The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
(9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
A biologically active 5-alpha-reduced metabolite of plasma PROGESTERONE. It is the immediate precursor of 5-alpha-pregnan-3-alpha-ol-20-one (ALLOPREGNANOLONE), a neuroactive steroid that binds with GABA(A) RECEPTOR.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
A 6-methyl PROGESTERONE acetate with reported glucocorticoid activity and effect on ESTRUS.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An enzymes that catalyzes the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-alpha-hydroxysteroids, such as from PROGESTERONE to 20-ALPHA-DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Pregnane derivatives containing two double bonds anywhere within the ring structures.
An organophosphate insecticide that inhibits monoamine oxidase and acetylcholinesterase. It has been shown to be genotoxic.
Carrier proteins for OXYTOCIN and VASOPRESSIN. They are polypeptides of about 10-kDa, synthesized in the HYPOTHALAMUS. Neurophysin I is associated with oxytocin and neurophysin II is associated with vasopressin in their respective precursors and during transportation down the axons to the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR).
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic insecticide, an acaricide, and nematocide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.
Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.
Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.
Sexual activities of animals.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estradiol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate DNA transcription.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.
Cell surface proteins that bind oxytocin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Oxytocin receptors in the uterus and the mammary glands mediate the hormone's stimulation of contraction and milk ejection. The presence of oxytocin and oxytocin receptors in neurons of the brain probably reflects an additional role as a neurotransmitter.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Chemical compounds causing LUTEOLYSIS or degeneration.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
A hexosiminidase that specifically hydrolyzes terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminides.
Early pregnancy loss during the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN stage of development. In the human, this period comprises the second through eighth week after fertilization.
Inbred ICR mice are a strain of albino laboratory mice that have been selectively bred for consistent genetic makeup and high reproductive performance, making them widely used in biomedical research for studies involving reproduction, toxicology, pharmacology, and carcinogenesis.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.
Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
The species Delphinapterus leucas, in the family Monodontidae, found primarily in the Arctic Ocean and adjoining seas. They are small WHALES lacking a dorsal fin.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
A mixture of three different hydrogenated derivatives of ERGOTAMINE: DIHYDROERGOCORNINE; DIHYDROERGOCRISTINE; and DIHYDROERGOCRYPTINE. Dihydroergotoxine has been proposed to be a neuroprotective agent and a nootropic agent. The mechanism of its therapeutic actions is not clear, but it can act as an alpha-adrenergic antagonist and a dopamine agonist. The methanesulfonate salts of this mixture of alkaloids are called ERGOLOID MESYLATES.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivatives, having an approximate overall empirical formula of C10-H10-Cl8. It is used as an insecticide and may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.
Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)
Phenoxyacetates are a group of herbicides, including 2,4-D and MCPA, that function by mimicking the plant hormone auxin, causing unregulated growth and eventual death of susceptible plants.
Middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, the TUBER CINEREUM and the PITUITARY GLAND.
Liquid components of living organisms.
An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Intercellular signaling peptides that were originally characterized by their ability to suppress NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Kisspeptins have since been found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of REPRODUCTION.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.
Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
An anabolic steroid used mainly as an anabolic agent in veterinary practice.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.

Differentiation of dominant versus subordinate follicles in cattle. (1/975)

Selection of a dominant follicle, capable of ovulating, from among a cohort of similarly sized follicles is a critical transition in follicular development. The mechanisms that regulate the selection of a species-specific number of dominant follicles for ovulation are not well understood. Cattle provide a very useful animal model for studies on follicular selection and dominance. During the bovine estrous cycle, two or three sequential waves of follicular development occur, each producing a dominant follicle capable of ovulating if luteal regression occurs. Follicles are large enough to allow analysis of multiple endpoints within a single follicle, and follicular development and regression can be followed via ultrasonographic imaging. Characteristics of recruited and selected follicles, obtained at various times during the first follicular wave, have been determined in some studies, whereas dominant and subordinate follicles have been compared around the time of selection in others. As follicular recruitment proceeds, mRNA for P450 aromatase increases. By the time of morphological selection, the dominant follicle has much higher concentrations of estradiol in follicular fluid, and its granulosa cells produce more estradiol in vitro than cells from subordinate follicles. Shortly after selection, dominant follicles have higher levels of mRNAs for gonadotropin receptors and steroidogenic enzymes. It has been hypothesized that granulosa cells of the selected follicle acquire LH receptors (LHr) to allow them to increase aromatization in response to LH, as well as FSH. However, LH does not appear to stimulate estradiol production by bovine granulosa cells, and the role of LHr acquisition remains to be determined. Recent evidence suggests a key role for changes in the intrafollicular insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in selection of the dominant follicle. When follicular fluid was sampled in vivo before morphological selection, the lowest concentration of IGF binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) was more predictive of future dominance than size or estradiol concentration. Consistent with this finding, dominant follicles acquire an FSH-induced IGFBP-4 protease activity. Thus, a decrease in IGFBP-4, which would make more IGF available to interact with its receptors and synergize with FSH to promote follicular growth and aromatization, appears to be a critical determinant of follicular selection for dominance.  (+info)

Cellular turnover in the mammary gland is correlated with systemic levels of progesterone and not 17beta-estradiol during the estrous cycle. (2/975)

Adult mammary tissue has been considered "resting" with minimal morphological change. Here, we reveal the dynamic nature of the nulliparous murine mammary gland. We demonstrate specific changes at the morphological and cellular levels, and uncover their relationship with the murine estrous cycle and physiological levels of steroid hormones. Differences in the numbers of higher-order epithelial branches and alveolar development led to extensive mouse-to-mouse mammary variations. Morphology (assigned grades 0-3) ranged from a complete lack of alveoli to the presence of numerous alveoli emanating from branches. Morphological changes were driven by epithelial proliferation and apoptosis, which differed between ductal versus alveolar structures. Proliferation within alveolar epithelium increased as morphological grade increased. Extensive alveolar apoptosis was restricted to tissue exhibiting grade 3 morphology, and was approximately 14-fold higher than at all other grades. Epithelial proliferation and apoptosis exhibited a positive relationship with serum levels of progesterone, but not with 17beta-estradiol. Compared with other estrous stages, diestrus was unique in that the morphological grade, epithelial proliferation, apoptosis, and progesterone levels all peaked at this stage. The regulated tissue remodeling of the mammary gland was orchestrated with mRNA changes in specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and MMP-13) and specific tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-3 and TIMP-4). We propose that the cyclical turnover of epithelial cells within the adult mammary tissue is a sum of spatial and functional coordination of hormonal and matrix regulatory factors.  (+info)

Effects of second messengers on gap junctional intercellular communication of ovine luteal cells throughout the estrous cycle. (3/975)

Corpora lutea (CL) from Days 5, 10, and 15 after superovulation were enzymatically dispersed, and a portion of the cells were elutriated to obtain fractions enriched with small or large luteal cells. Mixed, small, and large luteal cell fractions were incubated with no treatment or with agonists or antagonists of cAMP (dbcAMP or Rp-cAMPS), protein kinase C (PKC; TPA or H-7), or calcium (A23187, EGTA, or A23187 + EGTA). The rate of contact-dependent gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) was evaluated by laser cytometry. Media were collected for progesterone (P(4)) radioimmunoassay, and luteal cells cultured with no treatment were fixed for immunocytochemistry or frozen for Western blot analysis. Luteal cells from each stage of the estrous cycle exhibited GJIC. The dbcAMP increased (P < 0.05) GJIC for all cell types across the estrous cycle. The Rp-cAMPS decreased (P < 0.05) GJIC for small luteal cells on Day 5 and for all cell types on Days 10 and 15. The TPA inhibited (P < 0.01), but H-7 did not affect, GJIC for all cell types across the estrous cycle. The A23187 decreased (P < 0.05) GJIC for large luteal cells touching only small or only large luteal cells, whereas A23187 + EGTA decreased (P < 0.05) GJIC for all cell types across the estrous cycle. For the mixed and large luteal cell fractions, dbcAMP increased (P < 0.05), but TPA and A23187 + EGTA decreased (P < 0.05), P(4) secretion. The A23187 alone decreased (P < 0.05) P(4) secretion by large, but not by mixed, luteal cells. For all days and cell types, the rate of GJIC and P(4) secretion were correlated (r = 0.113-0.249; P < 0.01). Connexin 43 was detected in cultured luteal cells by immunofluorescence and Western immunoblotting. Thus, intracellular regulators like cAMP, PKC, or calcium appear to regulate GJIC, which probably is an important mechanism for coordinating function of the ovine CL.  (+info)

Muc-1, integrin, and osteopontin expression during the implantation cascade in sheep. (4/975)

The extracellular matrix protein osteopontin (OPN) is a component of histotroph that increases in uterine flushings from pregnant ewes during the peri-implantation period and is localized on the apical surfaces of the uterine luminal epithelium (LE) and conceptus trophectoderm (Tr). The potential involvement of OPN in the implantation adhesion cascade in sheep was investigated by examining temporal, spatial, and potential functional relationships between OPN, Muc-1, and integrin subunits during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Immunoreactive Muc-1 was highly expressed at the apical surfaces of uterine luminal (LE) and glandular epithelium (GE) in both cycling and pregnant ewes but was decreased dramatically on LE by Day 9 and was nearly undetectable by Day 17 of pregnancy when intimate contact between LE and Tr begins. In contrast, integrin subunits alpha(v), alpha(4), alpha(5), beta(1), beta(3), and beta(5) were constitutively expressed on conceptus Tr and at the apical surface of uterine LE and GE in both cyclic and early pregnant ewes. The apical expression of these subunits could contribute to the apical assembly of several OPN receptors including the alpha(v)beta(3), alpha(v)beta(1), alpha(v)beta(5), alpha(4)beta(1), and alpha(5)beta(1) heterodimers on endometrial LE and GE, and conceptus Tr in sheep. Functional analysis of potential OPN interactions with conceptus and endometrial integrins was performed on LE and Tr cells in vitro using beads coated with OPN, poly-L-lysine, or recombinant OPN in which the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence was replaced with RGE or RAD. Transmembrane accumulation of talin or alpha-actinin at the apical surface of uterine LE and conceptus Tr cells in contact with OPN-coated beads revealed functional integrin activation and cytoskeletal reorganization in response to OPN binding. These results provide a physiological framework for the role of OPN, a potential mediator of implantation in sheep, as a bridge between integrin heterodimers expressed by Tr and uterine LE responsible for adhesion for initial conceptus attachment.  (+info)

Interferon regulatory factor-two restricts expression of interferon-stimulated genes to the endometrial stroma and glandular epithelium of the ovine uterus. (5/975)

Interferon tau (IFNtau) is the signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminants. The positive effects of IFNtau on IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression are mediated by ISG factor 3 (ISGF3), which is composed of signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 1, Stat 2, and IFN regulatory factor-9 (IRF-9), and by gamma-activated factor (GAF), which is a Stat 1 homodimer. Induction of ISGs, such as ISG17 and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, by IFNtau during pregnancy is limited to the endometrial stroma (S) and glandular epithelium (GE) of the ovine uterus. The IRF-2, a potent transcriptional repressor of ISG expression, is expressed in the luminal epithelium (LE). This study determined effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy, and IFNtau on expression of Stat 1, Stat 2, IRF-9, IRF-1, and IRF-2 genes in the ovine endometrium. In cyclic ewes, Stat 1, Stat 2, IRF-1, and IRF-9 mRNA and protein were detected at low levels in the S and GE. During pregnancy, expression of these genes increased only in the S and GE. Expression of IRF-2 was detected only in the LE and superficial GE (sGE) of both cyclic and pregnant ewes. In cyclic ewes, intrauterine administration of IFNtau stimulated Stat 1, Stat 2, IRF-9, and IRF-1 expression in the endometrium. Ovine IRF-2 repressed transcriptional activity driven by IFN-stimulated response elements that bind ISGF3, but not by gamma-activation sequences that bind GAF. These results suggest that IRF-2 in the LE and sGE restricts IFNtau induction of ISGs to the S and GE. In the S and GE, IFNtau hyperactivation of ISG expression likely involves formation and actions of the transcription factors ISGF3 and, perhaps, IRF-1.  (+info)

Disparate effects of estradiol on egg transport and oviductal protein synthesis in mated and cyclic rats. (6/975)

Previously, we found that the dose of estradiol (E2) required to accelerate egg transport increases 5- to 10-fold, in mated compared to cyclic rats. Here we examined protein synthesis in the oviduct of mated and cyclic rats following a single injection of E2 known to accelerate oviductal egg transport or after concomitant treatment with progesterone (P4) known to block this acceleration. On Day 1 of the cycle or pregnancy, E2, P4, or E2 + P4 were injected s.c., and 4 h later oviducts were removed and incubated for 8 h in medium with 35S-methionine. Tissue proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE, and protein bands were quantitated by fluorography and densitometry. In mated rats, E2 and P4 increased different protein bands and P4 did not affect the fluorographic pattern induced by E2. In contrast with mated rats, none of these treatments changed the fluorographic pattern of the oviductal proteins in cyclic rats. Estradiol-induced egg transport acceleration was then compared under conditions in which oviductal protein synthesis was suppressed. Mated and cyclic rats treated with equipotent doses of E2 for accelerating egg transport also received actinomycin D (Act D) locally. Estradiol-induced oviductal egg loss was partially blocked by Act D in mated but had no effect in cyclic rats. We conclude that the oviduct of mated and cyclic rats differs in that only the former responds with increased protein synthesis to a pulse of exogenous E2 and P4 and requires an intact protein synthesis machinery in order to accelerate egg transport in response to E2.  (+info)

Acceleration of oviductal transport of oocytes induced by estradiol in cycling rats is mediated by nongenomic stimulation of protein phosphorylation in the oviduct. (7/975)

In order to explore nongenomic actions of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) in the oviduct, we determined the effect of E2 and P4 on oviductal protein phosphorylation. Rats on Day 1 of the cycle (C1) or pregnancy (P1) were treated with E2, P4, or E2 + P4, and 0.5 h or 2.5 h later their oviducts were incubated in medium with 32P-orthophosphate for 2 h. Oviducts were homogenized and proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. Following autoradiography, protein bands were quantitated by densitometry. The phosphorylation of some proteins was increased by hormonal treatments, exhibiting steroid specificity and different individual time courses. Possible mediation of the E2 effect by mRNA synthesis or protein kinases A (PK-A) or C (PK-C) was then examined. Rats on C1 treated with E2 also received an intrabursal (i.b.) injection of alpha-amanitin (Am), or the PK inhibitors H-89 or GF 109203X, and 0.5 h later their oviducts were incubated as above plus the corresponding inhibitors in the medium. Increased incorporation of 32P into total oviductal protein induced by E2 was unchanged by Am, whereas it was completely suppressed by PK inhibitors. Local administration of H-89 was utilized to determine whether or not E2-induced egg transport acceleration requires protein phosphorylation. Rats on C1 or P1 were treated with E2 s.c. and H-89 i.b. The number and distribution of eggs in the genital tract assessed 24 h later showed that H-89 blocked the E2-induced oviductal egg loss in cyclic rats and had no effect in mated rats. It is concluded that E2 and P4 change the pattern of oviductal protein phosphorylation. Estradiol increases oviductal protein phosphorylation in cyclic rats due to a nongenomic action mediated by PK-A and PK-C. In the absence of mating, this action is essential for its oviductal transport accelerating effect. Mating changes the mechanism of action of E2 in the oviduct by waiving this nongenomic action as a requirement for E2-induced embryo transport acceleration.  (+info)

Growth hormone and fertility in oMt1a-oGH transgenic mice. (8/975)

Female mice carrying a regulatable growth hormone transgene (oMt1a-oGH) are subfertile when the transgene is actively expressed. This study was designed to characterize subfertility caused by increased concentrations of growth hormone. In particular, this study aimed to: (i) determine the effects of transgene activation and inactivation on mating, conception, maintenance of pregnancy, ovulation rate, litter characteristics and embryonic survival at day 17 of pregnancy, (ii) characterize oestrous cyclicity in transgenic versus wild-type female mice, and (iii) correlate corticosterone concentrations with transgene expression and reproductive performance. Transgenic and wild-type female mice were allocated randomly to one of four treatment groups at weaning: (i) transgenic female mice that always express the transgene, (ii) transgenic female mice that never express the transgene, (iii) transgenic female mice that express the transgene for up to 8 weeks of age and (iv) non-transgenic wild-type female mice receiving the transgene stimulus until 8 weeks of age. Activation followed by inactivation of the transgene resulted in an increased incidence of remating, resulting in an extended interval to establish pregnancy in comparison with all other treatment groups. Transgenic mice that always expressed the transgene and those that expressed the transgene for up to 8 weeks of age had lower pregnancy rates and higher ovulation rates compared with mice from other treatment groups. Both embryonic survival and the duration of the oestrous cycle did not differ among treatment groups. Active expression of the transgene resulted in an increase in the plasma concentration of corticosterone, which was associated with reduced fertility. These data indicate that the presence of a high growth hormone concentration impedes the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Increased plasma corticosterone concentrations may interfere with implantation as well as potentiate leptin resistance, which has been reported previously in studies with these mice.  (+info)

The estrous cycle is the reproductive cycle in certain mammals, characterized by regular changes in the reproductive tract and behavior, which are regulated by hormonal fluctuations. It is most commonly observed in non-primate mammals such as dogs, cats, cows, pigs, and horses.

