Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
2- or 4-Hydroxyestrogens. Substances that are physiologically active in mammals, especially in the control of gonadotropin secretion. Physiological activity can be ascribed to either an estrogenic action or interaction with the catecholaminergic system.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)
Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
PLANT EXTRACTS and compounds, primarily ISOFLAVONES, that mimic or modulate endogenous estrogens, usually by binding to ESTROGEN RECEPTORS.
Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Estrone derivatives substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position. They are important metabolites of estrone and other estrogens.
Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
Phospholipoglycoproteins produced in the fat body of egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. Vitellogenins are secreted into the HEMOLYMPH, and taken into the OOCYTES by receptor-mediated ENDOCYTOSIS to form the major yolk proteins, VITELLINS. Vitellogenin production is under the regulation of steroid hormones, such as ESTRADIOL and JUVENILE HORMONES in insects.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
An estrogen antagonist that has been used in the treatment of breast cancer.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estradiol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate DNA transcription.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
An estrogenic steroid produced by HORSES. It has a total of five double bonds in the A- and B-ring. High concentration of equilenin is found in the URINE of pregnant mares.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A synthetic estrogen that has been used as a hormonal antineoplastic agent.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Material prepared from plants.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of estradiol at the 17-hydroxyl group in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to yield estrone and NADH or NADPH. The 17-hydroxyl group can be in the alpha- or beta-configuration. EC 1.1.1.62
An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 PHASE arrest in human and murine cell lines and inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of esterified estrogens derived from estrogen sulfates, principally from ESTRONE sulfate. Esterified estrogen content should be 75-85% of the estrone sulfate and 6-15% of the EQUILIN sulfate.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A nuclear receptor coactivator with specificity for ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS. It contains a histone acetyltransferase activity that may play a role in the transcriptional activation of chromatin regions.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
A daidzein derivative occurring naturally in forage crops which has some estrogenic activity.
The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An estrogenic steroid produced by HORSES. It has a total of four double bonds in the A- and B-ring. High concentration of euilin is found in the URINE of pregnant mares.
A nuclear receptor coactivator with specificity for ESTROGEN RECEPTORS and PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS. It contains a histone acetyltransferase activity that may play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING during the process of nuclear receptor-induced transcription. The coactivator has been found at elevated levels in certain HORMONE-DEPENDENT NEOPLASMS such as those found in BREAST CANCER.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A synthetic progestational hormone with no androgenic or estrogenic properties. Unlike many other progestational compounds, dydrogesterone produces no increase in temperature and does not inhibit OVULATION.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
An arylsulfatase with high specificity towards sulfated steroids. Defects in this enzyme are the cause of ICHTHYOSIS, X-LINKED.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
A synthetic progestin which is useful for the study of progestin distribution and progestin tissue receptors, as it is not bound by transcortin and binds to progesterone receptors with a higher association constant than progesterone.
A transcription factor that partners with ligand bound GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS and ESTROGEN RECEPTORS to stimulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. It plays an important role in FERTILITY as well as in METABOLISM of LIPIDS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A selective aromatase inhibitor effective in the treatment of estrogen-dependent disease including breast cancer.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Amides composed of unsaturated aliphatic FATTY ACIDS linked with AMINES by an amide bond. They are most prominent in ASTERACEAE; PIPERACEAE; and RUTACEAE; and also found in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE; BRASSICACEAE; CONVOLVULACEAE; EUPHORBIACEAE; MENISPERMACEAE; POACEAE; and SOLANACEAE. They are recognized by their pungent taste and for causing numbing and salivation.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.

Plasma concentration changes in LH and FSH following electrochemical stimulation of the medial preoptic are or dorsal anterior hypothalamic area of estrogen- or androgen-sterilized rats.(1/6438)

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Possible suppression of host resistance by estrogen therapy for prostatic cancer.(2/6438)

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The effects of estrogens and antiestrogens on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. (3/6438)

We have established or characterized six lines of human breast cancer maintained in long-term tissue culture for at least 1 year and have examined these lines for estrogen responsiveness. One of these cell lines, MCF-7, shows marked stimulation of macromolecular synthesis and cell division with physiological concentrations of estradiol. Antiestrogens are strongly inhibitory, and at concentrations greater than 3 X 10(-7) M they kill cells. Antiestrogen effects are prevented by simultaneous treatment with estradiol or reversed by addition of estradiol to cells incubated in antiestrogen. Responsive cell lines contain high-affinity specific estradiol receptors. Antiestrogens compete with estradiol for these receptors but have a lower apparent affinity for the receptor than estrogens. Stimulation of cells by estrogens is biphasic, with inhibition and cell death at concentrations of 17beta-estradiol or diethylstilbestrol exceeding 10(-7) M. Killing by high concentrations of estrogen is probably a nonspecific effect in that we observe this response with 17alpha-estradiol at equivalent concentrations and in the otherwise unresponsive cells that contain no estrogen receptor sites.  (+info)

Marker molecules of human endometrial differentiation can be hormonally regulated under in-vitro conditions as in-vivo. (4/6438)

An established cell culture system of isolated human endometrial stromal and epithelial cells has been used to study the effects of oestrogen and progesterone, as well as their antagonists, upon endometrial cells. Normal hormonal regulation in vivo was investigated simultaneously in endometrial tissue samples taken at different phases of the menstrual cycle. Several marker molecules analysed by immunohistochemistry appeared to depend strongly on endocrine regulation and could be traced in culture. Immunohistochemically, basic parameters of cell biology were identified in vitro, e.g. cell proliferation (Ki-67), adhesion molecules (beta3 integrin) and paracrine factors (leukaemia inhibitory factor). The most reliable parameters to assess hormonal influences were oestrogen and progesterone receptor molecules. Immunohistochemical localization could be improved by molecular biological analysis using RT-PCR. In the presence of oestrogen, a significant expression of hormone receptors was also shown by RT-PCR, and withdrawal of oestrogens and addition of gestagen, i.e. medroxyprogesterone acetate, caused receptor downregulation. Addition of the anti-oestrogen ICI 182.780 to cell-culture medium significantly decreased the synthesis of progesterone receptors.  (+info)

Modulation of oestrogenic effects by progesterone antagonists in the rat uterus. (5/6438)

Antiprogestins can modulate oestrogenic effects in various oestrogen-dependent tissues, dependent on species, tissue, dose and duration of treatment. Enhanced oestrogenic responses to mifepristone and onapristone occur in vitro and in vivo. However, the antiprogestins mifepristone, onapristone, and ZK 137 316 can block the ability of oestradiol to increase endometrial growth in non-human primates. Our purposes were firstly, to decide whether mifepristone and onapristone had direct oestrogenic activity in vitro and in the uterus of spayed and immature rats, and secondly, to discover whether antiprogestins exhibit inhibitory effects on oestrogen action in the uterus in spayed, oestrogen-substituted rats. In transactivation assays, mifepristone induced oestrogenic response, whereas onapristone had only marginal effects on reporter gene transcription. In immature rats, onapristone and mifepristone markedly increased uterine weights, and onapristone, but not mifepristone significantly enhanced endometrial luminal epithelial height, a sensitive oestrogen parameter. Conversely, in spayed and adrenalectomized rats, neither onapristone nor mifepristone changed uterine weights or endometrial morphology, indicating that their effects in immature rats were indirect. In spayed, oestrogen-substituted rats, antiprogestins did not block oestradiol-stimulated endometrial growth and luminal and glandular epithelium were stimulated more after antiprogestin plus oestrogen, than after oestradiol alone. All compounds induced compaction of the uterine stroma. In spayed rats, onapristone and some other 13alpha-configured (type 1) antagonists (ZK 135 569, ZK 131 535) reduced oestradiol-stimulated myometrial proliferation and induced an overall uterine weight reduction in animals treated with oestrogen and antiprogestins, in comparison with oestradiol-treated controls. 13beta- configured (type II) antagonists, including mifepristone, lilopristone and ZK 112 993, were not effective. In the uteri of spayed rats, onapristone was also found to enhance the oestradiol-stimulatory effect on expression of the oestrogen-dependent proto-oncogene, c-fos. In conclusion, antiprogestins do not inhibit, but rather enhance, oestrogen-induced uterine glandular and luminal epithelium in spayed rats, contrary to their effects in primates. The rat model is unsuitable to study endometrial antiproliferative effects of antiprogestins in primate uteri.  (+info)

Endometriosis: a dysfunction and disease of the archimetra. (6/6438)

Endometriosis is considered primarily a disease of the endometrial-subendometrial unit or archimetra. The clinical picture of endometriosis characterises this disease as a hyperactivation of genuine archimetrial functions such as proliferation, inflammatory defence and peristalsis. While the aetiology of the disease remains to be elucidated, a key event appears to consist in the local production of extraovarian oestrogen by a pathological expression of the P450 aromatase. The starting event may consist in a hyperactivity of the endometrial inflammatory defence, a hyperactivity of the endometrial oxytocin/oxytocin receptor system or in the pathological expression of the P450 aromatase system itself. Regardless of which of these levels the starting event is localized in, they influence each other on both the level of the archimetra and the endometriotic lesions. Locally elevated oestrogen levels inevitably up-regulate the endometrial oxytocin mRNA and increased levels of oxytocin result in uterine hyperperistalsis, increased transtubal seeding of endometrial tissue fragments and finally subfertility and infertility by impairment of the uterine mechanism of rapid and sustained sperm transport. Locally increased levels of oestrogen lead, on both the level of the endometrial-subendometrial unit and the endometriotic lesion, to processes of hyperproliferation. These processes result, on the level of the uterus, in an infiltrative growth of elements of the archimetra into the neometra and, on the level of the endometriotic lesion, in infiltrative endometriosis. There is circumstantial evidence that trauma might be an important initial event that induces the specific biochemical and cellular responses of the archimetra. This model is able to explain both the pleiomorphic appearance of endometriosis and the, up until now, enigmatic infertility associated with mild and moderate endometriosis.  (+info)

Relationship between metabolism of androstenone and skatole in intact male pigs. (7/6438)

The relationship between the metabolism of androsterone and skatole, the major compounds responsible for boar taint, was investigated in F4 Swedish Yorkshire x European Wild Pig intact males. The metabolism of androstenone and skatole were studied in liver microsomes, and the testicular steroid production was measured in testes microsomes. Including androstenone in the assays of skatole metabolism reduced the formation of 6-hydroxyskatole (pro-MII), and three other skatole metabolites (P<.05). The formation of three additional metabolites was not affected. Liver microsomal incubations of androstenone produced two metabolites, I and II. The rate of the formation of metabolite I and the rate of androstenone metabolism were correlated with the rate of skatole metabolism. Liver metabolism of androstenone was not related to levels of androstenone in fat. Testicular synthesis of 16-androstene steroids was correlated with combined synthesis of estrogens and androgens, plasma levels of androstenone, levels of skatole in fat, and skatole metabolism in the liver (P<.05). Plasma levels of estrone sulfate were correlated with levels of skatole in fat and with androstenone levels in fat and plasma and were negatively correlated with synthesis of skatole metabolite F-1 and pro-MII sulfation. These results indicate that the liver metabolism of androstenone and skatole are related. However, it is likely that the relationship between levels of androstenone and skatole in fat is due more to a link between the testicular synthesis of androstenone rather than to the metabolism of androstenone and skatole in the liver. Sex steroids may affect this relationship because of their biosynthesis along with androstenone and possible inhibition of skatole metabolism in the liver.  (+info)

Estrogen induction of VLDLy assembly in egg-laying hens. (8/6438)

The yolk of a 60-g chicken egg contains 6 g of triacylglycerols transported to the oocyte from the liver of the laying hen in apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing particles. With the onset of egg production, estrogen shifts hepatocytic lipoprotein production from generic VLDL to VLDLy (yolk targeted). These VLDLy are triacylglycerol-rich particles; they are reduced in size by one half, are resistant to lipoprotein lipase and are taken up intact by oocyte receptors. The VLDLy pathway for apoB provides sufficient energy for the caloric requirements of chick development. VLDLy size reduction occurs in spite of surplus liver triacylglycerols and is necessary for VLDL particles to pass through the granulosa basal lamina and reach the receptors located on the oocyte surface. New ultrastructural data show that some proximal tubule cells of bird kidney secrete generic VLDL, perhaps providing energy and other VLDL-associated nutrients to tissues bypassed by VLDLy. Birds are an apoB100-only species, providing a natural in vivo model with which to investigate mechanisms of apoB100 VLDL assembly. Preliminary studies of liver lipoprotein assembly intermediates isolated from the biosynthetic membranes (endoplasmic reticulum) of the laying hen are consistent with the presence of both putative first- and second-step precursor particles of VLDLy. These findings suggest that the two-step mechanism of apoB core lipidation is an ancient development in apoB biology, handed down to mammals from oviparous ancestors.  (+info)

