An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
An arylsulfatase with high specificity towards sulfated steroids. Defects in this enzyme are the cause of ICHTHYOSIS, X-LINKED.
Estrone derivatives substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position. They are important metabolites of estrone and other estrogens.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
Enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of estradiol at the 17-hydroxyl group in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to yield estrone and NADH or NADPH. The 17-hydroxyl group can be in the alpha- or beta-configuration. EC 1.1.1.62
Sulfatases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate ester bonds in various substrates, playing crucial roles in the metabolism and homeostasis of carbohydrates, proteoglycans, neurotransmitters, and steroid hormones within the body.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.
2- or 4-Hydroxyestrogens. Substances that are physiologically active in mammals, especially in the control of gonadotropin secretion. Physiological activity can be ascribed to either an estrogenic action or interaction with the catecholaminergic system.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.
A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
'Zoo animals' are various species of captive wild animals, housed and displayed in a facility for the purpose of public education, conservation, research, and recreation.
A metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A polyspecific transporter for organic cations found primarily in the kidney. It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.

Lack of zonal uptake of estrone sulfate in enriched periportal and perivenous isolated rat hepatocytes. (1/928)

The zonal uptake of estrone sulfate (E1S; 1 to 400 microM) was investigated in periportal and perivenous rat hepatocytes and cells isolated from whole liver (regular hepatocytes). Transport of E1S by periportal, perivenous, and regular hepatocytes was described by saturable (Kms of 24 to 26 microM and Vmaxs of 1.8 nmol/min/mg protein) and nonsaturable components (2.5 to 3.2 microl/min/mg protein) that were not different among the zonal regions (p >.05, ANOVA). These kinetic constants represented pooled values for the entire complement of transporters for E1S, including two known transporters of E1S: Ntcp, Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, and oatp1, the organic anion transporting polypeptide cloned from rat liver. Uptake of E1S was significantly reduced by estradiol 17beta-glucuronide (50 microM) and bumetanide (200 microM), and was inhibited strongly and competitively by pregnenolone sulfate with an inhibition constant of 6.7 microM. Further segregation of the kinetic constants as the sodium-dependent and -independent systems was achieved through simultaneous fitting of data obtained in the presence and absence of sodium from parallel hepatocytic uptake studies. For the periportal, perivenous, and regular hepatocytes, two saturable systems: a sodium-dependent transport system, characterized by similar Vmaxs (1.1 to 1.4 nmol/min/mg protein) and Kms (49 to 55 microM), a sodium-independent transport system of comparable Vmaxs (0.70 to 0.84 nmol/min/mg protein) and Kms (16 to 22 microM), and a linear clearance of 1.7 to 2.7 microl/min/mg protein (ANOVA, p >.05) were obtained. The data suggest that hepatic uptake of E1S involved sodium-dependent and -independent transporter systems. No heterogeneity in transport was observed.  (+info)

Laboratory assay reproducibility of serum estrogens in umbilical cord blood samples. (2/928)

We evaluated the reproducibility of laboratory assays for umbilical cord blood estrogen levels and its implications on sample size estimation. Specifically, we examined correlation between duplicate measurements of the same blood samples and estimated the relative contribution of variability due to study subject and assay batch to the overall variation in measured hormone levels. Cord blood was collected from a total of 25 female babies (15 Caucasian and 10 Chinese-American) from full-term deliveries at two study sites between March and December 1997. Two serum aliquots per blood sample were assayed, either at the same time or 4 months apart, for estrone, total estradiol, weakly bound estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Correlation coefficients (Pearson's r) between duplicate measurements were calculated. We also estimated the components of variance for each hormone or protein associated with variation among subjects and variation between assay batches. Pearson's correlation coefficients were >0.90 for all of the compounds except for total estradiol when all of the subjects were included. The intraclass correlation coefficient, defined as a proportion of the total variance due to between-subject variation, for estrone, total estradiol, weakly bound estradiol, and SHBG were 92, 80, 85, and 97%, respectively. The magnitude of measurement error found in this study would increase the sample size required for detecting a difference between two populations for total estradiol and SHBG by 25 and 3%, respectively.  (+info)

Estrogens induce apoptosis in mouse peritoneal macrophages. (3/928)

AIM: To study whether estrogen might induce apoptosis in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM). METHOD: The MPM were isolated and incubated in culture medium containing 17-beta-estradiol, estrone, or equal volume of 100% ethanol as control. DNA fragmentation was visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: 17-beta-Estradiol 0.01-1 mumol.L-1 or estrone 10-20 mumol.L-1 elicited typical morphological apoptosis and DNA fragmentation in a concentration-dependent manner in MPM. Staurosporine (Sta) 0.01 mumol.L-1, cycloheximide (Cyc) 1 mg.L-1, and tamoxifen (Tam) 10 mumol.L-1 inhibited the DNA fragmentation induced by 17-beta-estradiol 1 mumol.L-1 or estrone 20 mumol.L-1. CONCLUSION: Estradiol and estrone induced apoptosis in MPM.  (+info)

Caffeine consumption and menstrual function. (4/928)

The relation between caffeine intake and menstrual function was examined in 403 healthy premenopausal women who belonged to Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program in 1990-1991. A telephone interview collected information about caffeinated beverage intake as well as other lifestyle, demographic, occupational, and environmental factors. Subjects collected daily urine samples and completed a daily diary for an average of five menstrual cycles. Metabolites of estrogen and progesterone were measured in the urine, each cycle was characterized as anovulatory or ovulatory, and a probable day of ovulation was selected when appropriate. Logistic regression and repeated measures analyses were performed on menstrual parameters. Women whose caffeine consumption was heavy (>300 mg of caffeine per day) had less than a third of the risk for long menses (> or =8 days) compared with women who did not consume caffeine (adjusted odds ratio = 0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.66). Those whose caffeine consumption was heavy also had a doubled risk for short cycle length (< or =24 days) (adjusted odds ratio = 2.00, 95% confidence interval 0.98-4.06); this association was also evident in those whose caffeine consumption was heavy who did not smoke (adjusted odds ratio = 2.11, 95% confidence interval 1.03-4.33). Caffeine intake was not strongly related to an increased risk for anovulation, short luteal phase (< or =10 days), long follicular phase (> or =24 days), long cycle (> or =36 days), or measures of within-woman cycle variability.  (+info)

Polyspecific substrate uptake by the hepatic organic anion transporter Oatp1 in stably transfected CHO cells. (5/928)

The rat liver organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp1) has been extensively characterized mainly in the Xenopus laevis expression system as a polyspecific carrier transporting organic anions (bile salts), neutral compounds, and even organic cations. In this study, we extended this characterization using a mammalian expression system and confirm the basolateral hepatic expression of Oatp1 with a new antibody. Besides sulfobromophthalein [Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of approximately 3 microM], taurocholate (Km of approximately 32 microM), and estradiol- 17beta-glucuronide (Km of approximately 4 microM), substrates previously shown to be transported by Oatp1 in transfected HeLa cells, we determined the kinetic parameters for cholate (Km of approximately 54 microM), glycocholate (Km of approximately 54 microM), estrone-3-sulfate (Km of approximately 11 microM), CRC-220 (Km of approximately 57 microM), ouabain (Km of approximately 3,000 microM), and ochratoxin A (Km of approximately 29 microM) in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In addition, three new substrates, taurochenodeoxycholate (Km of approximately 7 microM), tauroursodeoxycholate (Km of approximately 13 microM), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (Km of approximately 5 microM), were also investigated. The results establish the polyspecific nature of Oatp1 in a mammalian expression system and definitely identify conjugated dihydroxy bile salts and steroid conjugates as high-affinity endogenous substrates of Oatp1.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of a new multispecific organic anion transporter from rat brain. (6/928)

