesirable behavior aspects, says Robyn Ellerbrock, DVM, PhD, Dipl. (thehorse.com)
  • Dr Madeleine Campbell, Dr Mandi de Mestre , Professor Ken Smith, Daniel Hampshire, Dr Belinda Rose and Lauren Hamstead have recently published the results of their HBLB funded work on the development of a welfare-friendly, ethical method of oestrus suppression for mares. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Their findings have relevance to clinicians as they suggest that intrauterine infusion of peanut oil, contrary to a previous report, is not a reliable method of oestrus suppression in all mares. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • During this time, mares ovulate every 21 days and are in estrus for five to seven days. (practicalhorsemanmag.com)
  • Previous studies of the gray short-tailed opossum have shown that ovarian activity and estrus are induced by male pheromones, but we recently documented urogenital sinus (UGS) estrus in postlactational females despite their isolation from the male stimuli known to be associated with induced estrus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Prenatal exposure to the phytoestrogen daidzein resulted in persistent changes in ovarian surface epithelial cell height, folliculogenesis, and estrus phase length in adult Sprague-Dawley rat offspring. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Ovarian inactivity - may be normal seasonal absence of estrus, especially in autumn and early winter. (vetstream.com)
  • Several challenges for estrous detection on farms include attenuation of the duration of estrous behavior associated with increased milk production near the time of estrus resulting in shorter periods of time in which to visually detect estrous behavior (Lopez et al. (extension.org)
  • A variety of medications, supplements and procedures are available to suppress or eliminate estrus, ensuring little to no change in a mare's temperament and behavior throughout the year as well as consistency in performance during training and competition. (practicalhorsemanmag.com)
  • Estrus synchronization in sheep can help reduce strain on rams and provide a shorter, more consistent lambing season window to increase efficiency and reduce labor. (purinamills.com)
  • Synchronization has been utilized successfully in sheep for many years, but there are some important details that can assist in a stronger estrus and a higher conception rate. (purinamills.com)
  • A trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of FGA (Fluorogestone acetate) and CIDR (Controlled internal drug release) on the induction of estrus and pregnancy and fecundity rates of the Sanjabi and Lori sheep. (scialert.net)
  • Below are the steps that describe the physiological steps of how estrus occurs in female bovines, and how to detect a cow or heifer that is in heat. (wikihow.com)
  • This type of surgery results in the cessation of subsequent estrus (heat) symptoms in the female. (petmd.com)
  • Breeding timing refers to the purposeful timing of insemination during the estrus (heat) period in order to maximize fertility and the chances. (petmd.com)
  • Estrus refers to a cow or heifer in standing heat or standing to be mounted. (aces.edu)
  • Estrus in cattle is commonly referred to as heat. (msucares.com)
  • It suppresses oestrus in the non pregnant female if it is given daily and when it is removed the sow or gilt will come into heat. (thepigsite.com)
  • PG600 is used to stimulate gilts that have failed to show oestrus but in such cases it is not uncommon for only 50% to respond, and come into heat. (thepigsite.com)
  • General-purpose aerosol tail paint and marker for detection of oestrus. (enasco.com)
  • The next graph shows that the efficiency of estrus detection depends on the skill of the farmer in his use of the system. (afimilk.com)
  • Estrus synchronization with AI in beef cattle offers the following advantages over entirely natural mating or AI without estrus synchronization. (aces.edu)
  • To delay estrus, treatment with megestrol acetate (0.55 mg/kg/day, PO, for 32 days) is begun in late anestrus (up to a few weeks before estrus is expected). (merckvetmanual.com)
  • fertility should be normal by the second estrus after treatment. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • 79 percent of gilts mated at first estrus and 76 percent of those mated at second estrus mated within 30 days postweaning of first litter for production of a second litter. (oregonstate.edu)
  • 05) between gilts initially mated at first versus second estrus. (oregonstate.edu)
  • 05). There was no association between breeding weight of those bred at second estrus and second-parity litter traits. (oregonstate.edu)
  • when significant, they tended to be positive for dams initially mated at first estrus and negative for those initially mated at second estrus. (oregonstate.edu)
  • As the "bread and butter" of deer hunters everywhere during the whitetail rut, Buck Bomb Doe 'N Estrus has been responsible for countless buck kills and encounters in the past two decades. (bobwards.com)
  • Estrus is a term used to describe this period of intense sexual activity Whitetail Doe go through yearly which also coincides with the Rut. (kishelscents.com)
  • Evidence for spontaneous postlactational estrus in gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2009). For more information on product considerations or usage in estrus synchronization protocols, visit beefrepro.unl.edu. (farms.com)
  • UNL has many resources listed on the Beef Reproduction website such as the "Estrus Synchronization Planner" that has been developed and maintained by Iowa State University to help plan and schedule protocols as well as UNL's own "Breeding Cost Cow-Q-Later " to help make financial decisions on the most economical protocol for your herd. (unl.edu)
  • Now is a good time to review estrus synchronization protocols and develop a plan for this year. (unl.edu)
  • For most producers the spring breeding season is still a ways off, but now is a good time to review estrus synchronization protocols and develop a plan for this year. (unl.edu)