Women between the ages of 25 to 50 who are estrogen deficient are generally prescribed a high dose of estrogen. This can reduce the risk of bone loss, cardiovascular disease, and other hormonal imbalances.. In some cases, long-term treatment may be needed even after your estrogen levels return to normal. This may require lower doses of administered estrogen over time in order to sustain your current level.. Estrogen therapy may also ease the severity of menopausal symptoms and reduce your risk of fractures.. Long-term estrogen therapy is primarily recommended for women who are approaching menopause and have also had a hysterectomy and all transgender. In all other cases, estrogen therapy is only recommended for one to two years. This is because estrogen therapy may increase your risk of cancer.. ...
The majority of breast cancers are also sensitive to estrogen, meaning that estrogen promotes tumor growth.. These cancers are called hormone receptor positive breast cancers.. For people with these cancers, treatments to lower estrogen levels or block estrogen production can be used to help prevent cancer recurrence after surgery, or to slow cancer growth.. According to Breast Cancer.org, alcohol can increase a womans risk of hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer.. Alcohol also enhances the effects of estrogen in driving the growth of breast cancer cells, according to 2016 research at the University of Houston.. Endometriosis is another estrogen-dependent disease.. Reducing estrogen levels and providing non-estrogen treatments have all been considered for the treatment of endometriosis.. The problem is that reducing the levels of estrogen in women can lead to infertility.. A study by the Womens Health Initiative showed that BY REDUCING HORMONES -. ( SPECIFICALLY ESTROGEN )- had significant ...
Estrogen is one of the primary hormones involved in a womans menstrual cycle. When estrogen levels are healthy and balanced, it helps optimize neurotransmitter production and brain function so you feel good all month long. When estrogen levels are off, it causes problems.. Too much estrogen in relation to progesterone can lead to a condition called estrogen dominance. This causes the gentle monthly hormonal rise and fall to turn into a series of intense spikes and dramatic drop-offs that disrupt important brain processes and make you anxious and irritable.. Too little estrogen leads to feeling depressed and confused. The loss of estrogen also hinders critical thinking, short-term memory, and other cognitive functions. These problems can worsen during perimenopause when estrogen levels can fluctuate wildly and during menopause when the hormone drops and stays low.. ...
Progesterone to Balance Estrogen Dominance. Progesterone to balance estrogen dominance is not something new. When estrogen and progesterone are both doing their jobs, they work well together. When the normal ratio or balance of progesterone and estrogen is disrupted either by too much estrogen or too little progesterone, then estrogen dominance may occur.. The term estrogen dominance was first coined by Dr. John R. Lee, author of the book What Your Doctor May Not Tell You about Menopause: The Breakthrough Book on Natural Progesterone. Dr. Lees original concept was that when there is a drop in progesterone production, then menopause is about to occur. Estrogen dominance today is more recognized as a condition where a woman can have normal, deficient, or too much estrogen, but little or no progesterone, creating an imbalance of the two hormones. When there isnt enough progesterone, estrogen levels can become unnaturally high during a womans second part of her menstrual cycle. This can lead ...
Lifestyle News, Washington D C, November 7:- Turns out, when estrogen levels are higher, alcohol is much more rewarding.. The reward center of the brain is much more attuned to the pleasurable effects of alcohol when estrogen levels are elevated, an effect that may underlie the development of addiction in women, according to a study on mice at the University of Illinois at Chicago.. Led by Amy Lasek, researchers found that neurons in a region of the brain called the ventral tegmental area, or VTA (also known as the reward center), fired most rapidly in response to alcohol when their estrogen levels were high. This response is mediated through receptors on dopamine-emitting neurons in the VTA.. Studies indicate that gender differences in psychiatric disorders, including addiction, are influenced by estrogen, one of the primary female sex hormones. Women are more likely to exhibit greater escalation of abuse of alcohol and other drugs, and are more prone to relapse in response to stress and ...
Symptoms of low estrogen levels, find all the symptoms of estrogen deficiency and natural estrogen sources as well as foods that contain estrogen.
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I know that many women are concerned about the effects of estrogen on their breasts. How could they not be? So much has been written and discussed about estrogen, especially since many of the medications for breast cancer have been created to inhibit estrogen production. While understanding estrogens role on the breasts is important, estrogen also effects many organs and functions throughout the entire body, like the heart, bones, skin, vagina, and, as will be discussed here, the brain.. Think how much your brain helps make you the individual woman you are-your wit, your wisdom, your winning ways. Estrogen can play an essential role in protecting your brain from certain illnesses and slowing the aging process if it is taken at the optimal time. As youll discover below, taking estrogen during your estrogen window provides the best benefits for brain health and a major opportunity for an estrogen fix.. The female brains relationship with estrogen begins almost at conception, leading it to ...
The term estrogen actually refers to a group of related hormones, each with a unique profile of activity and purpose. Under normal circumstances, a womans circulating estrogen levels will fluctuate based on her menstrual cycle.. However, this isnt always the case, especially after menopause. These are the three main estrogens female humans produce and their function in the body.. Estrone- E1: This makes up between 10-20% of the bodys circulating estrogens. It is also the primary type of estrogen produced after menopause.. Estradiol- E2: This makes up between 10-30% of the bodys circulating estrogens. It is the most potent product in the ovary and is very secretory. It is also the predominant estrogen produced before menopause and the major form of estrogen in pre-menopausal women.. Estriol- E3: This makes up between 60-80% of circulating estrogen. This dominant estrogen is not only protective against breast cancer, but it can help in the treatment of different menopausal symptoms. Clinical ...
Many female athletes are energy and/or estrogen deficient, but the independent effects on bone health have not been isolated. Energy deficiency was detrimental at the tibia while estrogen deficiency was detrimental at the radius. Nutrition must be considered alongside menstrual recovery when addressing compromised bone health in female athletes. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to describe volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone geometry, and estimated bone strength in exercising women (n = 60) grouped according to energy status (energy replete (EnR: n = 30) vs. energy deficient (EnD: n = 30)) and estrogen status (estrogen replete (E2R: n = 33) vs. estrogen deficient (E2D: n = 27)), resulting in four distinct groups: EnR + E2R (n = 17), EnR + E2D (n = 13), EnD + E2R (n = 16), EnD + E2D (n = 14). METHODS: Energy status was determined using the ratio of measured to predicted resting energy expenditure (mREE/pREE). Estrogen status was based on self-reported menstrual status ...
Aromatase is an enzyme which converts testosterone into estrogen and primarily found in fat tissue cells. This means that the greater the body fat percentage, the more aromatase, and estrogen a man will have. Thats why, a younger man who has an excess amount of fat, especially around the waist, has a higher chance of experiencing estrogen level spike followed by a decrease in testosterone.. The first rule to avoid high estrogen levels is to maintain a healthy body weight and maintain a high amount of lean muscle. You should especially pay attention to the fat tissue around your midsection. This tissue contains fat cells which are known to release aromatase, leading to increased estrogen in men, thereby changing the entire hormonal balance. There are numerous other factors which can cause high levels of estrogen in men, and men of all ages need to be aware of them, including:. Medications: specific meds are known to increase estrogen, so you should watch out for drugs that contain estrogen, ...
Participants performed this exercise both by itself and while the drugs were being infused. To test the effects of estrogen, the researchers also performed each of these conditions while estrogen was also being slowly infused into participants fat deposits. To measure fat breakdown, the researchers used a technique called microdialysis to look for a marker (glycerol) left behind when stored fat is broken down for eventual production of energy.. Results. The researchers found that estrogens effects differed tremendously depending on the fat- mobilizing interventions themselves and where the fat deposit was located. For example, estrogen blunted fat breakdown in the abdomen if it was infused while a particular fat-mobilization drug called isoproterenol was also being infused, but it didnt have this effect in the buttocks. When a second fat mobilizing drug was given along with the first while participants were at rest, fat breakdown didnt change any further. However, when both drugs were ...
There is still a lot of controversy about estrogens, but everybody agrees they are good for the bones. Estrogens improve bone density as well or better than bisphosphonates, and estrogens decrease the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Estrogens can be given to women who are within 5 years of menopause, and who have a risk of developing osteoporosis. They also help with menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and sleep disturbances. Estrogens should not be started in women who are more than 10 years past menopause because they might worsen heart disease, but estrogen can protect against heart disease when given right after menopause. Estrogens should be avoided in women who have had blood clots or breast cancer. In women who have a uterus, estrogen can cause cancer of the lining of the uterus, so another female hormone called progesterone should be given to protect the uterus. However, progestins markedly increase the risk of breast cancer, so the safest way is to use an ...
Estrogenic hormones are classically thought to exert their effects by binding to nuclear estrogen receptors and altering target gene transcription, but estrogens can also have nongenomic effects through rapid activation of membrane-initiated kinase cascades. The development of ligands that selectively activate only the nongenomic pathways would provide useful tools to investigate the significance of these pathways. We have prepared large, abiotic, nondegradable poly(amido)amine dendrimer macromolecules that are conjugated to multiple estrogen molecules through chemically robust linkages. Because of their charge and size, these estrogen-dendrimer conjugates (EDCs) remain outside the nucleus. They stimulate ERK, Shc, and Src phosphorylation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells at low concentrations, yet they are very ineffective in stimulating transcription of endogenous estrogen target genes, being approximately 10,000-fold less potent than estradiol in genomic actions. In contrast to estradiol, EDC was ...
The impact of estrogen exposure in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease is controversial. But it is clear that estrogen has important effects on vascular physiology and pathophysiology, with potential therapeutic implications. Therefore, the goal of this review is to summarize, using an integrated approach, current knowledge of the vascular effects of estrogen, both in humans and in experimental animals. Aspects of estrogen synthesis and receptors, as well as general mechanisms of estrogenic action are reviewed with an emphasis on issues particularly relevant to the vascular system. Recent understanding of the impact of estrogen on mitochondrial function suggests that the longer lifespan of women compared with men may depend in part on the ability of estrogen to decrease production of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria. Mechanisms by which estrogen increases endothelial vasodilator function, promotes angiogenesis, and modulates autonomic function are summarized. Key aspects of the ...
Yes! Im sure you can hear my whoop of excitement and vindication. Finally, something negative about estrogen and positive about progesterone in the mainstream media. According to this article by Emily Anthes in the current issue of Scientific American: Mind, womens risk for addiction, and potential for successful withdrawal, are both linked to our menstrual cycle hormones. Estrogen increases womens addictive behaviors while progesterone assists with successful addiction recovery.. Why am I feeling vindicated? Because I recently declared that hot flushes/flashes and night sweats are estrogen addiction (1). That wild but supportable hypothesis is based on the evidence that prolonged or high-dose estrogen exposure is required for hot flushes to occur. But, it is the subsequent abrupt decrease in estrogen levels that triggers vasomotor symptoms. Drug exposure-drug withdrawal symptoms. And do women feel high on estrogen? Perhaps. Clearly the withdrawal is miserable-as one woman said, I continued ...
Over The Counter (OTC) Estrogen Blockers - there are a few OTC estrogen blockers such as EstroBlox, or DIM however the primary element you are looking for are the natural estrogen blocker ingredients in each product to help you establish which one is right for you. First off you want to look for pomegranate powder, tonkat ali, and dijndolyl methane. However if you are looking for a purely organic estrogen blocker then dijndolyl methane would be out as it is a synthesized product not found purely in nature.. Prior to using an estrogen blocker you should review your workout goals. Are you trying to gain mass? if so this product most likely will NOT help you as blocking estrogen does not necessarily increase testosterone. If you are looking to increase testosterone then you need a test booster not an estrogen blocker.. If you feel that you do in fact want to block estrogen then we recommend that you begin with an OTC first. However it is an emergency then speak with your doctor and discuss ...
by Glen Depke, Traditional Naturopath Most think that estrogen dominance is a female issue but this can be a challenge for men too. Lets first look at estrogen dominance. This would be defined as an elevated level of estrogen hormones in the body, regardless of this accumulation showing up in the blood but also the tissue of the body. Based on viewing thousands of hormone saliva test kits through my career, I can share that very often estrogen levels will be fine, or even low, according to blood testing, yet you can take that same person, showing estrogen dominance with a saliva test because of the build up of estrogen hormones in the tissue of the body. Thats an issue! If there is a build up of estrogen in the tissue, this is a risk factor for breast cancer in women and prostrate and/or breast cancer for men. Yes, breast cancer for men too! I have seen many women in the past that have been put on estrogen creams, only to find this leading to a potentially dangerous build up of estrogen in the ...
The transition to the postmenopausal stage is associated with an increased risk for vascular diseases, including myocardial infarction and stroke. This has been linked to a decrease in estrogen production. Estrogens mediate their effects on the brain to a major extent through binding to nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor alpha and beta. It is possible that positive and adverse effects of estrogens are related to interactions between receptor genotypes and hormones. Notably, the estrogen receptor alpha polymorphism c 454-397T/T is associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke, with a synergistic relationship between this genotype and hypertension. In experimental stroke settings estrogens influence recovery of cognitive functions, possibly via induction of neurotrophic factors and specific transcription factors including NGFI-A. This may be related to increased neuroplasticity in the hippocampal formation, a key area for memory processing. Individualized treatment with estrogen receptor ...
Release: Oct. 29, 2001. UI study investigates how estrogen protects against cardiovascular disease. IOWA CITY, Iowa -- Restoring estrogen levels to premenopausal levels in cells taken from postmenopausal rats inhibits processes that cause cardiovascular diseases, according to a University of Iowa study. The researchers hope that their findings will point the way to more specific treatments for these diseases in postmenopausal women.. The findings appear as a highlighted topic in the November issue of the Journal of Applied Physiology. The UI researchers also contributed to a commentary accompanying the article.. Studies have shown that estrogen protects women against cardiovascular system diseases such as atherosclerosis. Estrogen is a hormone that acts in the cell through its receptor protein. After menopause, less estrogen is produced and the amount of the receptor protein is reduced. As a result, cardiovascular disease becomes a major cause of death and illness for postmenopausal ...
Estrogen level after ovulation - What should the ratio be between your estrogen and progesterone levels be after ovulation? Higher estrogen. You estrogen level in general should be much higher than your Progesterone levels. Normal estrogen levels are about 150-300 and normal Progesterone levels are about 10-25.
The link between estrogen and the development and proliferation of breast cancer is well documented. Estrogen stimulates growth and inhibits apoptosis through estrogen receptor-mediated mechanisms in many cell types. Interestingly, there is strong evidence that estrogen induces apoptosis in breast cancer and other cell types. Forty years ago, before the development of tamoxifen, high-dose estrogen was used to induce tumor regression of hormone-dependent breast cancer in post-menopausal women. While the mechanisms by which estrogen induces apoptosis were not completely known, recent evidence from our laboratory and others demonstrates the involvement of the extrinsic (Fas/FasL) and the intrinsic (mitochondria) pathways in this process. We discuss the different apoptotic signaling pathways involved in E2 (17β-estradiol)-induced apoptosis, including the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways, the NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa-B)-mediated survival pathway as well as the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)
Estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) play critical roles in breast cancer, however the clinical value of PR is controversial and it is unclear how PR modulates estrogen signaling. This study reports that PR reprograms estrogen signaling as a genomic agonist and a phenotypic antagonist. In isolation, estrogen and progestin are genomic agonists as they regulate genes in similar directions but with differing intensities of gene expression and with varying functional annotation of the genes induced. Similarly, in isolation, progestin is a weak phenotypic agonist of estrogen action, however, in the presence of both hormones, progestin antagonizes estrogen-regulated processes and it behaves as a phenotypic antagonist of estrogen. This principle of genomic agonism and phenotypic antagonism rationalizes the good prognosis associated with PR-positivity of ER+ tumors. Importantly, when both the hormones are present, progestin dominates estrogen action such that the levels of ...
Estrogens have been implicated to play certain but yet undefined roles in the normal and neoplastic growth of prostate gland. Studies of perinatal exposure in rodents demonstrate that effects of perinatal estrogenization are permanent and carcinogenic in prostate gland. In the Noble (Nb) rat model, prostatic dysplasia and neoplastic lesions can be induced by a chronic treatment with both testosterone and estrogen at adulthood. However, by this conventional protocol, neoplastic lesions are mostly confined to the lateral (LP) and ventral (VP) prostates, while gross prostatic tumors are rarely induced. Based on these two experimental models, we developed a modified treatment protocol for the enhancement of prostate cancer induction in Nb rat model by combining neonatal estrogen exposure of male offspring followed by the hormonal treatment at adulthood (NeoE + T-E2). Using this modified protocol, we were able to induce more extensive development of neoplastic lesions in all three prostatic lobes and ...
Ive not read anything regarding a correlation between estrogen levels during IVF and PE, but I have read that high estrogen levels after ovarian stimming can lead to a failed transfer of fresh embryos (they will not implant or will miscarry early on). This is why some REs test estrogen levels after egg retrieval and will freeze all embryos if levels are too high, rather than risk wasting an otherwise good embryo on a fresh transfer that could fail due to elevated estrogen levels. If you have any links to the publications youre referring to, Id be interested in seeing them ...
Estrogens have had a bad rap for a long time but they are major signaling molecules in the body that have many beneficial and complex activities. There are actually over 60 estrogenic-acting estrogens in the human body, though 3 are the most famous Charlies Angel estrogens: Estradiol (the strongest purest estrogen that delivers signals to most estrogen receptors), Estriol (a gentler estrogen that sends anti-cancer signals) and, Estrone (known as the bad sister estrogens like the bad sisters in Cinderella, that is more predominantly produced in menopause and is often regarded as a pro-carcinogenic (cancer-causing) estrogen. Are all estrone type estrogens nasty? Maria wrote and asked [...] ...
We have previously demonstrated that endoxifen is the most important tamoxifen metabolite responsible for eliciting the anti-estrogenic effects of this drug in breast cancer cells expressing estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα). However, the relevance of ERβ in mediating endoxifen action has yet to be explored. Here, we characterize the molecular actions of endoxifen in breast cancer cells expressing ERβ and examine its effectiveness as an anti-estrogenic agent in these cell lines. MCF7, Hs578T and U2OS cells were stably transfected with full-length ERβ. ERβ protein stability, dimer formation with ERα and expression of known ER target genes were characterized following endoxifen exposure. The ability of various endoxifen concentrations to block estrogen-induced proliferation of MCF7 parental and ERβ-expressing cells was determined. The global gene expression profiles of these two cell lines was monitored following estrogen and endoxifen exposure and biological pathway analysis of these data sets was
Key TJ, Appleby PN, Reeves GK, Roddam A, Dorgan JF, Longcope C, Stanczyk FZ, Stephenson Jr HE, Falk RT, Miller R, Schatzkin A, Allen DS, Fentiman IS, Wang DY, Dowsett M, Thomas HV, Hankinson SE, Toniolo P, Akhmedkhanov A, Koenig K, Shore RE, Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Berrino F, Muti P, Micheli A, Krogh V, Sieri S, Pala V, Venturelli E, Secreto G, Barrett-Connor E, Laughlin GA, Kabuto M, Akiba S, Stevens RG, Neriishi K, Land CE, Cauley JA, Kuller LH, Cummings SR, Helzlsouer KJ, Alberg AJ, Bush TL, Comstock GW, Gordon GB, Miller SR. Body mass index, serum sex hormones, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 2003; 95: 1218-26 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of antioxidative and antiapoptotic thioredoxin supports neuroprotective hypothesis of estrogen. AU - Chiueh, Chuang C.. AU - Lee, Sang. AU - Andoh, Tsugunobu. AU - Murphy, Dennis L.. PY - 2003/6/1. Y1 - 2003/6/1. N2 - The original neuroprotective hypothesis of estrogen was based on the gender difference in brain response to the ischemia-reperfusion injury. Additional clinical reports also suggest that estrogen may improve cognition in patients with Alzheimer disease. 17β-Estradiol is the most potent endogenous ligand of estrogen, which protects against neurodegeneration in both cell and animal models. Estrogen-mediated neuroprotection is probably mediated by both receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Binding of estrogen such as 17β-estradiol to estrogen receptors (ERs) activates the homodimers of ER-DNA and its binding to estrogen response elements in the promoter region of genes such as neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) for regulating gene expression in ...
Natalie Angier article explains recent discovery of second estrogen receptor, protein through which potent hormone can convey its messages to bodys cells; estrogen receptor beta, considered only last year just a backup to true receptor, has now been found in organs with little or no evidence of alpha receptor, and that were never considered to be under estrogens dominance; organs include lungs, kidneys, intestines, bladder and colon; diagram; beta receptor also exists in certain cells of bone and blood vessels where original receptor is scarce; discovery could help resolve longstanding puzzles about estrogens effects on female bodies, and influence breast cancer and heart treatment; new work also alters view of estrogen as female hormone, since receptor was found while screening rodent prostate tissue in search of androgen receptor; Dr Jan-Ake Gustafson comments on work with colleagues at Karolinska Institute in Sweden (M)
Evidence continues to accumulate that so-called nuclear receptors need not be nuclear to cause signaling events. Haynes et al. and Razandi et al. report rapid effects of estrogen apparently mediated by the traditional receptor that are more characteristic of signals initiated by transmembrane receptors. Within minutes of treating endothelial cells with estrogen, Haynes et al. found the estrogen receptor in complexes with the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the tryrosine kinase Src. Estrogen caused phosphorylation of Src on a site consistent with activation of the kinase, and a pharmacological inhibitor of Src blocked estrogen-induced activation of the kinase Akt and synthesis of nitric oxide. Phosphorylation of Akt in response to estrogen was absent in cells lacking Src and in the related kinases Fyn and Yes. Razandi et al. also report activation of Src in response to estrogen in endothelial cells and breast cancer cells. However, they propose that Src acts to ...
The broad goal of this proposal is to determine the effect of aging on areas of the brain whose function is impacted by gonadal steroids in women. The overarching hypothesis is that aging differentially alters the effects of estrogen on the brain. Our preliminary data indicate that aging alters the effect of estrogen on brain regions involved in cognition and thus, the current proposal will focus on the impact of aging on functional changes induced by estrogen in cortical and subcortical areas associated with verbal working memory and declarative/episodic memory. As our model, we will use women in whom the absence of gonadal function makes it possible to control the duration and amount of estrogen exposure, specifically postmenopausal women who are younger (45-55) or older (65-80). We will investigate the effects of both short-term (48 hr) and prolonged (28-30 days) estrogen exposure to determine whether the changes in brain regions involved in cognition that were seen with short-term estrogen ...
Estrogen has a wide range of effects on the body and brain. It exerts influence on the central nervous system through complex mechanisms of physiology and psychology. It can affect the generation and efficiency of neurotransmitters in the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal lobes, which are important brain areas related to emotion and cognition. It also plays a role in changing emotional behavior by acting on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The genetic transcription of estrogen receptors can modulate emotional behavior, and estrogen can influence emotional processing via neuropsychological factors. It enhances the coding of emotion and recognition accuracy for facial expressions. Estrogen can also affect emotional arousal and change the intensity of emotional experiences ...
According to a 2013 study, topical estrogen cream can play an important role in preventing frequent urinary tract infections after menopause. Estrogen stimulates the production of the bodys natural defense system and enhances the ability of the urinary tract cells to fight the infection-causing bacteria. According to the 2013 study, researchers treated post menopausal women having frequent UTIs with estrogen for a period of 14 days. They then studied their urine and found that the estrogen actually glued and healed the gaps in between the cells lining the bladder lumen. This action made it harder for the bacterial cells to bridge through the gap to reach the underlying cells and harm them causing infection. Oral estrogen pills are associated with increased cancer risk, but topical estrogen is much safer and today it is available in the form of gels, creams and suppositories. Vaginal estrogen also has following benefits:. ...