The estrous cycle consists of several stages:

1. Proestrus: This stage lasts for a few days and is characterized by the development of follicles in the ovaries and an increase in estrogen levels. During this time, the female may show signs of sexual receptivity, but will not allow mating to occur.
2. Estrus: This is the period of sexual receptivity, during which the female allows mating to take place. It typically lasts for a few days and is marked by a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which triggers ovulation.
3. Metestrus: This stage follows ovulation and is characterized by the formation of a corpus luteum, a structure that produces progesterone to support pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum will eventually regress, leading to the next phase.
4. Diestrus: This is the final stage of the estrous cycle and can last for several weeks or months. During this time, the female's reproductive tract returns to its resting state, and she is not sexually receptive. If pregnancy has occurred, the corpus luteum will continue to produce progesterone until the placenta takes over this function later in pregnancy.

It's important to note that the human menstrual cycle is different from the estrous cycle. While both cycles involve hormonal fluctuations and changes in the reproductive tract, the menstrual cycle includes a shedding of the uterine lining (menstruation) if fertilization does not occur, which is not a feature of the estrous cycle.

Estrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the physiological and behavioral state of female mammals that are ready to mate and conceive. It refers to the period of time when the female's reproductive system is most receptive to fertilization.

During estrus, the female's ovaries release one or more mature eggs (ovulation) into the fallopian tubes, where they can be fertilized by sperm from a male. This phase of the estrous cycle is often accompanied by changes in behavior and physical appearance, such as increased vocalization, restlessness, and swelling of the genital area.

The duration and frequency of estrus vary widely among different species of mammals. In some animals, such as dogs and cats, estrus occurs regularly at intervals of several weeks or months, while in others, such as cows and mares, it may only occur once or twice a year.

It's important to note that the term "estrus" is not used to describe human reproductive physiology. In humans, the equivalent phase of the menstrual cycle is called ovulation.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

The cell cycle is a series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication. It consists of four main phases: G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, and M phase.

During the G1 phase, the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for DNA replication. In the S phase, the cell's DNA is copied, resulting in two complete sets of chromosomes. During the G2 phase, the cell continues to grow and produces more proteins and organelles necessary for cell division.

The M phase is the final stage of the cell cycle and consists of mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division). Mitosis results in two genetically identical daughter nuclei, while cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm and creates two separate daughter cells.

The cell cycle is regulated by various checkpoints that ensure the proper completion of each phase before progressing to the next. These checkpoints help prevent errors in DNA replication and division, which can lead to mutations and cancer.

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after an oocyte (egg) has been released from a follicle during ovulation. It's formed by the remaining cells of the ruptured follicle, which transform into large, hormone-secreting cells.

The primary function of the corpus luteum is to produce progesterone and, to a lesser extent, estrogen during the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for potential implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will typically degenerate and stop producing hormones after approximately 10-14 days, leading to menstruation.

However, if pregnancy occurs, the developing embryo starts to produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which signals the corpus luteum to continue secreting progesterone and estrogen until the placenta takes over hormonal production, usually around the end of the first trimester.

Diestrus is a stage in the estrous cycle of animals, which is similar to the menstrual cycle in humans. It follows the phase of estrus (or heat), during which the animal is receptive to mating. Diestrus is the period of relative sexual quiescence and hormonal stability between cycles. In this phase, the corpus luteum in the ovary produces progesterone, preparing the uterus for potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a drop in progesterone levels and the onset of the next estrous cycle. The duration of diestrus varies among species.

In humans, this phase is analogous to the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. However, since humans do not exhibit estrous behavior, the term 'diestrus' is typically not used in human reproductive physiology discussions.

Proestrus is a stage in the estrous cycle of animals, specifically referring to the phase preceding estrus (heat) during which follicle development and estrogen production occur. It is characterized by the swelling of the vulva and the onset of behaviors indicating readiness to mate, although the animal is not yet receptive to males. This stage typically lasts around 2-13 days, depending on the species. In humans, this equivalent phase does not exist due to menstrual cycles rather than estrous cycles.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

"Animal pregnancy" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, in biological terms, animal pregnancy refers to the condition where a fertilized egg (or eggs) implants and develops inside the reproductive tract of a female animal, leading to the birth of offspring (live young).

The specific details of animal pregnancy can vary widely between different species, with some animals exhibiting phenomena such as placental development, gestation periods, and hormonal changes that are similar to human pregnancy, while others may have very different reproductive strategies.

It's worth noting that the study of animal pregnancy and reproduction is an important area of biological research, as it can provide insights into fundamental mechanisms of embryonic development, genetics, and evolution.

Ovulation is the medical term for the release of a mature egg from an ovary during a woman's menstrual cycle. The released egg travels through the fallopian tube where it may be fertilized by sperm if sexual intercourse has occurred recently. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break down and leave the body along with the uterine lining during menstruation. Ovulation typically occurs around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle, but the timing can vary widely from woman to woman and even from cycle to cycle in the same woman.

During ovulation, there are several physical changes that may occur in a woman's body, such as an increase in basal body temperature, changes in cervical mucus, and mild cramping or discomfort on one side of the lower abdomen (known as mittelschmerz). These symptoms can be used to help predict ovulation and improve the chances of conception.

It's worth noting that some medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or premature ovarian failure, may affect ovulation and make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote ovulation and increase the chances of conception.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Dinoprost is a synthetic form of prostaglandin F2α, which is a naturally occurring hormone-like substance in the body. It is used in veterinary medicine as a uterotonic agent to induce labor and abortion in various animals such as cows and pigs. In human medicine, it may be used off-label for similar purposes, but its use must be under the close supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and risks.

It is important to note that Dinoprost is not approved by the FDA for use in humans, and its availability may vary depending on the country or region. Always consult with a licensed healthcare professional before using any medication, including Dinoprost.

An ovarian follicle is a fluid-filled sac in the ovary that contains an immature egg or ovum (oocyte). It's a part of the female reproductive system and plays a crucial role in the process of ovulation.

Ovarian follicles start developing in the ovaries during fetal development, but only a small number of them will mature and release an egg during a woman's reproductive years. The maturation process is stimulated by hormones like follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

There are different types of ovarian follicles, including primordial, primary, secondary, and tertiary or Graafian follicles. The Graafian follicle is the mature follicle that ruptures during ovulation to release the egg into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm.

It's important to note that abnormal growth or development of ovarian follicles can lead to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and ovarian cancer.

The endometrium is the innermost layer of the uterus, which lines the uterine cavity and has a critical role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It is composed of glands and blood vessels that undergo cyclic changes under the influence of hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone. During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium thickens in preparation for a potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, it will break down and be shed, resulting in menstruation. In contrast, if implantation takes place, the endometrium provides essential nutrients to support the developing embryo and placenta throughout pregnancy.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Ovariectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both ovaries are removed. It is also known as "ovary removal" or "oophorectomy." This procedure is often performed as a treatment for various medical conditions, including ovarian cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and pelvic pain. Ovariectomy can also be part of a larger surgical procedure called an hysterectomy, in which the uterus is also removed.

In some cases, an ovariectomy may be performed as a preventative measure for individuals at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. This is known as a prophylactic ovariectomy. After an ovariectomy, a person will no longer have menstrual periods and will be unable to become pregnant naturally. Hormone replacement therapy may be recommended in some cases to help manage symptoms associated with the loss of hormones produced by the ovaries.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Luteolysis is the physiological process that leads to the breakdown and regression of the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine structure in the ovary that forms after ovulation. The corpus luteum produces progesterone, which supports pregnancy in mammals. If pregnancy does not occur, luteolysis takes place approximately 10-14 days after ovulation in humans and is characterized by the degeneration of the corpus luteum, decreased production of progesterone, and the initiation of the menstrual cycle or the onset of a new reproductive cycle.

The primary event that triggers luteolysis is the release of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) from the uterus, which reaches the corpus luteum through the systemic circulation and causes vasoconstriction, reduced blood flow, and structural damage to the corpus luteum. This results in a decline in progesterone levels, which ultimately leads to menstruation or the onset of a new reproductive cycle.

In summary, luteolysis is a crucial process in the female reproductive system that regulates hormonal balance and prepares the body for a new reproductive cycle when pregnancy does not occur.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

The luteal phase is the second half of the menstrual cycle, starting from ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries) and lasting until the start of the next menstruation. This phase typically lasts around 12-14 days in a regular 28-day menstrual cycle. During this phase, the remains of the dominant follicle that released the egg transform into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and some estrogen to support the implantation of a fertilized egg and maintain the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates, leading to a drop in hormone levels and the start of a new menstrual cycle.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes that occur in the female reproductive system over an approximate 28-day interval, marking the body's preparation for potential pregnancy. It involves the interplay of hormones that regulate the growth and disintegration of the uterine lining (endometrium) and the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovaries.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstrual phase: The cycle begins with the onset of menstruation, where the thickened uterine lining is shed through the vagina, lasting typically for 3-7 days. This shedding occurs due to a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, which are hormones essential for maintaining the endometrium during the previous cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase commences with the pituitary gland releasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates the growth of several ovarian follicles, each containing an immature egg. One dominant follicle usually becomes selected to mature and release an egg during ovulation. Estrogen levels rise as the dominant follicle grows, causing the endometrium to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

3. Luteal phase: Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen to further support the endometrial thickening. If fertilization does not occur within approximately 24 hours after ovulation, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a decline in hormone levels. This drop triggers the onset of menstruation, initiating a new menstrual cycle.

Understanding the menstrual cycle is crucial for monitoring reproductive health and planning or preventing pregnancies. Variations in cycle length and symptoms are common among women, but persistent irregularities may indicate underlying medical conditions requiring further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

The follicular phase is a term used in reproductive endocrinology, which refers to the first part of the menstrual cycle. This phase begins on the first day of menstruation and lasts until ovulation. During this phase, several follicles in the ovaries begin to mature under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) released by the pituitary gland.

Typically, one follicle becomes dominant and continues to mature, while the others regress. The dominant follicle produces increasing amounts of estrogen, which causes the lining of the uterus to thicken in preparation for a possible pregnancy. The follicular phase can vary in length, but on average it lasts about 14 days.

It's important to note that the length and characteristics of the follicular phase can provide valuable information in diagnosing various reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or thyroid dysfunction.

Estrus synchronization is a veterinary medical procedure used in the management of domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep. It is a process of coordinating the estrous cycles of animals so that they can be bred at the same time or have their fertility treatments performed simultaneously. This is achieved through the use of various hormonal therapies, including progestins, prostaglandins, and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH).

The goal of estrus synchronization is to improve reproductive efficiency in animal production systems by ensuring that a larger number of animals become pregnant during a shorter breeding season. This can lead to more uniform calf or lamb crops, reduced labor and management costs, and increased profitability for farmers and ranchers.

Estrus synchronization is a complex process that requires careful planning and implementation, as well as ongoing monitoring and evaluation of the animals' reproductive performance. It is typically performed under the guidance of a veterinarian or animal reproduction specialist.

Anestrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the period of sexual quiescence in female animals, during which they do not exhibit estrous cycles. This phase is characterized by low levels of reproductive hormones and is seen in some species as a part of their natural reproductive cycle, while in others it may indicate an abnormality or underlying health issue.

For example, in dogs, anestrus is the period between heat cycles when the reproductive system is relatively inactive. In contrast, in domestic cats, continuous estrous cycling is the norm, and they do not typically exhibit an anestrus phase.

In some cases, anestrus may be induced by factors such as poor nutrition, stress, or illness, and it can have negative consequences for an animal's reproductive health if it persists for too long. If an animal is experiencing prolonged anestrus or other reproductive issues, it is important to consult with a veterinarian for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Oxytocin is a hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including social bonding, childbirth, and breastfeeding. During childbirth, oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions to facilitate labor and delivery. After giving birth, oxytocin continues to be released in large amounts during breastfeeding, promoting milk letdown and contributing to the development of the maternal-infant bond.

In social contexts, oxytocin has been referred to as the "love hormone" or "cuddle hormone," as it is involved in social bonding, trust, and attachment. It can be released during physical touch, such as hugging or cuddling, and may contribute to feelings of warmth and closeness between individuals.

In addition to its roles in childbirth, breastfeeding, and social bonding, oxytocin has been implicated in other physiological functions, including regulating blood pressure, reducing anxiety, and modulating pain perception.

Luteal cells, also known as granulosa-lutein cells, are specialized cells found in the ovary that play a crucial role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are formed from the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle after ovulation, during which the follicle ruptures and releases the egg (oocyte). The remaining cells then transform into luteal cells, forming a structure called the corpus luteum.

The primary function of luteal cells is to produce and secrete progesterone and estrogen, two hormones that are essential for preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining early pregnancy. Progesterone stimulates the growth of blood vessels in the endometrium (the lining of the uterus), making it thicker and more receptive to the implantation of a fertilized egg. It also suppresses further development of ovarian follicles, preventing the release of additional eggs during pregnancy.

If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will degenerate, and the levels of progesterone and estrogen will decrease, leading to menstruation. However, if pregnancy occurs, the developing embryo will produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which stimulates the luteal cells to continue producing progesterone and estrogen until the placenta takes over these functions around the 10th week of gestation.

In summary, luteal cells are specialized ovarian cells that produce and secrete progesterone and estrogen during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy to prepare the uterus for implantation and maintain pregnancy.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or oviducts, are a pair of slender tubular structures in the female reproductive system. They play a crucial role in human reproduction by providing a passageway for the egg (ovum) from the ovary to the uterus (womb).

Each Fallopian tube is typically around 7.6 to 10 centimeters long and consists of four parts: the interstitial part, the isthmus, the ampulla, and the infundibulum. The fimbriated end of the infundibulum, which resembles a fringe or frill, surrounds and captures the released egg from the ovary during ovulation.

Fertilization usually occurs in the ampulla when sperm meets the egg after sexual intercourse. Once fertilized, the zygote (fertilized egg) travels through the Fallopian tube toward the uterus for implantation and further development. The cilia lining the inner surface of the Fallopian tubes help propel the egg and the zygote along their journey.

In some cases, abnormalities or blockages in the Fallopian tubes can lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancies, which are pregnancies that develop outside the uterus, typically within the Fallopian tube itself.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Inhibins are a group of protein hormones that play a crucial role in regulating the function of the reproductive system, specifically by inhibiting the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary gland. They are produced and secreted primarily by the granulosa cells in the ovaries of females and Sertoli cells in the testes of males.

Inhibins consist of two subunits, an alpha subunit, and a beta subunit, which can be further divided into two types: inhibin A and inhibin B. Inhibin A is primarily produced by the granulosa cells of developing follicles in the ovary, while inhibin B is mainly produced by the Sertoli cells in the testes.

By regulating FSH production, inhibins help control the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and spermatogenesis in males. Abnormal levels of inhibins have been associated with various reproductive disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and certain types of cancer.

The vagina is the canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal because babies pass through it during childbirth. The vagina is where sexual intercourse occurs and where menstrual blood exits the body. It has a flexible wall that can expand and retract. During sexual arousal, the vaginal walls swell with blood to become more elastic in order to accommodate penetration.

It's important to note that sometimes people use the term "vagina" to refer to the entire female genital area, including the external structures like the labia and clitoris. But technically, these are considered part of the vulva, not the vagina.

Female genitalia refer to the reproductive and sexual organs located in the female pelvic region. They are primarily involved in reproduction, menstruation, and sexual activity. The external female genitalia, also known as the vulva, include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and the external openings of the urethra and vagina. The internal female genitalia consist of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. These structures work together to facilitate menstruation, fertilization, pregnancy, and childbirth.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Cell cycle proteins are a group of regulatory proteins that control the progression of the cell cycle, which is the series of events that take place in a eukaryotic cell leading to its division and duplication. These proteins can be classified into several categories based on their functions during different stages of the cell cycle.

The major groups of cell cycle proteins include:

1. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs): CDKs are serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate key transitions in the cell cycle. They require binding to a regulatory subunit called cyclin to become active. Different CDK-cyclin complexes are activated at different stages of the cell cycle.
2. Cyclins: Cyclins are a family of regulatory proteins that bind and activate CDKs. Their levels fluctuate throughout the cell cycle, with specific cyclins expressed during particular phases. For example, cyclin D is important for the G1 to S phase transition, while cyclin B is required for the G2 to M phase transition.
3. CDK inhibitors (CKIs): CKIs are regulatory proteins that bind to and inhibit CDKs, thereby preventing their activation. CKIs can be divided into two main families: the INK4 family and the Cip/Kip family. INK4 family members specifically inhibit CDK4 and CDK6, while Cip/Kip family members inhibit a broader range of CDKs.
4. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C): APC/C is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets specific proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. During the cell cycle, APC/C regulates the metaphase to anaphase transition and the exit from mitosis by targeting securin and cyclin B for degradation.
5. Other regulatory proteins: Several other proteins play crucial roles in regulating the cell cycle, such as p53, a transcription factor that responds to DNA damage and arrests the cell cycle, and the polo-like kinases (PLKs), which are involved in various aspects of mitosis.

Overall, cell cycle proteins work together to ensure the proper progression of the cell cycle, maintain genomic stability, and prevent uncontrolled cell growth, which can lead to cancer.

Estrus detection in veterinary medicine refers to the process of identifying when a female animal is in heat or estrus, which is the period of time when she is fertile and receptive to mating. This is an important aspect of managing breeding programs for livestock and other animals.

Detection of estrus can be done through various methods, including:

1. Observing behavioral changes: Female animals in heat may show signs of increased interest in males, becoming more vocal or restless, and may adopt a mating stance.
2. Physical examination: A veterinarian may perform a physical exam to check for signs of estrus, such as swelling or reddening of the vulva.
3. Hormonal assays: Blood or vaginal fluid samples can be tested for hormone levels, such as estradiol and progesterone, to determine if an animal is in heat.
4. Use of teaser animals: Intact males can be used to stimulate a response in females, indicating that they are in estrus.