A cDNA encoding the new member of the multispecific organic anion transporter family, OAT3, was isolated by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction cloning method. Degenerate primers were designed based on the sequences conserved among OAT1, OAT2, and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed using rat brain poly(A)+ RNA. The 536-amino acid protein sequence encoded by OAT3 showed 49, 39, and 36% identity to those of OAT1, OAT2, and OCT1, respectively. Northern blot analysis revealed that rat OAT3 mRNA is expressed in the liver, brain, kidney, and eye. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, OAT3 mediated the uptake of organic anions, such as p-aminohippurate (Km = 65 microM), ochratoxin A (Km = 0.74 microM), and estrone sulfate (Km = 2.3 microM) and a cationic compound, cimetidine. OAT3-mediated uptake of [3H]estrone sulfate was sodium-independent. para-Aminohippuric acid, estrone sulfate or ochratoxin A did not show any trans-stimulatory effect on either influx or efflux of [3H]estrone sulfate via OAT3. Organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein, probenecid, indocyanine green, bumetanide, piroxicam, furosemide, azidodeoxythymidine, 4, 4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-3,3'-disulfonic acid, and benzylpenicillin inhibited OAT3-mediated estrone sulfate uptake, while ouabain and digoxin did not. Organic cations such as tetraethylammonium, guanidine, verapamil, and quinidine did not interact with OAT3. Acidic metabolites of neurotransmitters derived from dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin inhibited the uptake of estrone sulfate via OAT3. These results suggest an important role of OAT3 in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain.  (+info)

Reproducibility and validity of radioimmunoassays for urinary hormones and metabolites in pre- and postmenopausal women. (7/928)

The reproducibility of RIAs of circulating sex hormones has been evaluated as part of recent epidemiological investigations, but none seem to have addressed the reproducibility or validity of RIAs for urinary hormones or their metabolites. As part of a case-control study of breast cancer in Asian-American women, 12-h overnight urine samples were obtained, and a methodological study was conducted to identify laboratories capable of assaying urinary hormones. For the reproducibility component of this study, two laboratories with extensive experience in hormone assays measured urinary estrone, estradiol, estriol, pregnanediol glucuronide, and estrone glucuronide using samples from 15 women (5 midfollicular, 5 midluteal, and 5 postmenopausal). Variance estimates from these measurements were used to calculate the laboratory variability (coefficient of variation) and to assess the magnitude of the biological variability among the women in relation to the total variability (intraclass correlation coefficient). For the validity component, urinary estrone, estradiol, and estriol levels were measured in the same samples by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy in the laboratory of Dr. Herman Adlercreutz (University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland). We found that the degree of assay reproducibility differed between the laboratories, but that laboratory variability was usually low compared with the range of hormone values among women, particularly for the estrogens. Values for estrone and estradiol were well correlated among all of the laboratories. For estriol, the RIAs tended to overestimate levels compared with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. In one laboratory, assays for pregnanediol glucuronide and estrone glucuronide were consistently reproduced; in the other, the reproducibility of the RIA for pregnanediol glucuronide was problematic, and estrone glucuronide was not measured. Despite some limitations, urinary hormones and their metabolites can be reliably measured by current RIAs in large investigations attempting to link hormone level to disease risk and may be particularly advantageous for studies of postmenopausal women, where serum concentrations of estrone and estradiol are low and assay measurements are not as dependable.  (+info)

Fecal estrone sulfate profile in sows during gestation. (8/928)

The aim of this study was to establish radioimmunoassay (RIA) for fecal estrone sulfate (E1S) and to elucidate changes in fecal E1S during pregnancy in the sow. Fecal E1S was extracted on a commercially available solid phase column, and the E1S fraction obtained was subjected to RIA. The sensitivity of the RIA was 8.5 pg/tube. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 8.8-8.9% and 10.7-14.2%, respectively. Mean recovery for E1S added to fecal samples was as high as 95.0%. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.904, n = 147 p < 0.0001) existed between fecal and plasma E1S concentrations. Mean E1S concentration in feces and plasma fluctuated exhibiting two peaks. The first peak of E1S concentration was evident on day 28-32 in feces and on days 26-30 in plasma. The E1S concentration in both feces and plasma remained at baseline levels during mid-pregnancy, but began to rise gradually around days 72-82 and 70-80, in feces and plasma respectively, and reached a peak concentration on days 110-114. Following parturition, the concentration of E1S in plasma declined rapidly, but there was a two-day delay before a decline in fecal E1S. Apart from this two-day delay, changes in fecal E1S were similar to those in plasma E1S. The study indicates that the measurement of E1S in feces could be a useful tool for early pregnancy diagnosis and for monitoring fetal development in sows and gilts.  (+info)

Estrone is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It's one of the three major naturally occurring estrogens in women, along with estradiol and estriol. Estrone is weaker than estradiol but has a longer half-life, meaning it remains active in the body for a longer period of time.

Estrone is produced primarily in the ovaries, adrenal glands, and fat tissue. In postmenopausal women, when the ovaries stop producing estradiol, estrone becomes the dominant form of estrogen. It plays a role in maintaining bone density, regulating the menstrual cycle, and supporting the development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics.

Like other forms of estrogen, estrone can also have effects on various tissues throughout the body, including the brain, heart, and breast tissue. Abnormal levels of estrone, either too high or too low, can contribute to a variety of health issues, such as osteoporosis, menstrual irregularities, and increased risk of certain types of cancer.

Estriol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is produced in the placenta during pregnancy and is used as a marker for fetal growth and development. Estriol levels can be measured in the mother's urine or blood to assess fetal well-being during pregnancy. Additionally, synthetic forms of estriol are sometimes used in hormone replacement therapy to treat symptoms of menopause.

Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and regulation of female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. They are also present in lower levels in males. The main estrogen hormone is estradiol, which plays a key role in promoting the growth and development of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and breasts. Estrogens also help regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain bone density, and have important effects on the cardiovascular system, skin, hair, and cognitive function.

Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries in women, but they can also be produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estrogens are produced from the conversion of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, through a process called aromatization.

Estrogen levels vary throughout a woman's life, with higher levels during reproductive years and lower levels after menopause. Estrogen therapy is sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, or to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, estrogen therapy also carries risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, blood clots, and stroke, so it is typically recommended only for women who have a high risk of these conditions.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

17-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone biosynthesis. They are involved in the conversion of 17-ketosteroids to 17-hydroxy steroids or vice versa, by adding or removing a hydroxyl group (–OH) at the 17th carbon atom of the steroid molecule. This conversion is essential for the production of various steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone.

There are several isoforms of 17-HSDs, each with distinct substrate specificities, tissue distributions, and functions:

1. 17-HSD type 1 (17-HSD1): This isoform primarily catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), an active form of estrogen. It is mainly expressed in the ovary, breast, and adipose tissue.
2. 17-HSD type 2 (17-HSD2): This isoform catalyzes the reverse reaction, converting estradiol (E2) to estrone (E1). It is primarily expressed in the placenta, prostate, and breast tissue.
3. 17-HSD type 3 (17-HSD3): This isoform is responsible for the conversion of androstenedione to testosterone, an essential step in male sex hormone biosynthesis. It is predominantly expressed in the testis and adrenal gland.
4. 17-HSD type 4 (17-HSD4): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstenedione, an intermediate step in steroid hormone biosynthesis. It is primarily expressed in the placenta.
5. 17-HSD type 5 (17-HSD5): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of cortisone to cortisol, a critical step in glucocorticoid biosynthesis. It is predominantly expressed in the adrenal gland and liver.
6. 17-HSD type 6 (17-HSD6): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of androstenedione to testosterone, similar to 17-HSD3. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the ovary.
7. 17-HSD type 7 (17-HSD7): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the ovary.
8. 17-HSD type 8 (17-HSD8): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
9. 17-HSD type 9 (17-HSD9): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
10. 17-HSD type 10 (17-HSD10): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
11. 17-HSD type 11 (17-HSD11): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
12. 17-HSD type 12 (17-HSD12): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
13. 17-HSD type 13 (17-HSD13): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
14. 17-HSD type 14 (17-HSD14): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
15. 17-HSD type 15 (17-HSD15): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
16. 17-HSD type 16 (17-HSD16): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
17. 17-HSD type 17 (17-HSD17): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
18. 17-HSD type 18 (17-HSD18): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
19. 17-HSD type 19 (17-HSD19): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
20. 17-HSD type 20 (17-HSD20): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
21. 17-HSD type 21 (17-HSD21): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
22. 17-HSD type 22 (17-HSD22): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
23. 17-HSD type 23 (17-HSD23): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
24. 17-HSD type 24 (17-HSD24): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the testis.
25. 17-HSD type 25 (17-HSD25): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2), similar to 17-HSD1. However, it has a different substrate specificity and is primarily expressed in the placenta.
26. 17-HSD type 26 (17-HSD26): This isoform catalyzes the conversion of DHEA to androstenedione, similar to 17-HSD4. However