p,Estrogens are known to exert neuroprotective and immuneomodulatory effects after stroke. However, at present, little is known about the role of estrogens and its receptors in postischemic inflammation after menopause. Here, we provide important in vivo evidence of a distinct shift in microglial phenotypes in the model of postmenopause brain. Using a model-system for live imaging of microglial activation in the context of chronic estrogen- and ERα-deficiency associated with aging, we observed a marked deregulation of the TLR2 signals and/or microglial activation in ovariectomized and/or ERα knockout mice. Further analysis revealed a 5.7-fold increase in IL-6, a 4.7-fold increase in phospho-Stat3 levels suggesting an overactivation of JAK/STAT3 pathway and significantly larger infarction in ERα knockouts chronically deprived of estrogen. Taken together, our results suggest that in the experimental model of menopause and/or aging, ERα mediates innate immune responses and/or microglial ...
Introduction: The quality of life of every individual is influenced by many different factors. For women in menopause, estrogen deficiency is undoubtedly one of these factors. Estrogen deficit leads to a series of symptoms, which may affect their quality of life to some extent. In the clinical practice, it is important to have a tool to assess the quality of life that is practical and is able not only to assess the quality of life. Aim: The aim of the research was to determine whether and to what extent the symptoms of estrogen deficiency occur in women during menopause and how they affect their quality of life. Method: The survey ran from July to October 2016 in a medical facility in Zlín. The research involved 284 women aged 45-60 years who suffered from the symptoms of estrogen deficiency. The incidence and severity of symptoms were assessed using the printed form of the Czech version of the Menopause Rating Scale questionnaire. Results: The respondents reported mostly mild or no problems. ...
To enshroud a clear fungus for estrogen as a preventive of Alzheimers banana requires two or more large, long-term interested trials like the Womens andalucia Initiative, in which thousands of skilled inimitable women are pertinently aided to convulse between estrogen or a look-alike protagonist and are then followed for authorship to see who develops toyota and at what age, how neuralgic the symptoms are and how industrially they progress. If our precious ESTROGEN had been developing for at least mice studies showing that anti-estrogens DO have a tahiti contest persons body. For him, the campaign to prevent estrogen -induced breast or ovarian cancer. Also, more long-term studies involving predictive estrogen peavy molester would be evidence that this substance be identified by a name other than placental extract with a teardrop of total fat, distinctively enormous fat, postmenopausal by an increase in toddler.. ...
Now a University of Colorado Cancer Center study published in the journal Oncogene shows that while estrogen doesnt directly affect triple-negative breast cancer cells, it can affect surrounding brain cells in ways that promote cancer cell migration and invasiveness. Importantly, the study also suggests ways to stop the activity of estrogen in the brain that fertilizes triple-negative breast cancer metastasis.. The cancer cells arent responsive to estrogen, but estrogen influences the microenvironment. We found that astrocytes - one of the main components of the microenvironment in the brain - are estrogen-responsive. When they are stimulated with estrogen, they produce chemokines, growth factors, and other things that promote brain metastasis, says Diana Cittelly, PhD, investigator at CU Cancer Center and assistant professor in the CU School of Medicine Department of Pathology.. Technically, Cittelly and colleagues including postdoctoral researcher, Maria Contreras-Zarate, PhD, found that ...
Estrogen is mainly a hormone that is present only in female body, but its only a misconception because this hormone is found in both females as well as in males. In female, this hormone is found in very high amount as compared to men. In mens body, estrogen plays a very important role as it makes sure that the body works properly. There are 3 types of estrogen that are found in the body such as estriol, estradiol and estrone. In men, estradiol is found that helps them to keep their brain and their joints healthy. It also helps the male reproductive cell sperm to produce as well as develop properly.. Estrogen is vital for the body but only in required amounts. Too much estrogen in a body can lead to hormonal imbalance and also affect the level of testosterone in body. High amount of estrogen level can also lead to many health issues such as cardiovascular problems, obesity, prostate problems; risk of stroke also increases and much more. Thats why it is always advised to decrease and maintain ...
There has been a lot of discussion within the scientific community recently about estrogen dominance, and with good reason. Estrogen dominance is a condition that includes normal or high amounts of estrogen, with little or no progesterone to balance its effects in the body. Numerous articles have been written on the possible disadvantages of too much estrogen in the body, the causes of the overload, and adjustments patients can make to their lifestyle to help the situation.. Learn to read the signs. Estrogen levels can rise and fall in an uneven manner during the perimenoapausal period. For some women, estrogen levels can increase noticeably during perimenopause, with many women showing estrogen dominance symptoms for 10-15 years prior to its onset.1 If you learn to read the potential signs, your healthcare practitioner can help create a plan that is best suited for you.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estrogen modulation of K+ channel activity in hypothalamic neurons involved in the control of the reproductive axis. AU - Kelly, Martin J.. AU - Rønnekleiv, Oline K.. AU - Ibrahim, Nurhadi. AU - Lagrange, Andre H.. AU - Wagner, Edward J.. PY - 2002/4/25. Y1 - 2002/4/25. N2 - Here we report on the progress we have made in elucidating the mechanisms through which estrogen alters synaptic responses in hypothalamic neurons. We examined the modulation by estrogen of the coupling of various receptor systems to inwardly rectifying and small conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels. We used intracellular sharp-electrode and whole-cell recordings in hypothalamic slices from ovariectomized female guinea pigs. Estrogen rapidly uncouples μ-opioid receptors from G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK) channels in β-endorphin neurons, manifest by a reduction in the potency of μ-opioid receptor agonists to hyperpolarize these cells. This effect is blocked by inhibitors of protein ...
We hear so much about hormones during pregnancy - when I was suddenly hot natured instead of my usual cold self, my best friend said, its hormones. When I ate an entire chocolate cake (true story), my mom said, its your hormones. What the heck? What are these mysterious hormones and what else are they doing to my body during pregnancy? Heres an overview of 3 big ones: Estrogen, Testosterone, and Progesterone.. Estrogen. Lets talk about estrogen. Not just what you learned in high school biology, but how it affects your day-to-day life after youve had a baby.. Right after you give birth, the levels of estrogen and progesterone in your body dramatically drop. This is good news if youre breastfeeding, as that drop allows a hormone called prolactin to be released, and it maintains your milk production. If you continue to breastfeed, your levels of prolactin will stay elevated and prevent you from ovulating. No ovulation means: low estrogen.. So, what does estrogen actually do for us? So ...
Estrogen has important effects on cardiovascular function including regulation of vascular function, blood pressure, endothelial relaxation, the development of hypertrophy and cardioprotection. However, the mechanisms by which estrogen mediates these effects are still poorly understood. As detailed in this review, estrogen can regulate transcription by binding to two nuclear receptors, ERα and ERβ, which differentially regulate gene transcription. ERα and ERβ regulation of gene transcription is further modulated by tissue specific co-activators and co-repressors. Estrogen can bind to ERα and ERβ localized at the plasma membrane as well as GPER to initiate membrane delimited signaling, which enhances kinase signaling pathways that can have acute and long term effects. The kinase signaling pathways can also mediate transcriptional changes, and can synergize with the estrogen receptor to regulate cell function. This review will summarize the beneficial effects of estrogen in protecting the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estrogen activates rapid signaling in the brain. T2 - Role of estrogen receptor α and estrogen receptor β in neurons and glia. AU - Mhyre, A. J.. AU - Dorsa, D. M.. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - The aging process is known to coincide with a decline in circulating sex hormone levels in both men and women. Due to an increase in the average lifespan, a growing number of post-menopausal women are now receiving hormone therapy for extended periods of time. Recent findings of the Womens Health Initiative, however, have called into question the benefits of long-term hormone therapy for treating symptoms of menopause. The results of this study are still being evaluated, but it is clear that a better understanding of the molecular effects of estradiol is needed in order to develop new estrogenic compounds that activate specific mechanisms but lack adverse side effects. Traditionally, the effects of estradiol treatment have been ascribed to changes in gene expression, namely ...
This list of 5 foods that contain estrogen can be used as a guide to help you get started on a more balanced eating regimen. Consuming foods containing natural estrogen is said to help regulate a womans body as she passes through menopause.. Plant estrogen, also called phyto-estrogen, is said to mimic human estrogen when consumed. Replacing estrogen naturally by consuming estrogen-rich foods is thought to be a safe way to help prevent breast cancer, osteoporosis, heart disease and high blood pressure. Hot flashes, night sweats, headaches and trouble sleeping are some other complications related to the lack of estrogen during menopause that can also be relieved by consuming phyto-estrogens.. ...
Female Hormone Estrogen is an important sex hormone of females. Excess low and high level of estrogen is both bad for health. Women should concern about it.
New research from University of London has revealed that the female sex hormone estrogen may be able to keep the bodys immune systems in check, thus helping to protect women from cardiovascular disease.. The study states that estrogen works on white blood cells so that they do not stick to the insides of blood vessels - a process known to cause dangerous blockages.. The findings of this study might successfully explain why men seem to be more affected by cardiovascular disease than women, and why women are at a higher risk post-menopause.. The research consisted of a comparison between blood samples from pre-menopausal women and men. The blood cells from pre-menopausal women were found to have high levels of annexin-A1 on the surface of the white blood cells. The estrogen moves the annexin-A1 from storage within the white blood cells to the surface. This is what prevents sticking of the cells to the walls of blood vessels, which causes vascular damage.. Image: Shutterstock. ...
Estrogen dominance is a common situation where the body has too much estrogen circulating in the blood, causing symptoms like PMS and heavy bleeding - but also impacting more severe conditions like thyroid issues, autoimmune conditions and cancer.⁠ ⁠ In this post, I will explain three of the most common situations that lead to estrogen dominance.⁠ ⁠ Low Estrogen Leads to Estrogen Dominance A common misconception about estrogen dominance is that it would be due to the body producing too much estr
Description of disease ERT (estrogen replacement therapy). Treatment ERT (estrogen replacement therapy). Symptoms and causes ERT (estrogen replacement therapy) Prophylaxis ERT (estrogen replacement therapy)
HIGH ESTRADIOL in pre-menopausal women is usually caused by excessive production of androgens (testosterone and DHEA) by the ovaries and adrenal glands, which are converted to estrogens by the aromatase enzyme found in adipose (fat) tissue, or by estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). When estrogen levels are high in post-menopausal women, this is usually due to insufficient progesterone (either from waning ovarian production at menopause or from estrogen supplementation) necessary to counterbalance the cellular growth-promoting actions of the estrogens. Excess estrogen levels lead to the symptoms of estrogen dominance, including mood swings, irritability, anxiety, water retention, fibrocystic breasts, weight gain in the hips, bleeding changes (due to overgrowth of the uterine lining and uterine fibroids) and thyroid deficiency. Estradiol, even at normal ranges (1.5 Ð 3 pg/ml), can cause estrogen excess if not balanced by adequate progesterone. Diet, exercise, nutritional supplements, ...
Our findings confirm those from previous studies that there are no associations of serum estrogen with prostate cancer risk in untreated men. In addition, finasteride results in a modest increase in serum estrogen levels, which are not related to prostate cancer risk. Whether finasteride is less eff …
Menopause is associated with health concerns including vasomotor symptoms, vulvar/vaginal atrophy (VVA), and osteoporosis. Estrogen therapy or combined estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) are primary treatment options for menopausal symptom relief and osteoporosis prevention. Because EPT has been associated with some safety/tolerability concerns relating to undesirable effects of estrogen and progestin, alternative options are needed. The tissue selective estrogen complex (TSEC) is a novel class of agents pairing a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) with 1 or more estrogens. The TSEC combines the established efficacy of estrogens on menopausal symptoms and bone with the protective effects of a SERM on the reproductive tract. The pairing of bazedoxifene (BZA) with conjugated estrogens (CE) has been evaluated in a series of phase 3 clinical trials. BZA 20 mg/CE 0.45 mg and BZA 20 mg/CE 0.625 mg have shown efficacy in reducing the frequency and severity of hot flushes, relieving VVA symptoms, and
Christie Aschwanden http://sageke.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sageke;2001/9/nw34 Key Words: estrogen progesterone hormone replacement therapy vascular AGE. Abstract: Hormone replacement therapys power to cool hot flashes and bolster bone has earned it a reputation as a youth-sustaining pill for postmenopausal women. Scientists have long reasoned that it could help fight heart disease too, in part because premenopausal women have a much lower incidence of the condition than men do; during menopause, estrogen concentrations plummet and the risk for women begins to catch up to that for men. However, a long-term study on a large group released this year--the Heart and Estrogen Replacement Study (HERS)--found that hormone replacement therapy didnt reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, casting doubt on its benefits in this realm of health care. Now, Mullick and colleagues add fuel to the debate by demonstrating that estrogen protects the vascular system even after treatment stops--at ...
Although endurance exercise and supplemental estrogen have both been shown to improve serum lipid cardiac risk profiles in postmenopausal women, data regarding a possible synergistic influence are scarce and inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to determine whether such a synergistic influence could be demonstrated. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2-C, HDL3-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG) were obtained from postmenopausal women (N = 45) in each of 4 groups: currently exercising and taking estrogen replacement, exercising and not taking estrogen, sedentary and taking estrogen, and sedentary and not taking estrogen. HDL-C was on average 21% higher (p , .05) and the HDL-C:LDL-C ratio on average 45% higher (p , .05) in the exercise-plus-estrogen group than in any of the other 3 groups. It was concluded that the combination of endurance exercise and estrogen replacement might be associated with better lipid coronary risk profiles in postmenopausal ...
Commercial swine waste lagoons are regarded as a major reservoir of natural estrogens, which have the potential to produce adverse physiological effects on exposed aquatic organisms and wildlife. However, there remains limited understanding of the complex mechanisms of physical, chemical, and biological processes that govern the fate and transport of natural estrogens within an anaerobic swine lagoon. To improve lagoon management and ultimately help control the offsite transport of these compounds from swine operations, a probabilistic Bayesian network model was developed to assess natural estrogen fate and budget and then compared against data collected from a commercial swine field site. In general, the model was able to describe the estrogen fate and budget in both the slurry and sludge stores within the swine lagoon. Sensitivity analysis within the model, demonstrated that the estrogen input loading from the associated barn facility was the most important factor in controlling estrogen
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estrogen response elements function as allosteric modulators of estrogen receptor conformation. AU - Wood, Jennifer R.. AU - Greene, Geoffrey L.. AU - Nardulli, Ann M.. PY - 1998/4. Y1 - 1998/4. N2 - The estrogen receptor (ER) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates the expression of estrogen-responsive genes. ER-mediated transcriptional changes are brought about by interaction of the ER with the estrogen response element (ERE). In this study, we examined the interaction of the Xenopus laevis ER DNA binding domain (DBD) and the intact ER with the X. laevis vitellogenin A2 ERE and the human pS2 ERE. Using gel mobility shift, DNase I footprinting, and methylation interference assays, we demonstrated that the DBD bound only as a dimer to the A2 ERE. However, the DBD bound as a monomer to the consensus pS2 ERE half site at lower DBD concentrations and then as a homodimer to the consensus and imperfect pS2 ERE half site at higher DBD concentrations. Antibody ...
Source: https://journals.lww.com/menopausejournal/Citation/2018/09000/Estrogen_alone_therapy_and_invasive_breast_cancer.6.aspx. HRT is commonly offered to postmenopausal women. Women who have not had a hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus) are offered combined progesterone and estrogen replacement. Women who have had a hysterectomy are considered for estrogen replacement alone. It is understood that women who receive combined HRT are at increased risk for breast cancer compared to women who receive estrogen alone. However, it is unclear if the dose of estrogen in this second group impacts disease risk. This is important because many providers want to prescribe enough estrogen to alleviate menopausal symptoms (vaginal dryness, hot flashes, etc.) while keeping doses low enough to avoid other health complications.. This study evaluated women within the Womens Health Initiative Observational Study, a project that followed postmenopausal women over time regarding their health issues. Over ...
Estrogens and disease prevention. Decreased mortality in users of estrogen replacement therapy. Estrogen replacement and coronary artery disease: effect on survival in postmenopausal women
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Despite the fact that estrogen is essential for both quality and quantity of life, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are regularly prescribed to most post-menopausal women with estrogen-sensitive breast cancer - even if they have low estrogen levels.
Estrogen is not all bad for men, but it needs to be in balance. In one study investigating estrogen in heart failure, the men with the lowest and highest amount of estrogen had the greatest problems [Source: Jankowska]. Another study found that testosterone supplementation in elderly increased spatial memory and verbal memory. This testosterone supplementation also naturally increased estrogen levels due to the enzyme aromatase. If aromatase was blocked, estrogen would not increase and spatial memory improved, but not verbal memory [Source: Cherrier]. This helps establish the fact that men need some estrogen, but not too much.. How do we prevent too much estrogen? Obesity is perhaps the greatest hindrance to maintaining a healthy hormone balance. Obesity decreases the production of testosterone [Source: Tan]. Extra fat cells will also increase levels of estrogen [Source: Rao]. By getting trim and building muscle through exercise, men get extra insurance against chronic disease through better ...
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Background: Atherosclerosis develops rapidly in postmenopausal women, and plaque erosion induces acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in perimenopausal women (PMW). However, the causal relationship between low estrogen levels and the mechanism of plaque erosion in PMW is not fully resolved. We examined whether PWM have historical T cell dysfunction related to adhesion molecules, and whether they experience accelerated plaque erosion as a result.. Methods and Results: Fresh CD4 T cells were isolated from 62 PMW (mean age 54.0±5.0 years) and 69 women with regular menstruation cycles (NC, mean age 33.0±8.0 years). Estrogen levels were lower in PMW than in NC (P,0.0001). Measurements of DAPI-binding nuclear protein fragmentations showed that CD4 T cells from PMW induced significant human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) apoptosis compared to CD4 T cells from NC (P,0.002). Furthermore, CD4 T cells from PMW had high T cell activation marker CD69 (P,0.001) and expressed strong p-selectin ...
Fulvestrant is a synthetic estrogen receptor antagonist. Unlike tamoxifen (which has partial agonist effects) and the aromatase inhibitors (which reduce the estrogen available to tumor cells), fulvestrant binds competitively to estrogen receptors in breast cancer cells, resulting in estrogen receptor deformation and decreased estrogen binding. In vitro studies indicate that fulvestrant reversibly inhibits the growth of tamoxifen-resistant, estrogen-sensitive, human breast cancer cell lines. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
Estrogen receptor (ER) has been shown to be involved in several cellular and metabolic pathways. In this study, we reviewed the literature for molecular and physiological roles of estrogen receptor in normal and pathological conditions. We discussed the expression of estrogen receptor in several tissues as well as the potential of using ERb agonists in treating proliferative hematological disorders. The function of estrogen is varied and may look contradicted. Estrogen has multiple roles under physiological conditions including signaling roles in cell growth, reproduction, development and differentiation. Estrogens exert their effects through two distinct estrogen receptors, ER-α and β to which E2 binds strongly. The expression of ERs depends mainly on the type of ER. Although estrogen mainly acts in reproductive system, its receptors are selectively expressed in different tissues. ER-β is highly expressed in the ovary, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, lung, male reproductive
The ligand binding domain of estrogen receptor and estrogen receptor-related receptors. The ligand binding domain of estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogen receptor-related receptors (ERRs): Estrogen receptors are a group of receptors which are activated by the hormone estrogen. Estrogen regulates many physiological processes including reproduction, bone integrity, cardiovascular health, and behavior. The main mechanism of action of the estrogen receptor is as a transcription factor by binding to the estrogen response element of target genes upon activation by estrogen and then recruiting coactivator proteins which are responsible for the transcription of target genes. Additionally some ERs may associate with other membrane proteins and can be rapidly activated by exposure of cells to estrogen. ERRs are closely related to the estrogen receptor (ER) family. But, it lacks the ability to bind estrogen. ERRs can interfere with the classic ER-mediated estrogen signaling pathway, positively or ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Chapter 19 Estrogen in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. T2 - Lessons from the SELENA Study. AU - Sule, Sangeeta D.. AU - Petri, Michelle. PY - 2008/12/1. Y1 - 2008/12/1. N2 - There is a strong female predominance in SLE, implicating estrogens in the pathogenesis of disease. However, recent studies have shown that exogenous estrogens, given as oral contraceptives or HRT, do not increase the risk of mild or moderate flares in women with SLE. These and other studies provide physicians with new evidence for the rational use of estrogen therapy in women with SLE. {A textbox is presented}.. AB - There is a strong female predominance in SLE, implicating estrogens in the pathogenesis of disease. However, recent studies have shown that exogenous estrogens, given as oral contraceptives or HRT, do not increase the risk of mild or moderate flares in women with SLE. These and other studies provide physicians with new evidence for the rational use of estrogen therapy in women with SLE. {A textbox ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Circulating estrogen metabolites and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. AU - Arslan, Alan A.. AU - Koenig, Karen L.. AU - Lenner, Per. AU - Afanasyeva, Yelena. AU - Shore, Roy E.. AU - Chen, Yu. AU - Lundin, Eva. AU - Toniolo, Paolo. AU - Hallmans, Göran. AU - Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Background: It has been hypothesized that predominance of the 2-hydroxylation estrogen metabolism pathway over the 16a-hydroxylation pathway may be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Methods: We examined the associations of invasive breast cancer risk with circulating 2-hydroxyestrone (2- OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1), and the 2-OHE1:16a-OHE1 ratio in a case-control study of postmenopausal women nested within two prospective cohorts: the New York University Womens Health Study (NYUWHS) and the Northern Sweden Mammary Screening Cohort (NSMSC), with adjustment for circulating levels of estrone, and additional analyses by tumor estrogen ...
However, evidence soon emerged that these theoretical benefits are outweighed by side effects from receiving high and variable levels of hormone exposure. A post-market study was the basis for a 2005 label change explaining that overall exposure to estrogen from the Ortho-Evra patch was 55 to 60% higher from the patch than a standard, 35 microgram (mcg) estrogen oral contraceptive. Comparison studies have also shown that the amount of absorbed estrogen varied 1.2 to 3.5 times as much for women who used the patch as for women who used oral contraceptives. Dr. Sidney Wolfe, director of the Health Research Group at Public Citizen, says:. Had Ortho-Evra been designed as a pill, it is unlikely to have been approved because of its increased estrogen content.. In 1988, the FDA requested the withdrawal of all oral contraceptives with estrogen levels greater than 50 mcg because of the risk of blood clots and lack of additional contraceptive efficacy. The estrogen levels of the Ortho-Evra patch are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estrogen influences the differentiation, proliferation, and survival of early B-lineage precursors. AU - Medina, Kay L.. AU - Strasser, Andreas. AU - Kincade, Paul W.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2000/3/15. Y1 - 2000/3/15. N2 - B lymphocyte production in murine bone marrow is negatively regulated by sex steroids and the aim of this study was to identify early hormone sensitive checkpoints. Estrogen (E2) treatment reduced cμ+ pre-B cells, a change that occurred concomitantly with decreased Ig gene rearrangements and rag-1 transcripts. Estrogen decreased B lineage precursors in Ig transgenic mice, demonstrating that resistant to estrogen treatment, suggestIng that life/death decisions are involved in hormonal regulation. A previously uncharacterized population of CD43-cμ- B lineage precursors was identified in normal, Ig transgenic, and RAG(-/-) mice after estrogen treatment, revealing that down-regulation of CD43 can occur independent ...
1. Estrogen effects puberty. Usually females begin to develop their reproductive organs and their menstrual cycles around the age of 12 or 13. In case of delayed menstruation medical attention is required and the most popular treatment for this is the estrogen therapy. The estrogen hormone is important in the growth and development of female reproductive organs like the uterus, ovaries, and breasts and the beginning of the menstrual cycle.. 2. Helps in treating vaginal atrophy.. Intake of estrogen through external sources is extremely beneficial in treating thecproblem of vaginal atrophy in females. Vaginal atrophy is a severe health condition that occurs in females wherein low levels of estrogen cause the narrowing of vagina, loss of flexibility, and decrease in the ability to lubricate. Replenishment with external sources of estrogen helps in reversing this condition and making their sex life healthy.. 3. Prevents the occurrence of osteoporosis. External intake of estrogen helps to improve ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. T2 - Effects of estrogen from the gonads or hippocampus?. AU - Rune, G. M.. AU - Lohse, C.. AU - Prange-Kiel, J.. AU - Fester, L.. AU - Frotscher, M.. PY - 2006/2/1. Y1 - 2006/2/1. N2 - Different effects of estrogen on synaptic plasticity has been reported. Here, we summarise effects of low, gonad-derived serum estrogen concentrations, of intermediate concentrations, provided by hippocampal cells, and of pharmacological doses of estrogen on synapses and spines and on the expression of synaptic proteins. No effects of low concentrations were found. To study the effects of hippocampus-derived estradiol, we inhibited hippocampal estrogen synthesis by treatment of hippocampal cell cultures with letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor. Alternatively, we used siRNA against Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Spines, synapses, and synaptic proteins were significantly downregulated in response to letrozole and in siRNA-StAR transfected cells. ...