Accurate detection of estrus is critical for successful breeding and management of animal reproduction.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive analytical technique used in clinical and research laboratories to measure concentrations of various substances, such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, or tumor markers, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues. The method relies on the specific interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen, combined with the use of radioisotopes to quantify the amount of bound antigen.

In a typical RIA procedure, a known quantity of a radiolabeled antigen (also called tracer) is added to a sample containing an unknown concentration of the same unlabeled antigen. The mixture is then incubated with a specific antibody that binds to the antigen. During the incubation period, the antibody forms complexes with both the radiolabeled and unlabeled antigens.

After the incubation, the unbound (free) radiolabeled antigen is separated from the antibody-antigen complexes, usually through a precipitation or separation step involving centrifugation, filtration, or chromatography. The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (containing the antibody-antigen complexes) is then measured using a gamma counter or other suitable radiation detection device.

The concentration of the unlabeled antigen in the sample can be determined by comparing the ratio of bound to free radiolabeled antigen in the sample to a standard curve generated from known concentrations of unlabeled antigen and their corresponding bound/free ratios. The higher the concentration of unlabeled antigen in the sample, the lower the amount of radiolabeled antigen that will bind to the antibody, resulting in a lower bound/free ratio.

Radioimmunoassays offer high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, making them valuable tools for detecting and quantifying low levels of various substances in biological samples. However, due to concerns about radiation safety and waste disposal, alternative non-isotopic immunoassay techniques like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

Pseudopregnancy, also known as pseudocyesis or phantom pregnancy, is a psychological condition where an individual (most commonly in women) believes they are pregnant when they are not. This belief is often accompanied by various physical symptoms such as weight gain, abdominal distention, and breast enlargement that mimic those of a genuine pregnancy, despite there being no actual fetal development. These symptoms are caused by the body's hormonal and physiological responses to the individual's strong belief of being pregnant. It is important to note that this condition is rare and can be resolved with proper medical evaluation, counseling, and support.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

The myometrium is the middle and thickest layer of the uterine wall, composed mainly of smooth muscle cells. It is responsible for the strong contractions during labor and can also contribute to bleeding during menstruation or childbirth. The myometrium is able to stretch and expand to accommodate a growing fetus and then contract during labor to help push the baby out. It also plays a role in maintaining the structure and shape of the uterus, and in protecting the internal organs within the pelvic cavity.

Sexual maturation is the process of physical development during puberty that leads to the ability to reproduce. This process involves the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics, changes in hormone levels, and the acquisition of reproductive capabilities. In females, this includes the onset of menstruation and the development of breasts and hips. In males, this includes the deepening of the voice, growth of facial hair, and the production of sperm. Achieving sexual maturation is an important milestone in human development and typically occurs during adolescence.

Follicular atresia is a physiological process that occurs in the ovary, where follicles (fluid-filled sacs containing immature eggs or oocytes) undergo degeneration and disappearance. This process begins after the primordial follicle stage and continues throughout a woman's reproductive years. At birth, a female has approximately 1 to 2 million primordial follicles, but only about 400 of these will mature and release an egg during her lifetime. The rest undergo atresia, which is a natural process that helps regulate the number of available eggs and maintain hormonal balance within the body.

The exact mechanisms that trigger follicular atresia are not fully understood, but it is believed to be influenced by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, oxidative stress, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). In some cases, accelerated or excessive follicular atresia can lead to infertility or early menopause.

The postpartum period refers to the time frame immediately following childbirth, typically defined as the first 6-12 weeks. During this time, significant physical and emotional changes occur as the body recovers from pregnancy and delivery. Hormone levels fluctuate dramatically, leading to various symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue, and breast engorgement. The reproductive system also undergoes significant changes, with the uterus returning to its pre-pregnancy size and shape, and the cervix closing.

It is essential to monitor physical and emotional health during this period, as complications such as postpartum depression, infection, or difficulty breastfeeding may arise. Regular check-ups with healthcare providers are recommended to ensure a healthy recovery and address any concerns. Additionally, proper rest, nutrition, and support from family and friends can help facilitate a smooth transition into this new phase of life.

Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and regulation of female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. They are also present in lower levels in males. The main estrogen hormone is estradiol, which plays a key role in promoting the growth and development of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and breasts. Estrogens also help regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain bone density, and have important effects on the cardiovascular system, skin, hair, and cognitive function.

Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries in women, but they can also be produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estrogens are produced from the conversion of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, through a process called aromatization.

Estrogen levels vary throughout a woman's life, with higher levels during reproductive years and lower levels after menopause. Estrogen therapy is sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, or to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, estrogen therapy also carries risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, blood clots, and stroke, so it is typically recommended only for women who have a high risk of these conditions.

Embryo implantation is the process by which a fertilized egg, or embryo, becomes attached to the wall of the uterus (endometrium) and begins to receive nutrients from the mother's blood supply. This process typically occurs about 6-10 days after fertilization and is a critical step in the establishment of a successful pregnancy.

During implantation, the embryo secretes enzymes that help it to burrow into the endometrium, while the endometrium responds by producing receptors for the embryo's enzymes and increasing blood flow to the area. The embryo then begins to grow and develop, eventually forming the placenta, which will provide nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus throughout pregnancy.

Implantation is a complex process that requires precise timing and coordination between the embryo and the mother's body. Factors such as age, hormonal imbalances, and uterine abnormalities can affect implantation and increase the risk of miscarriage or difficulty becoming pregnant.

Prostaglandin F (PGF) is a type of prostaglandin, which is a group of lipid compounds that are synthesized in the body from fatty acids and have diverse hormone-like effects. Prostaglandin F is a naturally occurring compound that is produced in various tissues throughout the body, including the uterus, lungs, and kidneys.

There are two major types of prostaglandin F: PGF1α and PGF2α. These compounds play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including:

* Uterine contraction: Prostaglandin F helps to stimulate uterine contractions during labor and childbirth. It is also involved in the shedding of the uterine lining during menstruation.
* Bronchodilation: In the lungs, prostaglandin F can help to relax bronchial smooth muscle and promote bronchodilation.
* Renal function: Prostaglandin F helps to regulate blood flow and fluid balance in the kidneys.

Prostaglandin F is also used as a medication to induce labor, treat postpartum hemorrhage, and manage some types of glaucoma. It is available in various forms, including injections, tablets, and eye drops.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

"Pregnancy proteins" is not a standard medical term, but it may refer to specific proteins that are produced or have increased levels during pregnancy. Two common pregnancy-related proteins are:

1. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG): A hormone produced by the placenta shortly after fertilization. It is often detected in urine or blood tests to confirm pregnancy. Its primary function is to maintain the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen during early pregnancy until the placenta takes over these functions.

2. Pregnancy-Specific beta-1 Glycoprotein (SP1): A protein produced by the placental trophoblasts during pregnancy. Its function is not well understood, but it may play a role in implantation, placentation, and protection against the mother's immune system. SP1 levels increase throughout pregnancy and are used as a marker for fetal growth and well-being.

These proteins have clinical significance in monitoring pregnancy progression, detecting potential complications, and diagnosing certain pregnancy-related conditions.

Gonadal steroid hormones, also known as gonadal sex steroids, are hormones that are produced and released by the gonads (i.e., ovaries in women and testes in men). These hormones play a critical role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive function, and overall health.

The three main classes of gonadal steroid hormones are:

1. Androgens: These are male sex hormones that are primarily produced by the testes but also produced in smaller amounts by the ovaries and adrenal glands. The most well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a key role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.
2. Estrogens: These are female sex hormones that are primarily produced by the ovaries but also produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands. The most well-known estrogen is estradiol, which plays a key role in the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and the menstrual cycle.
3. Progestogens: These are hormones that are produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle and play a key role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy. The most well-known progestogen is progesterone, which also plays a role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle.

Gonadal steroid hormones can have significant effects on various physiological processes, including bone density, cognitive function, mood, and sexual behavior. Disorders of gonadal steroid hormone production or action can lead to a range of health problems, including infertility, osteoporosis, and sexual dysfunction.

Follicular fluid is the fluid that accumulates within the follicle (a small sac or cyst) in the ovary where an egg matures. This fluid contains various chemicals, hormones, and proteins that support the growth and development of the egg cell. It also contains metabolic waste products and other substances from the granulosa cells (the cells that surround the egg cell within the follicle). Follicular fluid is often analyzed in fertility treatments and studies as it can provide valuable information about the health and viability of the egg cell.

The anterior pituitary, also known as the adenohypophysis, is the front portion of the pituitary gland. It is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions. These hormones include:

* Growth hormone (GH), which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in bones and other tissues.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which regulates the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females by controlling the development and release of eggs or sperm.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and nursing women.
* Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), which regulates skin pigmentation and appetite.

The anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus, a small region of the brain located just above it. The hypothalamus produces releasing and inhibiting hormones that regulate the secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary. These hormones are released into a network of blood vessels called the portal system, which carries them directly to the anterior pituitary gland.

Damage or disease of the anterior pituitary can lead to hormonal imbalances and various medical conditions, such as growth disorders, thyroid dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, reproductive problems, and diabetes insipidus.

Superovulation, also known as controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), refers to the process of inducing the development and release of multiple mature ova (eggs) from the ovaries during a single reproductive cycle. This is achieved through the administration of exogenous gonadotropins or other fertility medications, which stimulate the ovarian follicles to grow and mature beyond the normal number. Superovulation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) to increase the chances of successful conception by obtaining a larger number of ova for fertilization and embryo transfer.

Gonadotropins are hormones that stimulate the gonads (sex glands) to produce sex steroids and gametes (sex cells). In humans, there are two main types of gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland.

FSH plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the ovary, and stimulates testosterone production in males.

Gonadotropins are often used in medical treatments to stimulate the gonads, such as in infertility therapies where FSH and LH are administered to induce ovulation or increase sperm production.

Pregnenediones are a class of steroid hormones that contain a pregnane structure, which is a skeleton formed by four fused cyclohexane rings. Specifically, pregnenediones are characterized by having a ketone group (a carbonyl group, -C=O) at the 20th carbon position of this pregnane structure. They can be further classified into various subgroups based on the presence and location of other functional groups in the molecule.

Pregnenediones are not typically used as medications, but they do play important roles in the human body. For example, progesterone is a naturally occurring pregnenedione that plays a crucial role in maintaining pregnancy and preparing the uterus for childbirth. Other pregnenediones may also have hormonal activity or serve as intermediates in the synthesis of other steroid hormones.

Artificial insemination (AI) is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of sperm into a female's cervix or uterus for the purpose of achieving pregnancy. This procedure can be performed using sperm from a partner or a donor. It is often used when there are issues with male fertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, or in cases where natural conception is not possible due to various medical reasons.

There are two types of artificial insemination: intracervical insemination (ICI) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). ICI involves placing the sperm directly into the cervix, while IUI involves placing the sperm directly into the uterus using a catheter. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, including the cause of infertility and the preferences of the individuals involved.

Artificial insemination is a relatively simple and low-risk procedure that can be performed in a doctor's office or clinic. It may be combined with fertility drugs to increase the chances of pregnancy. The success rate of artificial insemination varies depending on several factors, including the age and fertility of the individuals involved, the cause of infertility, and the type of procedure used.

Granulosa cells are specialized cells that surround and enclose the developing egg cells (oocytes) in the ovaries. They play a crucial role in the growth, development, and maturation of the follicles (the fluid-filled sacs containing the oocytes) by providing essential nutrients and hormones.

Granulosa cells are responsible for producing estrogen, which supports the development of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle in preparation for a potential pregnancy. They also produce inhibin and activin, two hormones that regulate the function of the pituitary gland and its secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

These cells are critical for female reproductive health and fertility. Abnormalities in granulosa cell function can lead to various reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and infertility.

The pituitary gland is a small, endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is often called the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger many body functions. The pituitary gland measures about 0.5 cm in height and 1 cm in width, and it weighs approximately 0.5 grams.

The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is further divided into three zones: the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. Each part of the pituitary gland has distinct functions and produces different hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases several important hormones, including:

* Growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and development in children and helps maintain muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and lactating women.

The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus:

* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production.
* Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.

Overall, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating various bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

A drug implant is a medical device that is specially designed to provide controlled release of a medication into the body over an extended period of time. Drug implants can be placed under the skin or in various body cavities, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. They are often used when other methods of administering medication, such as oral pills or injections, are not effective or practical.

Drug implants come in various forms, including rods, pellets, and small capsules. The medication is contained within the device and is released slowly over time, either through diffusion or erosion of the implant material. This allows for a steady concentration of the drug to be maintained in the body, which can help to improve treatment outcomes and reduce side effects.

Some common examples of drug implants include:

1. Hormonal implants: These are small rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm and release hormones such as progestin or estrogen over a period of several years. They are often used for birth control or to treat conditions such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids.
2. Intraocular implants: These are small devices that are placed in the eye during surgery to release medication directly into the eye. They are often used to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.
3. Bone cement implants: These are specially formulated cements that contain antibiotics and are used to fill bone defects or joint spaces during surgery. The antibiotics are released slowly over time, helping to prevent infection.
4. Implantable pumps: These are small devices that are placed under the skin and deliver medication directly into a specific body cavity, such as the spinal cord or the peritoneal cavity. They are often used to treat chronic pain or cancer.

Overall, drug implants offer several advantages over other methods of administering medication, including improved compliance, reduced side effects, and more consistent drug levels in the body. However, they may also have some disadvantages, such as the need for surgical placement and the potential for infection or other complications. As with any medical treatment, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits of drug implants with a healthcare provider.

5-Alpha-Dihydroprogesterone, also known as 5α-DHP, is a metabolite of progesterone. It is formed in the body by the action of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase on progesterone. 5-Alpha-Dihydroprogesterone is a weak androgen and has been found to have some effects on the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. It may also play a role in the regulation of the menstrual cycle in women. However, its precise physiological functions are not fully understood.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

The Citric Acid Cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, is a crucial metabolic pathway in the cell's powerhouse, the mitochondria. It plays a central role in the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into carbon dioxide and high-energy electrons. This process generates energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), reducing equivalents (NADH and FADH2), and water.

The cycle begins with the condensation of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate, forming citrate. Through a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, citrate is converted back to oxaloacetate, releasing two molecules of carbon dioxide, one GTP (guanosine triphosphate), three NADH, one FADH2, and regenerating oxaloacetate to continue the cycle. The reduced coenzymes (NADH and FADH2) then donate their electrons to the electron transport chain, driving ATP synthesis through chemiosmosis. Overall, the Citric Acid Cycle is a vital part of cellular respiration, connecting various catabolic pathways and generating energy for the cell's metabolic needs.

The Corpus Luteum is a temporary endocrine structure formed in the ovary after the release of a mature egg (ovulation) during the menstrual cycle. It produces progesterone and estrogen, which support the early stages of pregnancy by maintaining the lining of the uterus (endometrium). "Corpus Luteum Maintenance" refers to the physiological processes that sustain the function and survival of the Corpus Luteum.

The maintenance of the Corpus Luteum is primarily regulated by two hormones: luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). After ovulation, a surge in LH triggers the formation of the Corpus Luteum. In the absence of pregnancy, the Corpus Luteum begins to degenerate after approximately 10-14 days, leading to a decline in progesterone levels and the onset of menstruation.

However, if conception occurs, the developing embryo starts producing hCG, which shares structural similarities with LH. This hCG maintains the Corpus Luteum by binding to LH receptors and stimulating the continued production of progesterone. The high levels of progesterone help thicken the endometrium and prepare it for implantation of the fertilized egg, ensuring a suitable environment for fetal development during early pregnancy.

In summary, Corpus Luteum Maintenance refers to the hormonal regulation and physiological processes that sustain the function and survival of the Corpus Luteum, primarily through the actions of LH and hCG, leading to the production of progesterone and supporting the early stages of pregnancy.

Progesterone congeners refer to synthetic or naturally occurring compounds that are structurally similar to progesterone, a steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis. These compounds have similar chemical structures to progesterone and may exhibit similar physiological activities, although they can also have unique properties and uses. Examples of progesterone congeners include various synthetic progestins used in hormonal contraceptives and other medical treatments.

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate milk production in women after childbirth, a process known as lactation. However, prolactin also plays other roles in the body, including regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. In men, prolactin helps maintain the sexual glands and contributes to paternal behaviors.

Prolactin levels are usually low in both men and non-pregnant women but increase significantly during pregnancy and after childbirth. Various factors can affect prolactin levels, including stress, sleep, exercise, and certain medications. High prolactin levels can lead to medical conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), galactorrhea (spontaneous milk production not related to childbirth), infertility, and reduced sexual desire in both men and women.

Melengestrol Acetate (MGA) is a synthetic progestin, which is a type of steroid hormone. It is used primarily as a growth promoter in the livestock industry to increase weight gain and feed efficiency in beef cattle. MGA works by suppressing the animal's natural hormonal balance, particularly the levels of estrogen and testosterone, which leads to changes in metabolism and behavior that promote weight gain.

It is not approved for use in humans in many countries, including the United States, due to concerns about potential health risks associated with its long-term use, such as reproductive and developmental effects. However, it has been used off-label in some cases to treat certain medical conditions in women, such as endometriosis or abnormal uterine bleeding, under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

"Random allocation," also known as "random assignment" or "randomization," is a process used in clinical trials and other research studies to distribute participants into different intervention groups (such as experimental group vs. control group) in a way that minimizes selection bias and ensures the groups are comparable at the start of the study.