Pregnanediol is a steroid hormone that is produced as a metabolite of progesterone. It is primarily used as a biomarker to measure the exposure to progesterone, particularly in cases where progesterone levels need to be monitored, such as during pregnancy or in certain medical conditions. Pregnanediol can be measured in urine, blood, or other bodily fluids and is often used in clinical and research settings to assess hormonal status. It is important to note that pregnanediol itself does not have any known physiological effects on the body, but rather serves as an indicator of progesterone levels.

Stearyl-sulfatase is a type of enzyme that is responsible for breaking down certain types of fatty substances called lipids in the body. Specifically, it helps to break down a substance called stearyl sulfate, which is a type of sulfated lipid.

Stearyl-sulfatase is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the brain, skin, and kidneys. Mutations in the gene that provides instructions for making this enzyme can lead to a condition called X-linked ichthyosis, which is characterized by dry, scaly skin. This is because the body is unable to properly break down stearyl sulfate and other related lipids, leading to their accumulation in the skin.

In medical terminology, steruly-sulfatase may also be referred to as arylsulfatase C or Arylsulfatase-C.

Hydroxyestrones are metabolites of estrogens, which are female sex hormones. They are formed in the liver and other tissues when estrogens are broken down. Hydroxyestrones have weak estrogenic activity and can also act as antioxidants. Some hydroxyestrones, such as 2-hydroxyestrone and 4-hydroxyestrone, have been studied for their potential role in cancer development and progression, particularly hormone-dependent cancers like breast cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand their effects on human health.

Gonadal steroid hormones, also known as gonadal sex steroids, are hormones that are produced and released by the gonads (i.e., ovaries in women and testes in men). These hormones play a critical role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive function, and overall health.

The three main classes of gonadal steroid hormones are:

1. Androgens: These are male sex hormones that are primarily produced by the testes but also produced in smaller amounts by the ovaries and adrenal glands. The most well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a key role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.
2. Estrogens: These are female sex hormones that are primarily produced by the ovaries but also produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands. The most well-known estrogen is estradiol, which plays a key role in the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and the menstrual cycle.
3. Progestogens: These are hormones that are produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle and play a key role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy. The most well-known progestogen is progesterone, which also plays a role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle.

Gonadal steroid hormones can have significant effects on various physiological processes, including bone density, cognitive function, mood, and sexual behavior. Disorders of gonadal steroid hormone production or action can lead to a range of health problems, including infertility, osteoporosis, and sexual dysfunction.

Androstenedione is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, ovaries, and testes. It is a precursor to both male and female sex hormones, including testosterone and estrogen. In the adrenal glands, it is produced from cholesterol through a series of biochemical reactions involving several enzymes. Androstenedione can also be converted into other steroid hormones, such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and estrone.

In the body, androstenedione plays an important role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair and a deep voice in men, and breast development and menstrual cycles in women. It also contributes to bone density, muscle mass, and overall physical strength.

Androstenedione is available as a dietary supplement and has been marketed as a way to boost athletic performance and increase muscle mass. However, its effectiveness for these purposes is not supported by scientific evidence, and it may have harmful side effects when taken in high doses or for extended periods of time. Additionally, the use of androstenedione as a dietary supplement is banned by many sports organizations, including the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association.

Estradiol dehydrogenases are a group of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of estradiols, which are steroid hormones that play important roles in the development and maintenance of female reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. These enzymes catalyze the oxidation or reduction reactions of estradiols, converting them to other forms of steroid hormones.

There are two main types of estradiol dehydrogenases: 1) 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-alpha HSD), which catalyzes the conversion of estradi-17-beta to estrone, and 2) 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17-beta HSD), which catalyzes the reverse reaction, converting estrone back to estradiol.

These enzymes are widely distributed in various tissues, including the ovaries, placenta, liver, and adipose tissue, and play important roles in regulating the levels of estradiols in the body. Abnormalities in the activity of these enzymes have been associated with several medical conditions, such as hormone-dependent cancers, polycystic ovary syndrome, and hirsutism.

Sulfatases are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of sulfated steroids, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and other sulfated molecules. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups from these substrates, converting them into their respective unsulfated forms.

The human genome encodes for several different sulfatases, each with specificity towards particular types of sulfated substrates. For instance, some sulfatases are responsible for removing sulfate groups from steroid hormones and neurotransmitters, while others target GAGs like heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and keratan sulfate.

Defects in sulfatase enzymes can lead to various genetic disorders, such as multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), X-linked ichthyosis, and mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type IIIC (Sanfilippo syndrome type C). These conditions are characterized by the accumulation of sulfated molecules in different tissues, resulting in progressive damage to multiple organs and systems.

Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) is a protein produced mainly in the liver that plays a crucial role in regulating the active forms of the sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in the body. SHBG binds to these hormones in the bloodstream, creating a reservoir of bound hormones. Only the unbound (or "free") fraction of testosterone and estradiol is considered biologically active and can easily enter cells to exert its effects.

By binding to sex hormones, SHBG helps control their availability and transport in the body. Factors such as age, sex, infection with certain viruses (like hepatitis or HIV), liver disease, obesity, and various medications can influence SHBG levels and, consequently, impact the amount of free testosterone and estradiol in circulation.

SHBG is an essential factor in maintaining hormonal balance and has implications for several physiological processes, including sexual development, reproduction, bone health, muscle mass, and overall well-being. Abnormal SHBG levels can contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypogonadism (low testosterone levels), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and certain types of cancer.

Aromatase is a enzyme that belongs to the cytochrome P450 superfamily, and it is responsible for converting androgens into estrogens through a process called aromatization. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway, particularly in females where it is primarily expressed in adipose tissue, ovaries, brain, and breast tissue.

Aromatase inhibitors are used as a treatment for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women, as they work by blocking the activity of aromatase and reducing the levels of circulating estrogens in the body.

Postmenopause is a stage in a woman's life that follows 12 months after her last menstrual period (menopause) has occurred. During this stage, the ovaries no longer release eggs and produce lower levels of estrogen and progesterone hormones. The reduced levels of these hormones can lead to various physical changes and symptoms, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes. Postmenopause is also associated with an increased risk of certain health conditions, including osteoporosis and heart disease. It's important for women in postmenopause to maintain a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and routine medical check-ups to monitor their overall health and manage any potential risks.

Organic anion transporters (OATs) are membrane transport proteins that facilitate the movement of organic anions across biological membranes. The term "sodium-independent" refers to the fact that these particular OATs do not require the presence of sodium ions for their transport function.

Sodium-independent OATs are a subgroup of the larger family of organic anion transporters, which also includes sodium-dependent OATs. These transporters play important roles in the elimination and distribution of various endogenous and exogenous organic anions, including drugs, toxins, and metabolic waste products.

In the kidney, for example, sodium-independent OATs are located in the basolateral membrane of renal tubular epithelial cells and are involved in the secretion and reabsorption of organic anions. They help maintain the balance of these compounds in the body by facilitating their movement into and out of cells, often in conjunction with other transport proteins that move these compounds across the apical membrane of the tubular epithelial cells.