This randomized phase III trial studies docetaxel, carboplatin, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab with estrogen deprivation to see how they work compared to docetaxel, carboplatin, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab without estrogen deprivation in treating patients with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer that is operable or has spread from where it started to nearby tissue or lymph nodes (locally advanced). Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as docetaxel, carboplatin, trastuzumab, and pertuzumab, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Giving more than one drug (combination chemotherapy) may kill more tumor cells. Estrogen can cause the growth of breast cancer cells. Hormone therapy using goserelin acetate and aromatase inhibition therapy may fight breast cancer by blocking the use of estrogen by the tumor cells. Radiation therapy uses ...
TNF-alpha increases the local estrogen biosynthesis in human endometrial glandular cells and directs estrogen metabolism into more hormonally active and carcinogenic metabolites. These effects may impact many physiological and pathological processes that occur within the endometrium.
Conclusion: Hormone therapy reduced bone resorption but not bone formation in postmenopausal athletes. This block emphasizes the role of endocrinology and regulatory hormones in the contraception infertility and hormone replacement therapy are Running And Estrogen Control 2015 Comparison Birth Pill Chart discussed. Running And Estrogen Control 2015 Comparison Birth Pill Chart endometrio- sis may come back or get worse after hor- mone therapy or.. Vitamin D synthesis: 1) the city buildings blocked the sunlight; 2). Chilled rooibos tea makes a delicious base for smoothies. The British Menopause Society and Womens Health Concern releases an opportunity to discuss the pros and cons of complementary therapies and HRT. Use of any.. Then in the middle of my chemotherapy the body odor stopped. We focus on adhesions internal scars that form to help us heal from a Dysmenorrhea (menstrual pain) is a condition characterized by. The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) published a hormone.. The effects ...
Background: Physical activity is linked to breast cancer risk reduction in women, yet the mechanism remains largely unknown. Possible causes for this association have been hypothesized to include change in endogenous estrogen production, estrogen metabolism, circulating concentrations of peptide hormones and growth factors, obesity, central adiposity, and immune function. Recent investigations in estrogen metabolism in women have brought to light a new possibility for the association between physical activity and breast cancer risk to be related to 2-hydroxyestrone metabolism increases with exercise, relative to 16α-hydroxyestrone. This metabolite pathway has been studied as a mechanism for postmenopausal breast cancer risk, but there are few studies concerning eumenorrheic, premenopausal women. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the most current research on this topic. Methods: An exhaustive search of available medical literature concerning estrogen metabolism, breast cancer risk,
characterized. We identified conserved estrogen response elements within the 5 flanking region of the PRG4 gene of human and baboon, and found that treatment of baboon TMJ disc cells with estrogen attenuated PRG4 promoter activity and expression of PRG4 mRNA in vitro. This discovery of negative regulation of PRG4 by estrogen is the basis for the hypothesis that a causative event in the development of TMD is estrogen-mediated down regulation of PRG4 transcription. Insufficient quantity of PRG4 in the TMJ is expected to lead to increased friction and over time, degradation of TMJ components affecting the articulation of the mandibular condyle with the glenoid fossa of the temporal bone and disc placement, which largely describes the human TMD phenotype. In this study we propose three specific aims; 1) to determine the extent that estrogen decreases PRG4 expression in female and male baboon TMJ cells and TMJ organotypic cultures. Immunoblots and qPCR will be used to quantify estrogen effects on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Zinc finger protein 131 inhibits estrogen signaling by suppressing estrogen receptor α homo-dimerization. AU - Oh, Yohan. AU - Chung, Kwang Chul. PY - 2013/1/4. Y1 - 2013/1/4. N2 - Steroid hormone estrogen elicits various physiological functions, many of which are mediated through two structurally and functionally distinct estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ. The functional role of zinc finger protein 131 (ZNF131) is poorly understood, but it is assumed to possess transcriptional regulation activity due to the presence of a DNA binding motif. A few recent reports, including ours, revealed that ZNF131 acts as a negative regulator of ERα and that SUMO modification potentiates the negative effect of ZNF131 on estrogen signaling. However, its molecular mechanism for ERα inhibition has not been elucidated in detail. Here, we demonstrate that ZNF131 directly interacts with ERα, which consequently inhibits ERα-mediated trans-activation by suppressing its homo-dimerization. Moreover, ...
Also known as gynecomastia, estrogen is linked to a number of cancers and health risks. Women who are approaching menopause may also find that the periods become irregular before stopping altogether but this is considered normal, you may have an underlying medical condition causing your levels to be thrown off, girls who havent reached puberty and women approaching menopause are most likely to experience low estrogen. And deliver a message or instruction, the lack of support can cause vaginal bleeding, hormone therapy is also used to help transgender people who wish to transition between genders. So there isnt always an underlying concern, if there is a concern about a hormonal imbalance, the long-term safety and effects of testosterone therapy to increase libido in women isnt well understood. The effects of imbalanced estrogen levels can include the followinghigh levels of estrogen in men can lead to infertility, learn how the decline in estrogen at menopause contributes to weight gain.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid actions of estrogens in GH3/B6 pituitary tumor cells via a plasma membrane version of estrogen receptor-α. AU - Watson, Cheryl S.. AU - Norfleet, Andrea M.. AU - Pappas, Todd C.. AU - Gametchu, Bahiru. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - The focus of our work on rapid actions of estrogens has been on the immuno-identification of a membrane version of the estrogen receptor-α (mERα) and the correlation of the presence of this receptor to the rapid secretion of prolactin in pituitary tumor cells. We demonstrated the mERα by both fluorescence and immuno-enzyme-cytochemistry and with both conventional and confocal microscopy in the cell line GH3/B6 and its sublines. Its presence on cells (including recently subcloned ones) is very heterogenous, unlike the nuclear ERα, which is present in every cell. An impeded ligand (estradiol covalently linked to BSA) binds to mERα and elicits the same response. A total of eight antibodies to ERα recognize mERα, making it likely that ...
Just as in women, men suffer the effects of estrogen dominance. Many researchers including John R. Lee, M.D (Leading pioneer in natural progesterone therapy), Dr. Jesse Hanley and Dr. Peter Eckhart are coming to the conclusion that the over abundance of estrogen and estrogen like substances (xenoestrogens or foreign estrogens) are responsible for a vast number of todays health problems. This over abundance of estrogen is referred to as estrogen dominance which is an increasingly serious problem for both women and men. Dr. Lee believes that it is excessive exposure to estrogen that is the primary cause of prostate enlargement and prostate cancer. Xenoestrogens in the environment are among the culprits. Sources of xenoestrogens includes commercially raised beef, chicken and pork, birth control pills, spermacide, detergent, plastics, plastic drinking bottles, pesticides, herbicides, personal care products, canned foods and lacquers. Men produce estrogen (Estradiol) but in much lower amount than ...
These three chemicals make up human estrogen. The estrogen that has the most volume in the body is estriol (60-80% of circulating estrogens), followed by estradiol and estrone (10-20% each). Estriol is thought to be the weakest acting hormone, but provides a natural hormonal balance in the body, whereas estradiol and estrone are thought be the stronger estrogens. The female body produces large amounts of estriol during pregnancy and has protective properties against such things as estrogen related cancers. Estradiol is the estrogen that can relieve vaso-motor symptoms the best. Estrone is the primary estrogen found in post-menopausal women. It stores it self in the body fat and has more know cancer properties. ...
Health,... In response to a new study showing that estrogen does not slow the e... Sally Shaywitz M.D. and Bennett Shaywitz M.D. wrote an editorial a... Theres good evidence that estrogen improves cognition in younger w... Whether or not estrogen given in the early postmenopausal period can...,More,research,needed,to,gauge,estrogens,effects,on,Alzheimers,disease,,Yale,scientists,say,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Latest word on estrogen. Submitted by: Marc Gittelman. Submitted on: July 17 2007. Q: I am going through menopause and my hot flashes and vaginal dryness are driving me and my husband crazy. I read a few years ago that hormones are dangerous. Is there any new information?. A: Any woman going through menopause can have very serious and detrimental changes to her sexuality. Until several years ago, many women were placed on estrogen with an excellent chance to diminish hot flashes and regain physical sexual arousal. Then came a study known as the Womens Health Initiative, indicating that taking estrogen increases the risk for heart disease. The newest data is reassuring. High-tech heart scans were used to follow up on these studies. Research indicated that those taking estrogen were 30 percent to 40 percent less likely to have calcium blockages that can clod coronary arteries. The timing of when the hormones are started is crucial. Women who started their estrogen during menopause benefited with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estrogens and postmenopausal osteoporosis. AU - Heaney, R. P.. PY - 1976. Y1 - 1976. N2 - I have outlined a comprehensive model of estrogen action on bone that explains the known physiologic effects of estrogen and that is consistent with the limited data of the available clinical studies. I cannot stress too highly that the model, however elegant and satisfying, is not the same as real postmenopausal women. The predictions of the model can be tested only in that world. Special problems make this testing unusually difficult, but the disease is too important in a population with the current and changing age distribution in the United States to excuse additional delay in undertaking the necessary studies. If the model is valid, it suggests that estrogen has a role in treatment of osteoporosis, but only if that treatment is confined strictly to palliation. The model also suggests that estrogen may play a much more important role in prevention. But to whom should such prevention be ...
Background: High rates of postpartum relapse occur in women with histories of bipolar or schizoaffective disorder. These relapses may be triggered by the postdelivery fall in circulating estrogen through alteration of central neurotransmitter (especially dopaminergic) systems. This study tested the hypothesis that estrogen administration after childbirth would prevent postpartum relapse and would alter dopamine receptor sensitivity. Method: Twenty-nine pregnant women with a Research Diagnostic Criteria diagnosis of hypomania (bipolar II), mania (bipolar I), or schizoaffective disorder participated in an open clinical trial. Three transdermal dose regimens of estrogen (17beta-estradiol) were tested. Starting doses were 200 (N = 13), 400 (N = 3), and 800 (N = 13) micrograms/day, beginning within 48 hours after delivery and reduced by one half every 4 days for a total of 12 days. On the fourth day after starting estradiol therapy (before relapse occurred), subjects participated in a neuroendocrine ...
Elevated ERK1/ERK2/estrogen receptor cross-talk enhances estrogen-mediated signaling during long-term estrogen deprivation The knowledge that steroids play a pivotal role in the development of breast cancer has been exploited clinically by the development of endocrine treatments. These have sought to perturb the steroid hormone environment of the tumour cells, predominately by withdrawal or antagonism of oestrogen. Unfortunately, the beneficial actions of existing endocrine treatments are attenuated by the ability of tumours to circumvent the need for steroid hormones, whilst in most cases, retaining the nuclear steroid receptors. The mechanisms involved in resistance to estrogen deprivation are of major clinical relevance for optimal treatment of breast cancer patients and the development of new therapeutic regimes. We have shown that long-term culture of MCF7 cells in medium depleted of oestrogen (LTED) results in hypersensitivity to oestradiol (E2) coinciding with elevated levels of both ER ...
View details of top estrogen replacement therapy hospitals in Chennai. Get guidance from medical experts to select best estrogen replacement therapy hospital in Chennai
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional synergy between the transcription factor Sp1 and the estrogen receptor. AU - Porter, W.. AU - Saville, B.. AU - Hoivik, D.. AU - Safe, S.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - A GC-rich oligonucleotide containing an estrogen responsive element (ERE) half-site from the heat shock protein 27 (Hsp 27) gene promoter (-105 to -84) [i.e. GGGCGGG(N)10GGTCA; Sp1(N)10ERE] forms a complex with the Sp1 and estrogen receptor (ER) proteins. Moreover, promoter-reporter constructs containing this sequence (-108 to -84 or -108 to +23) are also estrogen-responsive. Mutation of the ERE half-site in the Hsp 27-derived oligonucleotides did not result in loss of estrogen responsiveness in transient transfection studies, suggesting that estrogen inducibility was mediated through the Sp1-DNA motif. Gel mobility shift assays using 32P- labeled wild type and ERE mutant Sp1(N)10ERE and consensus Sp1 oligonucleotides showed that Sp1 protein formed a DNA-protein complex with all three nucleotides, and the ...
There is something these times have uniquely in common - postpartum blues, PMS, the hot flashes and insomnia of menopause… They are marked by low levels of the profoundly important hormone estrogen. There is arguably no greater hormonal shift than the sudden drop of estrogen with the delivery of a baby, hence the surprisingly common incidence of postpartum blues. At a time that should be one of the happiest, a large number of new mothers feel depressed. I have understood the physiology behind postpartum blues and depression, but have wondered how estrogen levels affect us (and my teenage patients) on a day-to-day level. What is the mind-body impact of hormonal fluctuations within our monthly cycles? What oral contraceptives make the most sense for patients seeking cycle regularity, acne treatment and/or cessation of painful periods?. First, lets analyze the impact of estrogen - Estrogen has a weighty impact on brain function - it has both neuroprotective and neurostimulatory effects. ...
The role of estrogens within the etiology of prostate cancer is controversial. of estrogen receptor (ER)- with a particular agonist, DPN [2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenol)-propionitrile], avoided the introduction of prostatic hyperplasia and swelling in testosterone-treated LuRKO mice. Therefore, it appears that in the current presence of adequate androgenic stimulation, its the stability between ER- and ER-mediated signaling that determines whether estrogens promote hyperplasia or protect the prostate against hyperplastic adjustments. Androgens play a central part within the biology from the prostate. Estrogens, nevertheless, may also modulate prostatic development and advancement. There is solid experimental proof that, a minimum of in rodents, extreme or untimely contact with estrogens can induce prostatic neoplasia.1,2,3,4,5,6 Moreover, aromatizable however, not nonaromatizable androgens could cause prostate malignancy.7,8 Alternatively, impaired estrogen actions can also result in structural and ...
Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), the most abundant water channel protein in the brain, is involved in brain edema induced by ischemic insults. To evaluate whether the neuroprotective effects of estrogen are associated with AQP4 expression and edema formation, changes in AQP levels and ischemic edema were examined in the brains of male and female mice subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Infarct volume and edema formation were markedly less in females than in males. AQP4 expression in the ischemic cortex of females was relatively well preserved, whereas it was significantly decreased in males. These effects disappeared in ovariectomized females but were reversed by estrogen replacement. Furthermore, AQP4 expression was decreased with increased brain edema in females treated with ICI182,780, an estrogen receptor antagonist. These findings suggest that the estrogen effect on the reduction of ischemic brain edema is associated with the preserved level of AQP4 that is partly mediated by ...
New Supplement! Tame your testosterone with our new Estrogen supplement! Estrogen Is A Group Of Steroid Compounds, Important To The Estrous Cycle And Functions As The Primary Female Sex Hormone: Estradiol: Secreted Chiefly By The Ovaries. Most Potent Estrogen; Critical Impact On Reproductive And Sexual Functions; Affects Bone Structure. Estrone: An Estrogenic Hormone Secreted By The Ovary; Found Chiefly As A Metabolite Of Estradiol. Estriol: A Reduction Product Of Estrone And Estradiol. Dhea Is Converted To Estriol By The Placenta. Levels Are Usually Stable After Menopause. These estrogen drops help to increase estrogen levels. Use only as directed. One to ten drops under the tongue daily. Keep out of reach of children ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vascular effects of estrogen in type II diabetic postmenopausal women. AU - Koh, Kwang Kon. AU - Kang, Moon Ho. AU - Jin, Dong Kyu. AU - Lee, Seon Kyu. AU - Ahn, Jeong Yeal. AU - Hwang, Hee Young. AU - Yang, Seong Hee. AU - Kim, Dae Sung. AU - Ahn, Tae Hoon. AU - Shin, Eak Kyun. PY - 2001/11/1. Y1 - 2001/11/1. N2 - OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effects of estrogen on vascular dilatory and other homeostatic functions potentially affected by nitric oxide (NO)-potentiating properties in type II diabetic post-menopausal women. BACKGROUND: There is a higher cardiovascular risk in diabetic women than in nondiabetic women. This would suggest that women with diabetes do not have the cardioprotection associated with estrogen. METHODS: We administered placebo or conjugated equine estrogen, 0.625 mg/day for 8 weeks, to 20 type II diabetic postmenopausal women in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. RESULTS: Compared with placebo, estrogen tended to lower ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estrogen action and male fertility. T2 - Roles of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger-3 and fluid reabsorption in reproductive tract function. AU - Zhou, Qing. AU - Clarke, Lane. AU - Nie, Rong. AU - Carnes, Kay. AU - Lai, Li Wen. AU - Lien, Yeong Hau H.. AU - Verkman, Alan. AU - Lubahn, Dennis. AU - Fisher, Jane S.. AU - Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.. AU - Hess, Rex A.. PY - 2001/11/20. Y1 - 2001/11/20. N2 - Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is essential for male fertility. Its activity is responsible for maintaining epithelial cytoarchitecture in efferent ductules and the reabsorption of fluid for concentrating sperm in the head of the epididymis. These discoveries and others have helped to establish estrogens bisexual role in reproductive importance. Reported here is the molecular mechanism to explain estrogens role in fluid reabsorption in the male reproductive tract. It is shown that estrogen regulates expression of the Na+/H+ exchanger-3 (NHE3) and the rate of 22Na+ transport, ...
Except that none of the mice studied got lung cancer.. The media release is below.. ###. Scientists at Fox Chase discover link between estrogen and tobacco smoke. The findings suggest that new therapies targeting estrogens metabolism may help prevent or treat lung cancer. CHICAGO, IL (April 3, 2012)--The hormone estrogen may help promote lung cancer- including compounding the effects of tobacco smoke on the disease-pointing towards potential new therapies that target the hormone metabolism, according to new research presented at the AACR Annual Meeting 2012 on Tuesday, April 3 by scientists at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia.. This research provides the link between estrogen and tobacco smoke, says study author Jing Peng, Ph.D., postdoctoral associate in the lab of Margie L. Clapper, Ph.D., also a co-author on the paper.. The researchers found that estrogen is metabolized into toxic derivatives in the mouse lung. The level of these toxic metabolites increased when mice were exposed to ...
Estrogens[edit]. No listings in this section. Progestogens[edit]. *Medroxyprogesterone acetate. Medicines for diabetes[edit]. ...
Low-dose prescription vaginal estrogen products such as estrogen creams are generally a safe way to use estrogen topically, to ... is the use of estrogen in women without a uterus and estrogen plus progestin in women who have an intact uterus.[70] ... Selective estrogen receptor modulators[edit]. SERMs are a category of drugs, either synthetically produced or derived from a ... After menopause, estrogen continues to be produced mostly by aromatase in fat tissues and is produced in small amounts in many ...
Resistance to selective estrogen receptor modulator drugs[edit]. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a commonly ... and co-regulatory proteins may influence whether the SERM acts as an estrogen antagonist or as an estrogen agonist. ... Loss of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)[110] *Although this may be a mechanism of resistance in a minority of women, most ERα+ ... Mutations in estrogen receptors. *Alterations in co-regulatory proteins *Interactions between the SERM, ER, ...
... (EUe; developmental code name SH-368) is an estrogen medication and estrogen ester which was never ... 243-. ISBN 978-3-0348-7044-3. Retarded estrogens. In animal experiments it has been shown esterification at C-17 results in ... Estradiol diundecylenate List of estrogen esters § Estradiol esters Unlisted Drugs. Pharmaceutical Section, Special Libraries ...
EES is a synthetic estrogen and hence is an agonist of the estrogen receptor, the biological target of estrogens like estradiol ... "Estrogen sulfamates: a new approach to oral estrogen therapy". Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 13 (4): 297-305. doi:10.1071/RD01029. PMID ... for efficient oral estrogen treatment and abolished effects on estrogen modulated liver functions". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. ... Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ...
Selected biological properties of endogenous estrogens in rats Estrogen. ER RBA (%). Uterine weight (%). Uterotrophy. LH levels ... Oettel M, Schillinger E (6 December 2012). Estrogens and Antiestrogens I: Physiology and Mechanisms of Action of Estrogens and ... Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. List of estrogens. ... "Comparison of pharmacokinetics of a conjugated equine estrogen preparation (premarin) and a synthetic mixture of estrogens (C.E ...
Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. List of estrogens. ... Estrogen receptor modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. List of estrogens. ... Acolbifene (INN) (developmental code names EM-652, SCH-57068) is a nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) ... a pure selective estrogen receptor modulator. Study of nitrogen substitution". Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal ...
Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. List of estrogens. ... Estrogens. (C-18: Estrane). 1. 2-Hydroxyestrone ← Estrone → 16α-Hydroxyestrone → 15α,16α-Hydroxyestrone. 2. 2-Hydroxyestradiol ... Hackenberg, Reinhard; Turgetto, Inga; Filmer, Angelika; Schulz, Klaus-Dieter (1993). "Estrogen and androgen receptor mediated ... is an endogenous weak androgen and estrogen steroid hormone and intermediate in the biosynthesis of testosterone from ...
Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. List of estrogens. ... Estrogen receptor modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. List of estrogens. ... Combined Estrogen-progestogen Contraceptives and Combined Estrogen-progestogen Menopausal Therapy. World Health Organization. ... Norethisterone is a potent progestogen and a weak androgen and estrogen.[4] That is, it is a potent agonist of the progesterone ...
List of estrogen esters § Ethers of steroidal estrogens. References[edit]. *^ a b C.R. Ganellin; David J. Triggle (21 November ... Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. List of estrogens. ... Estrogen receptor modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. List of estrogens. ... is a synthetic steroidal estrogen which is used topically in a 1% cream formulation.[1][2][3][4] It is the 3-propyl and 17β- ...
... estrogens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids.[1] In addition, pregnenolone is biologically active in its own right, ...
... is an estrogen, specifically an agonist of the estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ.[1][6][7] It is a far less potent ... Oettel M, Schillinger E (6 December 2012). Estrogens and Antiestrogens II: Pharmacology and Clinical Application of Estrogens ... Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. List of estrogens. ... Estriol (E3), also spelled oestriol, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.[1][2] It is one of three ...
Oettel M, Schillinger E (6 December 2012). Estrogens and Antiestrogens I: Physiology and Mechanisms of Action of Estrogens and ... Fritz F. Parl (2000). Estrogens, Estrogen Receptor and Breast Cancer. IOS Press. pp. 4-. ISBN 978-0-9673355-4-4.. ... Oettel M, Schillinger E (6 December 2012). Estrogens and Antiestrogens II: Pharmacology and Clinical Application of Estrogens ... Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. List of estrogens. ...
... , also known as eltanolone (INN), is an endogenous neurosteroid that is biosynthesized from progesterone.[1] It is a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor,[1] as well as a negative allosteric modulator of the glycine receptor,[2] and is known to have sedative, anxiolytic, anesthetic, and anticonvulsant effects.[1][2][3] It was investigated for clinical use as a general anesthetic, but produced unwanted side effects such as convulsions on occasion, and for this reason was never marketed.[2][4] During pregnancy, pregnanolone and allopregnanolone are involved in sedation and anesthesia of the fetus.[5][6] ...
estrogen. *clonidine and L-DOPA by stimulating GHRH release[23]. *α4β2 nicotinic agonists, including nicotine, which also act ...
Estrogens. (C-18: Estrane). 1. 2-Hydroxyestrone ← Estrone → 16α-Hydroxyestrone → 15α,16α-Hydroxyestrone. 2. 2-Hydroxyestradiol ... The elevated level of estrogen stimulates prostaglandin secretion and oxytocin receptor development.) ... the prepartum fetal cortisol surge induces placental enzymatic conversion of progesterone to estrogen. ( ...
... s, also known as estrogen antagonists or estrogen blockers, are a class of drugs which prevent estrogens like ... V Craig Jordan (27 May 2013). Estrogen Action, Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators and Women's Health: Progress and Promise ... They act by blocking the estrogen receptor (ER) and/or inhibiting or suppressing estrogen production.[1][2] Antiestrogens are ... Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. List of estrogens. ...
Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. List of estrogens. ... Estrogen receptor modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. List of estrogens. ... Lynestrenol is used as a component of oral contraceptives in combination with an estrogen and is used in the treatment of ... Estrogens (e.g., bifluranol, diethylstilbestrol, estradiol, estradiol esters, ethinylestradiol, ethinylestradiol sulfonate, ...
... (5α-DHP), also known as allopregnanedione,[1] as well as 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione, is an endogenous progestogen and neurosteroid that is synthesized from progesterone.[2][3] It is also an intermediate in the synthesis of allopregnanolone and isopregnanolone from progesterone. 5α-DHP is an agonist of the progesterone receptor and a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor (albeit with an affinity for this receptor that is regarded as relatively low (in comparison to 3α-hydroxylated progesterone metabolites such as allopregnanolone and pregnanolone)).[2][3][4][5] It has also been found to act as a negative allosteric modulator of the GABAA-rho receptor.[6] In addition, it is a weak agonist of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) (EC50 ,10,000 µM)), with approximately six-fold lower potency relative to its 5β-isomer, 5β-dihydroprogesterone.[7]. ...