In random allocation, each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group, and the assignment is typically made using a computer-generated randomization schedule or other objective methods. This process helps to ensure that any differences between the groups are due to the intervention being tested rather than pre-existing differences in the participants' characteristics.

Theca cells are specialized cells that are part of the follicle where the egg matures in the ovary. They are located in the outer layer of the follicle and play an important role in producing hormones necessary for the growth and development of the follicle and the egg within it. Specifically, they produce androgens, such as testosterone, which are then converted into estrogens by another type of cells in the follicle called granulosa cells. These hormones help to thicken the lining of the uterus in preparation for a possible pregnancy. In some cases, theca cells can become overactive and produce too much testosterone, leading to conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It is produced by the placenta after implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus. The main function of hCG is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum, which is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for maintaining the lining of the uterus and supporting the pregnancy.

hCG can be detected in the blood or urine as early as 10 days after conception, and its levels continue to rise throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition to its role in maintaining pregnancy, hCG is also used as a clinical marker for pregnancy and to monitor certain medical conditions such as gestational trophoblastic diseases.

Hormones are defined as chemical messengers that are produced by endocrine glands or specialized cells and are transported through the bloodstream to tissues and organs, where they elicit specific responses. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, reproduction, and mood. Examples of hormones include insulin, estrogen, testosterone, adrenaline, and thyroxine.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

20-α-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (20-α-HSD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of steroids, specifically the oxidation of 20α-hydroxysteroids to 20-keto steroids. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the metabolism and regulation of steroid hormones, such as corticosteroids and progestogens.

In the adrenal gland, 20-α-HSD is involved in the biosynthesis and interconversion of various corticosteroids, including cortisol, cortisone, and aldosterone. By catalyzing the conversion of cortisol to cortisone or vice versa, this enzyme helps maintain a balance between active and inactive forms of these hormones, which is essential for proper physiological functioning.

In the reproductive system, 20-α-HSD is involved in the metabolism of progestogens, such as progesterone and its derivatives. This enzyme can convert active forms of progestogens into their inactive counterparts, thereby regulating their levels and activity within the body.

Dysregulation or mutations in 20-α-HSD have been implicated in several medical conditions, including adrenal insufficiency, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and certain reproductive disorders.

In situ hybridization (ISH) is a molecular biology technique used to detect and localize specific nucleic acid sequences, such as DNA or RNA, within cells or tissues. This technique involves the use of a labeled probe that is complementary to the target nucleic acid sequence. The probe can be labeled with various types of markers, including radioisotopes, fluorescent dyes, or enzymes.

During the ISH procedure, the labeled probe is hybridized to the target nucleic acid sequence in situ, meaning that the hybridization occurs within the intact cells or tissues. After washing away unbound probe, the location of the labeled probe can be visualized using various methods depending on the type of label used.

In situ hybridization has a wide range of applications in both research and diagnostic settings, including the detection of gene expression patterns, identification of viral infections, and diagnosis of genetic disorders.

Cloprostenol is a synthetic prostaglandin analog used primarily in veterinary medicine for the treatment and prevention of various conditions. The main therapeutic uses of Cloprostenol include:

1. Induction of parturition (labor) in cows, helping to synchronize calving in managed herds.
2. Termination of pregnancy in cattle, especially in cases where the fetus is nonviable or the pregnancy poses a risk to the animal's health.
3. Treatment of uterine and oviductal disorders, such as pyometra (infection of the uterus) and salpingitis (inflammation of the oviduct), in cattle and pigs.
4. Prevention of postpartum disorders, like endometritis (inflammation of the lining of the uterus) and mastitis (inflammation of the mammary glands), by promoting uterine involution and improving overall reproductive performance in cattle.
5. Control of estrus (heat) in cattle, as an aid in estrous synchronization programs for artificial insemination.

Cloprostenol is available in various formulations, such as intramuscular or subcutaneous injectable solutions, and is typically administered by a veterinarian or trained personnel. It is important to note that the use of Cloprostenol and other prostaglandin analogs should be carried out under the guidance and supervision of a veterinary professional, as improper usage can lead to adverse effects or complications.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Pregnadienes are a class of steroid hormones that contain a unsaturated bond between the C4 and C5 positions in their steroid nucleus. They are important precursors in the biosynthesis of various sex steroids, such as progesterone and testosterone, in the human body. Pregnadienes are derived from pregnanes, which have a saturated bond at this position. The term "pregnadiene" refers to the chemical structure of these hormones, specifically their double bond at the C4-C5 position. They play a crucial role in the regulation of various physiological processes related to reproduction and sexual development.

Monocrotophos is not typically defined in medical terms, but it is a pesticide that can have medical implications. It's a type of organophosphate insecticide that works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, leading to an overaccumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and resulting in symptoms such as muscle twitching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, and, at high exposures, seizures and respiratory failure. Chronic exposure can lead to neurological problems and an increased risk of certain cancers.

Neurophysins are small protein molecules that are derived from the larger precursor protein, pro-neurophysin. They are synthesized in the hypothalamus of the brain and are stored in and released from neurosecretory granules, along with neurohypophysial hormones such as oxytocin and vasopressin.

Neurophysins serve as carrier proteins for these hormones, helping to stabilize them and facilitate their transport and release into the bloodstream. There are two main types of neurophysins, neurophysin I and neurophysin II, which are associated with oxytocin and vasopressin, respectively.

Neurophysins have been studied for their potential role in various physiological processes, including water balance, social behavior, and reproductive functions. However, their precise mechanisms of action and functional significance are still not fully understood.

Carbofuran is a highly toxic systemic pesticide that belongs to the carbamate family. It is used primarily to control insects in soil before planting and on crops after emergence. Carbofuran works by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine and results in overstimulation of the nervous system in insects, ultimately causing their death.

In humans, exposure to carbofuran can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, visual disturbances, and muscle twitching. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, convulsions, and even death. Carbofuran is classified as a Category I toxic pesticide by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States, indicating that it is highly hazardous.

Due to its high toxicity and potential for environmental harm, carbofuran has been banned or restricted in many countries around the world. In the United States, the use of carbofuran on food crops was phased out in 2009, and its registration for most uses was canceled in 2010. However, it is still used in some parts of the world for non-food crop applications.

An abortifacient agent is a substance or drug that causes abortion by inducing the uterus to contract and expel a fetus. These agents can be chemical or herbal substances, and they work by interfering with the implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterine lining or by stimulating uterine contractions to expel the developing embryo or fetus.

Examples of abortifacient agents include misoprostol, mifepristone, and certain herbs such as pennyroyal, tansy, and black cohosh. It is important to note that the use of abortifacient agents can have serious health consequences, including infection, bleeding, and damage to the reproductive system. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before using any abortifacient agent.

'Sus scrofa' is the scientific name for the wild boar, a species of suid that is native to much of Eurasia and North Africa. It is not a medical term or concept. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those instead!

"Mesocricetus" is a genus of rodents, more commonly known as hamsters. It includes several species of hamsters that are native to various parts of Europe and Asia. The best-known member of this genus is the Syrian hamster, also known as the golden hamster or Mesocricetus auratus, which is a popular pet due to its small size and relatively easy care. These hamsters are burrowing animals and are typically solitary in the wild.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. It plays crucial roles in the reproductive system, primarily by promoting the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries or sperm production in the testes.

The FSH molecule consists of two subunits: α (alpha) and β (beta). The α-subunit is common to several glycoprotein hormones, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In contrast, the β-subunit is unique to each hormone and determines its specific biological activity.

A medical definition of 'Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit' refers to the distinct portion of the FSH molecule that is responsible for its particular functions in the body. The β-subunit of FSH enables the hormone to bind to its specific receptors in the gonads and initiate downstream signaling pathways leading to follicular development and spermatogenesis. Any alterations or mutations in the FSH beta subunit can lead to disruptions in reproductive processes, potentially causing infertility or other related disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

In medical terms, "ether" is an outdated term that was used to refer to a group of compounds known as diethyl ethers. The most common member of this group, and the one most frequently referred to as "ether," is diethyl ether, also known as sulfuric ether or simply ether.

Diethyl ether is a highly volatile, flammable liquid that was once widely used as an anesthetic agent in surgical procedures. It has a characteristic odor and produces a state of unconsciousness when inhaled, allowing patients to undergo surgery without experiencing pain. However, due to its numerous side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and respiratory depression, as well as the risk of explosion or fire during use, it has largely been replaced by safer and more effective anesthetic agents.

It's worth noting that "ether" also has other meanings in different contexts, including a term used to describe a substance that produces a feeling of detachment from reality or a sense of unreality, as well as a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of an ether group (-O-, a functional group consisting of an oxygen atom bonded to two alkyl or aryl groups).

Androstenedione is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, ovaries, and testes. It is a precursor to both male and female sex hormones, including testosterone and estrogen. In the adrenal glands, it is produced from cholesterol through a series of biochemical reactions involving several enzymes. Androstenedione can also be converted into other steroid hormones, such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and estrone.

In the body, androstenedione plays an important role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair and a deep voice in men, and breast development and menstrual cycles in women. It also contributes to bone density, muscle mass, and overall physical strength.

Androstenedione is available as a dietary supplement and has been marketed as a way to boost athletic performance and increase muscle mass. However, its effectiveness for these purposes is not supported by scientific evidence, and it may have harmful side effects when taken in high doses or for extended periods of time. Additionally, the use of androstenedione as a dietary supplement is banned by many sports organizations, including the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) receptors are specialized protein structures found on the surface of certain cells in the body. They play a crucial role in the endocrine system by binding to specific hormones, such as Luteinizing Hormone, and triggering a series of intracellular events that ultimately lead to changes in cell function.

In particular, LH receptors are found on the cells of the ovaries and testes. In females, when LH binds to its receptor in the ovary, it stimulates ovulation and the development of the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone. In males, LH (also known as Interstitial Cell-Stimulating Hormone in this context) binding to its receptor on testicular Leydig cells triggers the production of testosterone.

Therefore, LH receptors are essential for reproductive processes and the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics.

Follistatin is a glycoprotein that is naturally produced in various tissues, including the ovaries, pituitary gland, and skeletal muscle. It plays an essential role in regulating the activity of members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, particularly the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and activins.

Follistatin binds to these signaling molecules with high affinity, preventing them from interacting with their receptors and thereby inhibiting their downstream signaling pathways. By doing so, follistatin helps regulate processes such as follicle stimulation in the ovaries, neurogenesis, muscle growth, and inflammation.

Increased levels of follistatin have been associated with muscle hypertrophy, while its deficiency can lead to impaired fertility and developmental abnormalities.

I believe you are looking for a medical or scientific term that is related to elephants, as there is no medical definition for the word "elephants" itself. Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea. They are native to Africa and Asia and are known for their long trunks, large ears, and tusks.

One possible connection between elephants and medicine is the use of elephant ivory in medical equipment. In the past, elephant ivory was used to make a variety of medical instruments, such as dental tools and surgical instruments. However, due to concerns about animal welfare and the illegal trade in elephant ivory, the use of elephant ivory in medical equipment has become increasingly rare.

Another possible connection between elephants and medicine is the study of their social behavior and communication, which may provide insights into human social behavior and mental health. For example, research has shown that elephants have complex social structures and exhibit behaviors such as empathy, cooperation, and mourning, which are also important aspects of human social and emotional functioning.

Overall, while there is no specific medical definition for "elephants," these fascinating animals have contributed to our understanding of biology, medicine, and human behavior in various ways.

A Follicular Cyst is a type of cyst that forms within a follicle, which is the sac-like structure in the skin that contains and protects a hair root. In particular, it refers to a specific condition in the ovary where a follicle fails to rupture or release an egg after maturation, instead continuing to grow and fill with fluid, forming a cyst. These cysts are usually asymptomatic but can become large and cause symptoms such as pelvic pain or discomfort, irregular menstrual cycles, or abnormal vaginal bleeding. In most cases, follicular cysts resolve on their own within 2-3 menstrual cycles, but in rare cases, they may require medical intervention if they become complicated or do not resolve.

Sexual behavior in animals refers to a variety of behaviors related to reproduction and mating that occur between members of the same species. These behaviors can include courtship displays, mating rituals, and various physical acts. The specific forms of sexual behavior displayed by a given species are influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

In some animals, sexual behavior is closely tied to reproductive cycles and may only occur during certain times of the year or under specific conditions. In other species, sexual behavior may be more frequent and less closely tied to reproduction, serving instead as a means of social bonding or communication.

It's important to note that while humans are animals, the term "sexual behavior" is often used in a more specific sense to refer to sexual activities between human beings. The study of sexual behavior in animals is an important area of research within the field of animal behavior and can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human sexual behavior as well as the underlying mechanisms that drive it.

In the context of medicine, "periodicity" refers to the occurrence of events or phenomena at regular intervals or cycles. This term is often used in reference to recurring symptoms or diseases that have a pattern of appearing and disappearing over time. For example, some medical conditions like menstrual cycles, sleep-wake disorders, and certain infectious diseases exhibit periodicity. It's important to note that the duration and frequency of these cycles can vary depending on the specific condition or individual.

3-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone biosynthesis. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of 3-beta-hydroxy steroids to 3-keto steroids, which is an essential step in the production of various steroid hormones, including progesterone, cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estradiol.

There are several isoforms of 3-HSDs that are expressed in different tissues and have distinct substrate specificities. For instance, 3-HSD type I is primarily found in the ovary and adrenal gland, where it catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 17-hydroxycortisol. On the other hand, 3-HSD type II is mainly expressed in the testes, adrenal gland, and placenta, where it catalyzes the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstenedione and androstenedione to testosterone.

Defects in 3-HSDs can lead to various genetic disorders that affect steroid hormone production and metabolism, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as adrenal insufficiency, ambiguous genitalia, and sexual development disorders.

Progestins are a class of steroid hormones that are similar to progesterone, a natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are often used in hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills, shots, and implants, to prevent ovulation and thicken the cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Progestins are also used in menopausal hormone therapy to alleviate symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Additionally, progestins may be used to treat endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Different types of progestins have varying properties and may be more suitable for certain indications or have different side effect profiles.

The hypothalamus is a small, vital region of the brain that lies just below the thalamus and forms part of the limbic system. It plays a crucial role in many important functions including:

1. Regulation of body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.
2. Production and regulation of hormones through its connection with the pituitary gland (the hypophysis). It controls the release of various hormones by producing releasing and inhibiting factors that regulate the anterior pituitary's function.
3. Emotional responses, behavior, and memory formation through its connections with the limbic system structures like the amygdala and hippocampus.
4. Autonomic nervous system regulation, which controls involuntary physiological functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
5. Regulation of the immune system by interacting with the autonomic nervous system.

Damage to the hypothalamus can lead to various disorders like diabetes insipidus, growth hormone deficiency, altered temperature regulation, sleep disturbances, and emotional or behavioral changes.

Lactation is the process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals, including humans, for the nourishment of their young. This physiological function is initiated during pregnancy and continues until it is deliberately stopped or weaned off. The primary purpose of lactation is to provide essential nutrients, antibodies, and other bioactive components that support the growth, development, and immune system of newborns and infants.

The process of lactation involves several hormonal and physiological changes in a woman's body. During pregnancy, the hormones estrogen and progesterone stimulate the growth and development of the mammary glands. After childbirth, the levels of these hormones drop significantly, allowing another hormone called prolactin to take over. Prolactin is responsible for triggering the production of milk in the alveoli, which are tiny sacs within the breast tissue.

Another hormone, oxytocin, plays a crucial role in the release or "let-down" of milk from the alveoli to the nipple during lactation. This reflex is initiated by suckling or thinking about the baby, which sends signals to the brain to release oxytocin. The released oxytocin then binds to receptors in the mammary glands, causing the smooth muscles around the alveoli to contract and push out the milk through the ducts and into the nipple.

Lactation is a complex and highly regulated process that ensures the optimal growth and development of newborns and infants. It provides not only essential nutrients but also various bioactive components, such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, and growth factors, which protect the infant from infections and support their immune system.

In summary, lactation is the physiological process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young. It involves hormonal changes, including the actions of prolactin, oxytocin, estrogen, and progesterone, to regulate the production, storage, and release of milk.

In medical terms, "breeding" is not a term that is commonly used. It is more frequently used in the context of animal husbandry to refer to the process of mating animals in order to produce offspring with specific desired traits or characteristics. In human medicine, the term is not typically applied to people and instead, related concepts such as reproduction, conception, or pregnancy are used.

Estradiol receptors are a type of nuclear receptor protein that are activated by the hormone 17-β estradiol, which is a form of estrogen. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the breasts, uterus, ovaries, prostate, and brain.

There are two main types of estradiol receptors, known as ERα and ERβ. Once activated by estradiol, these receptors function as transcription factors, binding to specific DNA sequences in the nucleus of cells and regulating the expression of target genes. This process plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of female sex characteristics, as well as in various physiological processes such as bone metabolism, cognitive function, and cardiovascular health.

Abnormalities in estradiol receptor signaling have been implicated in several diseases, including breast and endometrial cancers, osteoporosis, and neurological disorders. As a result, estradiol receptors are an important target for the development of therapies aimed at treating these conditions.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Cell cycle checkpoints are control mechanisms that regulate the cell cycle and ensure the accurate and timely progression through different phases of the cell cycle. These checkpoints monitor specific cellular events, such as DNA replication and damage, chromosome separation, and proper attachment of the mitotic spindle to the chromosomes. If any of these events fail to occur properly or are delayed, the cell cycle checkpoints trigger a response that can halt the cell cycle until the problem is resolved. This helps to prevent cells with damaged or incomplete genomes from dividing and potentially becoming cancerous.