Overall, sodium-independent OATs are important for the proper functioning of various physiological processes, including drug disposition, toxin elimination, and waste product clearance.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Estrogens, Catechol" is not a recognized medical term or classification. Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics. They are produced mainly in the ovaries, but also in other tissues such as fat, liver, and breast tissue.

Catechols, on the other hand, are a type of chemical compound that contain a benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups attached to it in a particular arrangement. Some estrogens can be metabolized into catechol estrogen metabolites, which have been studied for their potential role in cancer development and progression.

If you have any specific questions about estrogens or catechols, I'd be happy to try to help answer them!

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It serves as a precursor to other hormones, including androgens such as testosterone and estrogens such as estradiol. DHEA levels typically peak during early adulthood and then gradually decline with age.

DHEA has been studied for its potential effects on various health conditions, including aging, cognitive function, sexual dysfunction, and certain chronic diseases. However, the evidence supporting its use for these purposes is generally limited and inconclusive. As with any supplement or medication, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking DHEA to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) is a steroid hormone that is produced by the adrenal glands. It is a modified form of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which is converted to DHEA-S in the body for storage and later conversion back to DHEA or other steroid hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. DHEA-S is often measured in the blood as a marker of adrenal function. It is also available as a dietary supplement, although its effectiveness for any medical purpose is not well established.

Androgens are a class of hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function. Testosterone is the most well-known androgen, but other androgens include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Androgens are produced primarily by the testes in men and the ovaries in women, although small amounts are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes. They play a critical role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics during puberty, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.

In addition to their role in sexual development and function, androgens also have important effects on bone density, mood, and cognitive function. Abnormal levels of androgens can contribute to a variety of medical conditions, including infertility, erectile dysfunction, acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and prostate cancer.

Organic anion transporters (OATs) are membrane transport proteins that are responsible for the cellular uptake and excretion of various organic anions, such as drugs, toxins, and endogenous metabolites. They are found in various tissues, including the kidney, liver, and brain, where they play important roles in the elimination and detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.

In the kidney, OATs are located in the basolateral membrane of renal tubular epithelial cells and mediate the uptake of organic anions from the blood into the cells. From there, the anions can be further transported into the urine by other transporters located in the apical membrane. In the liver, OATs are expressed in the sinusoidal membrane of hepatocytes and facilitate the uptake of organic anions from the blood into the liver cells for metabolism and excretion.

There are several isoforms of OATs that have been identified, each with distinct substrate specificities and tissue distributions. Mutations in OAT genes can lead to various diseases, including renal tubular acidosis, hypercalciuria, and drug toxicity. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of OATs is important for developing strategies to improve drug delivery and reduce adverse drug reactions.

"Animals, Zoo" is not a medical term. However, it generally refers to a collection of various species of wild animals kept in enclosures or exhibits for the public to view and learn about. These animals are usually obtained from different parts of the world and live in environments that attempt to simulate their natural habitats. Zoos play an essential role in conservation efforts, education, and research. They provide a unique opportunity for people to connect with wildlife and understand the importance of preserving and protecting endangered species and their ecosystems.

Androsterone is a weak androgen and an endogenous steroid hormone. It's produced in the liver from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and is converted into androstenedione, another weak androgen. Androsterone is excreted in urine as a major metabolite of testosterone. It plays a role in male sexual development and function, although its effects are much weaker than those of testosterone. In clinical contexts, androsterone levels may be measured to help diagnose certain hormonal disorders or to monitor hormone therapy.

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes that occur in the female reproductive system over an approximate 28-day interval, marking the body's preparation for potential pregnancy. It involves the interplay of hormones that regulate the growth and disintegration of the uterine lining (endometrium) and the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovaries.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstrual phase: The cycle begins with the onset of menstruation, where the thickened uterine lining is shed through the vagina, lasting typically for 3-7 days. This shedding occurs due to a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, which are hormones essential for maintaining the endometrium during the previous cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase commences with the pituitary gland releasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates the growth of several ovarian follicles, each containing an immature egg. One dominant follicle usually becomes selected to mature and release an egg during ovulation. Estrogen levels rise as the dominant follicle grows, causing the endometrium to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

3. Luteal phase: Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen to further support the endometrial thickening. If fertilization does not occur within approximately 24 hours after ovulation, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a decline in hormone levels. This drop triggers the onset of menstruation, initiating a new menstrual cycle.

Understanding the menstrual cycle is crucial for monitoring reproductive health and planning or preventing pregnancies. Variations in cycle length and symptoms are common among women, but persistent irregularities may indicate underlying medical conditions requiring further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

"Animal pregnancy" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, in biological terms, animal pregnancy refers to the condition where a fertilized egg (or eggs) implants and develops inside the reproductive tract of a female animal, leading to the birth of offspring (live young).

The specific details of animal pregnancy can vary widely between different species, with some animals exhibiting phenomena such as placental development, gestation periods, and hormonal changes that are similar to human pregnancy, while others may have very different reproductive strategies.

It's worth noting that the study of animal pregnancy and reproduction is an important area of biological research, as it can provide insights into fundamental mechanisms of embryonic development, genetics, and evolution.

Organic anion transport protein 1 (OATP1) is not a specific medical term, but it refers to a type of membrane transporter protein that is involved in the cellular uptake of organic anions, such as drugs, toxins, and endogenous compounds. It is primarily expressed in the liver and plays a crucial role in the hepatic clearance of these substances.

The official medical definition of OATP1 may vary depending on the specific context or source, but it generally refers to a member of the solute carrier organic anion transporter family (SLCO), specifically SLCO1A2, which is also known as OATP1B1. This protein is responsible for the transport of various drugs and their metabolites, including statins, antibiotics, and antiviral agents, into hepatocytes for further metabolism and elimination.

It's worth noting that there are several other members of the OATP family with different tissue distributions and substrate specificities, such as OATP1B3 (SLCO1B3) and OATP2B1 (SLCO2B1). Therefore, it is essential to specify which particular protein is being referred to when using the term "OATP1."

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs that are primarily used in the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. They work by inhibiting the enzyme aromatase, which is responsible for converting androgens into estrogens. By blocking this conversion, AIs decrease the amount of estrogen in the body, thereby depriving hormone-sensitive breast cancer cells of the estrogen they need to grow and multiply.

There are three main types of aromatase inhibitors:

1. Letrozole (Femara) - a non-steroidal AI that is taken orally once a day.
2. Anastrozole (Arimidex) - another non-steroidal AI that is also taken orally once a day.
3. Exemestane (Aromasin) - a steroidal AI that is taken orally once a day.

In addition to their use in breast cancer treatment, AIs are also sometimes used off-label for the treatment of estrogen-dependent conditions such as endometriosis and uterine fibroids. However, it's important to note that the use of aromatase inhibitors can have significant side effects, including hot flashes, joint pain, and bone loss, so they should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Menopause is a natural biological process that typically occurs in women in their mid-40s to mid-50s. It marks the end of menstrual cycles and fertility, defined as the absence of menstruation for 12 consecutive months. This transition period can last several years and is often accompanied by various physical and emotional symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, mood changes, sleep disturbances, and vaginal dryness. The hormonal fluctuations during this time, particularly the decrease in estrogen levels, contribute to these symptoms. It's essential to monitor and manage these symptoms to maintain overall health and well-being during this phase of life.

Arylsulfatases are a group of enzymes that play a role in the breakdown and recycling of complex molecules in the body. Specifically, they catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate ester bonds in certain types of large sugar molecules called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs).

There are several different types of arylsulfatases, each of which targets a specific type of sulfate ester bond. For example, arylsulfatase A is responsible for breaking down sulfate esters in a GAG called cerebroside sulfate, while arylsulfatase B targets a different GAG called dermatan sulfate.

Deficiencies in certain arylsulfatases can lead to genetic disorders. For example, a deficiency in arylsulfatase A can cause metachromatic leukodystrophy, a progressive neurological disorder that affects the nervous system and causes a range of symptoms including muscle weakness, developmental delays, and cognitive decline. Similarly, a deficiency in arylsulfatase B can lead to Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, a rare genetic disorder that affects the skeleton, eyes, ears, heart, and other organs.