... , also known as cortodoxone (INN) or cortexolone, as well as 17α,21-dihydroxyprogesterone or 17α,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione,[1] is a glucocorticoid steroid hormone. It was first synthesized by Tadeusz Reichstein, and has also been referred to as Reichstein's Substance.[1] On April 5, 1952, biochemist Durey Peterson and microbiologist Herbert Murray at Upjohn published the first report of a breakthrough fermentation process for the microbial 11α-oxygenation of steroids (e.g. progesterone) in a single step by common molds of the order Mucorales.[2] 11α-oxygenation of Compound S produces 11α-hydrocortisone, which can be chemically oxidized to cortisone, or converted by further chemical steps to 11β-hydrocortisone (cortisol). 11-Deoxycortisol acts as a glucocorticoid, though is less potent than cortisol. It can be synthesized from 17α-hydroxyprogesterone. In 11β-hydroxylase deficiency, 11-deoxycortisol levels increase dramatically, causing hypertension (as opposed to ...
Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. List of estrogens. ... Estrogen receptor modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. List of estrogens. ... Estrogens (e.g., bifluranol, diethylstilbestrol, estradiol, estradiol esters, ethinylestradiol, ethinylestradiol sulfonate, ...
... is considered a prohormone in the formation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), itself a prohormone of the sex steroids. This conversion is mediated by the enzyme 17,20 lyase. As such 17α-hydroxypregenolone represents an intermediary in the Δ5 pathway that leads from pregnenolone to DHEA. 17α-Hydroxypregneolone is also converted to 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, a prohormone for glucocorticosteroids and androstenedione through the activity of 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. ...
Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. List of estrogens. ... Estrogen receptor modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. List of estrogens. ... all of which are also estrogens.[8][9] The drug possesses relatively low affinity for the estrogen receptor[4] and must be ... Estrogens (incl., bifluranol, estradiol, estradiol esters, ethinylestradiol, diethylstilbestrol, paroxypropione). *Progestogens ...
Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. List of estrogens. ... Estrogen receptor modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. List of estrogens. ... List of selective estrogen receptor modulators. References[edit]. *^ V. H. T. James; J. R. Pasqualini (22 October 2013). ... nonsteroidal selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of the triphenylethylene group[1] that has been used in Europe as a ...
Estrogens and antiestrogens. Androgen receptor modulators. Progesterone receptor modulators. List of estrogens. ... Estrogen receptor modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Progestogens and antiprogestogens. List of estrogens. ... A diethoxylated derivative of triphenylbromoethylene, estrobin (DBE), is also an estrogen, but, in contrast, was never marketed ... Paterson E, Gilbert CW (May 1949). "Metabolism of the oestrogen triphenylbromoethylene". Nature. 163 (4151): 801-802. doi: ...
Estradiol is a naturally occurring and bioidentical estrogen, or an agonist of the estrogen receptor, the biological target of ... Michael Oettel; Ekkehard Schillinger (1999). Estrogens and Antiestrogens I: Physiology and Mechanisms of Action of Estrogens ... Estradiol differs from non-bioidentical estrogens like conjugated estrogens and ethinylestradiol in various ways, with ... During normal human pregnancy, estrogen production increases progressively and extremely high estrogen levels are attained. ...
Loose, Davis S.; Stancel, George M. (2006). "Estrogens and Progestins". In Brunton, Laurence L.; Lazo, John S.; Parker, Keith L ... and it does not bind to the estrogen receptor or the mineralocorticoid receptor. Mifepristone as a regular contraceptive at 2 ...
Edgar Allen, one of the pioneers in estrogen research. Although described as an estrogen, allenolic acid probably is totally ... It is an open-ring or seco-analogue of steroidal estrogens like estrone and equilenin. The compound was named after Dr. ... Furuya H, Deguchi K, Shima M (September 1957). "Experimental and clinical studies on a new synthetic estrogen, an allenolic ... Allenolic acid, or allenoic acid, is a synthetic, nonsteroidal estrogen discovered in 1947 or 1948 that, although studied ...
Dorfman, R; Kincl, F (1963). "Steroid anti-estrogens". Steroids. 1 (2): 185-209. doi:10.1016/S0039-128X(63)80136-1. ISSN 0039- ...
626-. ISBN 978-1-139-45221-2. Parl FF (2000). Estrogens, Estrogen Receptor and Breast Cancer. IOS Press. pp. 25-. ISBN 978-0- ... A few studies indicate that the testosterone derivative estradiol (one form of estrogen) might play an important role in male ... The male brain is masculinized by the aromatization of testosterone into estrogen, which crosses the blood-brain barrier and ... Kelly MJ, Qiu J, Rønnekleiv OK (January 1, 2005). Estrogen signaling in the hypothalamus. Vitamins & Hormones. 71. pp. 123-45. ...
Estrogen is considered to play a significant role in womens mental health. Sudden estrogen withdrawal, fluctuating estrogen, ... estrogen enters passively into the cell where it binds to and activates the estrogen receptor. The estrogen:ER complex binds to ... Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone. It is responsible for the development and regulation of the female ... Estrogens are implicated in various estrogen-dependent conditions, such as ER-positive breast cancer, as well as a number of ...
Estrogen insensitivity syndrome (EIS), or estrogen resistance, is a form of congenital estrogen deficiency or hypoestrogenism[2 ... June 2001). "Congenital estrogen deficiency: in search of the estrogen role in human male reproduction". Molecular and Cellular ... the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) - that results in an inability of estrogen to mediate its biological effects in the body.[3] ... "Estrogen resistance caused by a mutation in the estrogen-receptor gene in a man". N. Engl. J. Med. 331 (16): 1056-61. doi: ...
Estrogens have been widely implicated in the genesis and progression of breast cancer. Over 200 years ago, the Italian ... K. D. R. Setchell, Naturally occurring non-steroidal estrogens of dietary origin, in: "Estrogens in the environment", J. A. ... Effect of cadmium on estrogen receptor levels and estrogen-induced responses in human breast cancer cells, J Biol Chem 269: ... Quantitative imaging of estrogen and progesterone receptors, estrogen-regulated protein, and growth fraction: ...
It is an estrogen, or an agonist of the estrogen receptors, the biological target of estrogens like estradiol. EEs are a ... Estrogens, esterified is the generic name of the drug and its USP. It is also known as esterified estrogens. EEs are marketed ... Esterified estrogens (EEs), sold under the brand names Estratab and Menest among others, is an estrogen medication which is ... 157-. ISBN 978-1-59486-927-3. Smith, Nicholas L. (2004). "Esterified Estrogens and Conjugated Equine Estrogens and the Risk of ...
CEEs are estrogens, or agonists of the estrogen receptor, the biological target of estrogens like estradiol. Compared to ... CEEs are a combination of estrogens, or agonists of the estrogen receptors. The major estrogen in CEEs, sodium estrone sulfate ... An estrogen preparation very similar to CEEs but differing in source and composition is esterified estrogens. In 2017, it was ... Conjugated estrogens (CEs), or conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs), sold under the brand name Premarin among others, is an ...
ESTROGEN Menopause, defined as the permanent cessation of menstruation, is the final stage in the process of female ... Estrogen Chemistry: Foundations and Applications COPYRIGHT 2004 The Gale Group, Inc.. Estrogen. Estrogen is not one hormone, it ... oestrogen (estrogen) A generic name for a group of C18 steroids that act as female sex hormones, having a wide range of ... Estrogen Encyclopedia of Aging COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. ESTROGEN. Menopause, defined as the permanent cessation of ...
Estrogen is found in both women and men (where they are thought to play a role in sperm maturation and male libido), but are ... Estrogen hormones are female sex hormones that are primarily produced in the ovaries. ... The Importance of Estrogen Estrogen production impacts womens health in a variety of ways, from protection against memory loss ... When Estrogen Fluctuates During a womans lifetime, estrogen levels will often fluctuate, rising during puberty and remaining ...
The female hormone estrogen may protect against urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women by improving two of the bodys ... The study showed the effects of estrogen on cells in the laboratory. In order to confirm the health benefits of estrogen ... Generally, treating women with hormones after menopause, such as estrogen therapy or combined estrogen and progesterone therapy ... "But with vaginal estrogen, since its at very low doses, we believe that risks might be lower too," she said.. Email Bahar ...
An estrogen test measures the level of the most important estrogen hormones in a blood or urine sample. It measures estradiol, ... An estrogen test measures the level of the most important estrogen hormones (estradiol, estriol, and estrone) in a blood or ... Both men and women make estrogen hormones. Estrogens are responsible for female sexual development and function, such as breast ... A test for estrogen is done to:. *Help find fetal birth defects (especially Down syndrome) during pregnancy. When the test for ...
Estradiol is the most common type of estrogen measured for nonpregnant women. The amount of estradiol in a womans blood varies ... An estrogen test measures the level of the most important estrogen hormones in a blood or urine sample. It measures estradiol, ... Estrogens. Test Overview. An estrogen test measures the level of the most important estrogen hormones in a blood or urine ... An estrogen test measures the level of the most important estrogen hormones (estradiol, estriol, and estrone) in a blood or ...
Conjugated estrogens vaginal cream (Premarin Vaginal Cream) for vaginal dryness, inflammation, and painful intercourse due to ... Conjugated estrogens are a mixture of several different estrogens (estrogen salts) that are derived from natural sources and ... Estrogens are one of the two major classes of female hormones. (Progestins comprise the second major class). Estrogens are used ... Estrogens have widespread effects on tissues in the body. Estrogens cause growth and development of the female sexual organs ...
The finding that estrogen receptors are present in monocyte-derived cells and that estrogens prevent and control the ... Estrogen and microglia functions. Estrogens regulate microglia inflammatory potential by interfering with the process of NF-κB ... Aging effects on circulating estrogens. The uterus weight as a biomarker of circulating estrogens shows that, in mice, the ... Estrogens, Neuroinflammation, and Neurodegeneration.. Villa A1, Vegeto E1, Poletti A1, Maggi A1. ...
Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Conjugated Estrogens Injection. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, ... Conjugated Estrogens Injection. Generic Name: Conjugated Estrogens Injection (KON joo GAY ted ES troe jenz). Brand Name: ... Do not use estrogens to prevent heart disease or dementia. Using estrogens may raise the chances of having a heart attack, a ... What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Conjugated Estrogens Injection?. *If you have an allergy to estrogens ( ...
Ivanhoe Newswire) -- Estrogen has a wide range of effects on the body and brain. The link between estrogen and emotion was ... However, estrogen is not simply a natural "physiological protectant". Some have even reported that estrogen administration ... For years clinicians have been aware of estrogens therapeutic potential for mood change. Estrogen replacement therapy is often ... The genetic transcription of estrogen receptors can balance emotional behavior, and estrogen can influence emotional processing ...
Learn about sources of estrogen and its functions. ... Estrogen is a hormone that both males and females produce. It ... Premarin, which contains estrogens from the urine of pregnant mares Estrogen therapy. Estrogen therapy can help manage ... This type of estrogen is present in the body after menopause. It is a weaker form of estrogen and one that the body can convert ... Ovaries: Estrogen helps stimulate the growth of the egg follicle.. Vagina: In the vagina, estrogen maintains the thickness of ...
Learn more about estrogen and how to improve levels here. ... Estrogens are a group of sex hormones that travel through the ... Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is used to increase estrogen levels in women who have ... Synthetic estrogen, bio-identical estrogen, and estrogens derived from pregnant mares (Premarin) are used for a range of ... In females, estrogen affects the following areas of the body:. *Ovaries: Estrogen helps stimulate the growth of an egg follicle ...
Estrogen overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of a product containing the hormone. ... Estrogen is a female hormone. Estrogen overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of a ... Estrogens. In: Aronson JK, ed. Meylers Side Effects of Drugs. 16th ed. Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2016:122-151. ... Estrogen is an ingredient in birth control pills and hormone replacement therapy products. ...
Estrogen Vaginal: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before using vaginal estrogen,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to vaginal estrogen, any other estrogen ... Estrogen may cause growth to slow or stop early in children who receive large doses for a long time. Vaginal estrogen may also ... Vaginal estrogen is in a class of medications called hormones. It works by replacing estrogen that is normally produced by the ...
New science is showing that estrogens effects on womens minds and bodies may depend upon when they first start taking it. ... Nobodys persuaded that this means MPA promotes breast cancer while estrogen does not. Its clear that estrogen acts ... There are dementia studies involving estrogen. There are menopausal lab monkeys taking estrogen, ovariectomized lab mice taking ... the most prominent of the estrogens premenopausal women produce naturally on their own. The W.H.I. estrogen, by contrast, was a ...
Estrogen is Estrogen is Estrogen. Doesnt matter where it comes from.. If real estrogen from animals can work in humans, whos ... Oh, And I would like to add that I consider it BS when I can get 50 times the recomended adult dose of estrogen from a bottle ... Are there places I can buy dairy and meat products that dont use cows sweating estrogen (is it even made)? If I hade a ... males are generating estrogens in a level higher than average. Several possible soures for this. Some actually theorize that ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Additionally, they found that GRP78 does not play a role in breast cancers that never responded to anti-estrogen therapy; this ... This research is a continuation of a string of studies about anti-estrogen resistance by Clarke, Cook, and their Georgetown ... Though more than 70-percent of breast cancers express estrogen receptors that fuel cancer growth, about one-third of these ... It has previously been unknown why estrogen-receptor positive breast tumors fail to respond, or initially respond and grow upon ...
... but the survival advantage disappears as women age and their estrogen levels drop, a new study shows. ... Too Soon to Recommend Estrogen. It is not clear exactly how estrogen protects against colorectal cancer. One theory points to ... As women age and their estrogen production drops, they also produce less estrogen receptor beta. This loss is emerging as an ... Estrogen May Help Chemo Work. About 150,000 new cases of colon or rectal cancer will be diagnosed in the United States this ...
... estrogen tents usually include really geeky girls or drama girls who have parties and invite a few boys to seem daring or ... an estrogen tent is a party in which the females out number the males 10:1. ... estrogen tentunknown. an estrogen tent is a party in which the females out number the males 10:1. estrogen tents usually ... person a-this is a damn estrogen tent!. person b- lets beat feet! ...
Oestrogen-only HRT, as opposed to combined HRT that contains both oestrogen and progesterone, has been found to " ... oestrogen was always linked with a higher incidence of breast cancer, yet oestrogen administered exogenously [as HRT] is ... Oestrogen-only HRT protects against breast cancer. A type of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) could actually protect most ... He said: "Reduction of rates of breast cancer in the majority of women who are candidates for oestrogen-based HRT is a new ...
Estrogens, catechol synonyms, Estrogens, catechol pronunciation, Estrogens, catechol translation, English dictionary definition ... of Estrogens, catechol. also oes·tro·gen n. 1. Any of several steroid hormones, such as estradiol and estrone, that are ... estrogen. (redirected from Estrogens, catechol). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. es·tro·gen. also oes·tro·gen ... Estrogens synthesized from plant sources or obtained from horses are used as drugs, primarily to treat estrogen deficiency. ...
Eating foods with plant estrogens, such as that found in soy, can possibly have detrimental effects on a womans fertility and ... Eating foods with plant estrogens, such as that found in soy, can possibly have detrimental effects on a womans fertility and ... worth of estrogen every day. Infants fed soy formula have up to 20,000 times the amount of estrogen in circulation as those fed ... Plant estrogens, such as that found in soy, can have profound detrimental effects on a developing fetus. Exposure to estrogenic ...
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:. ...
These companies synthesized or used natural and synthetic estrogens. The survey involved an evaluation of the environmental ... Estrogens in the environment: proceedings of the Symposium on Estrogens in the Environment, Raleigh, North Carolina, U.S.A., ... Estrogens in the environment: proceedings of the Symposium on Estrogens in the Environment, Raleigh, North Carolina, U.S.A., ... These companies synthesized or used natural and synthetic estrogens. The survey involved an evaluation of the environmental ...
Monoclonal antibodies to human estrogen receptor. G L Greene, C Nolan, J P Engler, and E V Jensen ... Extranuclear estrogen receptor protein (estrophilin) of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells was purified by passage of the cytosol ... Estrogen Receptor Status by Immunohistochemistry Is Superior to the Ligand-Binding Assay for Predicting Response to Adjuvant ... Structure of the ligand-binding domain of oestrogen receptor beta in the presence of a partial agonist and a full antagonist ...
  • The sex hormones, estrogen and testosterone, are secreted in short bursts -- pulses -- which vary from hour to hour and even minute to minute. (webmd.com)
  • Estrogen is an entire class of related hormones that includes estriol, estradiol , and estrone. (webmd.com)
  • This article is about estrogens as hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all steroid hormones , estrogens readily diffuse across the cell membrane . (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other steroid hormones, estrogen enters passively into the cell where it binds to and activates the estrogen receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrogen , any of a group of hormones that primarily influence the female reproductive tract in its development, maturation, and function. (britannica.com)
  • There are three major hormones-estradiol, estrone, and estriol-among the estrogens, and estradiol is the predominant one. (britannica.com)
  • The steps in the conversion of progesterone to the main estrogens-estradiol and estrone-include the intermediate formation of several androgens (male sex hormones): dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, and testosterone . (britannica.com)
  • Estrogen hormones are female sex hormones that are primarily produced in the ovaries. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Estrogen is in a class of medications called hormones. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Generally, treating women with hormones after menopause, such as estrogen therapy or combined estrogen and progesterone therapy, has some benefits, but also risks. (yahoo.com)
  • Currently, the FDA advises menopausal women to use hormones for the shortest time and at the lowest dose possible, as the effects of hormones such as estrogen seem to depend on the dosage. (yahoo.com)
  • An estrogen test measures the level of the most important estrogen hormones in a blood or urine sample. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Both men and women make estrogen hormones. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Estrogens are one of the two major classes of female hormones. (medicinenet.com)
  • Estrogens are a group of sex hormones that promote the development and maintenance of female characteristics in the human body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • During puberty , the ovaries begin releasing estrogen hormones in line with each monthly menstrual cycle. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Estrogen forms unique relationships with other hormones in the breast. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Placental Extracts - these contain hormones estrogen, estrone, and progesterone as contaminants. (news-medical.net)
  • New results from a long- running government study of the effect of hormones on women's health show that estrogen-only appears to cut a woman's risk of getting breast cancer by about 20% and significantly reduces her risk of dying from the disease. (medicinenet.com)
  • Vaginal conjugated estrogens are a mixture of estrogen hormones used to treat the vaginal symptoms of menopause such as dryness, burning, irritation, and painful sexual intercourse. (cigna.com)
  • Cenestin (synthetic conjugated estrogens , A) is a blend of nine (9) synthetic estrogenic substances (female hormones) used to treat certain symptoms of menopause such as dryness, burning, and itching of the vaginal area. (rxlist.com)
  • Researchers found that those who took the hormones - which contained three to five times the level of oestrogen in the contraceptive pill - were 80 per cent more likely to have tried for a year or more to become pregnant without success, and 80 per cent more likely to have seen a doctor about fertility problems. (theage.com.au)
  • Men and women both produce the sex hormones oestrogen and testosterone - but at different levels. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers then analysed the stored samples to measure the levels of various forms of the steroid sex hormones oestrogen and testosterone. (www.nhs.uk)
  • For the study, Caron-Beaudoin and Dr. Thomas Sanderson of INRS developed methods to evaluate the impact of neonicotinoids on the production of estrogens, essential hormones with several biological functions. (psychcentral.com)
  • Estrogens are hormones produced by the body. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Oestrogen hormones regulate a woman's menstrual cycle and affect the urinary tract, reproductive system, blood vessels and heart. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Conjugated estrogens are a mixture of estrogen hormones. (cigna.com)
  • but I've yet to determine if DIM is one of these 'pro-hormones' - it's mentioned in a sidebar on the page, but the link leads to a discussion of DIM's estrogen balancing effects, with no mention of hair loss. (google.com)
  • estrogen replacement reduces elevated levels of these hormones. (drugbank.ca)
  • Conjugated oestrogen creams are made from a combination of female oestrogen hormones. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Estrogen receptors ( ERα , ERβ , mERs (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once inside the cell, they bind to and activate estrogen receptors (ERs) which in turn modulate the expression of many genes . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an estrogen, or an agonist of the estrogen receptors, the biological target of estrogens like estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of estrogens, there are two types of cytoplasmic receptors-estrogen receptor-alpha and estrogen receptor-beta-that have a different tissue distribution but similar capacities to activate DNA synthesis. (britannica.com)
  • The finding that estrogen receptors are present in monocyte-derived cells and that estrogens prevent and control the inflammatory response raise the question of the role that this sex steroid plays in the manifestation and progression of pathologies that have a clear sex difference in prevalence, such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. (nih.gov)
  • The present review aims to provide a critical review of the current literature on the actions of estrogen in microglia and on the involvement of estrogen receptors in the manifestation of selected neurological disorders. (nih.gov)
  • The genetic transcription of estrogen receptors can balance emotional behavior, and estrogen can influence emotional processing through neuropsychological factors. (redorbit.com)
  • Once inside they bind to the estrogen receptors present in the nucleus of the cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Though more than 70-percent of breast cancers express estrogen receptors that fuel cancer growth, about one-third of these cases fail to be cured by therapies that target this receptor. (redorbit.com)
  • These monoclonal antibodies should prove useful in the study of estrogen receptors of human reproductive tissues, in particular for the radioimmunochemical assay and immunocytochemical localization of receptors in breast cancers. (pnas.org)
  • By current protocol, oncologists screen biopsied breast tumor cells for the presence or absence of estrogen receptors, to determine if the cancer is sensitive to estrogen and thus likely to be inhibited by drugs that block estrogen. (nytimes.com)
  • Today's assays rely on antibodies that only recognize estrogen receptor alpha, but it is possible that some seemingly receptor-negative tumors in fact are rich in beta receptors, and therefore potentially vulnerable to the preferred therapy of anti-estrogen drugs. (nytimes.com)
  • Most of the new work that has been done on estrogen receptors of either Greek suffix, and on the aromatase enzyme, applies to male and female bodies alike. (nytimes.com)
  • Estrogen regulates energy expenditure, appetite, and body weight, while insufficient estrogen receptors in specific parts of the brain may lead to obesity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Depending on the specific food, this is done by actively preventing estrogen from binding to cell receptors or by mimicking aromatase inhibitors. (wikihow.com)
  • ERDs sit in the estrogen receptors in breast cells. (breastcancer.org)
  • Estrogen sends signals through the receptors that tell breast cancer cells to grow. (breastcancer.org)
  • Cells with estrogen receptors grow and multiply when estrogen attaches to the receptors. (breastcancer.org)
  • But ERDs like Faslodex break down those receptors so that estrogen can't latch on. (breastcancer.org)
  • While these two classes of steroids share similar structures (in general, estrogens are derived from androgens via the enzyme aromatase), they subserve markedly different functions via their specific receptors. (jci.org)
  • In both males and females, estrogens act upon binding either of the two isoforms of estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα ( 1 ) and ERβ ( 2 ), which then modulate nuclear transcriptional responses as well as extranuclear kinase and G protein signaling. (jci.org)
  • OH was shown to produce a nonphenolic quinol with no affinity to the estrogen receptors. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, altered expression of the Bcl-2 family of proteins ( 8 ) that are important modulators of neuronal apoptosis, attenuation of glutamate-receptor activation and modulation of intracellular calcium concentrations through interaction with α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-izoxazolepropionate/kainiteand/or N -methyl-D-aspartate receptors ( 9 , 10 ) have been associated with the neuroprotective effect of estrogens. (pnas.org)
  • Their major actions are genomic, mediated by nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs), but they also have non-genomic actions. (uptodate.com)
  • The genomic actions of estrogens are mediated via estrogen receptors (ERs), which are proteins that bind estrogens with high affinity and specificity. (uptodate.com)
  • Estrogen directs cellular processes in two ways: by interacting with DNA to produce new protein or by binding cell surface receptors to initiate rapid protein signaling. (webwire.com)
  • The researchers then examined two possible receptors, G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) and estrogen receptor-alpha, for their role in mediating estrogen s protective effects. (webwire.com)
  • SERMs work by sitting in the estrogen receptors in breast cells. (breastcancer.org)
  • Cells in other tissues in the body, such as bones and the uterus, also have estrogen receptors. (breastcancer.org)
  • So breast cell estrogen receptors are different from bone cell estrogen receptors and both of those estrogen receptors are different from uterine estrogen receptors. (breastcancer.org)
  • The plant steroids in saw palmetto also act on progesterone receptors, an action that causes a reduction in estrogen levels. (livestrong.com)
  • Receptors are protein structures that molecules bind with to induce cells to respond, and estrogens initiated their antiviral effects through estrogen receptor beta. (medindia.net)