There are three main types of cell cycle checkpoints:

1. G1 Checkpoint: Also known as the restriction point, this checkpoint controls the transition from the G1 phase to the S phase of the cell cycle. It monitors the availability of nutrients, growth factors, and the integrity of the genome before allowing the cell to proceed into DNA replication.
2. G2 Checkpoint: This checkpoint regulates the transition from the G2 phase to the M phase of the cell cycle. It checks for completion of DNA replication and absence of DNA damage before allowing the cell to enter mitosis.
3. Mitotic (M) Checkpoint: Also known as the spindle assembly checkpoint, this checkpoint ensures that all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic spindle before anaphase begins. It prevents the separation of sister chromatids until all kinetochores are correctly attached and tension is established between them.

Cell cycle checkpoints play a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability, preventing tumorigenesis, and ensuring proper cell division. Dysregulation of these checkpoints can lead to various diseases, including cancer.

Buserelin is a synthetic analogue of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH or LHRH), which is a hormonal drug used in the treatment of various conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and central precocious puberty.

By mimicking the action of natural GnRH, buserelin stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn regulates the production of sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone.

However, prolonged use of buserelin leads to downregulation of GnRH receptors and a decrease in FSH and LH secretion, resulting in reduced levels of sex hormones. This property is exploited in the treatment of hormone-dependent cancers such as prostate cancer, where reducing testosterone levels can help slow tumor growth.

Buserelin is available in various forms, including nasal sprays, implants, and injectable solutions, and its use should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and the need for careful monitoring of hormone levels during treatment.

Oxytocin receptors are specialized protein structures found on the surface of cells, primarily in the uterus and mammary glands. They bind to the hormone oxytocin, which is produced in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream by the posterior pituitary gland.

When oxytocin binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to various physiological responses. In the uterus, oxytocin receptors play a crucial role in promoting contractions during labor and childbirth. In the mammary glands, they stimulate milk letdown and ejection during breastfeeding.

Oxytocin receptors have also been identified in other tissues, including the brain, heart, and kidneys, where they are involved in a variety of functions such as social bonding, sexual behavior, stress response, and cardiovascular regulation. Dysregulation of oxytocin receptor function has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including anxiety disorders, autism spectrum disorder, and hypertension.

The preoptic area (POA) is a region within the anterior hypothalamus of the brain. It is named for its location near the optic chiasm, where the optic nerves cross. The preoptic area is involved in various functions, including body temperature regulation, sexual behavior, and sleep-wake regulation.

The preoptic area contains several groups of neurons that are sensitive to changes in temperature and are responsible for generating heat through shivering or non-shivering thermogenesis. It also contains neurons that release inhibitory neurotransmitters such as GABA and galanin, which help regulate arousal and sleep.

Additionally, the preoptic area has been implicated in the regulation of sexual behavior, particularly in males. Certain populations of neurons within the preoptic area are involved in the expression of male sexual behavior, such as mounting and intromission.

Overall, the preoptic area is a critical region for the regulation of various physiological and behavioral functions, making it an important area of study in neuroscience research.

Intravaginal administration refers to the delivery of medications or other substances directly into the vagina. This route of administration can be used for local treatment of vaginal infections or inflammation, or to deliver systemic medication that is absorbed through the vaginal mucosa.

Medications can be administered intravaginally using a variety of dosage forms, including creams, gels, foams, suppositories, and films. The choice of dosage form depends on several factors, such as the drug's physicochemical properties, the desired duration of action, and patient preference.

Intravaginal administration offers several advantages over other routes of administration. It allows for direct delivery of medication to the site of action, which can result in higher local concentrations and fewer systemic side effects. Additionally, some medications may be more effective when administered intravaginally due to their ability to bypass first-pass metabolism in the liver.

However, there are also potential disadvantages to intravaginal administration. Some women may find it uncomfortable or inconvenient to use this route of administration, and there is a risk of leakage or expulsion of the medication. Additionally, certain medications may cause local irritation or allergic reactions when administered intravaginally.

Overall, intravaginal administration can be a useful route of administration for certain medications and conditions, but it is important to consider the potential benefits and risks when choosing this method.

A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24-hour biological cycle that regulates various physiological and behavioral processes in living organisms. It is driven by the body's internal clock, which is primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain.

The circadian rhythm controls many aspects of human physiology, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, body temperature, and metabolism. It helps to synchronize these processes with the external environment, particularly the day-night cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth.

Disruptions to the circadian rhythm can have negative effects on health, leading to conditions such as insomnia, sleep disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, and even increased risk of chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Factors that can disrupt the circadian rhythm include shift work, jet lag, irregular sleep schedules, and exposure to artificial light at night.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Castration is a surgical procedure to remove the testicles in males or ovaries in females. In males, it is also known as orchiectomy. This procedure results in the inability to produce sex hormones and gametes (sperm in men and eggs in women), and can be done for various reasons such as medical treatment for certain types of cancer, to reduce sexual urges in individuals with criminal tendencies, or as a form of birth control in animals.

Steroids, also known as corticosteroids, are a type of hormone that the adrenal gland produces in your body. They have many functions, such as controlling the balance of salt and water in your body and helping to reduce inflammation. Steroids can also be synthetically produced and used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including allergies, asthma, skin conditions, and autoimmune disorders.

Steroid medications are available in various forms, such as oral pills, injections, creams, and inhalers. They work by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by your body, reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to prevent or reduce symptoms. However, long-term use of steroids can have significant side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to note that anabolic steroids are a different class of drugs that are sometimes abused for their muscle-building properties. These steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and can have serious health consequences when taken in large doses or without medical supervision.

Oviducts, also known as fallopian tubes in humans, are pair of slender tubular structures that serve as the conduit for the ovum (egg) from the ovaries to the uterus. They are an essential part of the female reproductive system, providing a site for fertilization of the egg by sperm and early embryonic development before the embryo moves into the uterus for further growth.

In medical terminology, the term "oviduct" refers to this functional description rather than a specific anatomical structure in all female organisms. The oviducts vary in length and shape across different species, but their primary role remains consistent: to facilitate the transport of the egg and provide a site for fertilization.

Progesterone receptors (PRs) are a type of nuclear receptor proteins that are expressed in the nucleus of certain cells and play a crucial role in the regulation of various physiological processes, including the menstrual cycle, embryo implantation, and maintenance of pregnancy. These receptors bind to the steroid hormone progesterone, which is produced primarily in the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy.

Once progesterone binds to the PRs, it triggers a series of molecular events that lead to changes in gene expression, ultimately resulting in the modulation of various cellular functions. Progesterone receptors exist in two main isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, which differ in their size, structure, and transcriptional activity. Both isoforms are expressed in a variety of tissues, including the female reproductive tract, breast, brain, and bone.

Abnormalities in progesterone receptor expression or function have been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as uterine fibroids, endometriosis, breast cancer, and osteoporosis. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying PR signaling is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these disorders.

Northern blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and analyze specific RNA molecules (such as mRNA) in a mixture of total RNA extracted from cells or tissues. This technique is called "Northern" blotting because it is analogous to the Southern blotting method, which is used for DNA detection.

The Northern blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Electrophoresis: The total RNA mixture is first separated based on size by running it through an agarose gel using electrical current. This separates the RNA molecules according to their length, with smaller RNA fragments migrating faster than larger ones.

2. Transfer: After electrophoresis, the RNA bands are denatured (made single-stranded) and transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane using a technique called capillary transfer or vacuum blotting. This step ensures that the order and relative positions of the RNA fragments are preserved on the membrane, similar to how they appear in the gel.

3. Cross-linking: The RNA is then chemically cross-linked to the membrane using UV light or heat treatment, which helps to immobilize the RNA onto the membrane and prevent it from washing off during subsequent steps.

4. Prehybridization: Before adding the labeled probe, the membrane is prehybridized in a solution containing blocking agents (such as salmon sperm DNA or yeast tRNA) to minimize non-specific binding of the probe to the membrane.

5. Hybridization: A labeled nucleic acid probe, specific to the RNA of interest, is added to the prehybridization solution and allowed to hybridize (form base pairs) with its complementary RNA sequence on the membrane. The probe can be either a DNA or an RNA molecule, and it is typically labeled with a radioactive isotope (such as ³²P) or a non-radioactive label (such as digoxigenin).

6. Washing: After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove unbound probe and reduce background noise. The washing conditions (temperature, salt concentration, and detergent concentration) are optimized based on the stringency required for specific hybridization.

7. Detection: The presence of the labeled probe is then detected using an appropriate method, depending on the type of label used. For radioactive probes, this typically involves exposing the membrane to X-ray film or a phosphorimager screen and analyzing the resulting image. For non-radioactive probes, detection can be performed using colorimetric, chemiluminescent, or fluorescent methods.

8. Data analysis: The intensity of the signal is quantified and compared to controls (such as housekeeping genes) to determine the relative expression level of the RNA of interest. This information can be used for various purposes, such as identifying differentially expressed genes in response to a specific treatment or comparing gene expression levels across different samples or conditions.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Luteolytic agents are substances that cause the breakdown or regression of the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine structure in the ovary that forms after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy in mammals. These agents work by inhibiting the secretion of prostaglandins, which are necessary for maintaining the integrity of the corpus luteum. By causing the breakdown of the corpus luteum, luteolytic agents can induce menstruation or cause the termination of an early pregnancy. Examples of luteolytic agents include prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2α) and its analogs, as well as certain dopamine agonists such as cabergoline. These agents are used in various clinical settings, including reproductive medicine and veterinary medicine.

Copulation is the act of sexual reproduction in animals, achieved through the process of mating and engaging in sexual intercourse. It involves the insertion of the male's reproductive organ (the penis) into the female's reproductive organ (vagina), followed by the ejaculation of semen, which contains sperm. The sperm then travels up through the cervix and into the uterus, where they may fertilize an egg or ovum that has been released from one of the ovaries.

In a broader sense, copulation can also refer to the act of reproduction in other organisms, such as plants, fungi, and protists, which may involve different processes such as pollination, fusion of gametes, or vegetative reproduction.

Beta-N-Acetyl-Galactosaminidase (also known as Beta-Galactosaminidase or beta-Gal) is an enzyme that breaks down complex carbohydrates called glycosaminoglycans and gangliosides, which are important components of cell membranes. This enzyme is found in lysosomes, which are the recycling centers inside cells.

Beta-N-Acetyl-Galactosaminidase plays a crucial role in the breakdown and recycling of these complex carbohydrates. A deficiency or mutation in this enzyme can lead to lysosomal storage disorders, such as Schindler disease and Kanzaki disease, which are characterized by the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and gangliosides in various tissues and organs, leading to progressive damage and impairment.

Embryo loss is a medical term that refers to the miscarriage or spontaneous abortion of an embryo, which is the developing offspring from the time of fertilization until the end of the eighth week of pregnancy. Embryo loss can occur at any point during this period and may be caused by various factors such as chromosomal abnormalities, maternal health issues, infections, environmental factors, or lifestyle habits.

Embryo loss is a common occurrence, with up to 30% of pregnancies ending in miscarriage, many of which happen before the woman even realizes she is pregnant. In most cases, embryo loss is a natural process that occurs when the body detects an abnormality or problem with the developing embryo and terminates the pregnancy to prevent further complications. However, recurrent embryo loss can be a sign of underlying medical issues and may require further evaluation and treatment.

ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) is a strain of albino Swiss mice that are widely used in scientific research. They are an outbred strain, which means that they have been bred to maintain maximum genetic heterogeneity. However, it is also possible to find inbred strains of ICR mice, which are genetically identical individuals produced by many generations of brother-sister mating.

Inbred ICR mice are a specific type of ICR mouse that has been inbred for at least 20 generations. This means that they have a high degree of genetic uniformity and are essentially genetically identical to one another. Inbred strains of mice are often used in research because their genetic consistency makes them more reliable models for studying biological phenomena and testing new therapies or treatments.

It is important to note that while inbred ICR mice may be useful for certain types of research, they do not necessarily represent the genetic diversity found in human populations. Therefore, it is important to consider the limitations of using any animal model when interpreting research findings and applying them to human health.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

The pregnancy rate is a measure used in reproductive medicine to determine the frequency or efficiency of conception following certain treatments, interventions, or under specific conditions. It is typically defined as the number of pregnancies per 100 women exposed to the condition being studied over a specified period of time. A pregnancy is confirmed when a woman has a positive result on a pregnancy test or through the detection of a gestational sac on an ultrasound exam.

In clinical trials and research, the pregnancy rate helps healthcare professionals evaluate the effectiveness of various fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or ovulation induction medications. The pregnancy rate can also be used to assess the impact of lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, or medical conditions on fertility and conception.

It is important to note that pregnancy rates may vary depending on several factors, including age, the cause of infertility, the type and quality of treatment provided, and individual patient characteristics. Therefore, comparing pregnancy rates between different studies should be done cautiously, considering these potential confounding variables.

Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) is a type of aquaporin, which is a family of water channel proteins that facilitate the transport of water molecules across cell membranes. Specifically, AQP5 is found in various tissues, including the lungs, salivary and lacrimal glands, sweat glands, and cornea. It plays a crucial role in maintaining water homeostasis and lubrication in these tissues.

In the lungs, AQP5 helps regulate airway surface liquid volume and composition, contributing to proper lung function. In the salivary and lacrimal glands, it aids in fluid secretion, ensuring adequate moisture in the mouth and eyes. In sweat glands, AQP5 facilitates water transport during sweating, helping to regulate body temperature. Lastly, in the cornea, AQP5 helps maintain transparency and hydration, contributing to clear vision.

Defects or dysfunctions in AQP5 can lead to various conditions, such as dry mouth (xerostomia), dry eye (keratoconjunctivitis sicca), and potentially impaired lung function.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

A uterine contraction is a rhythmic, involuntary muscle tightening that occurs in the uterus. These contractions are primarily caused by the activation of smooth muscle cells within the uterine wall, known as myometrial cells. They play a crucial role in various reproductive processes, including menstruation, implantation of a fertilized egg, and childbirth (labor).

During labor, strong and frequent uterine contractions help to dilate the cervix and efface (thin) the lower part of the uterus. As the contractions become more intense and regular, they assist in moving the baby down through the birth canal, ultimately resulting in delivery. Uterine contractions are regulated by a complex interplay of hormones, neurotransmitters, and other signaling molecules, ensuring proper coordination and timing throughout the reproductive process.

Pregnancy maintenance refers to the ongoing process and care required to support and sustain a healthy pregnancy until childbirth. This includes regular prenatal check-ups to monitor the health of both the mother and the developing fetus, proper nutrition, regular exercise, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking or consuming alcohol. In some cases, pregnancy maintenance may also include medical interventions such as hormone treatments or bed rest. The goal of pregnancy maintenance is to ensure the best possible outcome for both the mother and the baby.

'Life cycle stages' is a term used in the context of public health and medicine to describe the different stages that an organism goes through during its lifetime. This concept is particularly important in the field of epidemiology, where understanding the life cycle stages of infectious agents (such as bacteria, viruses, parasites) can help inform strategies for disease prevention and control.

The life cycle stages of an infectious agent may include various forms such as spores, cysts, trophozoites, schizonts, or vectors, among others, depending on the specific organism. Each stage may have different characteristics, such as resistance to environmental factors, susceptibility to drugs, and ability to transmit infection.

For example, the life cycle stages of the malaria parasite include sporozoites (the infective form transmitted by mosquitoes), merozoites (the form that infects red blood cells), trophozoites (the feeding stage inside red blood cells), schizonts (the replicating stage inside red blood cells), and gametocytes (the sexual stage that can be taken up by mosquitoes to continue the life cycle).

Understanding the life cycle stages of an infectious agent is critical for developing effective interventions, such as vaccines, drugs, or other control measures. For example, targeting a specific life cycle stage with a drug may prevent transmission or reduce the severity of disease. Similarly, designing a vaccine to elicit immunity against a particular life cycle stage may provide protection against infection or disease.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Chronic toxicity tests are a type of experimental procedure in toxicology that are conducted over an extended period to evaluate the potential adverse health effects resulting from repeated exposure to low levels of chemical substances or physical agents. These tests are designed to assess the long-term effects of these agents on living organisms, including humans, and typically span a significant portion of the lifespan of the test species.

The primary objective of chronic toxicity testing is to identify potential health hazards associated with prolonged exposure to chemicals or physical agents, such as heavy metals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, nanomaterials, and ionizing radiation. The tests provide information on the nature and severity of toxic effects, including cancer, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurological damage, and other chronic health issues.

Standardized protocols for conducting chronic toxicity tests are established by regulatory agencies such as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). These guidelines typically involve testing on two or more species, often including rodents and non-rodents, to ensure the results are applicable across different taxonomic groups.

The data generated from chronic toxicity tests contribute significantly to risk assessment and help regulatory agencies establish safe exposure limits for chemical substances and physical agents in various settings, such as occupational, consumer, and environmental contexts.

Equine Gonadotropins are glycoprotein hormones derived from the pituitary gland of horses. They consist of two subunits: a common alpha subunit and a unique beta subunit that determines the biological activity of each hormone. There are two main types of equine gonadotropins: Equine Follicle Stimulating Hormone (eFSH) and Equine Luteinizing Hormone (eLH).

eFSH plays a crucial role in the growth and development of ovarian follicles in females, while eLH stimulates ovulation and the production of sex steroids in both males and females. These hormones are often used in veterinary medicine to induce ovulation and improve fertility in horses, as well as in research to study the physiology and biochemistry of gonadotropins and reproduction. It's important to note that equine gonadotropins have limited application in human reproductive medicine due to potential immunogenic reactions and other safety concerns.