As such, estrone is relatively poorly bound to SHBG. Estrone is conjugated into estrogen conjugates such as estrone sulfate and ... for information on estrone as a medication, see the estrone (medication) article. Estrone is an estrogen, specifically an ... Estrone (E1), also spelled oestrone, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone. It is one of three major ... Because estrone can be transformed into estradiol, most or all of the estrogenic potency of estrone in vivo is actually due to ...
... , or estrone 3-benzoate, is a synthetic estrogen and estrogen ester - specifically, the C3 benzoate ester of ... List of estrogen esters § Estrone esters J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, ... Estrone esters, Ketones, Prodrugs, Synthetic estrogens, All stub articles, Steroid stubs, Genito-urinary system drug stubs). ... estrone - which was first reported in 1932 and was never marketed. It led to the development in 1933 of the more active ...
... (brand name Glucovex, Glycovex) is a semisynthetic, steroidal estrogen. It is an estrogen ester, ... specifically, an ester of estrone. The drug was marketed since at least 1942. Elks J (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of ... Estrone esters, All stub articles, Genito-urinary system drug stubs, Steroid stubs). ...
... (E1P), or estrone 3-phosphate, is an estrogen and steroid sulfatase inhibitor which was never marketed. It ... Li PK, Pillai R, Dibbelt L (March 1995). "Estrone sulfate analogs as estrone sulfatase inhibitors". Steroids. 60 (3): 299-306. ... In contrast to estrone sulfate however, it is not hydrolyzed by steroid sulfatase and is instead metabolized by phosphatases. ... Phan CM, Liu Y, Kim BM, Mostafa Y, Taylor SD (October 2011). "Inhibition of steroid sulfatase with 4-substituted estrone and ...
... (EMATE; developmental code name J994), or estrone-3-O-sulfamate, is a steroid sulfatase (STS) inhibitor which ... A short initial peak of estradiol and estrone levels was observed with E2MATE at the start of treatment in humans, followed by ... At a dosage of 1 mg/kg orally or subcutaneously in rats, it effectively abolished estrone and DHEA-S sulfatase activities in ... It is the C3 sulfamate ester of the estrogen estrone. Unlike other estrogen esters however, EMATE is not an effective prodrug ...
... , or estrone-3-D-glucuronide, is a conjugated metabolite of estrone. It is formed from estrone in the liver ... A single administered dose of estradiol is absorbed 15% as estrone, 25% as estrone sulfate, 25% as estradiol glucuronide, and ... It has much higher water solubility than does estrone. Glucuronides are the most abundant estrogen conjugates and estrone ... Estrone glucuronide can be reconverted back into estradiol, and a large circulating pool of estrogen glucuronide and sulfate ...
... (brand name Hovigal) is a semisynthetic, steroidal estrogen. It is an estrogen ester, specifically, an ester of ... Estrone esters, All stub articles, Genito-urinary system drug stubs, Steroid stubs). ... estrone. Hydroxyestrone diacetate Estradiol acetate Estriol triacetate Elks J (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: ...
... estrone to estrone sulfate) SULT1E1 (catalyzes the reactions estrone to estrone sulfate and estradiol to estradiol sulfate) As ... Substrate: 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + estrone Product: adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + estrone 3-sulfate Organism: Homo ... estrone 3-sulfate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate and estrone, whereas its two products ... is an enzyme that catalyzes the transformation of an unconjugated estrogen like estrone into a sulfated estrogen like estrone ...
... piperazine estrone sulfate), and the never-marketed esters estrone benzoate, estrone cyanate, estrone glucuronide, and estrone ... Estrone is excreted in urine in the form of estrogen conjugates such as estrone sulfate and estrone glucuronide. Following an ... A variety of estrone esters have been synthesized and described. These include the marketed esters estrone acetate, estrone ... Estrone is conjugated into estrogen conjugates such as estrone sulfate and estrone glucuronide by sulfotransferases and ...
... , or estrone 3-O-cyanate, also known as estrocyanate, is an estrogen and an estrogen ester - specifically, the 3 ... cyanate ester of estrone - which was investigated for potential use in birth control pills but was found to be of relatively ... Estrone esters, All stub articles, Steroid stubs, Genito-urinary system drug stubs). ...
... (OE), or estrone 3-oleate, is a fatty acid ester of estrone. It is a naturally circulating hormone in animals, ... June 1996). "Oleoyl-estrone induces the loss of body fat in rats". Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 20 (6): 588-94. PMID ... "Oleoyl-estrone-induced weight loss in an obese man" (PDF). Manhattan Pharmaceuticals Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on ... This led to the theory that administering oleoyl-estrone to bring plasma OE levels up to normal would signal to the body that ...
... , also known as E1S, E1SO4 and estrone 3-sulfate, is a natural, endogenous steroid and an estrogen ester and ... for information on estrone sulfate as a medication, see the estrone sulfate (medication) article. E1S itself is biologically ... indicating the importance of transformation of estrone sulfate into estrone in the estrogenicity of E1S. Unlike unconjugated ... Estrone can also be converted by 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases into the more potent estrogen estradiol. E1S levels are much ...
It is an estrogen conjugate or ester, and is specifically the C3 sulfate ester of estrone. Salts of E1S include sodium estrone ... piperazine estrone sulfate; Ogen). The compound also occurs as a major and important metabolite of estradiol and estrone. E1S ... Estrogen sulfates like estrone sulfate are about twice as potent as the corresponding free estrogens in terms of estrogenic ... The compound acts as a prodrug of estrone and more importantly of estradiol, the latter of which is a potent agonist of the ERs ...
... , or estrone 3-methyl ether, is a synthetic estrogen and estrogen ether - specifically, the C3 methyl ether ... of estrone - which was never marketed. It has been used to synthesize mestranol (ethinylestradiol 3-methyl ether). List of ...
Estrone sulfate and estriol are also poorly bound by SHBG. Less than 1% of progesterone is bound to SHBG. SHBG levels are ... estrone. DHT binds to SHBG with about 5 times the affinity of testosterone and about 20 times the affinity of estradiol. ...
Progynon was also the name that Butenandt originally gave estrone (which he had isolated in 1929) in his first publication on ... ISBN 978-0-8412-2690-6. Booth D (2 November 1983). "Estrone". In Florey K (ed.). Analytical Profiles of Drug Substances. Vol. ... Unlike unconjugated estrogens like estradiol and estrone, these estrogens were orally active. Estrogenic substances Conjugated ... primarily estrone sulfate) and called their new products Premarin and Progynon 2, respectively. Premarin was introduced by ...
... estrone-cytostatic complex; estrone 17β-3-N-bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamate) ICI-85966 (Stilbostat; diethylstilbestrol bis(di(2- ...
Estrone (to estrone sulfate); Estradiol (to estradiol sulfate) SULT2A1: DHEA (to DHEA sulfate); Androsterone (to androsterone ... Estrogen sulfotransferase Estrone sulfotransferase Steroid sulfatase Steroidogenic enzyme Mueller JW, Gilligan LC, Idkowiak J, ...
Esters of estrone and estriol also exist and are or have been used in clinical medicine, for example estrone sulfate (e.g., as ... Estradiol, estrone, and estriol have all been approved as pharmaceutical drugs and are used medically. Estetrol is currently ... Given by subcutaneous injection in mice, estradiol is about 10-fold more potent than estrone and about 100-fold more potent ... "Estrone suspension FDA review" (PDF). 1979. J. Aiman (6 December 2012). Infertility: Diagnosis and Management. Springer Science ...
In contrast to estrone, free estriol was never introduced for use by intramuscular injection. Estriol continues to be used ... The absorption of estrogens by the skin is described as low for estriol, moderate for estradiol, and high for estrone. This is ... Given by subcutaneous injection in mice, estradiol is about 10-fold more potent than estrone and about 100-fold more potent ... In rodents, estriol induces mammary gland development similar to that with estrone. By the oral route in women, estriol has ...
A synthesis of (+)-estrone relies on selective hydrosilane reduction of a conjugated alkene as a key step. The ketone carbonyl ... Takano, Seiichi; Moriya, Minoru; Ogasawara, Kunio (March 1992). "A concise stereocontrolled total synthesis of (+)-estrone". ...