  • Sichun Yang, Ph.D., assistant professor at Case Western Reserve University, is working to understand the signaling mechanisms of two critical domains in estrogen receptors, using computer modeling resources at OSC. (osc.edu)
  • Estrogen receptors are proteins found on the surface of cells that receive signals from the hormone to direct activity within the cell. (osc.edu)
  • To treat ER-positive breast cancer, doctors use hormone therapy to block estrogen from binding to receptors in the cancer cells, reducing their chance of survival and proliferation. (osc.edu)
  • It is the main estrogen present after menopause . (webmd.com)
  • Do estrogen levels fall at menopause? (webmd.com)
  • The decline in estrogen can happen abruptly in younger women whose ovaries are removed, resulting in so-called surgical menopause. (webmd.com)
  • During menopause , estrone is the predominant circulating estrogen and during pregnancy estriol is the predominant circulating estrogen in terms of serum levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • [10] Thus, estradiol is the most important estrogen in non-pregnant females who are between the menarche and menopause stages of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dramatic reduction in the level of estrogen is associated with a wide variety of physiological changes that correlate with menopause. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Menopause diminishes the incidence of gynecological cancers because estrogen and progesterone are involved in the development of these cancers in the first place. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The hormone also protects emotional well-being-when estrogen plummets in menopause, anxiety and depression often result. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Estrogen plays a role in emotional well-being, and the loss of estrogen around menopause is often associated with mood swings, anxiety, and depression. (psychologytoday.com)
  • When estrogen diminishes during menopause, women often struggle with brain fog and memory lapses. (psychologytoday.com)
  • And the transition to menopause may render women more susceptible to developing Alzheimer's disease, showcasing the neuroprotective qualities of estrogen . (psychologytoday.com)
  • Insomnia is one of the common symptoms of menopause, a time when estrogen levels drop. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Some brands of estrogen are also used to treat vaginal dryness, itching, or burning, or to prevent osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break easily) in women who are experiencing or have experienced menopause. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is thought that using estrogen supplements, in the form of a low-dose cream applied to the vaginal area, may prevent recurring UTIs, said Dr. Margery Gass, the executive director for The North American Menopause Society and a gynecologist at Cleveland Clinic, who was not involved in the study. (yahoo.com)
  • These findings together provide an explanation for the clinical effect of estrogen supplementation after menopause to prevent recurrent infections, as well as the high susceptibility of young women to UTI," the researchers wrote in their study. (yahoo.com)
  • This is the major source of estrogen in women who have gone through menopause. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Check for estrogen-producing tumours of the ovaries in girls before menstruation starts and in women after menopause. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Estrogens are used primarily to treat the symptoms of menopause and states in which there is a deficiency of estrogen, for example, among women who have had their estrogen-producing ovaries removed. (medicinenet.com)
  • This type of estrogen is present in the body after menopause . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Estrogen therapy can help manage menopause symptoms as part of hormone therapy, which people usually refer to as hormone replacement therapy . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Synthetic estrogen has a range of uses in medicine, including birth control and managing the effects of menopause . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This is a weak form of estrogen and the only type found in women after the menopause. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Their sputtering, fading Alzheimer's brains, which a few decades earlier were maybe healthy brains that might have been protected from eventual damage if those women had taken estrogen, and taken it before they were long past their menopause, while their own neural matter still looked as vigorous as those rat cells on the wall. (nytimes.com)
  • Many studies have shown efficacy of exogenous estrogens, given either alone or with progestogens, in ameliorating symptoms of menopause, such as vaginal dryness, pain on intercourse, and lower libido, but delivery route and estrogen composition have been less thoroughly investigated. (medscape.com)
  • The new investigation, which was not a preplanned analysis, compared the efficacy of transdermal 17β-estradiol (t-E2) or oral conjugated equine estrogen (o-CEE) to placebo on menopause symptoms and sexual function over 4 years. (medscape.com)
  • Our findings support the concept that there is a window of therapeutic opportunity before the approximate age of naturally occurring menopause, 50 to 55, when the benefits of neuroprotection outweigh the risks of side effects of estrogen therapy. (psychcentral.com)
  • Estrogens influence immune and inflammatory processes, as revealed by increased inflammatory responses to infection and sepsis and higher rate of autoimmune diseases in women when compared to men as well as by the variation of chronic inflammatory disease activity with the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Estrogens are major hormonal regulators of bone metabolism, as illustrated by the considerable loss of bone mass in women after natural menopause or oophorectomy 7 . (nature.com)
  • Estrogens can be given to women who are within 5 years of menopause, and who have a risk of developing osteoporosis. (washington.edu)
  • Estrogens should not be started in women who are more than 10 years past menopause because they might worsen heart disease, but estrogen can protect against heart disease when given right after menopause. (washington.edu)
  • When a woman's estrogen levels reach a low enough point, she stops having monthly menstrual periods (menopause). (rexhealth.com)
  • After menopause, a woman's adrenal glands and the androgen from fat cells produce low levels of estrogen. (rexhealth.com)
  • The study, published in the August edition of Menopause , showed that the risk of stroke, invasive breast cancer, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer and pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis was not higher for women who used vaginal estrogen compared to non-users. (upi.com)
  • Estrogens used vaginally at very low doses for treating local problems of the genitals and urinary system will not protect against osteoporosis or stop the hot flushes caused by menopause. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Oestradiol is the main circulating oestrogen found in women before the menopause. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The bones, the heart, and the brain are the three main systems where oestrogen plays a crucial role, and after the menopause these systems are compromised by the loss of oestrogen. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • After the menopause when oestrogen levels fall, bone loss dominates and osteoporosis may result. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The risk of breast cancer is higher in women who have a late menopause (exposed to high levels of oestrogen for longer) and HRT does seem to increase the risk of a woman developing breast cancer, the risk being related to the length of use. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone is a combination medicine used to treat menopause symptoms such as hot flashes and vaginal changes, and to prevent osteoporosis (bone loss) in menopausal women. (cigna.com)
  • During menopause, estrogen levels in women decrease significantly. (wikihow.com)
  • Esterified estrogens are a man-made mixture of estrogens that are used to treat symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, vaginal burning or irritation, or other hormonal changes in the vagina. (drugbank.ca)
  • it is the primary estrogen secreted prior to menopause. (drugbank.ca)
  • In the Early versus Late Intervention Trial with Estradiol ( ELITE ), published in 2016, researchers sought to better understand how estrogen protects against heart attacks if used at the onset of menopause. (forbes.com)
  • Estrogen started within 6 years of menopause (the end of menstrual periods). (forbes.com)
  • Estrogen started much later in life, and more than 10 years after menopause. (forbes.com)
  • Women in the study who started estrogen soon after menopause, and continued it for years, had a 44% reduction in the natural aging-related hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) compared to women on placebo (no estrogen). (forbes.com)
  • Furthermore, women who started estrogen 10 years or more into menopause showed no benefit. (forbes.com)
  • We see clinical potential in the finding that therapeutic estrogens that are used for treating infertility and menopause may also protect against the flu. (medindia.net)
  • Several factors, including stress, medication, menopause and medical conditions like polycystic ovarian syndrome can your body's estrogen levels. (livestrong.com)
  • Phytoestrogens-- plant-based compounds structurally similar to human estrogen-- have been investigated as possible treatments for menopause symptoms and infertility. (livestrong.com)
  • Another popular menopause remedy, black cohosh contains a natural estrogen-like compound known as fragrine. (livestrong.com)
  • When it does, a woman's body produces less estrogen and progesterone . (webmd.com)
  • It is believed that the alteration in the regularity of cycles compromises the feedback interaction between the ovaries and the neuroendocrine system, ultimately leading to a sharp decrease in the levels of estrogen and progesterone. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During the latter part of each menstrual cycle, to prepare the body for possible pregnancy, estrogen and progesterone cause the cells lining the milk ducts in the breast to divide. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Estrogen bolsters learning and memory through the hippocampus, the memory center of the brain on which estrogen and progesterone both act. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Pain intensity tends to increase when estrogen levels are low and progesterone levels are high. (psychologytoday.com)
  • There's a gender gap when it comes to pain- women have more frequent, longer-lasting, and severe pain than men -and estrogen and progesterone are involved in those differences. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The treatment may consist solely of estrogen (estrogen replacement therapy, or ERT), or it may involve a combination of estrogen and progestin, a synthetic form of progesterone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Oestrogen-only HRT, as opposed to 'combined' HRT that contains both oestrogen and progesterone, has been found to "significantly" lessen the risk in women with no strong family history of breast cancer. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • In women who have a uterus, estrogen can cause cancer of the lining of the uterus, so another female hormone called progesterone should be given to protect the uterus. (washington.edu)
  • My estrogen and progesterone are always really low and I have trouble with growing even one follicle and getting my lining thick enough. (dailystrength.org)
  • For now, I take estrogen through a patch and the progesterone through injections. (dailystrength.org)
  • For women taking oral estrogen with progesterone pills, there was an increased risk of invasive breast cancer. (upi.com)
  • In HRT and the combined pill, the balance of oestrogen and progesterone avoids this risk. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Progesterone and Estrogen? (medhelp.org)
  • Progesterone acts as an opponent to Estrogen. (medhelp.org)
  • How do you become estrogen dominant if your progesterone levels are normal? (medhelp.org)
  • Does estrogen just keep overproducing after a past spike in estrogen due to depleted progesterone? (medhelp.org)
  • I'm wondering why this imbalance between progesterone and estrogen remains and why my body hasn't corrected it after so long. (medhelp.org)
  • According to the results of a large international trial published in the 'Journal of Clinical Oncology' in April 2011, estrogen and progesterone receptor status is a predictive marker of early breast cancer and post-treatment relapse. (livestrong.com)
  • Estrogen dominance is a condition with relatively high levels of estrogen and diminished progesterone levels. (medindia.net)
  • Herbs like chaste tree berry can enable you body to achieve an ideal balance of estrogen and progesterone. (livestrong.com)
  • In theory, chaste tree berry works by improving the balance of progesterone and estrogen within the body. (livestrong.com)
  • The ovaries produce both testosterone and estrogen . (webmd.com)
  • In addition to being produced by the ovaries, estrogen is also produced by the body's fat tissue. (webmd.com)
  • It is believed that the egg follicle (the saclike structure that holds the immature egg) and interstitial cells (certain cells in the framework of connective tissue ) in the ovaries are the actual production sites of estrogens in the female. (britannica.com)
  • The ovaries are the richest source of aromatase, although some aromatase is present in adipose tissue , which is also an important source of estrogen in postmenopausal women. (britannica.com)
  • In women, estrogens are made mainly in the ovaries and in the placenta during pregnancy. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • The ovaries, adrenal glands, and fat tissues produce estrogen. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The ovaries are the main location for estrogen production. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries. (news-medical.net)
  • The main sources of estrogen in the body are the ovaries and the placenta. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since ovaries are responsible for estrogen production, estrogen replacement therapy may be warranted for this population. (psychcentral.com)
  • Before age 50, estrogen replacement therapy may, in fact, be beneficial for the brain function of women who have their ovaries removed. (psychcentral.com)
  • The decision to remove the ovaries for a benign ovarian disease or for the prevention of ovarian cancer , and the decision to take estrogen treatment for a number of years after the removal of the ovaries, must be individualized for each woman," explains Walter Rocca, M.D., a Mayo Clinic neurologist, epidemiologist and lead author of the study. (psychcentral.com)
  • Unless clear contraindications are present, most women should be advised to start estrogen therapy after the surgery and to continue it until approximately age 50 if the ovaries must be removed. (psychcentral.com)
  • Estrogen is a female sex hormone produced by the ovaries. (cigna.com)
  • In women, estrogen is produced in varying amounts throughout the menstrual cycle, mainly by the ovaries. (rexhealth.com)
  • It is used to add estrogen to the body when the ovaries have been taken out or do not work the right way. (mskcc.org)
  • Ovaries produce most of the oestrogen while the rest is produced by the adrenal glands. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Ovaries are the primary source of estrogen in females, and levels fluctuate with phases of the menstrual cycle. (jci.org)
  • Estradiol , the major estrogen sex hormone in humans and a widely used medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three major naturally occurring forms of estrogen in females are estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical structures of major endogenous estrogens, including estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and estetrol (E4). (wikipedia.org)
  • The four major naturally occurring estrogens in women are estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), and estetrol (E4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Estradiol is the predominant estrogen during reproductive years both in terms of absolute serum levels as well as in terms of estrogenic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reference ranges for the blood content of estradiol, the primary type of estrogen, during the menstrual cycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment with up to very high doses of estradiol (fourteen 100-μg Estraderm patches per week) had no effect on any of his symptoms of hypoestrogenism , did not produce any estrogenic effects such as gynecomastia , and had no effect on any of his physiological parameters (e.g., hormone levels or bone parameters), suggesting a profile of complete estrogen insensitivity syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • CEEs are estrogens, or agonists of the estrogen receptor, the biological target of estrogens like estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared to estradiol, certain estrogens in CEEs are more resistant to metabolism, and the medication shows relatively increased effects in certain parts of the body like the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it has begun to fall out of favor relative to bioidentical estradiol, which is the most widely used form of estrogen in Europe for menopausal hormone therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oral CEEs have been found to possess a significantly greater risk of thromboembolic and cardiovascular complications than oral estradiol (OR = 2.08) and oral esterified estrogens (OR = 1.78). (wikipedia.org)
  • Estradiol , the most potent estrogen, is synthesized from testosterone. (britannica.com)
  • Estriol , the weakest of the estrogens, is formed from both estrone and estradiol. (britannica.com)
  • Estradiol is the most common type of estrogen measured for non-pregnant women. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Estradiol is the most common type of estrogen measured for nonpregnant women. (rexhealth.com)
  • Both males and females produce estradiol, and it is the most common type of estrogen in females during their reproductive years. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This the weakest of the estrogens and is a waste product made after the body uses estradiol. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 2. Any of several synthetic compounds that mimic the physiologic activity of estrogen, such as ethinyl estradiol, used primarily in oral contraceptives. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Extranuclear estrogen receptor protein (estrophilin) of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells was purified by passage of the cytosol fraction of a cell homogenate through an affinity column of estradiol linked to Sepharose by a substituted di-n-propyl sulfide bridge in the 17 alpha position. (pnas.org)
  • They hypothesized that transdermal estradiol (t-E2) might more effectively treat sexual dysfunction in early postmenopausal women than oral estrogens because of an E2-to-estrone ratio more like that of the premenopausal period. (medscape.com)
  • Once inside the body, indole-3-carbinol will fight for the same space on your cells as a type of estrogen called estradiol, preventing further growth. (wikihow.com)
  • I took a saliva test to test my Estrogen levels (Estradiol) and I'm confused about the results. (medhelp.org)
  • In the past, estrogens such as estradiol were thought to be most important in the regulation of female biology, while androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were believed to primarily modulate development and physiology in males. (jci.org)
  • We also assessed these data according to ERT subgroups [combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP), oral estrogen (OE), and transdermal estradiol (TE)] using data from each of 6679 clinic visits, controlling for age, body mass index, and height. (medscape.com)
  • [ 9-12 ] Several options are available for estrogen administration in adults with TS, including oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) containing ethinyl estradiol, oral preparations containing estradiol or conjugated equine estrogens, and TE. (medscape.com)
  • Actually not anti-aromatase at all but stops estrogen from changing into estradiol. (google.com)
  • Most breast cancers are associated with aberrant signaling by the estrogen receptor (ER), a nuclear hormone receptor and transcription factor, and ER-dependent (ER+) breast cancer cells depend on estrogens, such as estradiol (E2), for survival. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, during pregnancy this role shifts to estriol, and in postmenopausal women estrone becomes the primary form of estrogen in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The female hormone estrogen may protect against urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women by improving two of the body's defense mechanisms, a new study found. (yahoo.com)
  • The researchers looked at the effects of estrogen supplements in healthy postmenopausal women, and found that the hormone helped trigger the production of body's natural antimicrobial proteins in the bladder. (yahoo.com)
  • In postmenopausal women, the low levels of estrogen are thought to have a role in recurrent infections by causing changes in the urinary tract that make it more vulnerable to infection. (yahoo.com)
  • However, the mechanism by which estrogen reduces recurrent UTIs in some postmenopausal women is not well-understood, the researchers said. (yahoo.com)
  • In the new study, 16 healthy postmenopausal women were given vaginal estrogen for two weeks. (yahoo.com)
  • The Women's Health Initiative found that postmenopausal women (50-79 years old) taking conjugated estrogens had an increased risk of breast cancer , blood clots, and stroke . (medicinenet.com)
  • Estrogen replacement therapy is often used in postmenopausal women to improve mood, energy level, and general well-being. (redorbit.com)
  • The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study reported increased risks of myocardial infarction, stroke, invasive breast cancer, pulmonary emboli, and deep vein thrombosis in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 5 years of treatment with oral conjugated estrogens (CE 0.625 mg) combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 2.5 mg) relative to placebo. (nih.gov)
  • The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), a substudy of WHI, reported increased risk of developing probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years of age or older during 4 years of treatment with oral conjugated estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate relative to placebo. (nih.gov)
  • It is unknown whether this finding applies to younger postmenopausal women or to women taking estrogen alone therapy. (nih.gov)
  • The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) estrogen-alone substudy reported increased risks of stroke and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 7.1 years of treatment with daily oral conjugated estrogens (CE) [0.625 mg]-alone, relative to placebo[see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS , and Clinical Studies ]. (rxlist.com)
  • The WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) estrogen-alone ancillary study of WHI reported an increased risk of developing probable dementia in postmenopausal women 65 years of age or older during 5.2 years of treatment with daily CE (0.625 mg)-alone, relative to placebo. (rxlist.com)
  • The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy reported increased risks of DVT, pulmonary embolism (PE), stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) in postmenopausal women (50 to 79 years of age) during 5.6 years of treatment with daily oral CE (0.625 mg) combined with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) [2.5 mg], relative to placebo [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS , and Clinical Studies ]. (rxlist.com)
  • However, the FDA does not recommend estrogen for the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, unless the woman is at significant risk, and can't take non-estrogen medications. (healthcentral.com)
  • For the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive or receptor-unknown tumors. (drugbank.ca)
  • For the treatment of hormone receptor positive metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women with disease progression following anti-estrogen therapy. (drugbank.ca)
  • In a preliminary study, Demetrius M. Maraganore and fellow researchers at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, found postmenopausal women on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were less likely to have Parkinson's disease than those who were not on the therapy, suggesting estrogen may help protect against development of the disease. (alzforum.org)
  • It is a mixture of the sodium salts of estrogen conjugates found in horses, such as estrone sulfate and equilin sulfate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Esterified Estrogens, USP is a mixture of the sodium salts of the sulfate esters of the estrogenic substances, principally estrone, that are of the type excreted by pregnant mares. (nih.gov)
  • Esterified Estrogens contain not less than 75.0 percent and not more than 85.0 percent of sodium estrone sulfate, and not less than 6.0 percent and not more than 15.0 percent of sodium equilin sulfate, in such proportion that the total of these two components is not less than 90.0 percent. (nih.gov)
  • Estrone quinol was also equipotent with its parent estrogen in reducing lesion volume in ovariectomized rats after transient middle carotid artery occlusion followed by a 24-h reperfusion. (pnas.org)
  • The ERα protein (pictured) mediates most of the effects of estrogens in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substantial evidence now exists that intrinsic free-radical scavenging contributes to the receptor-independent neuroprotective effects of estrogens. (pnas.org)
  • Second, this is the first study to identify the estrogen receptor responsible for the antiviral effects of estrogens, bringing us closer to understanding the mechanisms mediating this conserved antiviral effect of estrogens. (medindia.net)
  • Conjugated estrogens (CEs), or conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs), sold under the brand name Premarin among others, is an estrogen medication which is used in menopausal hormone therapy and for various other indications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, more frequent use or larger amounts of vaginal estrogens can have effects throughout the body (see conjugated estrogens, Premarin). (medicinenet.com)
  • The second important consideration is that the study tested a kind of estrogen called conjugated equine estrogen, which is sold under the brand name Premarin . (medicinenet.com)
  • PREMARIN® (conjugated estrogens tablets, USP) for oral administration contains a mixture of conjugated estrogens purified from pregnant mares' urine and consists of the sodium salts of water-soluble estrogen sulfates blended to represent the average composition of material derived from pregnant mares' urine. (rxlist.com)
  • an apt expression since the most commonly prescribed estrogen, Premarin, is made from pregnant mares' urine). (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • The conjugated estrogen formulation is one of the most commonly prescribed medicines in the country, under the brand name Premarin. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • Estrogens are responsible for female sexual development and function, such as breast development and the menstrual cycle. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • During the menstrual cycle, estrogen produces an environment suitable for the fertilization, implantation, and nutrition of an early embryo. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The new study from Berkeley, however, is the first to show that cognition is tied to estrogen levels in people-explaining why some women have better or worse cognitive abilities at varying points in their menstrual cycles. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The researchers analyzed data from the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS), which is a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial that was designed to test whether estrogen-replacement therapy slows progression of atherosclerosis when begun within 36 months of the last menstrual period. (medscape.com)
  • Estrogen is a hormone that produces female physical traits and helps regulate a woman's menstrual cycle. (rexhealth.com)
  • While estrogen insufficiency can result in problems, estrogen levels that are too high (or prolonged exposure at the wrong times) can lead to menstrual disturbances, ovarian cysts, and breast cancer. (wikihow.com)
  • See 'Physiology of the normal menstrual cycle' and 'Mechanisms of action of selective estrogen receptor modulators and down-regulators' and 'Estrogen and cognitive function' . (uptodate.com)
  • Black cohosh helps to increase blood flow to the pelvis and uterus and has been historically used as a treatment for menstrual disorders related to low estrogen levels. (livestrong.com)
  • Another type of estrogen called estetrol (E4) is produced only during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The triple screen checks alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and a type of estrogen (unconjugated estriol, or uE3). (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • This is the strongest type of estrogen. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For decades, researchers had assumed there was only one type of estrogen receptor, one peerless, versatile molecular docking site with which estrogen must unite if the tissues of the uterus, breast or elsewhere are to respond to hormonal stimulation. (nytimes.com)