Epithelium is the tissue that covers the outer surface of the body, lines the internal cavities and organs, and forms various glands. It is composed of one or more layers of tightly packed cells that have a uniform shape and size, and rest on a basement membrane. Epithelial tissues are avascular, meaning they do not contain blood vessels, and are supplied with nutrients by diffusion from the underlying connective tissue.

Epithelial cells perform a variety of functions, including protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and sensation. They can be classified based on their shape and the number of cell layers they contain. The main types of epithelium are:

1. Squamous epithelium: composed of flat, scalelike cells that fit together like tiles on a roof. It forms the lining of blood vessels, air sacs in the lungs, and the outermost layer of the skin.
2. Cuboidal epithelium: composed of cube-shaped cells with equal height and width. It is found in glands, tubules, and ducts.
3. Columnar epithelium: composed of tall, rectangular cells that are taller than they are wide. It lines the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts.
4. Pseudostratified epithelium: appears stratified or layered but is actually made up of a single layer of cells that vary in height. The nuclei of these cells appear at different levels, giving the tissue a stratified appearance. It lines the respiratory and reproductive tracts.
5. Transitional epithelium: composed of several layers of cells that can stretch and change shape to accommodate changes in volume. It is found in the urinary bladder and ureters.

Epithelial tissue provides a barrier between the internal and external environments, protecting the body from physical, chemical, and biological damage. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating the exchange of substances between the body and its environment.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

A Beluga Whale, also known as Delphinapterus leucas, is a marine mammal that belongs to the family Monodontidae. It is easily recognizable by its distinctive white color and bulbous forehead, called melon. Beluga whales are found primarily in the Arctic Ocean and sub-Arctic waters. They are highly social animals, known for their vocalizations, which include a series of clicks, whistles, and squawks. Adult belugas can grow up to 13-20 feet in length and weigh between 1,500-3,500 pounds. They feed on fish and invertebrates and are considered to be top predators in their ecosystem. Beluga whales have a thick layer of blubber that helps them with buoyancy and insulation in cold waters. They are also known for their ability to adapt to changes in salinity and temperature, which allows them to survive in various aquatic habitats.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

"Phodopus" is not a medical term, but a taxonomic genus that includes several species of small rodents commonly known as hamsters. The most common species within this genus are the Campbell's dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) and the Djungarian or Russian winter white hamster (Phodopus sungorus). These hamsters are often kept as pets and may be involved in biomedical research. However, they are not typically associated with medical conditions or treatments.

Pituitary hormone-releasing hormones (PRHs), also known as hypothalamic releasing hormones or hypothalamic hormones, are small neuropeptides produced and released by the hypothalamus - a small region of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating the secretion and release of various pituitary hormones, which in turn control several essential bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, stress response, reproduction, and lactation.

There are several PRHs, each with a specific target pituitary hormone:

1. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH): Stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which then promotes the production and release of thyroid hormones.
2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): Regulates the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which are essential for reproductive functions.
3. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH): Stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which then promotes the production and release of cortisol and other glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands.
4. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH): Stimulates the release of growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which is essential for growth, development, and metabolism regulation.
5. Somatostatin or growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH): Inhibits the release of GH from the anterior pituitary gland and also suppresses the secretion of thyroid hormones.
6. Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH) or prolactin-releasing factor (PRF): Stimulates the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland, which is essential for lactation and reproductive functions.
7. Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) or dopamine: Inhibits the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland.

These releasing hormones and inhibitory hormones work together to maintain a delicate balance in various physiological processes, including growth, development, metabolism, stress response, and reproductive functions. Dysregulation of these hormonal systems can lead to various endocrine disorders and diseases.

Dinoprostone is a prostaglandin E2 analog used in medical practice for the induction of labor and ripening of the cervix in pregnant women. It is available in various forms, including vaginal suppositories, gel, and tablets. Dinoprostone works by stimulating the contraction of uterine muscles and promoting cervical dilation, which helps in facilitating a successful delivery.

It's important to note that dinoprostone should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as its use is associated with certain risks and side effects, including uterine hyperstimulation, fetal distress, and maternal infection. The dosage and duration of treatment are carefully monitored to minimize these risks and ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

Dihydroergotoxine is a semi-synthetic ergot alkaloid, which is derived from the ergot fungus (Claviceps purpurea). It is a mixture of four dihydrogenated ergot alkaloids: dihydroergocristine, dihydroergotamine, dihydroergotoxine, and dihydroalphaergocryptine.

Dihydroergotoxine has been used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including peripheral and cerebral vascular insufficiency, migraine headaches, and orthostatic hypotension. It works by stimulating the release of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which help to improve blood flow and reduce symptoms associated with these conditions.

It is important to note that dihydroergotoxine can have serious side effects, including ergotism, a condition characterized by vasoconstriction, muscle cramps, and gangrene. It should be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

Anovulation is a medical condition in which there is a failure to ovulate, or release a mature egg from the ovaries, during a menstrual cycle. This can occur due to various reasons such as hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, excessive exercise, stress, low body weight, or certain medications. Anovulation is common in women with irregular menstrual cycles and can cause infertility if left untreated. In some cases, anovulation may be treated with medication to stimulate ovulation.

Lactotrophs, also known as mammotrophs or prolactin cells, are a type of hormone-producing cell found in the anterior pituitary gland. They are responsible for producing and secreting the hormone prolactin, which plays a crucial role in lactation (milk production) in females after childbirth. Prolactin also has other functions in the body, such as regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. Lactotrophs can be stimulated by factors like estrogen, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and stress, leading to increased prolactin secretion.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Interferon type I is a class of signaling proteins, also known as cytokines, that are produced and released by cells in response to the presence of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. These interferons play a crucial role in the body's innate immune system and help to establish an antiviral state in surrounding cells to prevent the spread of infection.

Interferon type I includes several subtypes, such as interferon-alpha (IFN-α), interferon-beta (IFN-β), and interferon-omega (IFN-ω). When produced, these interferons bind to specific receptors on the surface of nearby cells, triggering a cascade of intracellular signaling events that lead to the activation of genes involved in the antiviral response.

The activation of these genes results in the production of enzymes that inhibit viral replication and promote the destruction of infected cells. Interferon type I also enhances the adaptive immune response by promoting the activation and proliferation of immune cells such as T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which can directly target and eliminate infected cells.

Overall, interferon type I plays a critical role in the body's defense against viral infections and is an important component of the immune response to many different types of pathogens.

Reproductive sterilization is a surgical procedure that aims to prevent reproduction by making an individual unable to produce viable reproductive cells or preventing the union of sperm and egg. In males, this is often achieved through a vasectomy, which involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra. In females, sterilization is typically performed via a procedure called tubal ligation, where the fallopian tubes are cut, tied, or sealed, preventing the egg from traveling from the ovaries to the uterus and blocking sperm from reaching the egg. These methods are considered permanent forms of contraception; however, in rare cases, reversals may be attempted with varying degrees of success.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptors are specialized protein structures found on the surface of specific cells in the body. They play a crucial role in the endocrine system, particularly in the regulation of reproduction and development.

FSH receptors are primarily located on the granulosa cells that surround and support the developing eggs (oocytes) within the ovarian follicles in females. In males, these receptors can be found on the Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testes.

When FSH, a glycoprotein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, binds to its specific receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to various physiological responses. In females, FSH receptor activation stimulates follicle growth, estrogen production, and oocyte maturation. In males, FSH receptor signaling supports spermatogenesis, the process of sperm cell development within the testes.

In summary, FSH receptors are essential components in the hormonal regulation of reproduction and development, mediating the actions of follicle-stimulating hormone on target cells in both females and males.

Toxaphene is not typically defined in a medical context as it is not a medication or a condition. However, it is a chemical compound that has been used as a pesticide and has been banned in many countries due to its toxicity and environmental persistence.

Medically, toxaphene exposure can lead to various health issues, including skin and eye irritation, respiratory problems, neurological symptoms, and potential cancer risk. Therefore, it is sometimes mentioned in medical literature in the context of occupational or environmental health.

A domestic sheep (Ovis aries) is not a medical term, but it is an animal species that humans keep and breed for a variety of purposes, including meat, wool, and milk production. While the term "sheep" may appear in medical contexts, such as in discussions of zoonotic diseases (diseases transmissible between animals and humans), the specific definition you are looking for is not medical in nature. Domestic sheep are social herbivores that prefer to eat short grasses and can be found in various parts of the world. They have been domesticated for thousands of years, making them one of the earliest animals to be domesticated by humans.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Intramolecular oxidoreductases are a specific class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of electrons within a single molecule, hence the term "intramolecular." These enzymes are involved in oxidoreduction reactions, where one part of the molecule is oxidized (loses electrons) and another part is reduced (gains electrons). This process allows for the rearrangement or modification of functional groups within the molecule.

The term "oxidoreductase" refers to enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, which are also known as redox reactions. These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy metabolism, detoxification, and biosynthesis.

It's important to note that intramolecular oxidoreductases should not be confused with intermolecular oxidoreductases, which catalyze redox reactions between two separate molecules.

"Dolphins" is a common name that refers to several species of marine mammals belonging to the family Delphinidae, within the larger group Cetacea. Dolphins are known for their intelligence, social behavior, and acrobatic displays. They are generally characterized by a streamlined body, a prominent dorsal fin, and a distinctive "smiling" expression created by the curvature of their mouths.

Although "dolphins" is sometimes used to refer to all members of the Delphinidae family, it is important to note that there are several other families within the Cetacea order, including porpoises and whales. Therefore, not all small cetaceans are dolphins.

Some examples of dolphin species include:

1. Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) - This is the most well-known and studied dolphin species, often featured in aquariums and marine parks. They have a robust body and a prominent, curved dorsal fin.
2. Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) - These dolphins are characterized by their hourglass-shaped color pattern and distinct, falcate dorsal fins. There are two subspecies: the short-beaked common dolphin and the long-beaked common dolphin.
3. Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) - Known for their acrobatic behavior, spinner dolphins have a slender body and a long, thin beak. They are named for their spinning jumps out of the water.
4. Risso's Dolphin (Grampus griseus) - These dolphins have a unique appearance, with a robust body, a prominent dorsal fin, and a distinctive, scarred skin pattern caused by social interactions and encounters with squid, their primary food source.
5. Orca (Orcinus orca) - Also known as the killer whale, orcas are the largest dolphin species and are highly intelligent and social predators. They have a distinctive black-and-white color pattern and a prominent dorsal fin.

In medical terminology, "dolphins" do not have a specific relevance, but they can be used in various contexts such as therapy, research, or education. For instance, dolphin-assisted therapy is an alternative treatment that involves interactions between patients and dolphins to improve psychological and physical well-being. Additionally, marine biologists and researchers study dolphin behavior, communication, and cognition to understand their complex social structures and intelligence better.

The G1 phase, or Gap 1 phase, is the first phase of the cell cycle, during which the cell grows in size and synthesizes mRNA and proteins in preparation for subsequent steps leading to mitosis. During this phase, the cell also checks its growth and makes sure that it is large enough to proceed through the cell cycle. If the cell is not large enough, it will arrest in the G1 phase until it has grown sufficiently. The G1 phase is followed by the S phase, during which DNA replication occurs.

The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Cervical mucus is a clear or cloudy secretion produced by glands in the cervix. The amount and consistency of cervical mucus changes throughout a woman's menstrual cycle, influenced by hormonal fluctuations.

During the fertile window (approximately mid-cycle), estrogen levels rise, causing the cervical mucus to become more abundant, clear, and stretchy (often described as resembling raw egg whites). This "fertile" mucus facilitates the movement of sperm through the cervix and into the uterus, increasing the chances of fertilization.

As the menstrual cycle progresses and progesterone levels rise after ovulation, cervical mucus becomes thicker, cloudier, and less abundant, making it more difficult for sperm to penetrate. This change in cervical mucus helps prevent additional sperm from entering and fertilizing an already-fertilized egg.

Changes in cervical mucus can be used as a method of natural family planning or fertility awareness, with women checking their cervical mucus daily to identify their most fertile days. However, this method should be combined with other tracking methods for increased accuracy and reliability.

Phenoxyacetates are a group of herbicides that are chemically characterized by a phenoxy group attached to an acetic acid moiety. They function as synthetic auxins, mimicking the plant hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA), and cause unregulated growth in susceptible plants leading to their eventual death. Common examples of phenoxyacetate herbicides include 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). These compounds have been widely used for controlling broadleaf weeds in various settings such as agriculture, forestry, and landscaping. However, their use has been associated with environmental concerns and potential health effects, including endocrine disruption and increased risk of certain cancers, leading to regulatory restrictions in many countries.

I believe you may be referring to the "ventral" part of the hypothalamus, as there isn't a widely recognized anatomical division called the "middle" hypothalamus. The ventral hypothalamus is a region that contains several critical structures, including:

1. The infundibular stem: This is a funnel-shaped structure that extends downward from the hypothalamus and forms the beginning of the pituitary stalk. It contains tuber cinereum and the median eminence.
2. Tuber cinereum: A region with several nuclei, including the arcuate nucleus, which plays a role in regulating feeding behavior, growth hormone release, and sexual function.
3. Median eminence: A crucial area where the hypothalamus interacts with the pituitary gland. It contains nerve terminals that release neurohormones into the portal capillaries, which then carry these substances to the anterior pituitary to regulate hormone secretion.

The ventral hypothalamus is essential for various functions, such as releasing and inhibiting hormones, regulating body temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep, emotional behavior, and parental behaviors.

Body fluids refer to the various liquids that can be found within and circulating throughout the human body. These fluids include, but are not limited to:

1. Blood: A fluid that carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body via the cardiovascular system. It is composed of red and white blood cells suspended in plasma.
2. Lymph: A clear-to-white fluid that circulates through the lymphatic system, helping to remove waste products, bacteria, and damaged cells from tissues while also playing a crucial role in the immune system.
3. Interstitial fluid: Also known as tissue fluid or extracellular fluid, it is the fluid that surrounds the cells in the body's tissues, allowing for nutrient exchange and waste removal between cells and blood vessels.
4. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): A clear, colorless fluid that circulates around the brain and spinal cord, providing protection, cushioning, and nutrients to these delicate structures while also removing waste products.
5. Pleural fluid: A small amount of lubricating fluid found in the pleural space between the lungs and the chest wall, allowing for smooth movement during respiration.
6. Pericardial fluid: A small amount of lubricating fluid found within the pericardial sac surrounding the heart, reducing friction during heart contractions.
7. Synovial fluid: A viscous, lubricating fluid found in joint spaces, allowing for smooth movement and protecting the articular cartilage from wear and tear.
8. Urine: A waste product produced by the kidneys, consisting of water, urea, creatinine, and various ions, which is excreted through the urinary system.
9. Gastrointestinal secretions: Fluids produced by the digestive system, including saliva, gastric juice, bile, pancreatic juice, and intestinal secretions, which aid in digestion, absorption, and elimination of food particles.
10. Reproductive fluids: Secretions from the male (semen) and female (cervical mucus, vaginal lubrication) reproductive systems that facilitate fertilization and reproduction.

Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide. It is used to control a wide variety of pests, including flies, ticks, and mites in agriculture, livestock production, and public health. Trichlorfon works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and results in paralysis and death of the pest. It is important to note that trichlorfon can also have harmful effects on non-target organisms, including humans, and its use is regulated by various governmental agencies to minimize potential risks.

Litter size is a term used in veterinary medicine, particularly in relation to breeding of animals. It refers to the number of offspring that are born to an animal during one pregnancy. For example, in the case of dogs or cats, it would be the number of kittens or puppies born in a single litter. The size of the litter can vary widely depending on the species, breed, age, and health status of the parent animals.

The Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme, also known as Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory (StAR) protein or P450scc, is a complex enzymatic system that plays a crucial role in the production of steroid hormones. It is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of steroid-producing cells, such as those found in the adrenal glands, gonads, and placenta.

The Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme is responsible for converting cholesterol into pregnenolone, which is the first step in the biosynthesis of all steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, sex hormones, and vitamin D. This enzymatic complex consists of two components: a flavoprotein called NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, which provides electrons for the reaction, and a cytochrome P450 protein called CYP11A1, which catalyzes the actual cleavage of the cholesterol side chain.

Defects in the Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme can lead to various genetic disorders, such as congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired steroidogenesis and accumulation of cholesteryl esters in the adrenal glands and gonads.

Ovulation induction is a medical procedure that involves the stimulation of ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) in women who have difficulties conceiving due to ovulatory disorders. This is typically achieved through the use of medications such as clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins, which promote the development and maturation of follicles in the ovaries containing eggs. The process is closely monitored through regular ultrasounds and hormone tests to ensure appropriate response and minimize the risk of complications like multiple pregnancies. Ovulation induction may be used as a standalone treatment or in conjunction with other assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

The decidua is a specialized type of tissue that lines the uterus during pregnancy. It forms after the implantation of a fertilized egg (embryo) into the uterine lining, and it plays an important role in supporting the growth and development of the embryo and fetus.

The decidua is composed of several layers, including the decidual capsularis, which surrounds the embryo, and the decidual parietalis, which lines the rest of the uterus. The tissue is rich in blood vessels and contains a variety of immune cells that help to protect the developing fetus from infection.

During pregnancy, the decidua produces various hormones and growth factors that support the growth of the placenta, which provides nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. After the birth of the baby, the decidua is shed along with the placenta in a process called childbirth or parturition.

It's worth noting that abnormalities in the decidua can contribute to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, preterm labor, and miscarriage.