It is a salt of estrone sulfate and piperazine, and is transformed into estrone and estradiol in the body. It is taken by mouth ... Estropipate is hydrolyzed into estrone in the body. Estrone can then be transformed into estradiol by 17β-hydroxysteroid ... Estropipate is a prodrug of estrone and estradiol. Hence, it is an estrogen, or an agonist of the estrogen receptors. ... Estropipate, also known as piperazine estrone sulfate and sold under the brand names Harmogen, Improvera, Ogen, Ortho-Est, and ...
Under the brand name Metharmon-F and in combination with sex steroids (pregnenolone, testosterone, estrone, androstenediol) and ... Conversion of androstenedione to estrone requires the enzyme aromatase. Androstenedione is a substrate for estrogen production ... Androstenedione is converted to either testosterone or estrone. Conversion of androstenedione to testosterone requires the ... and estrone (estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3-ol-17-one or 19-norandrost-1,3,5(10)-triene-3-ol-17-one). Androstenedione was ...
The medication was thought to contain estrone as its major active ingredient and was described as an estrone-like preparation, ... Estrogenic substances were also distinct from pure crystalline preparations such as estrone, estradiol, estriol, estradiol ... The chief active ingredient is apparently ketohydroxyestrin (estrone). Glandular Physiology and Therapy. American Medical ... or as "essentially estrone". Estrogenic substances was originally produced from the urine of pregnant women, placenta, and/or ...
This test is able to detect luteinizing hormone and estrone-3-glucuronide 90% of the time. This test can be used in multiple ... Additionally, some ovulation prediction kits detect estrone-3-glucuronide. This is a breakdown product of estrogen and will ...
Estrone sulfate is the most abundant of all the estrogens in the human body. Estrone sulfate is synthesized by the enzyme ... estrone sulfotransferase. Quercetin 3-O-sulfate Pang, K; Schwab, A; Goresky, C; Chiba, M (1994). "Transport, binding, and ...
1929 - Edward Doisy and Adolf Butenandt independently discovered estrone. 1930 - John Howard Northrop showed that the pepsin ...
The catechol estrogens are formed from estradiol and estrone by cytochrome P450 enzymes predominantly in the liver but also in ... The catechol estrogens are endogenous metabolites of estradiol and estrone and include the following compounds: 2-Hydroxylated ... Similarly to estradiol and estrone, catechol estrogens possess estrogenic activity. 2-Hydroxylated catechol estrogens are weak ...
"Estrone sulfamates: potent inhibitors of estrone sulfatase with therapeutic potential". J. Med. Chem. 37 (2): 219-221. doi: ...
... (4-ME1) is an endogenous, naturally occurring methoxylated catechol estrogen and metabolite of estrone that is ... It has estrogenic activity similarly to estrone and 4-hydroxyestrone. 2-Methoxyestradiol 2-Methoxyestriol 2-Methoxyestrone 4- ...
As such, estrone is relatively poorly bound to SHBG. Estrone is conjugated into estrogen conjugates such as estrone sulfate and ... for information on estrone as a medication, see the estrone (medication) article. Estrone is an estrogen, specifically an ... Estrone (E1), also spelled oestrone, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone. It is one of three major ... Because estrone can be transformed into estradiol, most or all of the estrogenic potency of estrone in vivo is actually due to ...
Estrone sulfate. Description. Estrone sulfate is a sulfated estrone derivative. Estrone sulfate acts as a long-lived reservoir ... Estrone is primarily synthesized from estrone sulfate. Estrone is an estrogenic hormone secreted by the ovaries and adipose ... Estrone is one of the three estrogens found in humans. The other two are estriol and estradiol. Estrone is the least prevalent ... 3D MOL for HMDB0001425 (Estrone sulfate). HMDB0001425 RDKit 3D Estrone sulfate 46 49 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0999 V2000 -2.8419 0.5273 ...
La famiglia degli estrogeni Degli estrogeni (estradiolo, estrone, estriolo), solo lestròne è in grado di attivare, con ...
... Impurities Estrone is a Impurities of with CAS Registry No: 53-16-7. Availability: In-stock, For Exact delivery date, ... 3-Hydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-one; (+)-Estrone;1,3,5(10)-Estratrien-3-ol-17-one; 3-Hydroxy-17-keto-estra-1,3,5-triene; ...
CATEGORY: Stuff in the Estrone Category Arimidex Can help Create a Youthful Hormone Balance in Men. Why do men need estrogen ... This group of medications is an enzyme blocker that slows or stops the conversion of Testosterone into Estrone and[...] ... Aromatase inhibitors decrease estradiol/estrone blood levels and increase total and free testosterone. What is an AI? It stands ...
... ເປັນຫນຶ່ງໃນຜູ້ຜະລິດຊັ້ນນໍາແລະຜູ້ສະຫນອງ Estrone ໃນປະເທດຈີນ. ໃນປັດຈຸບັນ Hubei Gedian Humanwell ເປັນຜູ້ນໍາໃນຢາສລົບ, ຢາແກ້ປວດ, ... Estrone. Estrone ແມ່ນຮໍໂມນເພດຍິງ. ປະເພດ estrogen ທີ່ອ່ອນແອທີ່ສຸດ, ໂດຍທົ່ວໄປແລ້ວມັນຈະສູງຂຶ້ນຫຼັງຈາກຫມົດປະຈໍາເດືອນ. ... Estrone ແມ່ນຮໍໂມນເພດຍິງ. ປະເພດ estrogen ທີ່ອ່ອນແອທີ່ສຸດ, ໂດຍທົ່ວໄປແລ້ວມັນຈະສູງຂຶ້ນຫຼັງຈາກຫມົດປະຈໍາເດືອນ. ເຊັ່ນດຽວກັນກັບ ...
ELISA for 96 determinations of Estrone
CAS: 53-16-7 MDL: MFCD00003620 EINECS: 200-164-5
Enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative measurement of Estrone in serum and plasma ... Enzyme immunoassay for the quantitative measurement of Estrone in serum and plasma ...
Buy highly pure 3-O-Methyl Estrone-d5 (Major), Mol.Formula : C19H19D5O2, Mol.Weight : 289.42, from Pharmaffiliates. Login as ... Search by Keywords - Buy 3-O-Methyl Estrone-d5 (Major) , Purchase 3-O-Methyl Estrone-d5 (Major) , Order 3-O-Methyl Estrone-d5 ( ... 3-O-Methyl Estrone-d5 (Major) Cost , 3-O-Methyl Estrone-d5 (Major) Supplier , 3-O-Methyl Estrone-d5 (Major) Distributor , 3-O- ... Estrone-d5 3-Methyl Ether; Estrone-d5 O-Methyl Ether; NSC 88911-d5; Oestrone-d5 Methyl Ether;. ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Use of this information is subject to copyright laws and may require the permission of the owner of the information, as described in the ECHA Legal Notice.. ...
Estrone glucuronide conjugates of hen egg white lysozyme were prepared by both the mixed-anhydride and active-ester coupling ... When used in a homogeneous enzyme immunoassay system the levels of urinary estrone glucuronide encountered in a normal ... Use of ion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography for the rapid purification of lysozyme-estrone glucuronide ... Use of ion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography for the rapid purification of lysozyme-estrone glucuronide ...
Learn more about estrone 10 mg/ml for veterinarian use today. ... Shop Estrone 10 mg/ml, our veterinary compound specifically ... The estrone sulfate test is very accurate for diagnosing pregnancy in mares from day 90 to term.2,3 Estrone sulfate is produced ... Where to buy Estrone sulfate. Estrone sulfate is available in the U.S. through several pharmaceutical manufacturers and through ... Estrone sulfate can be detected in the urine, serum, or milk after day 50 of pregnancy. When performed any time after day 50 ...
Dive into the research topics of Separation of dansylated 17β-estradiol, 17α-estradiol, and estrone on a single HPLC column ... Separation of dansylated 17β-estradiol, 17α-estradiol, and estrone on a single HPLC column for simultaneous quantitation by LC- ...
Estrone, a steroid hormone, is identified in the monoecious Cucurbitae... ... Estrone was present in both chemically induced male and female plants, indicating estrone alone does not play any special role ... In young seedlings with only 2-3 leaves, there was no trace of estrone. Estrone was barely detectable in seedlings with 4-6 ... Changes in Endogenous Estrone during Flower Initiation and Sex Expression in Labenaria leucantha Rusby Zhou Yong-chun and Cao ...
OVA Conjugated Estrone (E1). Immunogen; SDS-PAGE; WB.. PAB003Ge01. Polyclonal Antibody to Estrone (E1). ELISA, CLIA. / IHC-Fr, ... CLIA Kit for Estrone (E1). Chemiluminescent immunoassay for Antigen Detection.. LMB003Ge. Magnetic Luminex Assay Kit for ... Estrone (E1) ,etc.. Magnetic Luminex Assay for Antigen Detection.. PSB003Ge11. Antibody Pair for Estrone (E1). ELISA; CLIA; ... BSA Conjugated Estrone (E1). Immunogen; SDS-PAGE; WB.. CPB003Ge21. ...
Estrone - Formed from estradiol in a reversible reaction; this is the predominant form of circulating estrogen after menopause ... In order of potency, naturally occurring estrogens are 17 (beta)-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), and estriol (E3). The synthesis ... estrone is also a product of the peripheral conversion of androstenedione secreted by the adrenal cortex ... it is the peripheral metabolite of estradiol and estrone; it is not secreted by the ovary [11] ...