  • Here, we present clinical associations relating to the timing of first exposure to estrogen in those presenting with primary amenorrhea with the type of estrogen replacement in all subjects at each clinic visit. (medscape.com)
  • If you have not had a hysterectomy (surgery to remove the uterus), you should be given another medication called a progestin to take with estrogen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Estrogens also increase secretions from the cervix and growth of the inner lining of the uterus ( endometrium ). (medicinenet.com)
  • Estrogens can promote thickening of the lining of the uterus (endometrial hyperplasia) and increase the risk of uterine cancer . (medicinenet.com)
  • Estrogen enhances and maintains the mucous membrane that lines the uterus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Estrogen also stimulates the muscles in the uterus to develop and contract. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Estrogen and progestin are typically prescribed together when a woman still has her uterus to reduce the risk of uterine cancer while promoting the benefits of estrogen therapy. (medicinenet.com)
  • Yet estrogen alone is used in women who've had a hysterectomy , or removal of the uterus. (medicinenet.com)
  • It can play Lady Macbeth, with blood on her hands: estrogen has been implicated in cancers of the breast, ovary and uterus, autoimmune diseases, asthma, fibroids, mood disorders and migraines. (nytimes.com)
  • Conjugated estrogens increase your risk of developing endometrial hyperplasia, a condition that may lead to cancer of the uterus. (cigna.com)
  • If your uterus has not been removed, your doctor may prescribe a progestin for you to take while you are using vaginal conjugated estrogens. (cigna.com)
  • There is an increased risk of endometrial cancer in a woman with a uterus who uses unopposed estrogens. (rxlist.com)
  • Therefore, if your uterus has not been removed, your doctor may prescribe a progestin for you to take together with the estrogen. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Women with an intact uterus were given a combination of estrogen and progestin, since unopposed estrogen was known to cause cancer of the uterus. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • Estrogen , or oestrogen , is the primary female sex hormone . (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrogen is a female sex hormone necessary for many processes in the body. (cardiosmart.org)
  • A new study in American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology reports that estrogen, the female sex hormone, has anti-viral effects against the influenza, a virus commonly known as the flu. (medindia.net)
  • Esterified estrogens/methyltestosterone Estrogenic substances Conjugated estriol List of combined sex-hormonal preparations Katherine Sherif (14 May 2013). (wikipedia.org)
  • If you have an allergy to estrogens (conjugated/equine) or any other part of conjugated estrogens injection. (drugs.com)
  • 1 Nevertheless, the precise role(s) of estrogens and estrogenic stimuli in breast cancer remains unknown. (springer.com)
  • Indeed, it is difficult to provide a universal definition of either an estrogen or an estrogenic response. (springer.com)
  • The researchers then examined the effects of estrogen by looking at participants' urine, and cells of the bladder lining. (yahoo.com)
  • The researchers found that estrogen helped better connect the cells, and prevented excessive shedding. (yahoo.com)
  • In order to confirm the health benefits of estrogen supplements in people, in terms of reduced infections, further research is needed, the researchers said. (yahoo.com)
  • Researchers believe that about 95% of women have recurrent psychosis or a noticeable increase in negative emotions along with the fluctuation in endogenous estrogen level. (redorbit.com)
  • Ivanhoe Newswire) - Researchers have discovered a single molecule that they say is a major cause of resistance to anti-estrogen therapy used to prevent or treat breast cancer in high-risk women. (redorbit.com)
  • Researchers have also had evidence that in rats, estrogen seems to trigger a release of dopamine. (scientificamerican.com)
  • For the latest study, which is published in The Lancet Oncology , researchers kept tabs on more than 7,600 women who took part in the estrogen-only treatment arm of the trial. (medicinenet.com)
  • Based on the results of other studies, the Mayo Clinic researchers also say that after age 55 or 60 the balance of advantages and disadvantages from starting estrogen treatment is still somewhat uncertain, and the risk of side effects, such as increased cancers or strokes, from estrogen therapy may increase progressively with age. (psychcentral.com)
  • And though when researchers initially detected the beta receptor last year, they thought it was merely a backup protein for the ''true'' estrogen receptor, a rash of new studies suggests that beta has a purpose and intricacy of its own. (nytimes.com)
  • Aug. 16 (UPI) -- Researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles found that vaginal estrogen use in post-menopausal women does not increase the risk of cancer, other diseases. (upi.com)
  • Researchers found that the risk of cancer, stroke, coronary heart disease and pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis in women who had hysterectomies was not higher in women who used vaginal estrogen. (upi.com)
  • Researchers were still not clear why the oestrogen may have interfered with fertility, Dr Venn said, and to date it was an area in which little research had been done. (theage.com.au)
  • Men as well as women produce oestrogen, but at much lower levels, so researchers wanted to see if there was a similar connection. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers tested whether these cells contained the proteins for making, binding and breaking down oestrogen, and the two related genes CYP1B1 and CYP1A1. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers found that proteins involved in binding and breaking down oestrogen were present in pre-cancerous and cancerous HNSCC cells grown in the laboratory. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Northwestern Medicine researchers have discovered how to reap the benefits of estrogen without the risk. (eurekalert.org)
  • The food estrogen zearalenone migrates through the placenta, as researchers were able to demonstrate for the first time. (newswise.com)
  • Birmingham, AL -- Researchers have identified the receptor pathway used by estrogen to decrease liver injury after trauma and hemorrhage. (webwire.com)
  • Researchers have found that when estrogen is delivered transdermally (gel or patch), the risk of blood clots and elevated triglycerides (bad fats) tends to be lower. (scarleteen.com)
  • The researchers exposed the cell cultures to the virus, estrogen, the environmental estrogen bisphenol A and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM), which are compounds that act like estrogen that are used for hormone therapy. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers found that estrogen, SERM compound raloxifene and bisphenol A reduced flu virus replication in nasal cells from women but not men. (medindia.net)
  • National Institutes of Health (NIH) researchers found that the estrogen may increase absorption of the Parkinson's disease drug therapy levodopa, in contrast to previously accepted thought that HRT interfered with absorption of the drug. (alzforum.org)
  • Also, women experience low levels of estrogen immediately after childbirth and also during breastfeeding . (webmd.com)
  • Quantitatively, estrogens circulate at lower levels than androgens in both men and women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Esterified estrogens (EEs), sold under the brand names Estratab and Menest among others, is an estrogen medication which is used hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms and low sex hormone levels in women, to treat breast cancer in both women and men, and to treat prostate cancer in men. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some lesser known uses are as a means of high-dose estrogen therapy in the treatment of breast cancer in both women and men and in the treatment of prostate cancer in men. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, while epidemiological studies suggest that women may be more volunerable to certain late-stage AIDS-related illnesses including HIV dementia, there is accumulating data that strongly suggest an estrogen-deficient state is associated with long-term HIV infection in some women. (springer.com)
  • Estrogen is found in both women and men (where they are thought to play a role in sperm maturation and male libido), but are produced in much higher levels in women of childbearing age. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In a large study, women who took estrogen with progestins had a higher risk of heart attacks, strokes, blood clots in the lungs or legs, breast cancer, and dementia (loss of ability to think, learn, and understand). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Women who take estrogen alone may also have a higher risk of developing these conditions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some brands of estrogen are also to relieve symptoms of low estrogen in young women who do not produce enough estrogen naturally. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Survival from endometrial cancer also is better in women taking estrogens than in those not taking estrogens. (medicinenet.com)
  • Estrogen is a hormone produced in a woman's body and tends to raise HDL cholesterol, helping women to have higher levels of "good" cholesterol levels than men. (heart.org)
  • Estrogen production is highest during the childbearing years, which helps explain why premenopausal women are usually protected from developing heart disease. (heart.org)
  • Here we are , two fast-talking women on estrogen, staring at a wall of live mitochondria from the brain of a rat. (nytimes.com)
  • The research findings suggest that a new agent that inhibits GRP78 might provide a solution for the tens of thousands of women who develop resistance to anti-estrogen drugs. (redorbit.com)
  • Sept. 29, 2009 -- Younger women with advanced colon cancer live slightly longer than younger men with advanced disease, but the survival advantage disappears as women age and their estrogen levels drop, a new study shows. (webmd.com)
  • The new study is the first to suggest that estrogen also improves outcomes in premenopausal women and that it may help cancer treatments work better, researcher Heinz-Josef Lenz, MD, of the University of Southern California tells WebMD. (webmd.com)
  • As women age and their estrogen production drops, they also produce less estrogen receptor beta. (webmd.com)
  • I can certainly see where some investigator might want to look at whether adding estrogen to chemotherapy in men and older women with colorectal cancer might make a difference in survival," he says. (webmd.com)
  • It should be noted that Estrogen Amplification also occurs in post-menopausal women. (urbandictionary.com)
  • But a new analysis of the WHI data suggests taking synthetic oestrogen is protective for most women. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Joseph Ragaz and colleagues from the University of British Colombia in Canada found a "significantly reduced breast cancer incidence" in women who took oestrogen-only HRT, who had no strong family history of the disease. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • He said: "Reduction of rates of breast cancer in the majority of women who are candidates for oestrogen-based HRT is a new finding because [naturally-produced] oestrogen was always linked with a higher incidence of breast cancer, yet oestrogen administered exogenously [as HRT] is actually protective for most women. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Our conclusion, based on the data presented, should enhance considerations for an early approval of HRT based on estrogen-alone for the majority of selected women suffering with menopausal symptoms and galvanize new research on HRT to define the optimum regimens for individual women," he said. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Dr Sarah Rawlings, head of policy at the charity Breakthrough Breast Cancer, commented: "Although further research is needed, these findings are interesting as they suggest that oestrogen only HRT may reduce breast cancer risk in some women. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • ORs ranged from 0.32 to 0.60 when women were stratified by whether cases had received chemotherapy within 6 months before urine collection and by estrogen receptor status. (nih.gov)
  • When the test was repeated during ovulation, however, when estrogen levels are highest (usually 10 to 12 days after menstruation), these women fared markedly better, improving their performance by about 10 percent. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Jacobs says it may mean that caffeine, which triggers a dopamine release, and Ritalin-like drugs are less effective-or even detrimental-at certain times of the month for some women, when estrogen is spiking. (scientificamerican.com)
  • March 6, 2012 -- There's good news for women with hysterectomies who are considering taking the hormone estrogen to ease hot flashes and other menopausal complaints. (medicinenet.com)
  • In 2002, doctors looking at data from the Women's Health Initiative sounded the alarm about hormone replacement therapy , warning that the risks of heart attacks , strokes , and breast cancers were higher for women taking the combination of estrogen and progestin than for women taking a placebo. (medicinenet.com)
  • The effects on breast cancer are so different between estrogen and progestin and estrogen alone that we felt it was time to say that women taking estrogen alone may not need to stop at three to five years. (medicinenet.com)
  • Because over that amount of time, no breast cancer showed up in women taking estrogen alone," says Gass, who is also a co-author on the new study. (medicinenet.com)
  • The women assigned to get estrogen took that hormone for about six years before they stopped. (medicinenet.com)
  • Compared to women taking a placebo, women who took estrogen had a 23% reduced risk of invasive breast cancer . (medicinenet.com)
  • That means 151 women got breast cancer in the estrogen group compared to 199 women assigned to the placebo. (medicinenet.com)
  • Women taking estrogen also had a 63% reduced risk of dying from breast cancer compared to women on the placebo. (medicinenet.com)
  • The first is that estrogen did not appear to help some women. (medicinenet.com)
  • Estrogen may even increase the risk of breast cancer in women who already have other risk factors. (medicinenet.com)
  • Boston- Postmenopausal African American women who use female hormone supplements containing estrogen and progestin ("combination" therapy) are at an increased risk for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • Similar to findings in white women, use of combination therapy was associated with increased risk of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer, with risk increasing as the duration increased. (eurekalert.org)
  • The present findings establish that combination therapy in black women is associated with increased risk of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer, similar to the pattern in white women," explained corresponding author Lynn Rosenberg, ScD, associate director of the Slone Epidemiology Center and principal investigator of the Black Women's Health Study, one of the studies that contributed to this conclusion. (eurekalert.org)
  • The findings in this study tell us to carefully monitor such women for signs of low estrogen, but as of yet we don't know when and how to compensate for the hormone changes when a single ovary is removed. (psychcentral.com)
  • Therefore, estrogen replacement therapy is considered the most effective means for preventing bone loss in women, largely because estrogens inhibit bone resorption 8 . (nature.com)
  • Estrogen can be heroic, governing human fertility and nurturing the heart, bones, blood vessels and brain so persuasively that soon estrogen may be prescribed for middle-aged men as it is today for women. (nytimes.com)
  • And lest anybody think that the new work has relevance only to women, it is time to put to rest -- and cremate -- the shibboleth of estrogen as a ''female hormone. (nytimes.com)
  • the findings indicate that most estrogen-deficient women in the United States who had femoral osteoporosis based on BMD were unaware of having this condition, reflecting the evolving nature of research and clinical practice regarding osteoporosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Close clinical surveillance of all women taking estrogens is important. (nih.gov)
  • Estrogens should be avoided in women who have had blood clots or breast cancer. (washington.edu)
  • Gallstones are twice as common in women taking estrogen. (washington.edu)
  • Breast cancer risk may increase slightly after long-term estrogen, but in the first 5 years there are more cases in women taking a placebo than in women taking estrogen without progestin. (washington.edu)
  • Women who take estrogen gain less weight than women who don't. (washington.edu)
  • Overweight and obese men and women have higher estrogen levels than those with lower body fat. (rexhealth.com)
  • The risk of coronary heart disease, fracture and premature death were lower in women who used vaginal estrogen compared to non-users. (upi.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that women taking estrogen in pill form may have an increased risk of stroke and blood clots. (upi.com)
  • Women given high doses of oestrogen as adolescents were almost twice as likely to have had difficulty becoming pregnant, and were almost twice as likely to have seen a doctor about fertility problems. (theage.com.au)
  • The study looked at 780 Australian women, about half of whom were given high doses of oestrogen to hasten puberty and restrict the growth of long bones as adolescents between 1959 and 1993. (theage.com.au)
  • Estrogen is a sex hormone that, though most prominent in women, is also an important part of male sexual health. (wikihow.com)
  • Oestrogen 'may fuel oral cancer' in young women," reported BBC News. (www.nhs.uk)
  • But long-term estrogen therapy, once prescribed routinely for menopausal women, now is quite controversial because of research showing it increases the risk of cancer, heart disease and stroke. (eurekalert.org)
  • The action of oestrogen alone (seen in some conditions) predisposes women to cancer of the lining of the womb. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • However, substantial evidence now indicates that endogenous estrogens in men and androgens in women are not only integral to health, but can additionally promote aspects of disease. (jci.org)
  • We assessed interactions between these data and age at first estrogen exposure in women with primary amenorrhea. (medscape.com)
  • Women with TS who have completed puberty usually require long-term estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) to maintain secondary sex characteristics and overall wellbeing. (medscape.com)
  • Estrogen is a natural hormone found in both men and women. (wikihow.com)
  • Keeping estrogen at a healthy level is important for both sexes, but women need more estrogen for normal bodily functions, such as conceiving children. (wikihow.com)
  • A "designer estrogen" pill taken to prevent brittle bones in post-menopausal women dramatically cuts their risk of breast cancer, a new study shows. (nypost.com)
  • The three-year trial showed that women who took the drug, raloxifene, reduced by 76 percent their risk of developing the types of cancer associated with the hormone estrogen compared with women who took a placebo. (nypost.com)
  • Women taking raloxifene had a 90 percent lower risk of a type of cancer called estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer. (nypost.com)
  • An Estrogen Brigade is the common name for online fan clubs of male science fiction actor s created by and mostly for women . (everything2.com)
  • Esterified estrogens are indicated to replace estrogen in women with ovarian failure or other conditions that cause a lack of natural estrogen in the body. (drugbank.ca)
  • estrogen not only benefits quality of life in middle-aged women, it is also heart healthy. (forbes.com)
  • Over a decade ago, a contentious debate arose regarding the most common medication used in middle-aged women-estrogen-and whether that hormone was protective of the cardiovascular system, or dangerous to it. (forbes.com)
  • You may hear estrogen referred to as a "feminizing hormone" or "female hormone," which is a term I dislike because you may not necessarily be taking it to achieve a "feminine" body if you're nonbinary or otherwise gender nonconforming , and lots of people who aren't women produce estrogen naturally. (scarleteen.com)
  • Estrogen replacement is dangerous: it kills women. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • In my experience, it was not being prescribed just to prevent those diseases, but prevention was seen as an extra added benefit for women who needed estrogen to control menopausal symptoms. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • Women who had had a hysterectomy could safely take estrogen alone (ERT). (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • Estrogen was contraindicated for women who had had breast cancer. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • The study was stopped early when it detected an increase in breast cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke, and pulmonary embolism in women taking estrogen and progestin. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • Saw palmetto is of significance to both men and women because it has an effect on estrogen. (livestrong.com)
  • Because estrogen levels cycle in premenopausal women, it may be difficult to see this protective effect in the general population," Klein notes. (medindia.net)
  • While chaste tree berry does not contain estrogen or phytoestrogens, it may help to enable hormone balance in women of all ages. (livestrong.com)
  • A University of Miami study suggested that both men and women with higher body weights, and who have higher natural estrogen levels as a result of increased body fat, are at reduced risk of Parkinson's disease. (alzforum.org)
  • As a result, women using this form of oestrogen frequently experience negative side effects much stronger than with natural oestrogen cream. (ehow.co.uk)
  • It is recommended that women talk with their doctors before experimenting with over-the-counter oestrogen creams. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Results of two new studies suggest that low-dose estrogen therapy should be considered first line treatment for women experiencing menopausal hot flushes and bleeding. (medindia.net)
  • Some kinds of vaginal infections may be more common in women using estrogen. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • Women with a history of breast cancer or other malignant disease susceptible to estrogen are generally advised to avoid this hormone. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • All of the different forms of estrogen are synthesized from androgens , specifically testosterone and androstenedione , by the enzyme aromatase . (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Congenital estrogen deficiency can alternatively be caused by a defect in aromatase , the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of estrogens, a condition which is referred to as aromatase deficiency and is similar in symptomatology to EIS. (wikipedia.org)
  • they are converted to estrogens through the action of an enzyme known as aromatase . (britannica.com)
  • Scientists have gathered evidence that some tissues like bone, breast and vasculature not only react to estrogen circulating in the bloodstream, but also generate extra supplies of the hormone locally, using an enzyme called aromatase to convert hormone precursors into full-bore estrogen. (nytimes.com)
  • They identified aromatase, a critical protein needed to produce estrogen, to be in precisely the right spot in the brain cell to make more dendritic spines. (eurekalert.org)
  • By targeting aromatase, an important enzyme in the synthesis of estrogens, the research team was able to test the effect of three neonicotinoids on breast cancer cells in culture after being exposed to neonicotinoid concentrations similar to those found in the environment in agricultural areas. (psychcentral.com)
  • The current study is the first to show that neonicotinoids have an effect on aromatase gene expression and may potentially alter estrogen production. (psychcentral.com)
  • Among other things, if you have too much estrogen in your body, an enzyme called aromatase can actually convert it into testosterone, which is the last thing you want! (scarleteen.com)
  • This promotes higher levels of an agent called aromatase, an enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogen. (livestrong.com)
  • Until 1995, it was assumed that there was only one ER and that it was responsible for mediating all of the physiological and pharmacological effects of natural and synthetic estrogens and its antagonists. (news-medical.net)
  • These companies synthesized or used natural and synthetic estrogens. (cdc.gov)
  • There is no evidence that the use of "natural" estrogens results in a different endometrial risk profile than synthetic estrogens at equivalent estrogen doses. (nih.gov)
  • While there are some contradictory data, estrogen alone does not appear to increase the risk of coronary heart disease or breast cancer, unlike the case of estrogen in combination with certain progestins such as levonorgestrel or medroxyprogesterone acetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrogens with or without progestins should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. (nih.gov)
  • Other doses of oral conjugated estrogens with medroxyprogesterone acetate, and other combinations and dosage forms of estrogens and progestins were not studied in the WHI clinical trials and, in the absence of comparable data, these risks should be assumed to be similar. (nih.gov)
  • Because of these risks, estrogens with or without progestins should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman. (nih.gov)
  • Taking progestins while using vaginal conjugated estrogens may lower this risk. (cigna.com)
  • Estrogens with or without progestins should be prescribed at the lowest effective doses and for the shortest duration consistent with treatment goals and risks for the individual woman. (rxlist.com)
  • Taking progestins, another hormone drug, with esterified estrogens lowers the risk of developing this condition. (cardiosmart.org)
  • It is the most commonly used form of estrogen in menopausal hormone therapy in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood clots are an occasional, serious side effect of estrogen therapy and are dose-related. (medicinenet.com)
  • The addition of a progestin to estrogen therapy offsets the risk of endometrial cancer . (medicinenet.com)
  • The effect of concomitant progestin therapy on the risk of estrogen-induced breast cancer is unclear. (medicinenet.com)
  • Estrogen is an ingredient in birth control pills and hormone replacement therapy products. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It was only until 1941 when estrogen therapy was finally approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. (news-medical.net)
  • The meeting was called Window of Opportunity of Estrogen Therapy for Neuroprotection, and it drew research scientists and physicians from all over the country. (nytimes.com)
  • In those studies, use of combination therapy was associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer, the most commonly occurring breast cancer subtype, which is known to be sensitive to hormonal factors. (eurekalert.org)
  • Two types of postmenopausal female hormone use, combination therapy and use of estrogen alone were assessed in relation to risk of estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • There was no increase in risk associated with use of estrogen alone, nor was there any increase in risk of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer associated with use of either combination therapy or estrogen alone. (eurekalert.org)
  • Therefore, Hugh S Taylor, MD, from the department of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive sciences, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, and colleagues compared the effects of oral and transdermal estrogen therapy vs placebo on sexual function. (medscape.com)
  • While further studies are needed to validate these findings and clarify their clinical implications, this Mayo Clinic research is among the first to suggest that there is an age-related therapeutic window of opportunity for estrogen replacement therapy. (psychcentral.com)
  • Adding a progestin to estrogen therapy has been shown to reduce the risk of endometrial hyperplasia, which may be a precursor to endometrial cancer. (rxlist.com)
  • Estrogen-alone therapy should not be used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease or dementia [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS , and Clinical Studies ]. (rxlist.com)
  • After puberty, various types of maintenance estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) are used. (medscape.com)
  • You can also take an anti-androgen alone, without estrogen, if you want to block testosterone in your body but not develop the physical traits associated with estrogen therapy. (scarleteen.com)
  • One significant risk of estrogen therapy is blood clots, a known issue in people who produce estrogen on their own as well. (scarleteen.com)
  • People on estrogen therapy can also experience a loss of bone density, and your doctor may recommend supplements to address this problem. (scarleteen.com)
  • The June issue of Fertility and Sterility says low-dose estrogen therapy is as effective as high-dose estrogen in treating menopausal symptoms. (medindia.net)