Uterine diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the uterus, which is the reproductive organ in females where fetal development occurs. These diseases can be categorized into structural abnormalities, infectious diseases, and functional disorders. Here are some examples:

1. Structural abnormalities: These include congenital malformations such as septate uterus or bicornuate uterus, as well as acquired conditions like endometrial polyps, fibroids (benign tumors of the muscular wall), and adenomyosis (where the endometrial tissue grows into the muscular wall).

2. Infectious diseases: The uterus can be affected by various infections, including bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic agents. Examples include pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tuberculosis, and candidiasis.

3. Functional disorders: These are conditions that affect the normal functioning of the uterus without any apparent structural abnormalities or infections. Examples include dysmenorrhea (painful periods), menorrhagia (heavy periods), and endometriosis (where the endometrial tissue grows outside the uterus).

4. Malignant diseases: Uterine cancer, including endometrial cancer and cervical cancer, are significant health concerns for women.

5. Other conditions: Miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility can also be considered as uterine diseases since they involve the abnormal functioning or structural issues of the uterus.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "goats" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a common noun referring to the domesticated animal species Capra aegagrus hircus. If you have any questions about a specific medical condition or term, please provide that and I would be happy to help.

Kisspeptins are a family of peptides that are derived from the preproprotein kisspeptin. The most well-known member of this family is kisspeptin-54, which is also known as metastin. Kisspeptins play important roles in several physiological processes, including the regulation of growth, inflammation, and energy homeostasis. However, they are perhaps best known for their role in the reproductive system.

In the reproductive system, kisspeptins act as key regulators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which is responsible for controlling reproductive function. Kisspeptins are produced by neurons in the hypothalamus and bind to receptors on other neurons that release gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). GnRH then stimulates the pituitary gland to release follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which act on the gonads to promote the production of sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

Dysregulation of the HPG axis, including abnormal kisspeptin signaling, has been implicated in a number of reproductive disorders, such as precocious puberty, delayed puberty, and infertility. As such, there is significant interest in understanding the role of kisspeptins in reproductive function and developing therapies that target this pathway.

Gonadotropins are hormones produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating reproduction and sexual development. There are two main types of gonadotropins:

1. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): FSH is essential for the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries (in females) or sperm production in the testes (in males). In females, FSH stimulates the maturation of eggs within the follicles.
2. Luteinizing Hormone (LH): LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the dominant follicle. In males, LH stimulates the production and secretion of testosterone in the testes.

Together, FSH and LH work synergistically to regulate various aspects of reproductive function and sexual development. Their secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus, which releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to stimulate the production and release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary gland.

Abnormal levels of gonadotropins can lead to various reproductive disorders, such as infertility or menstrual irregularities in females and issues related to sexual development or function in both sexes. In some cases, synthetic forms of gonadotropins may be used clinically to treat these conditions or for assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

Embryo transfer is a medical procedure that involves the transfer of an embryo, which is typically created through in vitro fertilization (IVF), into the uterus of a woman with the aim of establishing a pregnancy. The embryo may be created using the intended parent's own sperm and eggs or those from donors. After fertilization and early cell division, the resulting embryo is transferred into the uterus of the recipient mother through a thin catheter that is inserted through the cervix. This procedure is typically performed under ultrasound guidance to ensure proper placement of the embryo. Embryo transfer is a key step in assisted reproductive technology (ART) and is often used as a treatment for infertility.

Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a type of nuclear receptor protein that are expressed in various tissues and cells throughout the body. They play a critical role in the regulation of gene expression and cellular responses to the hormone estrogen. There are two main subtypes of ERs, ERα and ERβ, which have distinct molecular structures, expression patterns, and functions.

ERs function as transcription factors that bind to specific DNA sequences called estrogen response elements (EREs) in the promoter regions of target genes. When estrogen binds to the ER, it causes a conformational change in the receptor that allows it to recruit co-activator proteins and initiate transcription of the target gene. This process can lead to a variety of cellular responses, including changes in cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism.

Estrogen receptors are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including the development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues, bone homeostasis, cardiovascular function, and cognitive function. They have also been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and osteoporosis. As a result, ERs are an important target for therapeutic interventions in these diseases.

An ovarian cyst is a sac or pouch filled with fluid that forms on the ovary. Ovarian cysts are quite common in women during their childbearing years, and they often cause no symptoms. In most cases, ovarian cysts disappear without treatment over a few months. However, larger or persistent cysts may require medical intervention, including surgical removal.

There are various types of ovarian cysts, such as functional cysts (follicular and corpus luteum cysts), which develop during the menstrual cycle due to hormonal changes, and non-functional cysts (dermoid cysts, endometriomas, and cystadenomas), which can form due to different causes.

While many ovarian cysts are benign, some may have malignant potential or indicate an underlying medical condition like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Regular gynecological check-ups, including pelvic examinations and ultrasounds, can help detect and monitor ovarian cysts.

Ovulation detection refers to the process of identifying the time period during which an ovary releases an oocyte (mature egg) from its follicle, ready for fertilization. This is a crucial aspect of reproductive health and assisted reproduction technologies (ART), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

There are several methods to detect ovulation, including:

1. Ovulation Predictor Kits (OPKs): These are home-use test kits that detect the surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) in urine, which occurs 24-36 hours prior to ovulation.
2. Basal Body Temperature (BBT) Charting: This involves tracking and recording daily basal body temperature (the lowest temperature attained by the body during rest), as it tends to rise slightly after ovulation due to increased progesterone levels.
3. Hormonal Monitoring: Blood tests can be used to measure hormone levels, such as estrogen and progesterone, throughout a menstrual cycle to detect ovulation.
4. Transvaginal Ultrasound: This imaging technique is often used in clinical settings to monitor follicular development and determine the exact time of ovulation by observing changes in the ovarian follicle and endometrial lining.
5. Saliva Ferning Tests: A microscope is used to examine the patterns formed by dried saliva, which can indicate increased estrogen levels prior to ovulation.

Accurate ovulation detection helps individuals or couples trying to conceive optimize their chances of success and provides valuable information for healthcare providers in managing reproductive health issues.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Trenbolone Acetate is an esterified form of the synthetic steroid hormone Trenbolone. It is a potent anabolic and androgenic steroid, which is used in veterinary medicine for promoting muscle growth and appetite stimulation in cattle. In human medicine, it is not approved for use but is sometimes misused for its anabolic effects, such as increasing muscle mass, strength, and reducing body fat. It is important to note that the use of Trenbolone Acetate in humans is considered off-label and can lead to serious health consequences, including liver toxicity, cardiovascular issues, and hormonal imbalances.

"Animal nutritional physiological phenomena" is not a standardized medical or scientific term. However, it seems to refer to the processes and functions related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Here's a breakdown of the possible components:

1. Animal: This term refers to non-human living organisms that are multicellular, heterotrophic, and have a distinct nervous system.
2. Nutritional: This term pertains to the nourishment and energy requirements of an animal, including the ingestion, digestion, absorption, transportation, metabolism, and excretion of nutrients.
3. Physiological: This term refers to the functions and processes that occur within a living organism, including the interactions between different organs and systems.
4. Phenomena: This term generally means an observable fact or event.

Therefore, "animal nutritional physiological phenomena" could refer to the observable events and processes related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Examples of such phenomena include digestion, absorption, metabolism, energy production, growth, reproduction, and waste elimination.

Mitosis is a type of cell division in which the genetic material of a single cell, called the mother cell, is equally distributed into two identical daughter cells. It's a fundamental process that occurs in multicellular organisms for growth, maintenance, and repair, as well as in unicellular organisms for reproduction.

The process of mitosis can be broken down into several stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. During prophase, the chromosomes condense and become visible, and the nuclear envelope breaks down. In prometaphase, the nuclear membrane is completely disassembled, and the mitotic spindle fibers attach to the chromosomes at their centromeres.

During metaphase, the chromosomes align at the metaphase plate, an imaginary line equidistant from the two spindle poles. In anaphase, sister chromatids are pulled apart by the spindle fibers and move toward opposite poles of the cell. Finally, in telophase, new nuclear envelopes form around each set of chromosomes, and the chromosomes decondense and become less visible.

Mitosis is followed by cytokinesis, a process that divides the cytoplasm of the mother cell into two separate daughter cells. The result of mitosis and cytokinesis is two genetically identical cells, each with the same number and kind of chromosomes as the original parent cell.

Female fertility agents are medications or treatments that are used to enhance or restore female fertility. They can work in various ways such as stimulating ovulation, improving the quality of eggs, facilitating the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus, or addressing issues related to the reproductive system.

Some examples of female fertility agents include:

1. Clomiphene citrate (Clomid, Serophene): This medication stimulates ovulation by causing the pituitary gland to release more follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
2. Gonadotropins: These are hormonal medications that contain FSH and LH, which stimulate the ovaries to produce mature eggs. Examples include human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
3. Letrozole (Femara): This medication is an aromatase inhibitor that can be used off-label to stimulate ovulation in women who do not respond to clomiphene citrate.
4. Metformin (Glucophage): This medication is primarily used to treat type 2 diabetes, but it can also improve fertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by regulating insulin levels and promoting ovulation.
5. Bromocriptine (Parlodel): This medication is used to treat infertility caused by hyperprolactinemia, a condition characterized by high levels of prolactin in the blood.
6. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): These include procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT). They involve manipulating eggs and sperm outside the body to facilitate fertilization and implantation.

It is important to consult with a healthcare provider or reproductive endocrinologist to determine the most appropriate fertility agent for individual needs, as these medications can have side effects and potential risks.