OATP-B also transported estrone-3-sulfate but not bile salts. Although OATP-A, OATP-C, and OATP8 exhibit broad overlapping ...
... including estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estradiol (E3), which are mainly excreted by humans and animals. Additionally, ...
But the multivariate model for plasma estrone sulfate concentrations was not particularly efficient in explaining ... But the multivariate model for plasma estrone sulfate concentrations was not particularly efficient in explaining ... But the multivariate model for plasma estrone sulfate concentrations was not particularly efficient in explaining ... But the multivariate model for plasma estrone sulfate concentrations was not particularly efficient in explaining ...
ESTRONE (UNII: 2DI9HA706A) (ESTRONE - UNII:2DI9HA706A) ESTRONE. 6 [hp_X] in 1 mL. ...
Four h after a single oral dose of vorozole race-mate, [14C] androstenedione and [3H] estrone were infused at a constant rate ... Four h after a single oral dose of vorozole race-mate, [14C] androstenedione and [3H] estrone were infused at a constant rate ... Four h after a single oral dose of vorozole race-mate, [14C] androstenedione and [3H] estrone were infused at a constant rate ... Four h after a single oral dose of vorozole race-mate, [14C] androstenedione and [3H] estrone were infused at a constant rate ...
Estrone 3-sulfate was efficiently trans-ported by OATP4C1. The Michaelis-Menten constant for estrone 3-sulfate uptake by ... Estrone 3-sulfate was efficiently trans-ported by OATP4C1. The Michaelis-Menten constant for estrone 3-sulfate uptake by ... Estrone 3-sulfate was efficiently trans-ported by OATP4C1. The Michaelis-Menten constant for estrone 3-sulfate uptake by ... Estrone 3-sulfate was efficiently trans-ported by OATP4C1. The Michaelis-Menten constant for estrone 3-sulfate uptake by ...
Age-related increase in total estrone was greater than that in total estradiol. Estrone was positively associated with smoking ... Age-related increase in total estrone was greater than that in total estradiol. Estrone was positively associated with smoking ... Age-related increase in total estrone was greater than that in total estradiol. Estrone was positively associated with smoking ... Age-related increase in total estrone was greater than that in total estradiol. Estrone was positively associated with smoking ...
Estrone, also called E1, is the only estrogen that females continue to make after menopause. Menopause is the time after ... In females, estradiol and/or estrone testing may be used:. *To help diagnose conditions that may be caused by estrogen levels ... Males and females make estrone in the adrenal glands (glands that sit on top of each kidney), and in body fat. In females, the ... In males, estradiol and/or estrone tests may be used to see whether too much estrogen is causing conditions, such as: *Late ...
... ... Removal of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) from wastewater by liquid-liquid extraction by: ... Removal of Estrone (E1), 17β-Estradiol (E2) and 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) During Soil Aquifer Treatment of a Model Wastewater ... Two-Phase Ozonation for the Removal of Estrone, 17β-Estradiol and 17α-Ethinylestradiol in Water Using Ozone-Loaded ...
A 3-pack of replacement 10 sediment pre-filters for Aquasana whole house water filter systems. Each lasts for up to 2 months. Shop now!
Estrone.. 62. Fatty acids, free.. 63. Ferritin.. 64. Fibrinogen semi-quantitative and quantitative. ...
  • Estrone, as well as the other estrogens, are synthesized from cholesterol and secreted mainly from the gonads, though they can also be formed from adrenal androgens in adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Relative to estradiol, both estrone and estriol have far weaker activity as estrogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrone is conjugated into estrogen conjugates such as estrone sulfate and estrone glucuronide by sulfotransferases and glucuronidases, and can also be hydroxylated by cytochrome P450 enzymes into catechol estrogens such as 2-hydroxyestrone and 4-hydroxyestrone or into estriol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrone is one of the three estrogens found in humans. (hmdb.ca)
  • In order of potency, naturally occurring estrogens are 17 (beta)-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), and estriol (E3). (medscape.com)
  • In the urine, collected for 4 days after each experiment, estrogens were extracted and purified until a constant 3H/14C ratio of estrone was achieved. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Although total estrogens decline overall with menopause, estrone becomes the dominant circulating estrogen post-menopause. (chopra.com)
  • Estrone is only a weak agonist of estrogen receptor but it serves as a precursor for biosynthesis of 17β-estradiol, 16α-hydroxyestrone and catechol estrogens. (helsinki.fi)
  • Among snorers, a doubling of the concentrations of three estrogens (17β-estradiol, estrone and estrone 3-sulfate) was associated with 17% to 23% decreased odds of women having been told they breathe irregularly during sleep. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Given by subcutaneous injection in mice, estradiol is about 10-fold more potent than estrone and about 100-fold more potent than estriol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to its low estrogenic potency, estrone, unlike estradiol and estriol, is not accumulated in estrogen target tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to estradiol and estriol, estrone is not a ligand of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (affinity >10,000 nM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrone and estriol have about one tenth the potency of estradiol. (precisionnutrition.com)
  • Starting from about 60 days of gestation, assays for serum/plasma estrone sulfate (ES) can be used to establish the presence of pregnancy in the mare. (nexgenvetrx.com)
  • Among all women, a doubling of serum concentrations of estrone was associated with 19% decreased odds of snoring. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The principal pathway involves androstenedione as an intermediate, with androstenedione being transformed into estrone by the enzyme aromatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aromatase inhibitors decrease estradiol/estrone blood levels and increase total and free testosterone. (biobalancehealth.com)
  • To further evaluate the aromatase-inhibiting potency of this drug, the in vivo conversion of androstenedione to estrone was studied in 12 healthy postmenopausal women. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Sulphamate compounds useful as oestrone sulphatase and aromatase inhibitors - may be used in treatment of endocrine-dependent tumours, such as breast and endometrial cancer. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These findings confirm that estrone has very low estrogenic activity, and also indicate that estrone does not diminish the estrogenic activity of estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, our results indicate that estrone 3-sulfate does not bind to the recognition site for digoxin in OATP4C1. (elsevierpure.com)
  • This contradicts some cell-free in-vitro research suggesting that high concentrations of estrone might be able to partially antagonize the actions of estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to aromatization of androstenedione, estrone is also formed reversibly from estradiol by the enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) in various tissues, including the liver, uterus, and mammary gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estradiol is formed if the substrate is testosterone, whereas estrone results from the aromatization of androstenedione. (precisionnutrition.com)
  • Oral administration of menopausal replacement dosages of estradiol results in low, follicular phase levels of estradiol, whereas estrone levels resemble the high levels seen during the first trimester of pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrone , also called E1, is the only estrogen that females continue to make after menopause. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Estrone is made mainly in the ovaries before menopause and can be converted into estradiol in the body (and vice versa). (chopra.com)