  • Estrogen replacement therapy is prescribed primarily to relieve menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • These environmental estrogens may work together with the body's own estrogen to increase the risk of breast cancer . (news-medical.net)
  • What environmental estrogens are likely to be present in cosmetics? (news-medical.net)
  • Users are advised to choose products that do not have environmental estrogens. (news-medical.net)
  • I want to see about getting rid of all (or most) environmental estrogens as possible. (exrx.net)
  • And, just as an experiment I'd like to see if cutting environmental estrogens from my diet, and see what happens. (exrx.net)
  • This coincides with earlier research on neonatal effects of exposure to plant or environmental estrogens. (mercola.com)
  • At diagnosis, endometrial cancers in recipients of estrogens are generally at an earlier stage and are less aggressive when they are discovered. (medicinenet.com)
  • Any of several natural or synthetic substances formed by the ovary, placenta, testis, and certain plants, that stimulate the female secondary sex characteristics, exert systemic effects such as the growth and maturation of long bones, and are used to treat disorders due to estrogen deficiency and to ameliorate cancers of the breast and prostate. (dictionary.com)
  • However, it is very early research and more studies will be needed before we know whether head and neck cancers could be prevented or treated with drugs targeting oestrogen or the CYP1B1 enzyme. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This early research suggests that oestrogen and CYP1B1 may have a role in the development of head and neck cancers from pre-cancerous lesions. (www.nhs.uk)
  • It is true that oestrogen does have a role in the development of certain cancers, such as those of the breast , prostate , and endometrium (lining of the womb). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Nearly 75 percent of all breast cancers are estrogen-receptor positive, which means the presence of estrogen triggers tumor growth. (osc.edu)
  • The estrogen:ER complex binds to specific DNA sequences called a hormone response element to activate the transcription of target genes (in a study using an estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell line as model, 89 such genes were identified). (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrogens have been widely implicated in the genesis and progression of breast cancer. (springer.com)
  • Some brands of estrogen are also used to relieve the symptoms of certain types of breast and prostate (a male reproductive gland) cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Conflicting data exists on the association between estrogens and breast cancer . (medicinenet.com)
  • Using estrogens may raise the chances of having a heart attack, a stroke, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, a blood clot, or dementia. (drugs.com)
  • If you have had any of these health problems: Bleeding disorder, blood clots , a higher risk of having a blood clot, breast cancer , liver problems or liver tumor, heart attack , stroke, or a tumor where estrogen makes it grow. (drugs.com)
  • The body uses estrogen in the formation of breast tissue. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It has previously been unknown why estrogen-receptor positive breast tumors fail to respond, or initially respond and grow upon achieving resistance to these agents. (redorbit.com)
  • An increased risk of breast cancer is another potential hazard, especially if you're exposed to high amounts of estrogen-mimicking compounds from birth. (mercola.com)
  • Estrogen metabolism and breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Specific pathways involved in estrogen metabolism may play a role in the etiology of breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • We used data from a large population-based case-control study to assess the association of the urinary estrogen metabolites 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16-OHE1), and their ratio (2/16) with both invasive and in situ breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Long-term treatment with conjugated estrogens may increase your risk of breast cancer, heart attack, or stroke. (cigna.com)
  • Conjugated estrogens can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. (cigna.com)
  • The WHI estrogen plus progestin substudy also demonstrated an increased risk of invasive breast cancer [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS , and Clinical Studies ]. (rxlist.com)
  • However, it's important to keep your hormone levels in check since too much estrogen can lead to major health complications like increased breast tissue, erectile dysfunction, fatigue, depression, and muscle loss. (wikihow.com)
  • Men with high oestrogen more likely to develop breast cancer," reports the Daily Telegraph. (www.nhs.uk)
  • It is known that the hormone oestrogen can trigger the development of some types of female breast cancer. (www.nhs.uk)
  • However, it is still difficult to say whether a raised oestrogen level is directly raising the risk of breast cancer, or if both could be the result of another underlying factor. (www.nhs.uk)
  • However, men who developed breast cancer did have higher levels of the hormone oestradiol (one form of oestrogen) than controls. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Estrogens pass into the breast milk and may decrease the amount and quality of breast milk. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Caution should be exercised in mothers who are using estrogen and breast-feeding. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Estrogen receptor downregulators, called ERDs for short, block the effects of estrogen in breast tissue. (breastcancer.org)
  • If estrogen isn't attached to a breast cell, the cell doesn't receive estrogen's signals to grow and multiply. (breastcancer.org)
  • Local estrogen production is also present in female tissues such as the bone and breast secondary to aromatization of androgens. (jci.org)
  • Raloxifene, the first so-called designer estrogen, is part of a new generation of drugs scientists hope will mimic the good effects of estrogen - stronger bones and a lower risk of heart disease - and inhibit the harmful effects, which may include breast and uterine cancer. (nypost.com)
  • Selective estrogen receptor modulators, called SERMs for short, block the effects of estrogen in the breast tissue. (breastcancer.org)
  • Evista acts like estrogen on the bones, yet at the same time isn't recognized as estrogen by breast tissue. (healthcentral.com)
  • Although ER+ breast cancer cells contain wild-type p53, chemotherapy-induced apoptosis of these cells is blocked by estrogens. (sciencemag.org)
  • In estrogen receptor-dependent breast cancer cells, estrogen signaling antagonizes the proapoptotic function of the tumor suppressor p53. (sciencemag.org)
  • Men with the highest levels of estrogen were two-and-a-half times more likely to develop breast cancer than men with the lowest levels of the hormone. (medindia.net)
  • Also, be aware that Testosterone CAN (not necessarily, but can) convert to Estrogens and DHT. (exrx.net)
  • When your body is working properly, estrogen helps balance out testosterone, preventing sexual dysfunction. (wikihow.com)
  • Over time, indole-3-carbinol can help your body expel estrogen, leaving more room for testosterone growth. (wikihow.com)
  • His entire regimen was released per a court ruling on his suspension (he's out for 162 games), and in addition to staples like testosterone and human growth hormone (HGH), it called for GHRP 2/6 -- a ghrelin mimetic -- and a regular 10-day course of clomiphene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). (medpagetoday.com)
  • In males, both testicular Leydig and Sertoli cells synthesize estrogen that likely remains relatively local, while most estrogen in the blood comes from aromatization of testosterone in peripheral organs. (jci.org)
  • Similarly to estrogen, testosterone is synthesized by both males and females, albeit in different quantities. (jci.org)
  • Testosterone is converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and both of these bind the androgen receptor (AR), although DHT has a greater affinity and cannot be aromatized to estrogen. (jci.org)
  • Usually estrogen is converted into testosterone, but in some cases, this fails to happen. (medhelp.org)
  • A less common variant of the estrogen brigade type of fan club is the Testosterone Brigade , abbreviated as above, but with TB instead. (everything2.com)
  • If you're a little older, or you feel confident and ready to transition after being on blockers and your doctor thinks it's reasonable to do so, you may start taking estrogen and an androgen blocker if your body would otherwise naturally produce testosterone . (scarleteen.com)
  • It is a weaker form of estrogen and one that the body can convert to other forms of estrogen, as necessary. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are various forms of estrogen available on the market. (healthcentral.com)
  • Conjugated estrogens are well-absorbed from the vagina and into the blood. (medicinenet.com)
  • In the vagina, estrogen maintains the thickness of the vaginal wall and promotes lubrication. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Conditions that are treated with vaginal estrogens include a genital skin condition (vulvar atrophy), inflammation of the vagina (atrophic vaginitis), and inflammation of the urethra (atrophic urethritis). (mayoclinic.org)
  • Estrogens work partly by increasing a normal clear discharge from the vagina and making the vulva and urethra healthy. (mayoclinic.org)
  • EIS results when the function of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is impaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estrogen insensitivity syndrome ( EIS ), or estrogen resistance , is a form of congenital estrogen deficiency or hypoestrogenism [2] which is caused by a defective estrogen receptor (ER) - specifically, the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) - that results in an inability of estrogen to mediate its biological effects in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blockade of estrogen receptor-alpha had no effect on cells, but GPR30 silencing resulted in decreased Bcl-2 and active protein kinase A. (webwire.com)
  • The estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is a classical ligand-activated transcription factor with well-known physiological effects on reproduction, bone physiology, and other functions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Estrogen levels in the bloodstream seem to be highest during the egg-releasing period ( ovulation ) and after menstruation , when tissue called the corpus luteum replaces the empty egg follicle. (britannica.com)
  • Estrogen analysis may be helpful in establishing time of ovulation and optimal time for conception. (labcorp.com)
  • Estrogen radioimmunoassay suitable for the monitoring of ovulation induction. (labcorp.com)
  • Estrogen monitoring in ovulation induction. (labcorp.com)
  • Talk to your doctor regularly about the risks and benefits of taking estrogen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The US laboratory research behind this story found that treating pre-cancerous tongue cells with oestrogen increased production of an enzyme called CYP1B1. (www.nhs.uk)
  • These proteins were also present in tissue from both males and females, and levels of a protein that binds to oestrogen (called oestrogen receptor beta) and the CYP1B1 enzyme (the product of the CYP1B1 gene) were higher in HNSCC tissue than normal tissue. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This quinol is then rapidly converted back to the parent estrogen via an enzyme-catalyzed reduction by using NAD(P)H as a coenzyme (reductant) and, unlike redox cycling of catechol estrogens, without the production of reactive oxygen species. (pnas.org)
  • The longer you take estrogen, the greater the risk that you will develop endometrial cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not take estrogen alone or with a progestin to prevent heart disease, heart attacks, strokes, or dementia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Take the lowest dose of estrogen that controls your symptoms and only take estrogen as long as needed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you have migraine headaches, uterine fibroids, high triglycerides in your blood, lupus, chronic liver disease or endometriosis, you should ask your physician if it is OK to take estrogen. (washington.edu)
  • Androgens and estrogens are known to be critical regulators of mammalian physiology and development. (jci.org)
  • However, the emergence of patients with deficiencies in androgen or estrogen hormone synthesis or actions, as well as the development of animal models that specifically target androgen- or estrogen-mediated signaling pathways, have revealed that estrogens and androgens regulate critical biological and pathological processes in both males and females. (jci.org)
  • In this Review, we will discuss important roles of estrogens in males and androgens in females. (jci.org)
  • Like estrogen, androgens act in both nuclear and extranuclear domains of many cells in multiple organs. (jci.org)
  • Androgen blockers (anti-androgens) are usually prescribed alongside estrogen. (scarleteen.com)
  • They offer another benefit, too: when you take anti-androgens, you can reduce your dose of estrogen, thereby avoiding some potential side effects. (scarleteen.com)
  • Lower levels of estrogen may also increase a woman's risk for heart disease , stroke , osteoporosis and fractures . (webmd.com)
  • A woman's genes may therefore shape how her body responds to estrogen, and in turn, her mood. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Oestrogen imbalance can adversely affect a woman's health. (ehow.co.uk)
  • When the oestrogen is tailor made to the woman's body, it is called bioidentical oestrogen cream. (ehow.co.uk)
  • These natural oestrogen strive to replace the oestrogen the woman's body can no longer produce in adequate amounts. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Why do estrogen levels fall? (webmd.com)
  • Drugs that block estrogen include clomiphene, which tricks the body into thinking it has decreased levels of estrogen. (webmd.com)
  • Why are athletes at risk for low levels of estrogen? (webmd.com)
  • The first natural decline in estrogen levels starts during this phase. (webmd.com)
  • Why do estrogen levels rise? (webmd.com)
  • During puberty, it's normal for levels of estrogen to rise. (webmd.com)
  • [3] While estrogen levels are significantly lower in males compared to females, estrogens nevertheless also have important physiological roles in males. (wikipedia.org)
  • While high estrogen levels are associated with strong sleep, low estrogen levels are associated with disrupted sleep. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In fact, estrogen levels are highest during pregnancy and childbirth, which provides some natural pain relief. (psychologytoday.com)
  • They found that in 12 participants, levels of antimicrobial proteins increased after the estrogen supplements. (yahoo.com)
  • It's done to find out their estrogen levels. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • High triglyceride levels have happened with conjugated estrogens injection. (drugs.com)
  • In this article, we look at estrogen in more detail, including how it works, what happens when the levels fluctuate, and medical uses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Estrogen levels vary among individuals. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Learn more about high estrogen levels and low estrogen levels here. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Males with low estrogen levels may have excess belly fat and low libido. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If a person has low levels of estrogen, a doctor may prescribe supplements or medication. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Far lower levels of estrogen are also present in men. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some actually theorize that gluten (present in MANY foods) are causing raised estrogen levels. (exrx.net)
  • Serial samples must be collected over several days to evaluate baseline and peak total estrogen levels. (labcorp.com)
  • TEEN-AGE boys with elevated levels of estrogen and another sex hormone may be at increased risk for heart disease later in life. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Men have low levels of estrogen in their bodies. (rexhealth.com)
  • It found that men with the highest levels of one form of the hormone oestrogen were about two-and-a-half times more likely to develop the condition than those with the lowest levels. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Treating these pre-cancerous cells with the anti-oestrogen drug fulvestrant blocked the effect of oestrogen and restored apoptosis to normal levels. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Exercise helps oestrogen levels. (ehow.co.uk)
  • In young girls, oestrogen levels begin to increase around age 8. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Consuming sufficient amounts of boron---the most active form of oestrogen---increases oestrogen levels. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Intake of vitamin B-6, B-12, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and folic acid, vitamin D, vitamin A and vitamin C are recommended to maintain oestrogen levels. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Apart from these vitamins, herbs such as evening primrose (oil) and ginseng are also recommended to increase and maintain proper oestrogen levels. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Your consumption of organic foods should increase to maintain oestrogen levels. (ehow.co.uk)
  • There are many conditions that can cause symptoms such as hot flashes, loss of libido , and other symptoms associated with low estrogen levels. (wikihow.com)
  • Do not assume that estrogen levels are the cause of your symptoms. (wikihow.com)
  • Saw palmetto contains chemicals that influence estrogen levels. (livestrong.com)
  • While no over-the-counter supplements contain true estrogen, several medicinal herbs include compounds that mimic estrogen or act to increase estrogen levels. (livestrong.com)
  • it does not have a powerful impact on estrogen levels or any other hormone. (livestrong.com)
  • However, because it is well tolerated and associated with very few side effects, it remains a popular choice among people hoping to elevate their estrogen levels. (livestrong.com)
  • As a result, the levels of oestrogen in each brand and even each batch can vary significantly. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Symptoms of an overdose of esterified estrogens include nausea, vomiting, and breakthrough bleeding in females. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Indeed, as many as four hundred different actions of estrogen have been identified, affecting such diverse systems as circulation, brain activity, sexual behavior, bone biology, sleep patterns, intestinal absorption of food, and immune activity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Estrogen contributes to cognitive health , bone health, the function of the cardiovascular system , and other essential bodily processes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Conversely, estrogen deficiency caused reduced expression of CS-E-synthesizing enzymes, including GalNAc4S-6ST and led to decreased CS-E production in cultures of bone marrow cells derived from ovariectomized mice. (nature.com)
  • Therefore, unraveling the distinctive mechanisms of action during estrogen-mediated bone formation is important for development of more effective anabolic therapies for osteoporosis. (nature.com)
  • Estrogens improve bone density as well or better than bisphosphonates, and estrogens decrease the risk of osteoporotic fractures. (washington.edu)
  • In bones, oestrogen controls the balance between bone loss and bone formation. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Estrogen stimulation of bone or blood vessel cell functions preserves the integrity of the organ, preventing disease. (jci.org)
  • In the absence of comparable data, these risks should be assumed to be similar for other doses of CE and other dosage forms of estrogens. (rxlist.com)
  • Prempro provides a tablet that combines conjugated estrogens with medroxyprogesterone so a woman has to take only one single tablet daily. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • The actions of estrogen are mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER), a dimeric nuclear protein that binds to DNA and controls gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • At its target tissues, the free hormone penetrates the cell surface and then binds to a protein known as an estrogen receptor in the cytoplasm of the cells. (britannica.com)
  • The key components are the C or DNA-binding domain, which binds with high affinity and specificity to DNA sequences (estrogen response elements [EREs]) to regulate transcription rates of target genes, and the E or ligand-binding domain, which binds estrogens and estrogen analogues. (uptodate.com)
  • Esterified Estrogens and Methyltestosterone Tablets: Each green, oval, aqueous film coated tablet debossed "IP 78" on obverse and plain on the reverse contains: 1.25 mg of Esterified Estrogens, USP and 2.5 mg of Methyltestosterone, USP. (nih.gov)
  • Esterified Estrogens and Methyltestosterone Tablets H.S. (Half Strength): Each light blue, capsule-shaped, aqueous film coated tablet debossed "IP 77" on obverse and plain on the reverse contains: 0.625 mg of Esterified Estrogens, USP and 1.25 mg of Methyltestosterone, USP. (nih.gov)
  • Tablets for oral administration are available in 0.3 mg, 0.45 mg, 0.625 mg, 0.9 mg, and 1.25 mg strengths of conjugated estrogens. (rxlist.com)
  • Estrogens (also called Oestrogens) are steroid compounds that are important for development and functioning of females of the species. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition to this classical effect promoted by estrogen response elements, ERs may also directly interact with several intracellular signaling pathways (cAMP response element-binding protein, mitogenactivated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, etc.) that affect the transcription of many other genes targeting neuroprotective actions in specific ways without interfering with the endocrine effects of the steroid ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone? (cigna.com)
  • Talk to your doctor every 3 to 6 months to decide if you should take a lower dose of estrogen or should stop taking the medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The higher the dose of estrogen, the greater the risk of blood clots. (medicinenet.com)
  • Use estrogens with or without progestin for the shortest time needed at the lowest useful dose. (drugs.com)
  • It has an enormous dose of estrogen in it, leading to many voluptuous prisoners in New York state prisons. (dictionary.com)
  • It was believed that high-dose oestrogen could reduce their final height by two to 10 centimetres, but 'our study suggests it's more likely to be two centimetres on average', Dr Venn said. (theage.com.au)
  • Premphase also provides one dose of these estrogens daily. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • In addition, esterified estrogens are used to prevent osteoporosis. (cardiosmart.org)
  • and/or if your osteoporosis is mild, you may want to consider two other types of osteoporosis treatment: estrogen, and SERMs (selective estrogen receptor modulators). (healthcentral.com)
  • Estrogen definitely helps slow/reverse osteoporosis. (healthcentral.com)
  • Nevertheless, if you're at very high risk for osteoporosis, your doctor may determine that the benefits of taking HRT (estrogen) may just outweigh its risks for you. (healthcentral.com)
  • The evidence at that time showed that estrogen reduced the risk of osteoporosis and heart disease. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • Conjugated estrogens are a mixture of several different estrogens (estrogen salts) that are derived from natural sources and blended to approximate the composition of estrogens in the urine of pregnant horses. (medicinenet.com)
  • Previous forms of oestrogen cream were made from horse's urine, and while horse oestrogen is similar to human oestrogen, it can never be the same. (ehow.co.uk)
  • There are many different types of prescription oestrogen creams, some made from plant oestrogen and other from horse urine. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Manning would likely be prescribed some form of estrogen that would be taken orally, through injection, or by a skin patch. (dictionary.com)
  • They examined the cell surface receptor pathways by treating rats with a form of estrogen that cannot enter cells, thus acting only via cell surface interactions. (webwire.com)
  • The metabolic actions of estrogens have been studied extensively and there is also accumulating evidence that estrogens influence immune processes. (hindawi.com)
  • the physiological actions of estrogens and estrogen analogues (selective estrogen receptor modulators [SERMs]) are discussed separately. (uptodate.com)
  • males are generating estrogens in a level higher than average. (exrx.net)
  • evaluate estrogen excess in males. (labcorp.com)
  • Likewise, models of estrogen insufficiency have unveiled new and unexpected roles for estrogens, in both males and females, many of which apply to the regulation of energy homeostasis [ 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Examples of the sites of responses to estrogen and the clinical consequences for the activity of estrogen in both females and males are summarized in the figure ( figure 1 ). (uptodate.com)
  • Estrogen influences the structural differences between the male and female bodies, such as females having a wider pelvis and more permanent hair on the head. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Estrogen helps to slow down the growth of females during puberty and increases sensitivity to insulin . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The loud , uncontrolled giggling in the office next to me is the tell-tale sign that 5 or more females are in the same room - surely, estrogen amplification has occurred. (urbandictionary.com)
  • What is Conjugated estrogens-medroxyprogesterone? (patientslikeme.com)
  • What is the most important information I should know about conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone? (cigna.com)
  • Conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (cigna.com)
  • The pills taken on days 15 through 28 of the cycle contain medroxyprogesterone in addition to the conjugated estrogens. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • But with vaginal estrogen, since it's at very low doses, we believe that risks might be lower too," she said. (yahoo.com)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Vaginal Estrogen. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Tamoxifen is the oldest and most-prescribed selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). (breastcancer.org)
  • See 'Mechanisms of action of selective estrogen receptor modulators and down-regulators' . (uptodate.com)
  • Soybeans contain compounds called phytoestrogens or isoflavones, which have been found to produce a variety of mild hormonal actions within the human body by mimicking the sex hormone estrogen. (mercola.com)
  • Estrogen-like compounds are also formed by certain plants. (dictionary.com)
  • As we understand the effects of these specific estrogen receptor beta compounds in preclinical models, we are discovering effects on specific neuronal functions, which could be relevant for the treatment of cognitive disorders, depression and schizophrenia. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is not a list of all drugs or health problems that interact with conjugated estrogens injection. (drugs.com)
  • You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take conjugated estrogens injection with all of your drugs and health problems. (drugs.com)
  • Protein Blocks Anti-Estrogen Drugs? (redorbit.com)
  • Estrogens synthesized from plant sources or obtained from horses are used as drugs, primarily to treat estrogen deficiency. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Prolonged use of postmenopausal estrogen has been controversial because it increases the risk of endometrial carcinoma or cancer of the uterine lining. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • [11] [12] Some estrogen metabolites, such as the catechol estrogens 2-hydroxyestradiol , 2-hydroxyestrone , 4-hydroxyestradiol , and 4-hydroxyestrone , as well as 16α-hydroxyestrone , are also estrogens with varying degrees of activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now, new research published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives reveals these pesticides may also be exerting a harmful effect on humans by disrupting our hormonal systems, particularly the production of estrogen. (psychcentral.com)
  • As estrogen-like substances, they can have a profound effect on the body's hormonal balance. (newswise.com)
  • By identifying GPR30 and the downstream pathways (Bcl-2 and active protein kinase A) involved in estrogen s beneficial effects, Chaudry s group has provided new insights in resolving liver injury following tissue trauma and major blood loss. (webwire.com)
  • This research is a continuation of a string of studies about anti-estrogen resistance by Clarke, Cook, and their Georgetown collaborators. (redorbit.com)
  • In this study, the scientists targeted GRP78 as the master regulator of UPR, therefore promoting anti-estrogen resistance. (redorbit.com)
  • When the scientists inhibited GRP78 in anti-estrogen resistant cells, they promoted cell death and inhibited autophagy, resulting in larger amounts of dead cells. (redorbit.com)
  • Consume foods that contain anti-estrogen enzymes. (wikihow.com)