Systematic overview Etymology Cat estrous cycle Horse estrous cycle Dogs in Heat - FAQ Skloot, Rebecca (December 9, 2007). "Lap ... thus cats may undergo an estrous cycle of 3 to 7 weeks. Domestication can affect estrous cycles due to changes in the ... Humans have menstrual cycles rather than estrous cycles. They, unlike most other species, have concealed ovulation, a lack of ... Typically, estrous cycles repeat until death. These cycles are widely variable in duration and frequency depending on the ...
"Prolific Cats: The Estrous Cycle" (PDF). Veterinary Learning Systems. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 December 2016. ... 28 June 2022). "Feline Estrous Cycle". Feline Reproduction. pp. 11-22. doi:10.1079/9781789247107.0002. Rochlitz, I. (2007). The ... The laryngeal muscles in control of the glottis are thought to be driven by a neural oscillator which generates a cycle of ... After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat. Because ovulation is not always ...
... at which age female dogs will start having an estrous cycle. There are four stages of estrous: proestrus, estrus, diestrus, and ... Eilts, Bruce E (25 September 2012). "The Normal Canine Estrous Cycle". therio.vetmed.lsu.edu. Retrieved 2018-03-28. Darwin, ...
"Estrous Cycle Learning Module". Mottershead, Jos. "The Mare's Estrous Cycle". May, Jerry; Bates, Ron. "Managing the Sow and ... Average length (days) of estrus and estrous cycles: Endometrium Estrous cycle Breeding pair Reproduction Animal husbandry Gras ... Most female mammals have an estrous cycle, yet only ten primate species, four bat species, the elephant shrew, and one known ... Females of other species of placental mammal undergo estrous cycles, in which the endometrium is completely reabsorbed by the ...
The hamster's estrous cycle lasts four days; every four days, the female may accept the male back to breed again. This usually ... Photoperiodic control of seasonal body weight cycles in hamsters (Abstract) How to Care for Your Dwarf Hamster (Your first... ... Quoted in Ross 1998 (p. 1-2, " form ") Duncan, Marilyn (1984). "Hormonal regulation of the annual pelage color cycle in the ... whereas in the wild and in animals maintained in captivity but under entirely natural light-dark cycles, breeding is restricted ...
In cows, a complete estrous cycle lasts 21 days. Most commonly, dairy producers discuss the estrous cycle as beginning when the ... Puberty coincides with the beginning of estrous cycles. Estrous cycles are the recurring hormonal and physiological changes ... which means that she will continue to undergo regular estrous cycles until death unless the cycle is interrupted by a pregnancy ... The cycle of insemination, pregnancy, parturition, and lactation, followed by a "dry" period of about two months of forty-five ...
The oestrous cycle of a cow lasts 14-16 weeks, with the follicular phase lasting 4-6 weeks and the luteal phase lasting 8-10 ... "Elephant Reproduction Project: The Estrous Cycle of Elephants". Smithsonian National Zoo. Archived from the original on 6 June ... due to the difficulty of handling musth bulls and limited understanding of female oestrous cycles. Asian elephants were always ... Bulls will accompany family groups if a cow is in oestrous. Adult males enter a state of increased testosterone known as musth ...
Rut in males and estrous in females does not depend on the season. In captivity, estrous cycles recur every 15 days. The male ... In captivity, estrus cycles recur every 15 days. The gestational period is around 440 to 450 days long, following which usually ...
Estrous cycle duration was of about 33 days. During pregnancy, ultrasonography showed the uterine horns as coiled. The maximum ... Anovulation was rare in winter, which suggested the effect of seasons on the estrous cycle. Gestation period lasts 257-270 days ... Asa, C.S.; Houston, E.W.; Fischer, M.T.; Bauman, J.E.; Bauman, K.L.; Hagberg, P.K.; Read, B.W. (1996). "Ovulatory cycles and ...
The estrous cycle will last approximately about 42 days. Gestation ranges from 130 to 190 days. The female gives birth to one ...
Progression of the estrous cycle includes different vaginal discharges. On the morning of the day 1 the female is sexually ... If a female hamster encounters a male when her estrous cycle is not at the point for mating, then the two hamsters will be ... When a female hamster is in season to breed, her estrous cycle spans four days. Every fourth day between sunset and sunrise she ... Day 5 is a repeat of day 1, as the cycle repeats. A female hamster who has had an unsuccessful mating on day 1 can be ...
A female's estrous cycle is about 19 days long. Males will attempt to mate with the female for two days of the cycle, but she ... allows it for only six hours per cycle. When the male enters a females' herd during mating, he makes a display by raising his ...
Females have regular estrous cycles, each lasting three weeks. The female can conceive again two weeks to four months after ...
neonatal neurula neurulation notochord oestrous cycle See estrous cycle. oocyte oogenesis organogenesis ovary oviduct ovulation ... endoderm endometrium epiblast epiboly estrous cycle Fallopian tubes false amnion See chorion. fate map A diagram that shows ... ovulation conception delamination deuterostome developmental biology diakinesis dioestrus In the mammalian estrous cycle, the ...
The term "estrus" refers to the phase of the estrous cycle in which a sexually mature, non-pregnant female is receptive to ... There are many different injection methods that have been put into practise in order to manipulate the estrous cycle. These ... When the sponge is removed the cycle restarts. This apparatus is useful in manipulating the cycle so that multiple cows can be ... The PRID is a sponge that is inserted into the vagina of a cow to stop the natural estrous cycle (for it acts as a corpus ...
There does not seem to be a regular estrous cycle. The gestation length of the big-eared climbing rat is 52 days. Delayed ...
"Trisomy-X with estrous cycle anomalies in two female dogs". Theriogenology. 76 (2): 374-380. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology. ... either primary anestrus or infertility with an otherwise normal estrous cycle. Canine trisomy X is thought to be ...
... those spayed after one estrous cycle have 8.0% of the risk, and dogs spayed after two estrous cycles have 26.0% of the risk of ... However, hormones of the estrous cycle seem to be involved. Female dogs who are not spayed or who are spayed later than the ... While the benefit of spaying decreases with each estrous cycle, some benefit has been demonstrated in female dogs even up to 9 ... Dogs spayed before their first heat have 0.5 percent of this risk, and dogs spayed after just one heat cycle have 8 percent of ...
The estrous cycle of a female is about 15 days. A male can enhance this scent by curling it's lip which assists in bringing the ...
Guerriero FJ, Fox KA (May 1975). "Benzodiazepine-induced suppression of estrous cycles in C57BL/6J mice". Research ...
Females had an estrous cycle lasting nine to 12 days. Gestation lasted 49 to 51 days. They did not display a distinct ...
Their oestrous cycle is 29-32 days. Mating occurs 2-12 hours after the birth of the young.[better source needed] The gender of ...
Progesterone is highest in the diestrus phase of the estrous cycle. The role of the placenta in progestogen production varies ... although they are also present at other phases of the estrous and menstrual cycles. The progestogens are one of three types of ... with involvement in regulation of the menstrual cycle, maintenance of pregnancy, and preparation of the mammary glands for ... "Src kinase signaling mediates estrous behavior induced by 5β-reduced progestins, GnRH, prostaglandin E2 and vaginocervical ...
Females in an estrous cycle attract males with a loud whistle. Females reproduce every 12-18 months and have a six-month ...
The corpus luteum develops from an ovarian follicle during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or oestrous cycle, following ... in mammals that go through a menstrual cycle). In an estrous cycle, the lining regenerates back to normal size.[citation needed ... During the bovine estrous cycle, plasma levels of progesterone increase in parallel to the levels of P450scc and its electron ... "Antioxidant capacity is correlated with steroidogenic status of the corpus luteum during the bovine estrous cycle". Biochim. ...
Both estradiol and spine density fluctuated dramatically during the estrous cycle. Woolley recognized that this suggested that ...
The female estrous cycle is shorter, but happens in this time. The breeding process starts with the development of a lek. Leks ...
In one study, 35 complete oestrous cycles were observed in five nonpregnant females over 15 months. The cycles were about 28 ... Musa, B.; Abusineina, M. (16 December 1978). "The oestrous cycle of the camel (Camelus dromedarius)". Veterinary Record. 103 ( ... changing its moulting process to complete more or all of its life cycle on a single host if stressed, and having an unusually ...
Valdespino, C.; Asa, C. S. & Bauman, J. E. (2002). "Estrous cycles, copulation and pregnancy in the fennec fox (Vulpes zerda ...
The word Chena means puma in estrous cycle in the Quechuan language. The site was constructed by the Incas of the Qullasuyu. ...
Systematic overview Etymology Cat estrous cycle Horse estrous cycle Dogs in Heat - FAQ Skloot, Rebecca (December 9, 2007). "Lap ... thus cats may undergo an estrous cycle of 3 to 7 weeks. Domestication can affect estrous cycles due to changes in the ... Humans have menstrual cycles rather than estrous cycles. They, unlike most other species, have concealed ovulation, a lack of ... Typically, estrous cycles repeat until death. These cycles are widely variable in duration and frequency depending on the ...
Serial serum analyses showed estrous cycle suppression in association with a rise in GnRH antibody binding and a decrease in ... Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone fusion protein vaccines block estrous cycle activity in beef heifers. J Anim Sci. 2005;83 ... Effects of a GnRH Vaccine on the Estrous Cycle of an Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) ... is effective at suppressing estrous cyclicity in heifers.3,8 The production of antibodies to a GnRH fusion protein neutralizes ...
involved_in estrous cycle ISO Inferred from Sequence Orthology. more info. acts_upstream_of_or_within exocrine pancreas ... involved_in positive regulation of meiotic cell cycle IGI Inferred from Genetic Interaction. more info ... These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq ... and positive regulation of meiotic cell cycle. Acts upstream of or within several processes, including gland development; ...
Estrous cycle physiology in cattle; Inflammation and stress; Production medicine in dairy cattle ...
Includes the physiology and endocrinology of puberty, the oestrous cycle, pregnancy, parturition, the puerperium, as well as ... such as control of the oestrous cycle and parturition. A veterinary perspective (indications, limitations, current and future ... hormonal control of female reproductive cycles; fertilisation, sexing, gestation, pathogenesis of teratogenic deviations and ... the use of hormone profiles to monitor gestation and cycles, and artificial breeding. ...
xmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.item-dc-subject: Gatos ; gata; ciclo estral; anticoncepción ; Reproducción ; queen; estrous cycle; ... Feline estrous cycles occur at 14 to 19 day intervals in queen exposed to a constant daylenght (14 hours bright light per day ... Stages of the estrous cycle of the queen include proestrus, estrus, interestrous, and anestrus. Each stage has some ... There are different methods to prevent estrus cycles in queen. They can suppress fertility in a permanent or a temporal way. ...
... is confirmed to be entering her estrous cycle for this year while Le Le also appears to be sexually mature. Since Friday ... combined with her hormonal levels further reconfirmed that she is entering her estrous cycle for this year." She added, "Our ... Ying Ying has displayed typical estrous behaviors such as increased water play, bleating, and restlessness. Physical ...
Some female rats had changes in their estrous cycles after drinking water containing 2-butoxyethanol for moderate periods of ...
... the layers of the epithelium from which the cells had desquamated was established in untreated rats during the estrous cycle, ...
... spironolactone was found to increase the length of the estrous cycle by prolonging diestrus during treatment and inducing ...
Chen S, Palma-Vera SE, Kempisty B, Rucinski M, Vernunft A, Schoen J. In Vitro Mimicking of Estrous Cycle Stages: Dissecting the ... Chen S, Einspanier R, Schoen J. In vitro mimicking of estrous cycle stages in porcine oviduct epithelium cells: estradiol and ...
The Estrous Cycle. The Estrous Cycle of a Feline. In cats, female reproduction is regulated by a series of cycles known as the ... Estrous Cycle. The Estrous cycle describes the process in which felines transition from non-receptive to receptive for mating ... It is also important to stay mindful that each Estrous Cycle lasts only 4-7 days total with peak receptiveness occurring during ... If a female cat does not get pregnant after several matings over the course of one or two estrus cycles, she may need medical ...
In addition, we found that the estrous cycle of the female rats did not have a significant effect on the avoidance response. In ... In addition, we found that the estrous cycle of the female rats did not have a significant effect on the avoidance response. In ...
The effects of cycling levels of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone on the magnitude of temporomandibular joint-induced ... The results suggest that the cyclic estrous cycle concentrations of E2 and P4 can influence CFA-induced TMJ nociception in the ... Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were cycled with physiological concentrations of E2 or P4. The E2-cycled rats then received bilateral ... were performed to determine the separate roles of E2 and P4 in TMJ nociception at various stages of the estrous cycle. ...
... injected at pro-oestrus on luteal function and follicular dynamics of the subsequent oestrous cycle in non-lactating cycling ... Oestrous synchronization involves synchronization of ovarian follicular turnover, new wave emergence, and finally induction of ...
Marcondes FK, Bianchi FJ & Tanno AP 2002 Determination of the estrous cycle phases of rats: some helpful considerations. ... Determination of the estrous cycle phases of rats: some helpful considerations. . Brazilian Journal of Biology. 62. 609. -. 614 ... Sperm migration into and through the oviduct following artificial insemination at different stages of the estrous cycle in the ... Brandt Y, Madej A, Rodríguez-Martínez H & Einarsson S 2007 Effects of exogenous ACTH during oestrous on early embryo ...
Estrous Cycle Mediates Midbrain Neuron Excitability Altering Social Behavior upon Stress.. J Neurosci. 43(5):736-748. ...
Horse heat cycles, also known as estrous cycles, are an important aspect of equine reproduction. Understanding these cycles is ... Horse Heat Cycle: How Long are Horses in Heat?. By Nate Dewsbury ...
The first oestrous cycles following parturition are generally known to be short and anovulatory and the first ovulations not ... Mukasa-Mugerwa, E., Ezaz, Z., & Viviani, P. (1990). Plasma concentrations of progesterone during oestrous cycles of ethiopian ... Plasma progesterone analysis by a time-resolved fluorescent antibody test to monitor estrous cycles in goats. Journal of ... that resumption of full postpartum ovarian activity in ewes was preceded by silent ovulations and irregular oestrous cycle. ...
In contrast to freezing responses, the rat estrous cycle does not impact female-specific darting behaviors (Gruene et al., 2015 ... Estrogen and progestogens modulate worry conditioning/extinction across the estrous cycle and appear to become `protective in ... stressors like chronic restraint can alter estrous cycle modulation of worry conditioning and extinction. By way of example, ...
The success of reproductive activity in horses is closely related to the estrous cycle and estrus period. This study reports ... the estrous cycle, estrus period as well as estrus behavior in the Detasemen Kavaleri Berkuda ... ...
The estrous cycle; glucose tolerance; ovarian morphology; serum markers of oxidative stress; and expression of Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3 ... In PCOS rat models, BSTJF improved the estrous cycle, glucose tolerance, and ovarian morphology; relieved oxidative stress; ...
Anestrus was a period without obvious estrous signs during more than 36 days (the time of two estrous cycles). Ewes in luteal ... to records of three consecutive estrous cycles and the method of characterizing particular stages of the estrous cycle by ... The date of estrous cycle and duration of estrus were recorded and their blood was collected daily for measurement of serum ... estrous Tan ewes in autumn (TAE); STH ewes in luteal phase in spring (HSL), proestrous STH ewes in spring (HSP), estrous STH ...
Some limitations of their research were that they could not select to decide the estrous cycle of females due to the stress ...
Effect of estrous cycle phase on vulvar, orbital area and muzzle surface temperatures as determined using digital infrared ...
Flutamide did not affect estrous cycles or interfere with the mating behavior of male and female rats when the drug was ... Flutamide did not affect estrous cycles or interfere with the mating behavior of male and female rats when the drug was ...
  • Mammals that have menstrual cycles shed the endometrium through menstruation instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, females of species with menstrual cycles can be sexually active at any time in their cycle, even when they are not about to ovulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans have menstrual cycles rather than estrous cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estradiol is important for the regulation of estrous and female menstrual cycles. (familywize.org)
  • This hormonal challenge is what must be overcome in order to control the reproductive cycle and breed ewes when daylight is increasing. (countryfolks.com)
  • A group of ewes will typically display estrus at various times throughout a 16- to 17-day cycle, but synchronization with CIDRs condenses the process. (countryfolks.com)
  • The estrous cycle (from Latin oestrus 'frenzy', originally from Ancient Greek οἶστρος (oîstros) 'gadfly') is a set of recurring physiological changes induced by reproductive hormones in females of mammalian subclass Theria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many mammals used in commercial agriculture, such as cattle and sheep, may have their estrous cycles artificially controlled with hormonal medications for optimum productivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poole said it's important to understand the estrous cycle and hormonal influences of natural estrus because the same hormones can be manipulated to produce out of season lambs. (countryfolks.com)
  • Investigations were done by comparing progesterone levels and biochemical blood profiles of goats with natural oestrus cycles and goats with oestrus synchronization. (scialert.net)
  • Variations in progesterone levels in the blood regulate the oestrus cycle, which in turn affect cardiovascular and serum biochemical indices 5 , 10 , 11 . (scialert.net)
  • Investigation of progesterone levels and biochemical blood profiles during the oestrus cycle in goats with natural oestrus cycle or without oestrus synchronisation is rare. (scialert.net)
  • Further, to our knowledge, there are no studies of progesterone levels and biochemical blood profilesof Ettawa-Saanen crossbreed goats in Indonesia, especially for the natural oestrus cycles without a synchronisation procedure. (scialert.net)
  • During the normal estrous cycle, ovulation occurs and progesterone levels increase as the corpus luteus (CL) forms and releases progesterone. (countryfolks.com)
  • In species with estrous cycles[citation needed], females are generally only sexually active during the estrus phase of their cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus in Modern International English, a mammal may be described as "in estrus" when it is in that particular part of the estrous-cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This research aimed to determine levels of the progesterone and blood profiles from Ettawa-Saanen crossbreed goats in Indonesia during normal oestrus cycle. (scialert.net)
  • Eight Ettawa-Saanen crossbreed goats ( Capra hircus ) with Body Score Condotion (BCS) 2-3, known the cycle and the oestrus detection were studied by vaginal smear methods. (scialert.net)
  • Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on days 0, 3, 12 and 15 of oestrus as the representative sample of each phase of the oestrus cycle. (scialert.net)
  • 0.05) in the luteal phase of the oestrus cycle than in the follicular phase. (scialert.net)
  • 0.05) showed no significant difference in each phase of the oestrus cycle. (scialert.net)
  • It was concluded that the progesterone level was significantly different in each phase of the oestrus cycle and peaked during the dioestrus phase. (scialert.net)
  • Levels of progesterone were shown to determine variations in oestrus cycles of goats 5 . (scialert.net)
  • Several researchers have reported the concentrations of plasma progesterone during oestrus cycle of goats for several breeds 6 - 9 . (scialert.net)
  • Blood biochemical values has been shown in various conditions of the animal's health due to differences such as sex, season and oestrus cycle phase 5 , 14 , 15 . (scialert.net)
  • Repro-BLOC® gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine (Amplicon Vaccine LLC, Pullman, WA) is effective at suppressing estrous cyclicity in heifers. (vin.com)
  • Serial serum analyses showed estrous cycle suppression in association with a rise in GnRH antibody binding and a decrease in progesterone and LH. (vin.com)
  • 7. Imboden I, Janett F, Burger D, Crowe MA, Hassig M, Thun R. Influence of immunization against GnRH on reproductive cyclicity and estrous behavior in the mare. (vin.com)
  • and positive regulation of meiotic cell cycle. (nih.gov)
  • Estrous cycles start after sexual maturity in females and are interrupted by anestrous phases, otherwise known as "rest" phases, or by pregnancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • She needs estrogen to ovulate, and progesterone controls the set length of her cycle. (countryfolks.com)
  • In more tropical climates, they may have a birth cycle of 8-month intervals due to fewer seasonal changes. (animal-world.com)
  • In addition, we found that the estrous cycle of the female rats did not have a significant effect on the avoidance response. (lu.se)
  • One difference is that animals that have estrous cycles resorb the endometrium if conception does not occur during that cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The density of [3H]GBR-12935 striatal binding sites was lower in ovariectomized rats compared to intact female rats during the estrous cycle, whereas it was similar in gonadectomized male rats, intact male rats and ovariectomized rats. (nih.gov)
  • In summary, striatal dopamine uptake site density was lower in male compared to intact female rats and was shown to fluctuate during the female estrous cycle. (nih.gov)
  • We examined whether intermittent cocaine self-administration would potentiate incubation of craving in male and female rats and examined the estrous cycle's role in this incubation. (nih.gov)
  • 0.8 mg/kg body weight/day) disrupted estrous cyclicity in female rats. (nih.gov)
  • Importantly, the increased cocaine craving of female rats is dependent on the cycle of female reproductive system. (nih.gov)
  • In female rats, the time-dependent increase in drug seeking (incubation) is critically dependent on the estrous cycle phase. (nih.gov)
  • Rats were housed in pairs under controlled light cycle (12 h light/12 h dark) and temperature (22 - 25 °C) conditions and were provided tap water and food ad libitum. (cdc.gov)
  • Estrous cycle length and normality were evaluated daily for all F0 and F1 female parental rats for a minimum of 3 weeks prior to mating. (europa.eu)
  • The purposes of this review were to (1) evaluate if existing criteria for CEH in transverse uterine sections could be applied to longitudinal sections to develop diagnostic features of CEH in longitudinal uterine sections of rat uterus and (2) create an atlas of the normal estrous cycle phases in longitudinal sections of young and mature adult Hsd:SD rat uteri. (nih.gov)
  • During the menstrual cycle, the sexually mature female body builds up the lining of the uterus with gradually increasing amounts of estrogen , and when this hormone reaches a critical level, estradiol is produced, and shortly thereafter there is the stimulation of the ovaries with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • norethindrone (10, 25, 50 μg/rat daily for 10 days, sc) and depoprovera (1, 5, 10 μg/rat daily for 10 days, sc) delay ovulation when given during estrogen dominated phase of the cycle. (caluniv.ac.in)
  • Squirrels are known as "induced ovulators," which means that they do not have regular ovulation cycles like humans. (reproduction-online.org)
  • This process, known as ovulation, is not based on a monthly cycle like in humans. (reproduction-online.org)
  • After ovulation occurs, the female squirrel enters what is called the estrous cycle. (reproduction-online.org)
  • Unlike many animals in which sexual activity is restricted to near the time of ovulation, the human menstrual cycle allows reproduction year round and lacks overt signs of the time of ovulation. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In species with estrous cycles, females are generally only sexually active during the estrous phase of their cycle (near the time of ovulation). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Yet very little is actually known or understood regarding the oestrous cycles and heat periods of a great many other very common mammals. (edu.au)
  • While conducting an extensive breeding experiment with guinea-pigs for the past several years it has become more and more desirable to know their exact oestrous periods. (edu.au)
  • In experiments 3 and 4, the estrous cycle was measured using a vaginal smear test. (nih.gov)
  • Estrous cycles were monitored in females by performing vaginal lavage. (cdc.gov)
  • This review offers detailed descriptions and illustrations of vaginal cytology of the rat and mouse estrous cycle. (nih.gov)
  • The menstrual cycle is the entire, recurring cycle of physiological changes in females that is associated with reproductive fertility, while menstruation is the part of that cycle that involves the shedding of the uterine lining between ovulations. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In contrast, females of species with menstrual cycles can be sexually active at any time in their cycle, even when they are not about to ovulate. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • You may be able to tell that your bitch is entering the reproductive phase of her cycle from her behaviour and physical signs around the genitals. (mypetneedsthat.com)
  • 16. Fernández-Guasti A, Picazo O. The actions of diazepam and serotonergic anxiolytics vary according to the gender and the estrous cycle phase. (bvsalud.org)
  • During the estrous cycle, peak density of striatal dopamine uptake sites labelled with [3H]GBR-12935 occurred in the morning of proestrus in coincidence with peak dopamine, serotonin, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 5-hydroxytryptophan levels pointing to a presynaptic effect of gonadal hormones. (nih.gov)
  • You will need to understand the reproductive cycle of canines in order to determine the length of pregnancy and predict the whelping date. (mypetneedsthat.com)
  • While menstruation is a natural part of the reproductive cycle for many animals, squirrels have a different reproductive system. (reproduction-online.org)
  • Understanding the reproductive cycle of squirrels provides us with valuable insights into the diversity of life on our planet and the incredible ways different species have adapted for survival and reproduction. (reproduction-online.org)
  • The reproductive cycle as a whole lasts up to 21 days and takes place around twice a year. (mypetneedsthat.com)
  • Very large dogs may have only one reproductive cycle per year and very small dogs may have three. (mypetneedsthat.com)
  • An important implication would be to take the menstrual cycle into consideration for addiction treatments in women. (nih.gov)
  • This article concentrates on the menstrual cycle as it occurs in human beings . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Human beings and the great apes (chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) experience a true menstrual cycle. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Old World Monkeys (baboons, macaques, etc.) are sometimes included as having a menstrual cycle depending on how terms are defined. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Animals that have menstrual cycles shed the endometrium through menstruation instead. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The menstrual cycle is under the control of the reproductive hormone system and is necessary for reproduction . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In women, menstrual cycles occur typically on a monthly basis between puberty and menopause. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Menses, or bleeding, and other menstrual signs may end at different points in the new cycle. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • One difference is that animals that have estrous cycles reabsorb the endometrium if conception does not occur during that cycle. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • When the genitals return to their normal state, the cycle is over and she may, or may not, be pregnant. (mypetneedsthat.com)
  • The existence of a more or less regular and definite oestrous cycle has been recognized in a number of mammals, particularly among the different classes of primates, carnivores, ungulates and insectivores. (edu.au)