  • Induction of estrus in non-lactating dairy goats with different estrous synchrony protocols. (semanticscholar.org)
  • You can't beat the "quivering" Estrus Bleat that has made "THE CAN" family of calls so accurate and effective. (farmandhomesupply.com)
  • After treatment, estrus is seen in 2-9 mo (typically 5-6 mo), and fertility is not affected. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Extended-release implants of deslorelin can suppress estrus for >1 yr in bitches without apparent adverse effects and with full return to fertility. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Many methods have been proposed, but repeatability is low and fertility of the induced estrus is variable. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Estrus induction in the bitch before endometrial involution is complete (135 days after the most recent estrus) can result in reduced fertility. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Estradiol was measured by RIA in plasma samples collected from dams during lactation, after separation from pups, and at estrus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Plasma estradiol was elevated at estrus in all groups, and females that were paired with males at postlactational estrus mated and produced litters. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Fadem, B.H., 1989, The effects of pheromonal stimuli on estrus and peripheral plasma estradiol in female grey short-tailed opossums ( Monodelphis domestica) Biol. (springer.com)
  • The interval for occurrence of first postpartum estrus was recorded for all animals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A connection between occurrence of these bacteria and oestrus was apparent. (up.ac.za)
  • The females were inseminated with frozen semen, after rectal examination to confirm oestrus, or on the 3rd or 4th day after PGF2 alpha treatment. (eurekamag.com)
  • Anyone who has used an estrus synchronization protocol knows that timing is critical and keeping track of dates of injections can be the difference between success or a lot of wasted money. (unl.edu)
  • This free Excel® spreadsheet tool can be utilized to help identify the best estrus synchronization protocol based on desired goals. (unl.edu)
  • The planner also provides a detailed calendar with the correct products to use along with dates and times based on the selected estrus synchronization protocol. (unl.edu)
  • Correctly following an estrus synchronization protocol is critical to success. (unl.edu)
  • 1. The estrus cycles have tended to be long. (cattletoday.com)
  • The majority of investigators confirm the appearance of estrus cycles in female moose during the rutting period, which usually occurs from the end of September to the end of October (Knorre 1959, Kheruvimov 1986, Kozhukhov 1989, Schwartz and Hundertmark 1993). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The animal although exhibited postpartum estrus , became a chronic repeat breeder and conceived after 7-8 cycles and delivered a normal male calf subsequently 20 months later. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Experiments evaluated estrus synchronization and periconceptual supplementation on pregnancy rate and calf production. (unl.edu)
  • An experiment was conducted to compare plasma growth hormone, insulin, glucose, and free fatty acid concentrations in Clun Forest ewe lambs (n=6) and ewes (n=5) during oestrus (Day 0) and early pregnancy. (aber.ac.uk)
  • However, overall mean insulin concentrations were higher during oestrus and early pregnancy in ewes (ranges of 0.15±0.04-0.97±0.12 μg/l) compared with ewe lambs (range of 0.06±0-0.78±0.21 μg/l) (P0.05). (aber.ac.uk)
  • These results indicate that hormone (insulin) and metabolite (free fatty acid and glucose) profiles differ during oestrus and early pregnancy in ewe lambs and ewes maintained under identical conditions. (aber.ac.uk)
  • A third resource that is extremely helpful is the Estrus Synchronization Planner developed and maintained by the Iowa Beef Center . (unl.edu)
  • Oestrus duration is typically from seven to nine days, but may range from 3 to 21 days. (dpca.org)
  • 05) between gilts from the two groups for age or weight on experiment, age or weight at breeding, weight at 110 days of gestation at first or at second parity, or in weight at weaning of first-parity litters, weight loss during first lactation, weaning-to-estrus interval, or in conception percentage following first lactation. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Weaning-to-estrus interval was shorter in sows supplemented with oregano compared to other treatments, and farrowing rate was greater in sows supplemented with either chlortetracycline or oregano compared to untreated sows. (aasv.org)
  • In conclusion, the results indicate that neither the efficiency of collecting in vivo derived porcine zygotes from superovulated sows nor the zygote ability to develop to blastocyst after cytoplasmic genome-editing injection were affected by a weaning-to-estrus interval between 3-to-5 days. (diva-portal.org)
  • SHOP » HUNTING » LURES & SCENTS » LURES » HUNTERS SPECIALTIES PREMIUM DOE ESTRUS 2OZ. (vanceoutdoors.com)
  • Hence, the Board found DOE IN ESTRUS to be generic for "buck lures and doe scents used in hunting," and it affirmed a refusal to register on the Supplemental Register. (blogspot.com)
  • This study demonstrates that gray short-tailed opossums consistently experience estrus within 2 wk of weaning their young and that postlactational estrus appears to be hormonally and behaviorally equivalent to estrus induced by direct exposure to male pheromones. (biomedsearch.com)
  • of miniature pigs, and examined the effect of these treatments on estrus induction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Scientists have developed drugs to manipulate estrus, using equine hormones, hormones from other species, and synthetic variations of these hormones. (thehorse.com)
  • How are GnRH systems different from other estrus synchronization systems? (vt.edu)
  • Induction of estrus with GnRH analogues continues to be investigated. (merckvetmanual.com)