  • Because estrone can be transformed into estradiol, most or all of the estrogenic potency of estrone in vivo is actually due to conversion into estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In spite of markedly elevated levels of estrone with oral estradiol but not with transdermal estradiol, clinical studies have shown that dosages of oral and transdermal estradiol achieving similar levels of estradiol possess equivalent and non-significantly different potency in terms of measures including suppression of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, inhibition of bone resorption, and relief of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrone is an estrogenic hormone secreted by the ovaries and adipose tissues. (hmdb.ca)
  • Background.Age trends in estradiol and estrone levels in men and how lifestyle factors, comorbid conditions, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin affect these age trends remain poorly understood, and were examined in men of the Framingham Heart Study.Methods.Estrone and estradiol concentrations were measured in morning fasting samples using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in men of Framingham Offspring Generation. (huji.ac.il)
  • Collectively, age, BMI, testosterone, and other health and behavioral factors explained only 18% of variance in estradiol, and 9% of variance in estrone levels. (huji.ac.il)
  • Four h after a single oral dose of vorozole race-mate, [14C] androstenedione and [3H] estrone were infused at a constant rate for 2 h. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • The percentage conversion of androstenedione to estrone in the 12 placebo experiments was 2.19 0.60% (mean SD, n = 12). (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Estrone sulfate concentrations in the blood have also been used in a limited manner as an indicator of fetal demise (abortion) in horses. (nexgenvetrx.com)
  • But the multivariate model for plasma estrone sulfate concentrations was not particularly efficient in explaining interindividual variability (R2 0.047) indicating other genetic and biological variables are significant (Platia et al. (jnkinhibitor.com)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Separation of dansylated 17β-estradiol, 17α-estradiol, and estrone on a single HPLC column for simultaneous quantitation by LC-MS/MS'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (unthsc.edu)
  • The main components are sodium estrone sulphate and sodium equilin sulfate. (medicinenet.com)
  • In females, the ovaries (the glands that contain eggs) also make estrone. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Oestrone is a hormone produced by the ovaries, adrenal glands and fat. (yourhormones.info)
  • It is a mixture of sodium estrone sulfate and sodium equilin sulfate. (centerwatch.com)
  • Mixture of sodium estrone sulfate and sodium equilin sulfate. (medscape.com)
  • Estrone glucuronide conjugates of hen egg white lysozyme were prepared by both the mixed-anhydride and active-ester coupling procedures. (kent.ac.uk)
  • The purified conjugate material from the active-ester reaction gave over 90% inhibition of the lytic activity in the presence of an estrone glucuronide antibody. (kent.ac.uk)
  • When used in a homogeneous enzyme immunoassay system the levels of urinary estrone glucuronide encountered in a normal menstrual cycle were easily measured. (kent.ac.uk)
  • Two immunoassay procedures (radiolabeling and fluorolabeling) were used to measure urine levels of the estrogen metabolite estrone-3-glucuronide and the progesterone metabolite pregnanediol-3-glucuronide. (cdc.gov)
  • This reaction occurs in both the gonads and in certain other tissues, particularly adipose tissue, and estrone is subsequently secreted from these tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrone is bound approximately 16% to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and 80% to albumin in the circulation, with the remainder (2.0 to 4.0%) circulating freely or unbound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrone, a steroid hormone, is identified in the monoecious Cucurbitaeeous plant, Lagenaria leucantha Rusby. (jipb.net)
  • Mechanism of Action: The way estrone works is by entering the cells of certain tissues in the body and attaching to nuclear receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • But the mechanism of action of estrone is not like estradiol (ratio of estradiol:estrone = 10:5). (bvsalud.org)
  • There are three oestrogens - oestrone, oestradiol and oestriol - the most potent of which is oestradiol. (yourhormones.info)
  • The assessment of the environmental risk of both bazedoxifene and estrone / 17â-dihydroequilin (conjugated oestrogens) cannot be completed. (janusinfo.se)
  • Males and females make estrone in the adrenal glands (glands that sit on top of each kidney), and in body fat. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We further examined the mutual inhibition study between estrone 3-sulfate and digoxin. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Estrone is an estrogen, specifically an agonist of the estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrone was also found at high concentrations in surface waters but was generally of lesser concern due to its relatively lower affinity for vertebrate estrogen receptors. (nexgenvetrx.com)
  • We examined the transport of estrone 3-sulfate, which is known as a substrate for other OATPs, by OATP4C1-expressing cells. (elsevierpure.com)
  • 1) In conclusion, we found that estrone 3-sulfate is a novel substrate for OATP4C1. (elsevierpure.com)
  • With oral administration of estradiol, the ratio of estradiol levels to estrone levels is about 5 times higher on average than under normal physiological circumstances in premenopausal women and with parenteral (non-oral) routes of estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In veterinary medicine, estrone sulfate has been widely used in managing performance horses and for the determination of pregnancy in mares. (nexgenvetrx.com)
  • The estrone sulfate test is very accurate for diagnosing pregnancy in mares from day 90 to term. (nexgenvetrx.com)
  • Estrone sulfate acts as a long-lived reservoir that can be converted as needed to the more active estradiol (from estrone via 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). (hmdb.ca)
  • Estrone Sulfate (E1S) is an estrogen conjugate that serves as a stable circulating reservoir of estrogen. (nexgenvetrx.com)
  • Digoxin partially inhibited the estrone 3-sulfate transport, and estrone 3-sulfate did not significantly inhibit digoxin transport. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Transport of estrone 3-sulfate was significantly inhibited by triiodothyronine, chenodeoxycholic acid, bromosulfophtalein, and cyclosporine, whereas known substrates of OATP4C1, digoxin and ouabain, did not change OATP4C1-mediated transport. (elsevierpure.com)
  • It is therefore postulated that estrone may be one of the hormones controlling flowering. (jipb.net)
  • Previous results on estrone glucuronidation are incomplete and conflicting, while glucuronidation of 16α-hydroxyestrone has not been systematically studied. (helsinki.fi)
  • In addition, estradiol levels were found to correlate with these effects, while estrone levels did not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrone is occasionally administered to performance horses as a precaution against exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH). (nexgenvetrx.com)
  • Estrone Sulfate (E1S) is the most abundant circulating estrogen in non-pregnant women as well as normal men. (hmdb.ca)
  • This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Instant Estrone (E1). (cloud-clone.com)
  • Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Instant Estrone (E1) were tested on 3 different plates, 8 replicates in each plate. (cloud-clone.com)
  • The aim of this study was to identify UGTs active in the glucuronidation of estrone and 16α-hydroxyestrone and to further examine the glucuronidation kinetics of the active UGTs. (helsinki.fi)
  • Total estradiol and estrone were positively associated with age, but free estradiol was negatively associated with age. (huji.ac.il)
  • Age-related increase in total estrone was greater than that in total estradiol. (huji.ac.il)
  • Estrone was present in both chemically induced male and female plants, indicating estrone alone does not play any special role in sex expression. (jipb.net)
  • Estrone concentrations were quantified in female and male whales of different age groups. (nist.gov)
  • In accordance, the estrogenic activity of estrone has been reported to be approximately 4% of that of estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • We consider dialkyl esters of 5-aminosulfonylisophthanoate-based compounds in our efforts to determine factors involved in determining the overall inhibitory activity against estrone sulfatase (ES). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • for information on estrone as a medication, see the estrone (medication) article. (wikipedia.org)